Social Facilitation Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 25 May 2017

5 (1,899 )

Keywords: social facilitation drive theory, social facilitation critique During my school days, when I used to practice solving mathematical equations at home I do fine and if professor asked to solve the same equation in front of class on white board, I always solve it accurately and fastly. But if the equation given is different or little tough, many times my performance degrades even if I know ...

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Attribution Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 25 May 2017

5 (1,704 )

Keywords: attribution theory fritz heider, attribution theory example Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do. The theory deals with the information one uses in making casual inferences, and the way one deals with this information to answer a casual question. But how can this account to the usefulness of the theory? By knowing the reasons for various behaviours people can ...

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Theories of Depression Analysis

23 Mar 2015 25 May 2017

5 (1,925 )

Keywords: psychodynamic theory depression, behavioural theory depression, cognitive theory depression In this essay I will outline and explain at least 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses of the explanations of depression, via 3 different main forms of psychological explanations for depression. These approaches are Psychodynamic, Behavioural and Cognitive. Depression is something that will affect most people's lives at some point. This is when you feel down, sad, tearful ...

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Can the five factor model explain personality?

23 Mar 2015 24 May 2017

5 (1,606 )

Keywords: extroversion vs introversion, ffm analysis, five factor model personality Every person is unique. From being geniuses to serial killers, people and their personalities can vary in many ways. What makes a person the way he/she is, is a question that everyone would like to answered. What exactly is personality and is it the factor that makes everyone different? In an attempt to solve this dilemma, there ...

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Study on the A Not B Error

23 Mar 2015 24 May 2017

11 (4,370 )

Keywords: a not b error definition, a not b error analysis After being discovered by Jean Piaget in 1954 perseveration tasks became one of the main means of investigation in cognitive development psychology, initially in children and later also in non-human animals. The most known of these is the, so called, A-not-B task, which even after many years of research still elicits debates about its underlying mechanisms. ...

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Racial and Cultural Difference in the Classrooom

23 Mar 2015 24 May 2017

5 (1,813 )

Keywords: cultural differences in education, racial differences in education, race academic achievement Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover Abstract The main topic of this paper is the racial and cultural differences between kids in the classroom setting. It points out that this is a social issue in our society today. The three main points that are pointed out are academic achievement, classroom behavior, and teaching quality. ...

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How Environment affects Personality Essay

24 May 2017

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Keywords: environment affects personality, effect of environment on personality What makes individuals unique. Most would say a persons personality makes them who they are. Lets take a look at how personalities are affected by ones environment. In doing so we are going to see how personality is defined. Then we will examine the different types of personalities and how they can be determined. Next, we will see ...

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Effects of Violence In Sports

23 Mar 2015 23 May 2017

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Keywords: biological theory, psychological theory, social learning theory Introduction Violence in sports involves the execution of behaviors that cause harm and happen out of the rules and regulations of sports. Currie (2000) defines violence in sports as "physical assault that is intended to cause physical pain or injury to another player (or fan, coach, game official etc), where such harmful actions bear no direct relationship to the ...

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Qualitative Research in Healthcare

23 Mar 2015 22 May 2017

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It is acknowledged in health care that qualitative research offers an important means of gaining insight and understanding of the health and healthcare problems, issues, and processes. It is rooted in the understanding, from the viewpoint of understanding involved, how individual and groups interpret, experience, and make sense of social phenomena (Pop et al, 2002). Qualitative research deemed appropriate for this research allowing the development of theory ...

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Serial Position Effect in Memory Recall | Research Study

23 Mar 2015 22 May 2017

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Memory recall plays a very important role in the daily lives of humans, particularly for students whose exams require memorization and recall. Research has supported the idea that organization, isolation, and cues enhance memory recall. Isolation and cues presented varied between experiments but color was commonly used. The present experiment tested memory recall while manipulating a certain aspect of the stimulus. The present study also examined the ...

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Theories Of Childhood Amnesia

23 Mar 2015 22 May 2017

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Many people lack the ability to recall specific events from their childhood, such as episodic memories; the time, place and emotions felt during an experience (Tulving, 1984). The term childhood amnesia introduced by Sigmund Freud (1910) refers to the inability to recall memories from the first two years of life, Freud (1910) attributed the cause of CA to repression of traumatic events. Following Freud (1910) several investigators ...

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Psychodynamic Approach and Behaviourism

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Compare and contrast two approaches to psychology, highlighting the characteristic strengths and weaknesses of each approach Psychodynamic approach use concepts which are purely psychological and not physiological. This approach ignores the scientific method of observation and instead focuses on trying to get inside the mind of an individual, in order to understand their experiences and relationships. Sigmund Freud (1896) was the founder of the psychoanalytical approach, his ...

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Primacy And Recency Effect

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Serial learning is a process in which the learner is exposed to series of stimuli; later the learner is asked to recall his memory in the same sequence in which stimuli have been exposed to him. Serial leaning is part of our daily life; we are required to learn things in sequence and if we do not remember the sequence it will affect our desired goal (Jensen, ...

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The definition of sex addiction

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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As sex addiction starts to gain more popularity from society and media, more and more college students have revealed their concerns about sex addiction. This research paper is aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of sex addiction which includes the definition of sex addiction, the potential causes of sex addiction, sex addiction symptoms, consequences of sex addition, and to present alternative treatments and the effectiveness of the ...

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Bullying In Schools And The Effects

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Bullying is a worldwide problem that can have both short and long term effects on its victims. It is described as aggressive behavior normally characterized by repetition and an imbalance of power. Hundreds of thousands of children are affected every day in the United States because of bullying. This behavior is damaging to all involved, and even those who are not, and should not be permitted anywhere ...

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Results Chapter: Memory Research

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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First of all, we have to determine the appropriate measure of product involvement. Referring to our meta-analysis, involvement is considered as an endogenous variable moderating the effect of incidental advertising exposure and one of consumer characteristics. Researchers have strived a great effort to develop tools with which to measure involvement since the introduction of the concept to marketing by Krugman (1965) and although researchers agree that the ...

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Attitude Formation And Stereotypes

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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'Stereotypes', according to Hogg and Vaughan(2002:46), are impressions of people that are strongly influenced by widely shared assumptions of personality, behaviour and attitudes based on group membership for example, sex, race, ethnicity and nationality. These assumptions are a simplified evaluative image of someone or a social group and its members, mental representations influence impressions we form of a person or group and are seen as a social ...

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Case study: OCD and paraphilia

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

5 (1,808 )

29 year old serving Nk/Clk self-reported on 15 Apr 10 with complaints of difficulty in completing his job, increasing irritability & marital disharmony of one and half years duration. However, detailed evaluation revealed significant difficulties since several years in his sexual behavior and ability to complete a task on time At 10 years of age he had started rubbing his genitalia on bed to get pleasurable effects ...

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Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Major depressive disorder MDD, clinical depression - in contrast to the usual depression, which refers to almost any bad or depressed, melancholy mood, major depressive disorder is a complex of symptoms. Moreover, MDD may not be accompanied by low mood, depression or grief - the so-called depression without depression, or masked depression. If the symptoms described below lasted more than two weeks and begin to interfere with ...

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Understanding Consciousness in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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There is no one true definition of consciousness, however the consensus of neuropsychologists and philosophers alike is that consciousness is an awareness of our mental states; experiences, sensations and feelings. The study of consciousness is described as "the most important problem in the biological sciences" (Searle, 2005) and over the last fifteen years research and interest has grown, evident by more than 15,000 scientific articles on the ...

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The Determinants Of Self Esteem

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Self Esteem The term self-esteem can be defined as the level to which individuals view their worthiness as an individual. The roots of self-esteem are that, the appraisal is first developed from childhood and continues throughout someone's life. If it one has low self-worthiness. If anyone has low self-worth, then it means that these earlier experience is simply overshadowed the individual and have come to represent the ...

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Mary Ainsworth: Attachment theory

03 Oct 2016 19 May 2017

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Mary Ainsworth: Attachment theory John Bowlby was the original founder of attachment theory this began after World War II where he found many children became orphans at a very young age and concluded that attachment was crucial for development (Miler, 2011). In his studies he proposed that attachment came from the knowledge that infants needed protection and biologically infants know that separation could cause a child ...

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Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Erikson's psychosocial theory (Erikson, 1968), developed from Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory and his extensive practical field research, emphasizes on the growth and change within the individual. He incorporated cultural and social aspects into Freud's biological and sexually oriented theory, and focused on how experience and environment shaped behavior and personality. Erikson was the first to develop a life-span of human development, broken into eight stages. Each stage ...

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Analyse stages of drawing development

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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Explain and critically analyse stages of drawing development as described by Luquet and Piaget. Children's drawings are studied and analysed to learn about the acquisition of drawing skills. The types of skills we can interpret from drawings include motor execution, planning strategies, spatio-geometric, part whole relations and artistic talent. There are several theories that can be discussed about the processes of drawings such as Perceptual theories ...

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Behavioral perspectives of psychology

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Behavioral psychology is thought to be a perspective that mainly focuses on behaviors that have been learned. While psychology was mainly dominated by behaviorism in the early 20th century, it quickly started to diminish in the 1950s. Now a days, the behavioral perspective still deals with how behaviors have been learned and reinforced. Behavioral principles have many a times been applied in settings of mental health where ...

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Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Theory

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert ...

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Treatment of and prevention of depression

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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There are many different titles for depression, such as clinical depression, manic depression, major depression, and simply depression. Whatever, the title they are all depression and range from mild to severe furthermore, this condition attacks the rich, the poor, the young and the old it is truly a equal opportunity condition. Finally, for as many titles as depression has this condition also has just as many reasons ...

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Feminism in the Asian Culture

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Feminism in the Asian Culture: An Obstacle? As one of the largest continent on Earth, Asia boast approximately 4 billion people with 47 countries(Wikipedia, 2009). From India to China, the derivation of differences across borders creates a unique and perplexing culture of its own. Putting ethnicity, religion and borders aside, the Asian culture shares similar values such as filial piety, honor, and collectivism. On a more negative ...

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Adolescence is a period of Storm and Stress Essay

18 May 2017

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Keywords: adolescence essay, essay on adolescence, storm and stress of adolescence Introduction Adolescence is a period in development between the onset of puberty and adulthood. It usually begins between 11 and 13 years of age with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and spans the teenage years, terminating at 18 to 20 years of age with the completion of the development of the adult form. ...

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The Levels Of Stress In University Students

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Stress is the expressive and physical strain caused by our response to pressure from the outside world. Common stress reactions include anxiety, bad temper, inability to concentrate, and a variety of physical symptoms that include headache and a fast heartbeat. It's almost impossible to live without some stress. (Whitman, 1985) The ability to identify when we are under stress and what is stressing us can greatly improve ...

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Psychological Skills Training Programme

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Psychology is the scientific study of cognitive thoughts, feelings and behaviours. The aim of sports psychology is to understand the contribution that psychological components have on exercise performance, but also the effects that participation in physical exercise has on psychological development. Sports psychologists often talk about the significance of being in the "zone" and of creating an intimidating presence for your opponent on the field of play, ...

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The Beck Depression Inventory

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) Overview Depression is one of the most common psychological problems and it can take over the person’s emotions, bodily functions, behaviors, and thoughts. In fact, it is so prominent that 16 percent of Americans at some point in their lives experience an episode of major depression (Kessler et al. 2003 as cited in Nolen-Hoeksema, 2007). There are various theories of depression; one ...

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Is Intelligence Inherited?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Is Intelligence Inherited? There are many different arguments relating to whether intelligence is inherited or whether it is something that is developed through the environment, which is otherwise known as the ‘Nature versus Nurture' debate. A little of this will be discussed later on, along with trying to define intelligence, heritability and how inheritance takes place. In additional to this; various studies will be discussed with ...

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Freudian Theory of Personality

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Freud was one of the most important scientists in the field of psychology in the past century. He formed the psychoanalytical approaches like no one else. He developed a topographical and structural model of personality. The first one, the topographical model, describes the detailed parts of the psyche. He said that one part of psyche is the unconscious which consists of thought and feelings that are crowded ...

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Cognitive developmental approach to children's drawings

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Children's drawings have been used in psychology as a tool to measure several things, including intelligence, emotion and self-esteem, social roles and social identity. The focus of this essay is to critically analyse the cognitive development approach towards children's drawings. As well as cognitive theories of drawing development, there are competing explanations for the development of drawing including Willats' (1977, 1997) perceptual theory. The theory was object ...

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Craik and Lockhart's Theory on Memory

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Abstract Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that it is the method and depth of processing affects how an experience is stored in memory, rather than rehearsal. To determine the level of processing between semantic and phonemic encoding, 26 word pairs was shown to 837 undergraduates and each participant has 30 seconds to determine whether it was a category association or rhyming relationship. The participants were then asked ...

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Mental health of children and adolescents

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Maintaining mental health and wellness is a rather complex task- and the possible problems associated with mental health can be rather debilitating depending on their severity. Mental health is described as including the emotional and behavioral areas of health and is crucial to a given child's well being1. More over, mental health can vastly impact various areas of life including, personal relationships, work and school and physical ...

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Impact Of Autistic Children On Family

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In recent study the attention has been drawn towards the impact of autistic children on the family. Autism refers to neurodevelopment disorder as identified at early age of 3 years old and characterized by considerable social interaction and communication impairment, unusual and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Parents of autistic children face great and unending challenges due to slow mental development of the child. These challenges are in ...

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Developmental Milestones In Child Development

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Developmental milestones are physical or behavioural changes of development or the maturation of children and infants. They provide important information that relates to a child's development. These changes are different for each child. Cognitive development theory is about the development of human intelligence and is primarily known as development stage theory and concerns the nature of knowledge and how humans develop gradually to acquire and use. Piaget's ...

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Social interaction in child development

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

4 (1,339 )

In the first two years of an infant's life, they undergo many changes that allow them to develop into a fully functioning human being. Social interaction is an important contributing factor that influences that development. To see how important social interaction is for the development of a child in the first two years of its life, it is important to observe key areas of behaviour such as ...

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Concepts in solution focused brief therapy

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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SFBT, believe that solutions ensue when there is a change in negative interactive patterns and behaviour and as such, giving new meaning to clients problems and tools necessary to solve their them (Stalker et al., 1999). SFBT does not pathologize but rather focuses on clients strengths (Gehart and Tuttle, 2003). It orients clients to a solution talk rather than problem talk. The SF, therapist therefore works with ...

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Juvenile Delinquency and Mental Health Issues

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Juvenile Delinquency refers to "children committing crimes that result in legal intervention". A juvenile can be prevented from committing crimes if the causes of juvenile delinquency are well understood. Criminologists have established various theories to describe the onset of juvenile delinquency. These theories include Social Learning theory, Control theory and Strain theory. As stated by Social Learning theory, juvenile delinquency results when juveniles interact and learn from ...

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Research Onion - Explanation of the Concept

18 May 2017

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Keywords: saunders research onion, the research onion Introduction The research onion was developed by Saunders et al. (2007). It illustrates the stages that must be covered when developing a research strategy.When viewed from the outside, each layer of the onion describes a more detailed stage of the research process (Saunders et al., 2007). The research onion provides an effective progression through which a research ...

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The Over-diagnosis of ADHD

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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A simple way to describe Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is that it is a brain based condition where there is an imbalance of the brains chemicals dopamine and noradrenaline, these chemicals being responsible for self-control and slowing down of impulses (Green and Chee, 1997: 3). Because of the slight imbalance of these important chemicals, people with ADHD will experience impulsive, hyperactive behaviour as well as inattentiveness with ...

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Factors For Increased Obedience

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Gross defines obedience as an outcome of social influence whereby somebody acts in response to an order from another person. It is assumed that without such an order, the person would not have acted in this way. The significance of obedience became more prominent after the Nazi atrocities of World War II. The general consensus was that citizens from Germany had a different character from the citizens ...

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Framo and Inter-generational Family Therapy

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In the words of marriage & family therapy theoretician, James L. Framo, his theory aims to build "a conceptual bridge between the personal and the social" (1992, p. 111). Framo, along with other theoreticians of the time, such as Murray Bowen, Carl Whitaker, and Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy, were interested in not only the internal intrapsychic processes occurring within individuals, but also the social spaces between individuals as well. ...

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Solution focused brief therapy

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) is rapidly becoming an important way of working with families and individuals, allowing clients to find solutions to their own problems (King & Kellock, 2002). SFBT is one of the most popular and widely used psychotherapy approaches in the world (Trepper et al., 2006; Gingerich & Eisengart, 2000). In general, solution-focused therapists accentuate the positive, look toward the future, and do not focus ...

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Freud's and Roger's theory of personality

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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There are many theories for personality and various theorists have defined this in different ways. One fairy comprehensive definition for personality is by Pervin (1996, p.414. pg.3) who cited: "Personality is the complex organisations of cognitions, affects, and behaviours that give direction and pattern to the person's life. Like the body, personality consists of both structures and processes and reflects both nature (genes) and nurture (experience). In ...

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Theories of relationships and personality

03 Oct 2016 18 May 2017

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Tutor Assessed Question 1 (total word count: 259) Describe a study that has been used to investigate implicit personality theory. Provide at least two evaluation points for the study that you have used. Implicit personality theory explains the biases used by a person when meeting an unknown person, producing impressions using limited initial information. Asch (1946) was the first psychologist to broadly research into ...

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Personality Interests And Career Suitability

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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The purpose of this report is to examine my suitability for the career I wish to pursue as well as look at other areas that maybe more suited to my personality and interests. I will highlight my suitability to the career in which I have chosen through self-awareness and career exercises. I will be analysing these findings and determining my suitability for my chosen career as well ...

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The Effect Of The Media On Violence

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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INTRODUCTION Access and use of media is an imperative part of almost everyone's life. Media is so deeply integrated in our lives that hardly a day goes when we do not have some sort of interaction with some or another form of media. Media is used not only for entertainment purposes but also as the main source of education. However, despite its many advantages, one of the ...

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Is Intelligence Innate?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Intelligence is innate is a very complex claim. It is hard to determine whether or not the genotype of humans solely affects our intelligence without considering external factors that contribute towards our developmental growth. The dispute over innate versus acquired; the performationist view versus the environmentalist view is driven by the everlasting nature and nurture debate. To further examine the claim that intelligence is innate, this essay ...

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The Psychological Effects of Cyber bullying

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Abstract The last few decades have resulted in major transformation across important areas of our physical, economical, social and cultural systems. These changes are due to emerging potential computer technologies and ever enhancing awareness of the people. Additionally, the strong, effective and highly swift sources of communications across the world have also added to the diversity being observed at international levels. These transformations have influenced almost every ...

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The Importance Of Social Research

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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As social beings we have a continuous need to understand actuality of our surroundings, environments and our individual and social requirements. In this paper I will be discussing why social research is important and some examples of methods to show how we use the knowledge we have gained to benefit mankind. The human mind seeks knowledge to improve and sustain our quality of life in the present ...

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What drives teenagers to commit suicide?

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Suicide can be defined as an act or an instance of taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally. Suicide is not a choice to survive or a choice to escape. Instead, successful suicide is inevitably mortal. Suicide is the third leading cause of death and injury among adolescents and young adults in the worldwide. Suicide is a serious public health problem. According to the World Health Organisation ...

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Research Methodologies in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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This chapter presents an overview of the methodological perspective of the research. It provides an overview of the different types of research designs that can be applied to research, each paradigms strengths and weaknesses followed by an outline of the approach taken. The research methodology section provides a detailed look at the chosen methodologies. Research design can be considered as a "blueprint" for research. It deals with ...

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The Functions Of Mirror Neurons

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Researchers understanding of the functions of mirror neurons remains the subject of much debate. A myriad of possible functions have been suggested, including an explanation for the common coding theory (perception-action coupling), understanding and predicting the actions and intentions of others, learning new skills through imitation, theory of mind, language acquisition, and empathy (Fogassi, Ferrari, Gesierich, Rozzi, Chersi & Rizzolatti, 2005; Gallese & Goldman, 1998; Skoyles, 2010; ...

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Psychopaths: Theories and Treatment

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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There are characters in the society whose habits and moral behaviors are something out of the ordinary. These individuals exist in each and every society. They have the propensity to engage in certain inhuman activities without being empathetic in any way. The cruel acts they commit do not seem at all cruel to them and most of the time, they like shifting the blame from them as ...

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Epistemological And Ontological Research

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Qualitative and quantitative researches are often presented as two fundamentally different paradigms through which we study the social world. These paradigms act as lightning conductors to which sets of epistemological assumptions, theoretical approaches and methods are attracted. Each is seen to be incompatible with the other. These paradigmatic claims have a tendency to resurface from time to time, manifesting themselves in the effects of different cultural traditions ...

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Psychological theories for criminal behaviour

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Psychological theories have tried to explain why and how the crime occurs. The psychoanalytic point of view, two main theories: Freud's theory of stages of sexual development and the theory of addition of Intent by Bowlby in 1947. These theories conclude that there is a correlation between the formation of personality in childhood and future criminal behavior. Freudian theory of development, suggesting that we go through several ...

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Postnatal Depression - Baby Blues

13 Sep 2016 17 May 2017

5 (1,898 )

Keywords: postnatal depression, perinatal depression, postpartum depression, baby blues Postnatal depression is also known as postpartum or perinatal depression. It is a more serious type of depression than the “baby blues”. The baby blues, unless persistent, usually do not require treatment and are normal reactions to the hormonal changes and stress after delivery. It is thought that postnatal depression can occur at any time up to ...

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Review Of Conflict Management Styles

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Conflict is an inevitable part of our lives. In organizations, specifically, different shared values and beliefs might lead to misunderstanding and create tension between all the employees. It is in the norm of various cultures worldwide that conflict must be avoided, however, if it is well-managed, conflicts too, can open new unexpected possibilities to the organizations. Even though the term of conflict is ambiguous, and there are ...

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Case study: Eating Disorder

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Psychopathology refers to maladaptive behavior/s that causes distress to an individual and is brought about by a psychological disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004). A number of factors contribute to the development of psychopathology: collectively referred to as the vulnerability-stress model (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004). This model breaks the stressors down into three categories: biological causes, social causes and psychological causes (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004). There are four dominant psychological theories of psychopathology that ...

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Family Effects On Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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The family is the foundation of humanity. Children who are rejected by their parents, who grow up in homes with considerable conflict, or who are inadequately supervised are at the greatest risk of becoming delinquent. Adolescence is a time of expanding vulnerabilities and opportunities that go along with it, widens social and geographic exposure to life beyond school or family. Family is one of the most influential ...

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Research Methodology in Memory Studies

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Many studies, dating back to the pioneering work of the psychologist Ebbinghaus in 1885, have shown that we forget as much as 80% of everything we read within 24 hours. Since then our understanding of human memory has increased dramatically. However, memory cannot be observed directly and its existence is inferred by psychologists who use a variety of techniques to study memory, including controlled laboratory experiments, quasi-experiments ...

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Piaget's Theory of Child Development

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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The first two years are very important in a child development. In this essay you will find the key concepts and theories of cognitive, social and emotional development in infancy. I am going to explain what cognitive development is and focus on cognitive theory of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and acquisition of language and perception. This essay will tell you what are the most common emotions of ...

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Effects Of Cartoon Violence On Preschoolers

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Research Question: Does the violence depicted in cartoons have a negative influence on young viewers between ages 3-5 in America? Does it promote aggression and/or violent behavior? Or is this assertion merely a false presumption? Introduction: Nowadays it is a common belief that the violence portrayed in cartoons has a negative impact on the behavior of young children. The main aim of this Essay will be to ...

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Research Results: Personality changes

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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CHAPTER 4 This chapter shows the results gathered by the researchers. As presented in the following graphs with corresponding analyses and interpretations, it answered the queries sought for by the researchers. This, in the process, gave more light to the research, itself. Age of Respondents Table 1 Analysis: The table shows that 7 respondents came from the 20 - 30 age group, 1 from the 31 - ...

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Classical conditioning Child development

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Learning theories suggests behaviour is shaped by learning processes and children are shaped by the environment. There is less focus on a child's perception of an experience. Classical conditioning contributes to the study of child development as it plays a role in the development of emotions. For example, Watson's Little Albert was conditioned to fear all white, fluffy objects. It can be used to solve childhood emotional ...

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Factors that influence procrastination

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The introductory chapter included several parts that provide a basic frame of study. It presented the background of study about procrastination, which was followed by the statement of problem with four research objectives and related hypotheses. Major variables that might appear in the study were defined in terms of conceptual and operational definition, as well as the significance of study of study and limitations were presented. 1.1 ...

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Literature review on depressive disorders

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

18 (7,093 )

Depression is one of the most prevailing medical disorders. Depression has been recognized as a distinct pathological entity from early Egyptian times (Reus, 2000). Depression is the most common psychiatric disorders. Each year, more than 100 million people worldwide develop clinical depression (Bjornlund, 2010). During a lifetime, it is estimated that between 8% and 20% of the general population will experience at least one clinically significant episode ...

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Measurement tools for measuring commitment

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

9 (3,378 )

The following section is going to provide an explanation of the measurement scale that is going to be adopted for the dependent and independent variables and the rational behind for choosing the particular approach. Measurement of Commitment to the Organization Employee commitment to an organization has been defined in a variety of ways which can be composed into three themes: commitment reflecting an affective orientation toward the ...

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Risk Factors Contributing Children Behavior Problem

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

3 (1,169 )

Child behaviors become problematic and these affect not only the family, but also in social and academic functioning. As working in a low-banding secondary school in Hong Kong, I have found a lot of students who are burdened with different behavior problems. These externalizing behaviors affect not only their academic achievement, but also their relationships with teachers, peers, and family, but further disrupt their future. Early intervention ...

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To what extent does personality predict performance?

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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There are two approaches to personality: nomothetic and idiographic. The nomothetic approach presumes that personality is inherited and environmental factors don't play a high role (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 174). This approach takes a number of variables into account while studying personality such as traits (Iverson Software Co., 2006). This is on the nature side of the nature-nurture debate (Buchanan, Huczynski, (2010). pp. 174). This approach is ...

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What Extent Is Personality Innate?

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Personality portrays a psychological construct applied to a set of overt behaviours, thoughts and feelings. There is much debate amongst psychologists on how to specifically categorise, define and measure the concept of personality due to numerous meanings and theories associated with the term itself (Carver and Scheier, 2004). Although no single definition is universally accepted by psychologists, a useful definition when discussing different theories of personality is ...

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Difference Between Emotional Intelligence And IQ

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Intelligence is a term that is difficult to define, and it can mean many different things to different people. Intelligence is often defined as the general mental ability to learn and apply knowledge to manipulate your environment, as well as the ability to reason and have abstract thought. In education, Intelligence is defined as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or challenging ...

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Social And Cognitive Biases

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,499 )

Cognitive bias is distortion in the way we perceive reality. A cognitive bias is a deviation or distortion in information processing, which manifests in a tendency toward processing information in a way that systematically favours particular conclusions. But in order to find out how cognitive bias may aid psychological practise we must first look at the different types of biases to have a better understanding of them. ...

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Visual perception: Gregory and Gibson

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,502 )

Perception is basically the principle of how we perceive information of the world through our senses and how it is then processed to allow us interaction with the environment. In our natural environment we are surrounded with sensory information but we only take in a small amount of that information. For the purpose of this assignment the general principle which will be researched into, is the theory ...

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Examining the generation effect

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Generation effect is a phenomenon which has been examined in this study. It has been widely found that high frequency words produce generation effect, whereas possibility of generation effect with low frequency words has been found lately. The present study was conducted to test whether generation effect is possible for low frequency words during free recall. Another purpose of this study was to check the differences between ...

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Bullying effects on child development

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

5 (1,803 )

One would not expect a victim of rape to have to single-handedly identify, trace, catch, arrest, prosecute, convict and punish the person who raped her. Targets of bullying often find themselves doing all of these whilst those in positions of authority persistently abdicate and deny responsibility."Tim Field. Research shows that bullying has long been a part of social behavior and is common practice throughout the world. It ...

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Case study: ATTRIBUTION THEORY

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Attribution theory was developed overtime from the theories of Fritz Heider, Edward Jones, Keith Davis, and Harold Kelley. All were social psychologists. Edward 'Ned' Jones was born August 11, 1926 in Buffalo, NY. He received his doctorate degree from Harvard University in 1953. He taught at Duke University in the psychology department and was chair of the department from 1970-73. He was on both the National Science ...

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Impact of work stress on employee performance

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

8 (3,051 )

This study aim to identify and determine the issues faced by the stress of the employee performance in the organization. As the main focus of this study is on find so this study will use longitudinal research design and the methodology will be used in the quantitative and through this study these are all issues have to recognized and provide better solution and benefit for employee performance ...

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The Concept of Perception

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

5 (1,660 )

In this essay I will be covering the concept of perception. Within the study of perception I will be explaining the process of perception, social errors in perception and methods to use to mend these errors. Perception is an everyday occurrence to you and every person around you. To perceive something is to understand it or how you may absorb it. This will then gradually lead you ...

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Social Phobia And Anxiety

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,313 )

Many individuals experience severe social phobia and anxiety which they feel that they are being observed by other people or they are afraid of socializing with other people. ~ People with social phobia and anxiety are scared to mingle with others since they believed that they have been observed by them most of the time. ~ Social phobia and anxiety is common nowadays since a lot of ...

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Effects Of Bullying On School Achievement

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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This chapter critically analyzes extant literature on the relationship of bullying and school achievement. Many studies have been made on the development of the learning process but literature is scant on how bullying impacts upon the intellectual development of children. There is even less research conducted to determine how perceptions of educators or school staff influence the learning process in children. To provide backbone to this study, ...

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Research methods: Thee development of infants

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

5 (1,983 )

The past five decades have seen an increasing interest in infants' world. This has produced an exponential growth in research on infants' perception, leading to advances in knowledge of infants' abilities. This essay will first succinctly review some of the theoretical perspectives influencing research in this area, namely empiricist and nativist views of infant's perception. Secondly, it will describe how new research methods employed in the study ...

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Attachment in children: Gender of primary care giver

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

9 (3,447 )

Although the stay at home dad is still considered an unusual phenomenon, with the current trend in unemployment and redundancies, traditional gender roles are increasingly changing and more men are becoming the primary care givers for their children. Just thirty years ago the typical Irish mother stayed at home looking after house and family and the father was the sole provider for the family. Today less than ...

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Aging, Ageism and the Power of Fear

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,483 )

The Old Man in the Mirror: Aging, Ageism and the Power of Fear I admit it. On the road, when I am behind a driver who leaves his or her directional on, or who drives fifteen miles per hour under the speed limit, or who cannot seem to stay between the lines, I assume he or she is an elderly person. Sometimes, it is an elderly person. ...

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The Evidence and Theory of False Memories

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

6 (2,378 )

False Memories Amnesia: The Evidence and Theory of False Memories Abstract In recent years there has been a blast of research on false memories in recalling events that did not happen. Steffens & Mecklenbrauker (2007) define these memories as “a subjective experience of remembering something of that something did apparently not happen in reality” (p 12). Yet, children, adolescents and even adults continue to report that they ...

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Reasons of impulse buying

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

9 (3,294 )

You might have observed women went for grocery shopping along with pre-planned items list to be purchased but they came back with a nice colorful pair of shoes also that was not included in their shopping list. My area of thesis is to identify those factors that compel consumers, for such un-planned buying that is known as impulse buying. Background Today we are living in rapidly changing ...

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Human And Computer Information Processing

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

18 (7,002 )

In this paper we explore about how human and computer memories work? In particular, what is the structure of short term memories of human and computers? We have discussed how the Information process in human and computers and the correlation between them. According to the experts the data or information can be stored in three different ways which become memory. 1) Sensory stage. 2) Short-term memory and ...

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Limitations Of CBT For Social Phobias

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

11 (4,229 )

Social phobia, also known as Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is considered as one of the most common psychological disorders on its own, and also as a comorbid disorder (Kessler, McGonagle, Zhao, et al., 1994). Current research literature suggest Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) as the first treatment choice for social phobia, unless in the case where the client opt for medication or if the client is suffering from ...

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Case study: Anorexia Nervosa

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

7 (2,774 )

I began my study into Anorexia Nervosa by reading a general overview of eating disorders. Eating Disorders and Adolescents: An Overview of a Maladaptive Behavior" gave the basic facts on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and some the key indicators. The four diagnostic criteria as presented in the DSM-IV were cited. Refusal to gain weight and maintain a healthy body weight Extreme fear of gaining weight or becoming "fat" ...

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Mobile Phone use: Reaction Times

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

12 (4,673 )

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of divided attention upon response time. Participants consisted of 51 female and 10 male students from the University of Canberra, ranging in age from 19- 60 years (M = 24.95, SD = 7.99). Participants were asked to complete a spatial cueing task while using their mobile phone to either send text messages or make phone calls. Data ...

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Cognitive behavioural therapy formulation

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

7 (2,799 )

Introduction In spite of the main approach still being a medical one, formulations are starting to play a huge part in treating people living with mental distress. The purpose of formulations is to look at information gathered in the assessment of a distressed person. Formulations look at the life experiences of a distressed person and the meaning they make out of these experiences (Johnston & Dallos 2009). ...

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Psychological effects of bullying in adolescence

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,405 )

Bullying is known cross-culturally as one of largest and most prominent psychosocial troubles adolescents face due to its entirely negative, damaging state (Sourander et al., 2007). A person is considered to be bullied when he or she is exposed to negative actions (such as physical or verbal harm, exclusion or the spreading of rumours) repeatedly over time, by one or more people considered of greater strength or ...

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Achievement Goal Theory

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

8 (3,170 )

Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1984, 1989) proposes that goal orientations are developed and altered through various socialization processes, including the motivational climate created by parents and coaches (Nicholls, 1989). In order to better understand the influence of motivational climates, it is necessary to understand the concept of the achievement goal theory (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Achievement goals have been widely researched by Maehr (1980), Nicholls (1984) and ...

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College Students And Anxiety

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,476 )

There are various studies related to college students and anxiety, each has a unique way of looking at the anxiety in college students. Anxiety can be a debilitating disorder alone but can be lost and forgotten when working with younger individuals. It is a common idea that any student faces anxiety during their college experience but the affects of anxiety can affect more than one's test but ...

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Factors for stress to secondary school teachers

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

16 (6,242 )

The importance of teachers in a nation building is indubitable. A discussion cannot be made on the role of education in the development of a country without giving main attention to teachers being themselves centric agent of the development. Academic excellence, professional or personality development are few aspects which teachers are expected to develop among their students however the major work of the teachers is human resource ...

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Borderline Personality Disorder | Overview

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

4 (1,440 )

Borderline personality disorder is a mental illness that develops during adolescence or early adulthood. BPD is marked by patterns of emotional instabilities, impulsive behaviors, and distorted self-imaging, and/or unstable relationships. Approximately 5.9 percent of people will develop BPD. According to the American Psychiatric Association, there are three major causes of borderline personality disorder: Genetics, environmental, and serotonin abnormalities. A scientific study on twins and BPD suggested that ...

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