APA Referencing Guide

  • The American Psychological Association reference style uses the Author-Date format.
  • Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) for more information.
  • When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by author name and year of publication.
To cite information directly or indirectly, there are two ways to acknowledge citations: 1) Make it a part of a sentence or 2) put it in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Direct quotation – use quotation marks around the quote and include page numbers
  • Cohen and Lotan (2014) argue that "many different kinds of abilities are essential for any profession" (p.151).
  • “Many different kinds of abilities are essential for any profession" (Cohen & Lotan, 2014, p.151).
  • N.B. See the Library’s APA webpage for a quotation of 40 or more words.
Indirect quotation/paraphrasing/summarising – no quotation marks
  • Professional knowledge alone does not make someone a very capable professional (Cohen & Lotan, 2014).
  • According to Cohen and Lotan (2014), professional knowledge alone does not make someone a very capable professional.
  • N.B. Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although it is useful to include them (Publication Manual, p. 171).
Citations from a secondary source Gould’s (1981) research “raises fundamental doubts as to whether we can continue to think of intelligence as unidimensional” (as cited in Cohen & Lotan, 2014, pp. 151-152).
  • Intelligence cannot be believed to consist of one single entity any more (Gould, 1981, as cited in Cohen & Lotan, 2014).
  • To cite a source you found in another source, you must acknowledge all the authors.
  • The author(s) of the source referred to i.e. Gould, 1981
  • The author(s) of the work which contains the original source i.e. Cohen & Lotan, 2014
  • In the reference list, only the book by Cohen & Lotan should be acknowledged. Do not list Gould.
  • At the end of your assignment, you are required to provide the full bibliographic information for each source. References must be listed in alphabetical order by author.
    In a reference list In-text citation
    1.Book with one author (King, 2000) or King (2000) compares Frame
    King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the angel: A life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking. N.B. The first letter of the first word of the main title, subtitle and all proper nouns have capital letters
    2.Book with two authors
    Dancey, C. P., & Reidy, J. (2004). Statistics without maths for psychology: Using SPSS for Windows (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson/Prentice Hall. N.B. Before “&” between authors, do not forget to put a comma. (Dancey & Reidy, 2004) or Dancey and Reidy (2004) said… When paraphrasing in text, use and, not &.
    3. Book with three to five authors (see Library APA referencing webpage for six or more authors)
    Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (2nd ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Thomson. N.B. Use & between authors’ names, except when paraphrasing in text. When a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent citations include only the first author followed by et al. (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006) then (Krause et al., 2006)
    4. Book or report by a corporate author e.g. organisation, association, government department
    International Labour Organization. (2007). Equality at work: Tackling the challenges (International Labour Conference report). Geneva, Switzerland: Author. N.B. When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field. In text, some group authors may be abbreviated in subsequent citations if they are readily recognisable (International Labour Organization, 2007) or (International Labour Organization [ILO], 2007), then (ILO, 2007)
    5. Book chapter in edited book
    Kestly, T. (2010). Group sandplay in elementary schools. In A. A. Drewes, & C. E. Shaefer (Eds.), School-based play therapy (2nd ed., pp. 257-282). Hoboken, NJ: John Wileys & Sons. N.B. Include the page numbers of the chapter after the book title. (Kestly, 2010) or Kestly (2010) compares educational settings of ...
    6. Conference paper online
    Bochner, S. (1996, November). Mentoring in higher education: Issues to be addressed in developing a mentoring program. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Singapore. Retrieved from http://www.aare.edu.au/96pap/bochs96018.txt Bochner, 1996) or Bochner (1996) illustrates
    7. Course handout/Lecture notes (electronic version)
    Archard, S., Merry, R., & Nicholson, C. (2011). Karakia and waiata [Powerpoint slides]. Retrieved from TEPS757-11B (NET): Communities of Learners website: http://elearn.waikato.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=174650 N.B. Put format in square brackets - e.g. [Lecture notes] [Panopto video]. This referencing format should be used only for your assignments (Archard, Merry, & Nicholson, 2011) then subsequently, if 3-5 authors (Archard et al., 2011)
    8. Film
    Preston, G. (Director/Producer). (2010). Home by Christmas [Motion picture]. New Zealand: Gaylene Preston Production. N.B. For films, DVDs or video recordings use [Motion picture] in square brackets. Give the country of origin and the name of the motion picture studio. (Preston, 2010)
    9. Journal article (academic/scholarly) with DOI (NEW DOI format)
    Cavenagh, N., & Ramadurai, R. (2017). On the distances between Latin squares and the smallest defining set size. Journal of Combinatorial Designs, 25(4), 147–158. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcd.21529 N.B. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique code assigned to a scholarly/academic publication. The DOI’s code links to the article online (Cavenagh & Ramadurai, 2017) or Cavenagh and Ramadurai (2017
    9a. Journal article with no DOI Germann, F., Ebbes, P., & Grewal, R. (2015). The chief marketing officer matters! Journal of Marketing, 79(3), 1-22. N.B. Retain original punctuation of titles. A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicised, followed by the issue number in brackets (not italicised). Germann, Ebbes, and Grewal (2015) claim that “there have been …” (p. 19). then subsequently, if 3-5 authors Germann et al. (2015)
    10. Magazine – popular/trade/general interest
    Goodwin, D. K. (2002, February 4). How I caused that story. Time, 159(5), 69. N.B. Full date is used if published weekly; month and year if monthly Goodwin, D. K. (2002, February 4). How I caused that story. Time, 159(5), 69. N.B. Full date is used if published weekly; month and year if monthly
    11. Newspaper article
    Coster, D. (2017, June 12). Driver who caused man's death is placed into dementia care. Stuff. Retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/ N.B Use the URL of the newspaper’s homepage, as a direct link to an online article in a newspaper website is not a persistent link. Coster, 2017) or Coster (2017) reports
    12. Personal Communication
    N.B. Information such as Letters, telephone conversations, emails, interviews, and private social networking is called “Personal Communication”, and no reference list entry is required (W. Bush, personal communication, March 19, 2017)
    13. Reference book – dictionary or encyclopedia entry
    Hwang, E.-G. (2002). North Korea: Economic system. In D. Levinson, & K. Christenson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of modern Asia (Vol. 4, pp. 350-353). New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. N.B. If no author stated, the entry’s title takes the author position. For online dictionaries and encyclopedias, a retrieval statement takes the place of publisher location / name (Hwang, 2002) or Hwang (2002) identifies the hurdles North Korea ...
    14. Webpage
    New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. (n.d.). Agribusiness. Retrieved from https://www.nzte.govt.nz/en/export/market-research/agribusiness/ N.B. (n.d.) = no date. The basic format is: (1) Author (could be organisation). (2) Date (either date of publication or latest update). (3) Title. (4) URL. (New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, n.d., para. 1) For direct quote, cite the paragraph number in text

    Our experts are ready to assist you, call us to get a free quote or order now to get succeed in your academics writing.

    Get a Free Quote Order Now