Difference between Structured and Unstructured Observation

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

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Keywords: structured observation analysis, unstructured observation At the first step of this assessment I need to outline what is involved in structured observation. The two main strategies that researchers can usually use to record their observations of events are the structured and unstructured observation. The former involves the recording of events of predefined types occurring at particular points in time, or within particular intervals. Structured observation typically ...

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Health Belief Model

23 Mar 2015 07 Jul 2017

7 (2,468 )

Keywords: social cognition models and health behaviour According to Colman (2009), social cognition is the cognitive activity that accompanies and mediates social behaviour, including the acquisition of information about the social environment, the organization and transformation of this information in memory, and its effects on social behaviour. Health belief model according to John (2007) is a conceptual model of health-related behavioural factors affecting health. The model emphasizes the role of cognition (understanding) and beliefs (values ) and explains how behavioural determinants influence ...

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Friendship between Men and Women Essay

23 Mar 2015 07 Jul 2017

9 (3,362 )

Keywords: cross sex relationships, cross sex friendships Abstract Friendship between men and women is diverse and complex in nature and is one of the most poorly understood human relationships. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence of challenges that cross-sex friends often encounter. A study is proposed to test whether O'Meara's (1989) four cross-sex friendship relationship challenges are still prevalent today and what effect gender and ...

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Child Development Stages and Milestones

23 Mar 2015 07 Jul 2017

4 (1,592 )

Keywords: developmental direction principle, reciprocal interweaving Ruffin (2009) defines development as change or growth that occurs in a child during the life span from birth to adolescence. He elaborated that this change occurs in an orderly sequence, involving physical, cognitive, and emotional development. These three main areas of child development involve developmental changes which take place in a predictable pattern (age related), orderly, but with differences in ...

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Psychological Concepts of Health - Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

4 (1,528 )

Keywords: healthy psychology essay, psychological concept of health Health psychology deals with comprehending the way biology, behavior, and social contexts affect health and illness. Psychologists who study how biological, behavioral, and social factors affect health and illness are known as health psychologists. Fresh advances in psychological, medical, and physiological studies have led to a new way of thinking about health and disease. This school of thought , ...

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Discussion of Attitudes Towards Taliban, Terrorism and Death

06 Jul 2017

5 (1,821 )

Discussion of Student's Attitudes Towards Taliban, Terrorism and Death The present study was aimed to investigate the attitude toward Taliban, terrorism catastrophizing and death anxiety among university students. This was a cross sectional research which was conducted among students of Gandhara University Peshawar and Beaconhouse National University, Lahore. Results show that there were no significant difference among students of both universities regarding the attitude toward Taliban ...

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Should Knowledge Produce Meaning and Purpose?

06 Jul 2017

4 (1,551 )

“The whole point of knowledge is to produce both meaning and purpose in our personal lives.” To what extent do you agree with this statement? “The purpose of life is to live it, to taste experience to the utmost, to reach out eagerly without fear for newer and richer experience” – Eleanor Roosevelt. To define the purpose of life in my opinion would be impossible; in ...

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Psychological Research Examples: Correlational & Qualitative

06 Jul 2017

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PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS Research Topic 1: What is the role of visual attention in dyslexia? Basic Research Approach: Correlational Background research Literature Search: I conducted a literature search on the “web of knowledge” database, which was chosen as it is a full text database allowing for easy access to any articles of interest. The initial search used only one keyword, “dyslexia” which returned over 18,000 ...

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Psychological Theories of Aggression

06 Jul 2017

6 (2,355 )

Discuss one or more social psychological theories of aggression. This essay will discuss two social psychological theories of aggression, which are social learning theory and deindividuation. It will briefly explain what is, pro-social behaviour, anti-social behaviour, aggression and social psychology. Lastly it will evaluate the findings before concluding. Pro-social behaviours are those intended to help other people, it is a behaviour that is characterised by a ...

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Should Marijuana be Legalised?

06 Jul 2017

4 (1,576 )

Should Marijuana be Legalised? Deriving from the Cannabis plant, marijuana has many names such as Mary Jane, grass, weed, pot, and many more. Judging by how many names it is given, one can only imagine or in UNODC’s case, estimate, just how popular it is. According to UNODC,” Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance.” The World Drug report stated that 180.6 million or 3.9% ...

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Impact on Mental Health: Personality & Adaptations

06 Jul 2017

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Impact on Mental Health: Personality Traits & Characteristic Adaptations The World Health Organization (2011) defines mental health as “a state of wellbeing in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community” (para. 1). Although psychological well-being can be defined as ...

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Body Language Essay Thesis

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

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Keywords: body language research, body language lie detection Communication is an important aspect of daily life, it helps us to connect with others as individuals or as groups. Without communication life would be non-existentent, we communicate to others verbally and non-verbally. it is the very basis that drives our development in relationships, education and work. But as important as communication is less than 10% of how we ...

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Investigation of the Effect of Disfluency upon Memory

06 Jul 2017

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Investigation upon the Effect of Disfluency upon Encoding and Retrieval Performance and Accuracy Abstract This paper and subsequent study aimed to replicate the experiment conducted by Oppenheimer (2010), and was found to have major discrepancies with the original study. It used disfluency/fluency typeface as the independent variable, and the encoding and retrieval performance as the dependent variable, tested by a memory quiz after 15 minutes of ...

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CBT and Depression Essay

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

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Keywords: cbt and panic attacks, cbt uses evaluation Cognitive-behaviour Therapy (henceforth CBT) is lead evidence based psychological treatment for psychological disorders which has achieved substantial support and acknowledgement by the British Government and health-care authorities even though there are many other evidence-based effective therapies. Scientific research has shown that CBT is the best researched and authenticated psychological treatment using evidenced-based practice that is available for treating numerous ...

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Counselling Case Study Essay

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

5 (1,994 )

Critically evaluate, your taped session within the context of a live case study, your professional practice and use of supervision. INTRODUCTION The rationale of this case study is for the Counsellor in training to closely examine a client's process throughout their counselling sessions. This process will be aided by the in-depth analysis and review of a taped client session, elements of which will support the assessment. Evaluation ...

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Language and Communication: An Indication of Mental Process

06 Jul 2017

6 (2,329 )

Language and Communication: An Indication of Mental Process Hayes (2001) discussed how language and the words we use are symbolic or ideas, a product of mental life, his description one which is reminiscent of that given by Murphy (2002). Accordingly, Hayes proposes that language emersion facilitates words to be mapped to mental units or events, these mental units or events exist previous to the acquisition of ...

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Cognitive Psychology: Introduction, Scope and Importance

06 Jul 2017

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Cognitive Psychology: Introduction,Scope and Importance WHAT IS COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY? Cognitive psychology alarms how people diagnose, realize, perceive, evaluate and consider/think. Cognitive psychologists discuss that the thoughts are a CPU of information - we receive info through how we sense, we attempt to realise that info and its connection to us, and we convey information to everyon else. The word cognition is used in numerous inaccurately connected ...

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Workplace Communication Strategies

06 Jul 2017

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Timothy P Davies Use Workplace Communication Strategies Assignment Question 1: When dealing with others it is important to ask ‘open questions’ which will encourage the other person to share more personal feelings and thoughts. Describe and explain the difference between ‘open’ and ‘closed’ questions. Provide three examples of an open question and one example of a ‘closed’ question The understanding I have of what ...

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Should Parents Take Charge of Their Children’s Crimes

06 Jul 2017

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Should Parents Take Charge of Their Children’s Crimes Abstract Children nowadays are becoming more and more dishonest and are eventually growing up to be criminals. The blame on children’s crimes nowadays is going onto the parents, mostly under the statement “failing to exercise reasonable care, supervision, protection, and control over children”. However, many of the crimes children are committing are almost unrelated to their parents and ...

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Understanding The Learning Process

06 Jul 2017

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Understanding The Learning Process Outline The learning process can be an effective one only when it is properly understood by the learners otherwise it will go in vain. That’s why, before selecting a learning process it is essential to identify the appropriate way of learning that matches the learner’s ability, skill and requirement. Learning can be done in different ways. Some are based on physical ability ...

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Balance between Work and Professional Life

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

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As the time changes continuously, it is very difficult to maintain the balance between the work and the personal life. A person is engaged with different relationships that influence a lot to balance between the working life and personal life. In early 1960's researchers found imbalance in personal life and work (kumari, 2012). There are many studies conducted on work life balance and it suggests the positive ...

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What Does Psychology Mean to Me?

23 Mar 2015 06 Jul 2017

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Keywords: what does psychology mean to you Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mind. Prior to that point, the study of the mind, as psychology was widely known, was conducted by many philosophers and psychologists. Today's definition of psychology is quite precise - it is not simply the study of the mind; rather, it is the scientific study of behaviour and mind. The emphasis on ...

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The Psychology of Problem Solving

05 Jul 2017

6 (2,340 )

The Psychology of Problem Solving Analyzing an individual’s problem solving ability independent from their knowledge of a specific subject matter is a difficult task. Likewise, teaching pure problem solving skills brings challenges of its own. Often the skills are too specific to one field, or too broad to be of any applicable use. Nonetheless, the pursuit of identifying and teaching effective problem solving strategies remains because of ...

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Whether a relationship exists between the mind and the brain

23 Mar 2015 05 Jul 2017

5 (1,624 )

For centuries, philosophers and scientist have been trying to solve the problem of the mind-body (brain). The most prolific of the minds has wandered sleeplessly, trying to solve the mind-brain problem, yet, the mysteries behind our skulls remain hidden. This paper is an attempt to address the causality problem of the mind and the brain. Firstly, an overview over the philosophical theories will be done. Subsequently, evaluation ...

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Psychological Impact of Video Games

05 Jul 2017

3 (1,153 )

Introduction One of the crucial issues that happening in this decade is that games become popular among all stages of people such as children, teenager and adult. Video games have become one of the favorite activities of children in America and school children have been affected significantly (Dewitt, 1993 cited in Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004). Games have been developed at the early of 1940s-1950. ...

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Psychology of Marginalization

05 Jul 2017

5 (1,849 )

Psychology of Marginalization Marginalization or social exclusion is defined as “the process whereby something or someone is pushed to the edge of a group and accorded lesser importance”. It is a social phenomenon that has existed for centuries and has effected human interaction as well as how certain people view each other dramatically. Throughout history, it can be seen that marginalization has been utilized as a ...

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The Effects of Technology on a Child’s Development

05 Jul 2017

5 (1,939 )

The Effects of Technology on Child’s Development In today’s society, people are living in a "technologically civilized" society where every small work that people do is technology dependent. Technology is increasingly important in the modern world and has been developing fast. It is a tool that can provide an added option for young children to learn when they actively build an understanding of the world based ...

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Psychology and Education: Summary of Research

05 Jul 2017

8 (3,193 )

Psychology and Education Qualitative Research in Psychology Qualitative research has become a common phenomenon in the modern day psychology. The field is experiencing new directions, for instance, there has been much standardization of the various qualitative techniques. With the creation of new guidelines, a clearer understanding of qualitative research will be achieved while elaborating the effects that it has on the psychology. Research hypothesis The researcher ...

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Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

05 Jul 2017

5 (1,992 )

Introduction Psychoanalytic theory of personality is composed of three fragments. These three fragments of personality are knows the id, the ego and super ego (Freud, 1917). They works together to create complex human behavior (Corey, 2012, p.61). The id is the genetic part which is the inventive organism of behavior, at birth of a person. Administered by desire principle, id shortages of moral, illogical and never ...

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Case Study on Generalized Anxiety Disorder

23 Mar 2015 04 Jul 2017

5 (1,612 )

Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder case study, gad case study Alicia doesn't like giving to or accepting from strangers a drink or cup of tea or coffee. The first time this happened was when she was nineteen and was taken home by her boyfriend to meet his parents. Both this relationship and a succeeding one failed. She found her fears gradually spreading and affecting her work as a ...

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Ethical Dilemmas in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

7 (2,649 )

Keywords: ethical code psychology, ethics in psychology Dealing with moral problems and judgements can traditionally be termed as ethics. The Committee of Scientific and Professional ethics was created in 1938 and sought on an informal basis to deal with and investigate any ethical issues that had been challenged (Hobbs, 1948). The American Psychological Association (APA) developed an Ethics Code in 1947 and the British Psychological Association (BPS) ...

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How Does Motivation Affect Performance?

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

15 (5,917 )

Keywords: work motivation and job satisfaction This literature study tries to examine how work motivation affects the job performance within an organization. Work motivation can be divided in two types of motivation called intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from a person within and extrinsic motivation is motivation on materially goals. There are a lot of aspects which can influence / create the work ...

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Reliability and Validity in Research

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

5 (1,934 )

Keywords: essay on reliability, validity in social research The two most important and fundamental characteristics of any measurement procedure are reliability and validity. Reliability and validity tells us whether a research being carried out studies what it is meant to study, and whether the measures used are consistent. These two principles are discussed below. Reliability Joppe (2000) defines reliability as the extent to which results are consistent ...

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Eyewitness Testimony Essay

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

12 (4,758 )

Keywords: advantages of eyewitness testimony, eyewitness reliability The use of eyewitness testimony is infamously a primary source of evidence used within the judicial system around the world; however its use has raised various questions as to its reliability and validity especially within court cases. This essay explored first of all, the biological factors of memory and recollection of memories within the human brain. Memories are believed to ...

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Dollard and Miller Stimulus Response Theory of Personality

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

5 (1,673 )

Keywords: dollard and miller stimulus response theory One of the psychology theories that have helped me to assess my behavior and understand myself better is the Dollard and Miller's Stimulus-Response Theory, which stipulates that personality conflicts are learned and could therefore be unlearned (Personality: Theories). This theory has helped me to understand the role played by fear, conflict and repression in maladaptive learning which may result to ...

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Youth Drug Abuse - Hong Kong

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

9 (3,241 )

Keywords: youths and drugs essay, youth drug addiction Youth problem is a wide-ranged and intertwined one among the social problems. With the development of information technology and economics, the teenagers are faced with more temptations than the older generations of their age, in other words, they have more choices for fun, like online games, Japanese cartoon and animation books and magazines, everyday updated fashionable accessories, hi-tech products ...

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Minority Influence and Social Change

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

4 (1,427 )

Keywords: minority vs majority influence Research has shown that a person is more likely to conform to the majority when they are uncertain of their viewpoint, when they are quite similar to the majority group members, when the majority is unanimous in their views and when the majority portrays themselves as being certain, able and successful in what they do. Majority influence often results in compliance, where ...

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Attachment Theory and Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

5 (1,707 )

Keywords: delinquency attachment theory, delinquency psychology Juvenile Delinquency is a major crisis throughout the United States. In recent years attention has been focused on the apparent rise of juvenile delinquency. Most of this attention has been fueled by several high profile cases in the media like the Columbine shootings and the Virginia Tech youth massacre. The literature indicates that individual, family and societal factors contribute to juvenile ...

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Effects of Labelling in Mental Health

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

4 (1,389 )

Keywords: mental health labelling impact, mental health stigma The term 'label' refers to individuals whose actions or behavior deviates from social norms and what is acceptable in society. These individuals are labeled and develop a stigma attached; this can have an overall impact on the individuals' behavior once the label has taken form. Being labeled as 'mentally ill' can have significant effects on different aspects of the ...

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Development of Peer Relationships in Adolescence

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

8 (3,040 )

Keywords: peer relationship development, relationships in adolescence As Winfrey once said, "Lots of people want to ride with you in the limo, but what you want is someone who will take the bus with you when the limo breaks down" (n.d.). Relationships are essential in our daily lives as it provides us with companionship, stimulation, physical and emotional support, social comparison, and affection (Santrock, 2007b). Whether it ...

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Qualitative Critique of Psychology Paper

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

6 (2,294 )

Keywords: psychology research critique, critique of research paper The article Effective Interaction with Patients with Schizophrenia: Qualitative Evaluation of the Interaction Skills Training Programme is a mixed method study that focuses on the qualitative research results and the effects the ISTP had on relationships between caregivers and patients, in terms of the caregivers lived experience. This paper will be examining the study using the qualitative critiquing approach ...

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Effect of Fear on Heart Rate

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

5 (1,615 )

Keywords: heart rate and fear, fear heart rate experiment Pulse rate: a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute (University of Virginia Health System, 2008). The normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. The pulse rate may fluctuate and increase with exercise, illness, injury, and emotions (University of Virginia Health System, 2008). Brain ...

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Theoretical Perspectives in Child Development

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

7 (2,754 )

Keywords: freud child development, erikson psychosocial development There are five major perspectives that underlie much influential theory and research on child development: "(1) psychoanalytic, which focuses on unconscious emotions and drives; (2) learning, which studies observable behavior; (3) cognitive, which analyzes thought process; (4) contextual, which emphasizes the impact of historical, social, and cultural context; and (5) evolutionary/sociobiological, which considers evolutionary and biological underpinnings of behavior" (Papalia, ...

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Jungian Psychology Theory

23 Mar 2015 29 Jun 2017

10 (3,946 )

Keywords: jung psychology, jung theory analysis Carl Jung was a psychologist and scholar who pioneered the unique field of analytical psychology. The field is characterized by complex and obscure theories that cover various intricate concepts, such as spirituality and the symbolic dynamics of personality. Many of Jung's theories mirror the abstraction of the concepts that they try to explain. Despite its ambiguity, Jungian therapy nevertheless presents the ...

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Factors Affecting Self Esteem in Adolescence

23 Mar 2015 29 Jun 2017

6 (2,302 )

Keywords: factors affecting self esteem, self esteem teenagers Adolescence is an important stage for the development of the self-esteem, it is a stage from childhood to adulthood. Several longitudinal studies find out that early adolescence is a typical time when the self-esteem declines (Fredricks & Eccles, 2002; Robins et al., 2002; Jacobs et al., 2002). These research supports Erikson's opinion that young adolescents could experience more changes ...

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Observation Research on Adolescence

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

8 (2,806 )

Keywords: adolescent observation, research on adolescent Understanding life span and how one develops physically, psychology and cognitively is important. For the purpose of this assignment, the subject used for the observation was a 16 year old male named James. He is currently living with his parents and has one older sister who is attending college out of town. James is in the 11th grade and will be ...

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Positive Psychology Impact

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

5 (1,982 )

Keywords: positive psychology essay Positive psychology aims to bring about the best in a person so that person can live life to the fullest. Positive psychology can help individuals live a pleasant life, engaged life, meaningful life or an achieving life. Counseling and positive psychotherapy can be used to bring out the person's strengths. Positive psychology is not limited to the mentally ill but for everyone in ...

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16 Personality Factor Questionnaire Test Critique

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

6 (2,120 )

Keywords: pf test critique, personality factor critique General Descriptive Information The psychological test selected for critique is the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). It is an objective test of 16 multidimensional personalities attributes set up in omnibus form. The test serves normed references to each of identified attributes (Cattell & Mead, 2008). This psychological test Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire is an all-inclusive evaluation of normal personalities found ...

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Emotional Intelligence Essay

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

19 (7,453 )

Keywords: emotional intelligence theory An individual experiences varied emotions. Happiness, fear, anger, affection, shame, disgust, surprise, lust, sadness, elation, love, frustration, anxiety, failure, achievement, etc. are just e few emotions that affect our day to day activity. Satisfaction with the presentation of good work, exhilaration on achieving an accolade, the pride in helping a colleague, anger with not being recognized, frustration with the procrastination of recommendations suggested, ...

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Effectiveness of Reality Therapy

23 Mar 2015 27 Jun 2017

8 (3,189 )

Keywords: reality therapy interventions, reality therapy evaluation Initially, control theory was foisted as the theoretical basis for reality therapy (Glasser, 1989). Overtime, however, it evolved and was renamed choice theory to emphasize the personal freedom people had to choose their behaviours to lead healthy lives and maintain loving relationships (Nelson-Jones, 2001). The core concepts and assumptions that inform choice theory are basic needs, quality world, and total ...

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Factors Affecting Moral Development

23 Mar 2015 27 Jun 2017

9 (3,412 )

Keywords: education moral development, morality education Academic interest in the ethically worthed decision making capability of individuals has produced a stable stream of research addressing the responsibility of education in nurturing moral behavior. Studies relating to ethics education have principally focused on measuring students' capability for moral decision-making. The rationale of this study is to evaluate Pakistani under-graduate students' moral development and how that development is influenced ...

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Effects of Waterborne Diseases

23 Mar 2015 14 Jun 2017

6 (2,127 )

Keywords: waterborne diseases effects, waterbourne diseases causes, waterborne disease prevention Bacteria are a huge group of single cellular microorganisms known as prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are collection of organisms whose cell has no nucleus and are mainly unicellular. Bacteria are just a few micrometers long in size and on the basis of shape are classified in three basic groups: cocci, bacilli, and spirochetes. The cocci are rounded, bacilli are ...

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Working Memory Model Essay | An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

3 (925 )

Keywords: working memory model evaluation, working memory model criticisms The model of working memory is a multi-component model, developed in 1974 by Baddeley Hitch. The model is based on an earlier model of memory called the multi-store model (MSM) (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The WM model was established in order to overcome the problems that arose due to the simplicity of the MSM. There is strong empirical ...

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Behavioral Economics and Standard Economic Model

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

14 (5,312 )

The main question of this paper concerns the comparison of behavioral and mainstream economics. The concept follows a straight line from different approaches and ideas of various authors stating their opinion on behavioral economics as well as mainstream economics. Mainstream economics is defined as the maximization of an individual's utility function, whereby the utility is a function of quantity of goods or services (McDonald, 2008), the basis ...

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Communication and Personality in Organisational Psychology

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

5 (1,838 )

Keywords: communication organisational psychology For several years, psychologists have been trying to understand personality and communication styles within the workplace. Psychologists have concluded that the style of communication of different people depends on two factors- openness and directness. Personality styles are how people act or react when they are placed in any type of circumstances. Researchers have found that people will tend to change and even adapt ...

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The Effects of Athlete Self-Confidence

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

11 (4,232 )

Keywords: improving athlete confidence, sport confidence, sport psychology confidence 2.0 Introduction The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the available literature on sources, levels and importance of self confidence. It explores theories relating to self-confidence and the various measurements that have been used in recent years to assess this construct. The focus of the review will aim to analyse firstly self confidence ...

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Theories and Treatment

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

7 (2,438 )

Keywords: ocd essay, ocd treatment, ocd theories Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is regarded as a neurotic disorder that causes people to have unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and to repeat certain behaviors (compulsions) over and over again. When someone is having an OCD, the person will displays and complains of either obsession or compulsion or both, to a degree that affects his everyday functioning or causes him distress. He ...

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Womb to Tomb Psychology

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

9 (3,571 )

Keywords: womb to tomb development, stages of development, lifespan human development Development can be defined as systematic changes that occur in the individual between conception and death, or from womb to tomb. These depend on multiple factors. Life has been divided into number of stages. Prenatal period: conception to birth: This stage included the time from conception to birth. Though the child has not come to the ...

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Importance of Dreams Essay | The Role of Dreams in Our Life

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

11 (4,276 )

Keywords: dreams and psychosis, freud dream theory, jung dream theory Dreams are something that we all experience in our lives. My inspiration for writing an essay on this topic came from an article I read called "Dreaming - motivated or meaningless" by Mark Blagrove. The topic of dreams appealed to me immediately. Although I chose a slightly different approach to the topic it is also in the ...

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Minimal Group Paradigm

23 Mar 2015 13 Jun 2017

12 (4,552 )

Keywords: tajfel minimal group paradigm, tajfel minimal group paradigm The minimal group paradigm introduced by Tajfel et al (1971) is an experimental methodology to investigate the effects of social categorisation on behaviour. The paradigm was set up to challenge the notion of inter-group conflict or in-group favouritism and discover the minimal conditions for inter-group behaviour, that is, those conditions which are both necessary and sufficient for a ...

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Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

5 (1,960 )

Keywords: sternberg theory of intelligence, triarchic intelligence theory Intelligence is one of the most important aspects of human life and what differentiates us from the rest of the species at great length. Intelligence can take various variables and can derive from everywhere. More specifically, in this paper we will discuss Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence, (1986) who separated intelligence into three divisions, analytical, creative, and practical, ...

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Client Centred Interview - Interviewing Skills

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

14 (5,591 )

Keywords: patient centred interview, patient interview skills, client interview skills The purpose of this assignment is to acknowledge and critically analyse the key skills required to perform a patient-centred interview; where any discrepancies between theory and practice will be noted. Episodes of critical reflection will be integrated using the literature to offer evidence to question and/or support my clinical interview. Furthermore, I will explain what has been ...

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Drug Abuse in Malaysia Statistics

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

6 (2,014 )

Keywords: malaysia drug abuse, drug addiction malaysia The above chart is shown as different states of drug abusers in Malaysia for 2008. Based on the chart, Georgetown is the highest number of drug abusers in Malaysia which is 730, followed by Kuala Lumpur (669 drug abusers), Ipoh (280 drug abusers), Johor Bahru (267 drug abusers) and Alor Setar (221 drug abusers). From the chart, Georgetown, kuala lumpur, ...

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The Influence of Gender on Therapy Outcomes

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

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Keywords: gender effect therapy, gender in therapy, gender issues therapy The purpose of this study is to explore clients and therapists' experiences of gender within the therapeutic relationship and how they affect overall treatment effectiveness and duration. Because gender issues create obstacles or advance progress, this paper discusses how gender differences affect the formation of the therapeutic relationship and how these effects alter therapy outcome. Clients expect ...

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Reflective Essay: Grief and Bereavement

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

6 (2,189 )

Keywords: model of bereavement, bereavement theory analysis, bereavement reflective essay This essay is a reflective journey through the loss I have experienced in my life. The essay will discuss two models of bereavement, dual process and continuing bonds. Towards not only understanding self in the process of loss, but also to understand some of the theories used to assist those who are grieving. Relevant referenced literature will ...

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Beck Depression Inventory Test Analysis

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

6 (2,292 )

Keywords: depression scale analysis, scale of depression The revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), published in 1996 was authored by Aaron Beck, Robert A. Steer, and Gregory K. Brown. Similar to its predecessor, it consists of 21multiple choice questions that assist in determining the severity of depression. Each item consists of four statements arranged in order to ascertain the severity of a certain symptom of depression. BDI-II conforms ...

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Does Age Affect the Stroop Effect?

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

5 (1,970 )

Keywords: influences stroop effect, stroop effect gender, stroop effect age This paper considers the Stroop task and asks whether broad demographic characteristics like gender and age can influence interference. Previous studies have found that interference does increase with age because the cognitive capacities required to suppress the more automatic response begin to decline. However, the findings with regard to gender are more equivocal, with some studies finding ...

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Connectivism Theory | An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

5 (1,981 )

Keywords: connectivism theory analysis, connectionist model analysis The connectionist models of cognitive science are a part of the movement that focuses on explaining the abilities of the human intellect using artificial neural networks, also known as the neural nets (Garson 1997). These nets are models of the brain, simplified and composed of numerous analog units (in place of neurons) coupled with certain weights (in place of synapses) ...

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Effects of Social Networking Sites on the Parent-Child Relationship

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

16 (6,281 )

Keywords: social network site effects, parent child relationship researching, social networking site relationship The wide use of the Internet especially on social networking sites (SNSs) amongst all individuals is now playing an essential role in their daily lives (Digital Life, n.d.). Nowadays, it is common to see that the majority of people owns desktop computers, laptops, mobile phones or tablets with Internet access allowing individuals to log ...

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Motivations of Counselling and Therapy Professions

23 Mar 2015 08 Jun 2017

10 (3,934 )

Keywords: counsellor job motivations, why become a counsellor, why work in therapy "A friend in need is a pain indeed." With bumper stickers like that, it is hardly surprising that people might wonder about the counselling and therapy professions: Why would anyone in their right mind want to spend their working days listening to other people's tales of woe, whether stranger, friend or foe? Is the desire ...

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Freud's Psychosexual Theory Stages

23 Mar 2015 08 Jun 2017

8 (3,019 )

Keywords: freud theory critique, freud psychosexual theory, freud psychosexual theory summary This literature review is about how well does Freud's psychoanalytic theory explain and predict the human development? In order to see it, this literature review will review the five psychosexual stages one by one. First it starts with the oral stage where the mouth is the centre for pleasure. The passage will also go through two ...

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Schizophrenia: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

23 Mar 2015 08 Jun 2017

6 (2,287 )

Psychology can be defined as the study of the mind and/or soul of an individual in addition to his/her mental behaviors and functions (Jose, 2001). It is a diverse and wide field consisting of major areas of application within itself, for instance abnormal and biological psychology. Biological psychology or biopsychology is that part charged with studying the manner in which biological processes affect the behavior and mind ...

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Personality and Lifestyle in Consumer Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 07 Jun 2017

7 (2,798 )

Consumer behaviour is a central topic in marketing and consumer behaviour is totally depends on consumer's personality and life style. We can understand it better by understanding the whole concept of personality and life style. Person always try to blame on any of two traits for his behaviour. (1) Internal traits: In this traits if person believe that whatever he/she is doing only because he want to ...

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Frontal Lobe And Its Function Psychology

23 Mar 2015 07 Jun 2017

4 (1,215 )

Keywords: frontal lobe functions, functions frontal lobe, frontal lobe psychology The human brain is a very complex structure; it is the center of our nervous system. One of the most important parts is the frontal lobe. The frontal lobes are responsible for what is known as the executive functions which include things like motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation, judgment, impulse control, and social and ...

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History Of The Blue Brain Technology

23 Mar 2015 07 Jun 2017

8 (2,826 )

Blue brain is basically a Virtual Brain It is the creation of synthetic brain by reverse engineering, the mammalian brains down to the molecular level. That means a machine can function as human brain. No one can ever understand the complexity of human brain.It is more complex than any circuitry in the world.Is it possible to create a virtual brain? Yes,the scientists today are in research to ...

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Cognitive Processing and The Stroop Effect

23 Mar 2015 06 Jun 2017

6 (2,231 )

Keywords: strop effect study, cognitive processing experiment The area of study was cognitive processing. The aim of the experiment was to determine if there was a positive cognitive skill difference when a participant was given a matching variable of colours and words compared with a non-matching variable of colours and words. This is related to the Stroop Test published in 1935. The experimental hypothesis of the study ...

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How does Social Media Effect Time Management?

23 Mar 2015 06 Jun 2017

7 (2,516 )

Keywords: social media problems, social media addition, time management social media The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between time spent on social media and time management in students. After and extensive literature review, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of 54 participants. After analyzing the results it was evident that there is a relationship between time spent on social media and ...

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Hochschild's Emotional Labour Theory

23 Mar 2015 06 Jun 2017

14 (5,510 )

Keywords: hochschild emotional labour, emotional labour sociology Emotional labour was first put forward by sociologist Arlie Hochschild in 1983 in her classic book, The Managed Heart. Hochschild's (1983) thesis mostly focuses on the job of flight attendants and bill collectors where she described the work involved in being "nasty" or "nice" and have also been expressed as "toe and heel" of the growing service sector (Cited in ...

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Relationship between Stress and Suicide

23 Mar 2015 06 Jun 2017

5 (1,789 )

Keywords: stress and suicide, suicide prevention strategies, suicide causes In 2002-2004, more than 10% of HK people who died of suicide were 15-24 years old (fig. 1 in appendix). However, in 2002, nearly 80% of HK people who attempted suicide were 15-24 years old (fig. 2 in appendix). Suicide problem in adolescents in HK is serious. In this paper, I will firstly define some terms. Then I ...

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Drug Recovery Programme: Analysis

23 Mar 2015 06 Jun 2017

9 (3,267 )

Keywords: drug recovery pathways, drug addiction help, drug addiction strategies Substance abuse is when an individual "Overindulgences in an addictive substance" (New Oxford American Dictionary. According to the Neurobiological Causes of Addiction, substance abuse is a "Maladaptive pattern of drug use leading to impairment or distress presenting as one or more of the following in a 12 month period of time (Erickson & Wilcox 2001): Recurrent use ...

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Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Disorders

23 Mar 2015 05 Jun 2017

6 (2,109 )

Keywords: sleep disorders essay, sleep disorder effects, sleep deprivation effects Sleeping disorders negatively impact the person, their family, and society. The objective of this paper is to describe the importance and types of sleep, the link between sleep and certain diseases, the effect of sleep disorders on individuals, their families, and society, and how to treat these disorders. Sleep is a requirement needed by every individual. It ...

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Social Psychology Theories - The Impact of Attitudes in Society

23 Mar 2015 05 Jun 2017

5 (1,670 )

Keywords: behaviour imitation, attitudes in society, social psychology attitudes People usually have a more immediate influence on us when we are actually in their presence. However some psychologists claim that all psychology is social psychology as all our behaviour takes place in a social setting, even when alone our behaviour tends to influence others. Social psychology looks at interpersonal relationships of how people form different impressions and ...

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How Neurons Communicate

23 Mar 2015 05 Jun 2017

6 (2,045 )

The objective of this assignment is to provide detailed explanation of the way in which neurons communicate with each other. It explores the link between this specific communication and the behaviour exhibited by humans to consider whether human behaviour can be explained purely by biology. The nervous system consists of numerous cells named neurons. Neurons are located within the Central Nervous System constituting of the brain and ...

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Ego Defense Mechanisms | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 02 Jun 2017

6 (2,173 )

Keywords: frued defence mechanisms, defense mechanisms theory Defense mechanisms were first conceptualized by Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, and further developed, by his daughter Anna Freud. Sigmund Freud described personality as being made up of three components: the id, the ego and the superego. The id operates solely on the pleasure principle; it is comprised of basic instincts and animalistic drives. The superego is a person's ...

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The Client-Centred Model - An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 02 Jun 2017

9 (3,209 )

In this essay I shall be defining the Rogerian and Egan's 3-stage model of counselling and discussing how the counselling alliance is established in each. Boundary issues will also be examined with a focus on what needs to be considered within the therapeutic relationship. Particular attention will be paid to the similarities and differences between them and the situations in which they may be utilised. Humanistic approaches ...

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Issues In Adolescent Development

23 Mar 2015 02 Jun 2017

6 (2,175 )

Adolescent can be defined as developmental stage between childhood and adulthood where through this crucial period they will have rapid changes in physical, emotion, cognitive change and also behavior. The adolescent stages can be divided to early adolescence (10-12 years), middle adolescence (13-15 years) and late adolescent (16 above) (Feldman, 2005). According to Western psychologists, "adolescence primarily as preparation for adulthood and this period as a time ...

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Effect of Highlight on Memory Recall

23 Mar 2015 02 Jun 2017

12 (4,730 )

Keywords: highlighting effect on memory This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of highlighting on memory recall. 30 subjects of aged 20 were chosen randomly. All the subjects were given a list of 40 words, in which 20 of them in black colour ink and 20 of them in yellow colour ink. The subjects were given 2 minutes to look at the list and were given ...

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How Reliable is Eyewitness Testimony?

23 Mar 2015 02 Jun 2017

12 (4,429 )

Keywords: eyewitness testimony, eyewitness testimony reliability This essays attempts to reach a conclusion regarding eyewitness testimonies and the extent of its reliability. This was done by identifying factors in three different processes stages. The acquisition stage is the period where the witness experiences the event. The retention stage is the period between the time the event ends and the time the witness are asked for a recount ...

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Adolescent Development Case Study Example

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

7 (2,551 )

Keywords: adolescent case study examples, case study of adolescent development This is the life of Liang, a 16 year-old adolescent boy. Liang is a 16 year-old adolescent boy who suffers from anxiety, stress, depression and exhibit anti-social behavior. Being eccentric, he only has very few good friends. He is often fatigued and has poor concentration during class but yet able to do well for all his tests. ...

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Should Children Be Allowed To Play Video Games?

23 Mar 2015 31 May 2017

6 (2,220 )

Keywords: video game effects, children play video game, effects of video game on child There are several ways children can learn and grow and there are an equally large amount of ways to facilitate this growth. Knowledge and growth can be gained through the telling of stories, listening to music, viewing beautiful artwork, and simply through playing and having fun. Throughout history many media sources such as ...

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Religious Healing in Medicine

23 Mar 2015 31 May 2017

5 (1,688 )

Keywords: religious healing benefits, medicine religion Most religious or spiritual healers practice a specific ritual as a treatment method for different physical or mental illnesses. A few examples of spiritual or religious rituals that are frequently used are prayer, yoga, and meditation. However, this study directly examines how effective mediation is as a remedy for physical or mental impairments among Buddhist believers. The crux, of this study ...

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Rey Complex Figure Test Interpretation

23 Mar 2015 31 May 2017

5 (1,661 )

Keywords: rcft analysis Over 68 years the RCFT has been used with great success for measuring visuospatial, memory, problems solving and motor skills. It compares well with other similar tests. It also has generally good reliability and validity, although this should be verified through further studies. Superior effects lower its test-retest reliability. Furthermore, other limitations include that different test versions have various administration criteria. Also, RCFT scoring ...

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Weapon Focus and Inattentional Blindness

23 Mar 2015 31 May 2017

26 (10,168 )

Keywords: eyewitness memory accuracy, weapon focus effects The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of weapon focus and inattentional blindness on eyewitness memory. 91 participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions. Participants performed one of three task; count the number of bags (consistent attentional set), count the number of people in white coloured tops (inconsistent attentional set), or count nothing (control), while ...

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Personality Assessment Inventory Critique

23 Mar 2015 31 May 2017

5 (1,978 )

Keywords: pai critique. pai psychology The Personality Assessment Inventory is mostly for psychologists whom test for psychopathology. This test is used in psychotherapy, crisis evaluation, employment selection, forensic, child custody, and pain/medical evaluation. This personality test is one of the best assessments available and is more reliable and valid than most others. A thorough description of the test including the structure and scales is given. By evaluating ...

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Is Criminal Behavior Innate or Shaped?

23 Mar 2015 30 May 2017

5 (1,783 )

Keywords: criminality nature v nurture, social learning theory crime The 'nature vs. nurture' debate is one of the oldest issues concerning psychologists and the extent to which both factor influences personality is an enigma that remains unresolved to this date. Many questions have been raised and one such question is: 'Is criminal behavior is innate or is it shaped by the environment' and this paper will attempt ...

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Frontal Lobe Damage: Case Study

23 Mar 2015 30 May 2017

8 (2,855 )

Keywords: frontal lobe damage effects The frontal lobes play a major role in the regulation of our emotions and behaviour as well as planning, decision making, social conduct, and executive functions. They are vulnerable to damage and many neuropsychological tests have been developed to assess subsequent impairment related to the frontal lobes. The study looks at the case of Mr A who has reported a drastic ...

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Theories Of Depression

23 Mar 2015 30 May 2017

4 (1,530 )

Keywords: depression theories, behavioural theory depression Depression is classified as a mood disorder. To meet the criteria for having depression the sufferer will of have to have felt low in mood for two weeks or more and display at least five of the symptoms that are laid out by the DMS-IV. These symptoms typically include: continuous low moods and sadness, changes in appetite and weight, morbid thinking ...

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Paradigm of Mental Health

23 Mar 2015 26 May 2017

6 (2,349 )

Keywords: mental health paradigm shift, mental health paradigm analysis "Mental health disorders are amongst the leading causes of ill health and disability worldwide" (Prentice & Beusenberg 2001). A paradigm is an unanimously recognized scientific accomplishment that provides a conceptual framework for seeing and making sense of the social world (Kuhn, Thomas S., 1970) For the researcher it is important to recognise their paradigm, it allows them to ...

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Relaxation Theory: Theory and Practices

23 Mar 2015 26 May 2017

4 (1,505 )

Keywords: muscle relaxation therapy, relaxation therapy types, stress relaxation therapy Relaxation Therapy is a program which emphasizes a wide variety of strategies and techniques for dealing with stress and health disorders. Relaxation techniques can benefit almost any person by reducing stress and tension in muscles, lowering blood pressure and heart rate, and creating internal coping skills to handle anxiety. Muscle relaxation therapy involves learning how stressful circumstances ...

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Major Depressive Order: Case Study

23 Mar 2015 26 May 2017

5 (1,734 )

Keywords: depression case study, case study depression Major depressive disorder (MDD, clinical depression) - in contrast to the usual depression, which refers to almost any bad or depressed, melancholy mood, major depressive disorder is a complex of symptoms. Moreover, MDD may not be accompanied by low mood, depression or grief - the so-called depression without depression, or masked depression. If the symptoms described below lasted more than ...

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