The Effect Of Stress On Police Officers

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,404 )

First of all, stress is the body's reaction to internal and external stimuli that interferes with the body's normal state. It usually upsets this normal state. The stimuli that cause stress can be physical, mental, or emotional. The body has to react to stressful situations which are called the flight-or-fight response. ( ) Stress can weaken and disturb the body's defense mechanisms and may play a role ...

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Relationship between marriage and job satisfaction

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

5 (1,702 )

The purpose of this review in to determine the difference between marital status; married vs. single working adults in terms of job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. The findings are concluded from different working industries and country. The results obtain from the studies shows that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction and several research proves that married working ...

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Gender differences in intelligence?

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

5 (1,996 )

Sex differences in intelligence have been a popular argument for generations. "Francis Galton had little doubt that men were more intelligent than women" (Mackintosh, 2000, p. 182), whereas Cyril Burt and Louis Terman agree that this should be as straightforward as any concept, and can be answered through empirical evidence. In general intelligence, the findings of various studies have arrived at similar conclusions of either no difference, ...

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The Conscious And The Unconscious

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

3 (1,085 )

Theories of the mind are as old as history itself, but its only in the 19th century that doctors and scientists started to study it more carefully. Freud is the first to put the concept of unconscious into a unified framework. Freud's concept is based on three states of the mind: conscious, pre-concious and unconscious. The conscious part of the mind is what readily available to our ...

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Short and long term memory

03 Oct 2016 11 May 2017

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Memory can be defined as a cognitive function that acquires information through encoding by changing it to a usable form, storage for later use and retrieval by bringing stored memories into conscious awareness state (Sternberg, 1999). Sensory memory store lasts for a brief period of time when information is received from sensory systems before it is processed (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Thus, this information is selected ...

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Minority influence research: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

4 (1,383 )

Minority influence research can be said to begin with Solomon Asch himself being influenced by Muzafer Sherif's (1936) classic study on group norms. Asch then went on to conduct his own famous study on conformity (majority influence) in 1951 and his subsequent finding that 37 percent of his participants conformed to a clearly erroneous majority opinion was a surprise for many in the field at that time. ...

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Examination Of Clinical Psychology

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Psychology is a broad field that is divided into several branches of study. Clinical psychology is among these fields that at times people fail to comprehend the kind clients it handles and the services it provides. Clinical psychology is an expansive branch of psychology that uses psychological ideologies to examine, curtail, and ameliorate mental distress, disability, and unhealthy conducts, and to improve psychosomatic and physical welfare. The ...

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On Being Sane In Insane Places

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between those patients who are sane and those who are insane. Procedure The study consisted of two parts. The main study is an example of a field experiment. The manipulation (Independent variable) was the made up symptoms of pseudo patients, the dependent variable was the psychiatrists' diagnostic admission of the ...

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Dancehall Queen | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Dancehall Queen from an Inclusive Stereotypical perspective Film Summary Dancehall Queen is the story of a woman called Marcia, a street vendor living in the inner-city slums of Kingston, Jamaica. A single mother living with her two daughters and her younger brother Junior, Marcia worked selling snacks in the daytime as a means of earning a meagre income for her family. Uncle Larry, a wealthy friend, contributed ...

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What Influences Teenagers To Smoke?

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Why and what influences teenagers to start smoking? This is the topic that no one has the accurate answer. It has been recorded that teenagers smoking is on the rise lately and the exact reason for it, is still unknown. It cannot be denied that everyone dislikes smokers and even the smell of cigarettes can be an unpleasant feeling, but no-one tries to understand why teenagers start ...

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Behavior Change Model | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Introduction The transtheoretical model posits that health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Ten processes of change have been identified for producing progress along with decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptations. Basic research has generated a rule of thumb for at-risk populations: 40% in precontemplation, 40% in contemplation, and 20% in preparation. Across 12 health behaviors, consistent patterns ...

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Sheldons Somatotype Theory And Its Application Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Sheldon believed that by analyzing the somatotypes of humans he could predict personality traits and body physique. He aspired to predict the genetic outcome of humans to the point of predictability thus allowing humans to breed desired qualities into their offspring. Sheldon's research was flawed in that he utilized poor research and techniques. The outcome of Sheldon's work was not the predictability of humans through somatotyping, but ...

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Critical Appraisal Skills For Practice

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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The purpose of this assignment is to critically appraise a research paper which is relevant to practice. My chosen published paper is based on qualitative research, and interprets the feelings and thoughts of older people, after suffering heart failure and how they cope with transition from independence to dependence and for some even death (Waterworth et al, 2010). I intend on using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) ...

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Relationship between infant temperament and attachment

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

4 (1,365 )

Psychologists have argued for several years over the concepts' of nature v nurture, and which is seen more crucial in determining or causing such individual differences in personality as well as behavior. The majority of modern psychological researchers' currently believe that both biological and environmental factors interconnect to form a child's personality. Further, it is also indicated researchers are convinced that temperament is existent at the birth ...

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Neural structures: Subserving psychological function

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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This essay will evaluate what is known about the role of neural structures in subserving emotion. It was concluded that although emotion is a difficult behaviour to study scientifically, clear importance of the role of the amygdala has been found. Nonetheless, other structures and brain regions are involved in the responses to emotion, and how they interact together is an area in need of further investigation. Neural ...

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Theories of behaviourism

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Breadth The breadth section will discuss behaviorism as conceptualized by three of its major proponents. In this section, the principles developed by John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner and Albert Bandura will be compared and contrasted in an attempt to have a deeper understanding of behaviorism. Watson, Skinner and Bandura are among the greatest proponents of behaviorism and conducted empirical studies to prove their point. The significant aspects ...

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Freud's Stages Of Psychosexual Development

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

6 (2,026 )

An individuals personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes them unique from other people. It includes all of the patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things in particular ways. Personality is expressed through our temperament or emotional tone. However, personality also colours our values, beliefs, and expectations. There are many potential factors that are involved in shaping a personality. ...

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Case study: Structuralism and functionalism

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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In this assignment the assumptions of structuralism and functionalism will be analysed to see how they have affected modern experimental psychology and critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses throughout the following paragraphs. Introduction Experimental psychology began at the end of the nineteenth century with Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) (Gross, 2010), establishing the first formal psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany; 1879 (Gross, 2010). This laboratory was seen as the ...

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Counselling video | reflection paper

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Counselling refers to a formal arrangement involving a skilled practitioner who agrees to meet with a client in a private and confidential setting in order to explore the distress the client is facing. The need for the client to seek the services of a counselor may be linked to a specific event in the past, present or future, or the client may be experiencing situations in life ...

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Different types of sexual offenders

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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There are different types of sexual offenders, and each type varies in the victim of choice, the offenses and what the offender psychological gains from the offenses. Some of the different types of sexual offenders include rapists, pedophiles, child molesters and incest offenders. According to Bartol & Bartol (2008) rapists and child molesters are the two most frequently discussed sexual offenders and the two groups of sexual ...

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The Types Of Anxiety Disorders

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Anxiety is a general term for several disorders that cause nervousness, apprehension and worrying. These disorders affect how we feel and behave, and they can manifest physical symptoms. Mild anxiety is vague and unsettling, while severe anxiety can be extremely debilitating, which will cause a serious impact on daily life. (medicalnewstoday.com, 2010) It is different as fear, as we only feel fear when the stimulus is present, ...

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The Development Of Altruism

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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The development of Altruism. Altruism is a term that derived from the Latin language, means "to others" and "of others". It served as an antonym for "egoism" that refers to other-regarding behaviors. According to the literature, the definition of altruism contains many facets. Author of "The Heart of Altruism: Perceptions of a Common Humanity", Kristen Renwick Monroe, defines altruism as "entailing action, with no conditions or reward-seeking, ...

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What Is Criminal Profiling?

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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What is a Criminal profiler? Many people have mistaken what a real profiler does and who they are. They are not the normal person that works for the police; there is more to a criminal profiler than you might think. Catching serial killers and murderers is a 24 hour job for many of the profilers that work for law enforcement or the FBI. Some ask the question ...

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Physical attractiveness and intimate relationship

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

5 (1,999 )

Physical attractiveness depends on individual's preference. Intimate relationship can be defined as affectionate, kind, and sense of protectiveness. Few articles were evaluated, to find the connection between physical attractiveness and intimate relationship. Different people have different tolerance to their partners' attractiveness. Dissimilar attractiveness level in relationship causes inferiority between couples, leads relationships to fail. Courtship is important in developing intimate relationship. Hence, attractiveness s highly considered when ...

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Literature review of work and family conflict

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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This chapter introduces and explains the important theoretical and practical resource for an understanding of the conflict between work and family among married female teachers in Malaysia. This chapter consists of two sections namely; section I: Theoretical framework of work-family conflict from Western and Islamic perspectives. For section II: Literature Review on Work-Family Conflict. Focus of the study is to examine the impact of work-family conflict-efficacy WFC ...

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An introduction to kinesiology

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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In this chapter, basic kinesiology definitions are introduced and problem-solving approaches in kinesiology tasks are classified as quantitative or qualitative movement analysis. Definition: Derived from the Greek word "kinesis" meaning motion and the suffix -ology or -logy from the Greek "logos" or "logia" (meaning field of study). It is the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, and mechanics of body movement. Introduction to Kinesiology You might think ...

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Theories For Violence In Sports

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Violence in sports involves the execution of behaviors that cause harm and happen out of the rules and regulations of sports. Currie (2000) defines violence in sports as "physical assault that is intended to cause physical pain or injury to another player (or fan, coach, game official etc), where such harmful actions bear no direct relationship to the rules and associated competitive goals of the sport". Violence ...

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Eating Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Historically, eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa were misunderstood to be a consequence of an individuals' desire to be thin. However, it is now known that they are in fact distinct, self-maintaining psychological disorders with multiple causes. The purpose of this essay was to describe the various psychological causes, effects and treatments of eating disorders although it was also felt to be appropriate to ...

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INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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By 1992, more than 1,000 articles had been published on aspects of sport personality (Ruffer, 1976; Vealey, 1989, 2002). This voluminous research demonstrates how important researches and practitioners consider the role of personality to be in sports. With that in mind, this research attempted to determine if there is a relationship between types of personalities and sports preferences. Athletes from different sports and non-athletes will play a ...

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CASE STUDY: Social Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

4 (1,326 )

Decades of studies and research into the mass media portraying evident allegations upon hostile aggression in society, is being linked to viewing anti social behaviour in the media and is somewhat of an open subject, with much controversy and hearsay. Mass media corporations such as newspaper publications, video game industries, film makers and television programmes are all under constant scrutiny within society as to whether or not ...

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Clinical and experimental neuropsychology

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Neuropsychology is a form of neuroscience interested in investigating and uncovering the nature of the relationship between the mind and brain (Beaumont, 2008). Clinical neuropsychology is concerned with diagnosing, treating and rehabilitating patients with brain pathology, whilst experimental neuropsychology is concerned with discovering normal models of cognition and understanding the brain functions of healthy individuals (Ogden, 1996). However, clinical and experimental neuropsychology, whilst separate disciplines, are not ...

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Assessment Of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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It has been established that the frontal lobes play a major part in an individual's decision making, planning, problem solving, social, emotional and behavioural skills. Consequently dysfunction of the frontal lobe can cause a wide range of symptoms (Kolb and Wishaw 1996) leading to relatively specific clinical dysfunction therefore a neuropsychological assessment is necessary to be carried out on the patient. The present study looks at the ...

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Ethical Dilemmas: Breaking Confidentiality

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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One crucial factor that influences our behaviour towards others, our everyday interactions, our decisions and many other areas of our lives is our personal values. The personal values of an individual are important to them and have a lasting effect. A person develops their values while growing up and are influenced by the culture this person is a member of. Values have a great impact on peoples' ...

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Challenges in classifying normal and abnormal behavior

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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When defining and classifying normal and abnormal behavior in psychology, culture is one of the challenges that a therapist faces when assessing a client (Nairne, 2008). This is because a certain disorder is classified differently by people from different cultures. There are cultures that allow a broad diversity of behaviors than others and some behaviors. In addition, in such cultures some behaviors are not classified as abnormal ...

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The Theories Developed By Sigmund Freud

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Sigmund Freud, an Austrian psychiatrist and known as the father of psychoanalysis, developed an entirely new and fascinating approach to understanding the human personality. He is referred to as 'one of the most influential and controversial minds of the 20th century'. Freud was born on the 6th of May 1856 and died after being diagnosed with cancer on the 23rd of September 1939. During the course of ...

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Baddeley's Working Memory Model

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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A wide range of research in short term memory was conducted in the 1950s, with the development of new techniques and advanced theoretical approaches based on previous concepts of information processing. Psychologists attempted to find a link between short term memory and working memory. Working memory is defined as being part of long term memory, which also encompasses short term memory. This perspective suggests that working memory ...

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Paranoid Schizophrenia: Analysis and Overview

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Auditory hallucinations are the common symptom of paranoid schizophrenia, which can cause distress and debilitation. Although individuals may experience different symptoms and those symptoms will affect them differently; however auditory hallucination is the most common one that will affect their behaviour, their ability to function and causes them to withdraw from the social life. The following essay will discuss the symptoms and treatment for paranoid schizophrenia, nursing ...

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Factors That Cause People To Smoke

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Smoking has always been a controversial debate over so many years ago and up to current issue. Smoking has faced relentlessly myriad of opinions, judgment and perspective whether it brings about benefits or disadvantages. The rising trend denotes that the number of smokers has increased tremendously over the years. To make things worse, the rising trend of number of youth engaging in this habit is relatively huge ...

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Personal construct theory

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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In social psychology, individual difference research aims to find out why individuals act differently in the same scenarios (Butt, 2007). This essay will be looking at two different theories, Kelly's (1955, cited in Butt, 2007; Stevens, 2002) personal construct theory and Eysenck and Rathman's (1965, cited in Butt, 2007) trait theory of personality, which study and interpret individual differences to personality in two different ways. This essay ...

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Team Cohesion

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Before I start talking about Team Cohesion, I want to take a closer look at cohesiveness and what it exactly is. Cohesiveness means that you feel included, responsible for others in a group or you feel like the group works together good. Only if the group has high cohesiveness, you will feel that way. If you are in a group with low cohesiveness, some group members might ...

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Non participant observation and self reports

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

4 (1,223 )

Observation and self-report are appropriate data collection methods for health care studies, given that much of the health care providers' professional lives are spent observing and interviewing patients. Researchers who use observation aim to describe practice and behaviours as they unfold, collecting 'first hand' data from the research setting itself. Self-report measures use the perceptions of the participants themselves to study needs assessments and evaluations. Non-Participant Observation ...

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Psychosocial crises that shape personality

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Personality is a complex and enduring aspect of humans that govern all interactions. Of the many theories and models of personality, Erik Erikson has proposed a psychosocial theory which accounts for social influences on the development of an individual's personality. Of a psychoanalytic background, Erikson believed that childhood experiences are important in personality development, but not that development had a sexual focus and only occurred during childhood ...

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A Grounded Theory Analysis of Bereavement

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Almost all people tell stories. The stories that people tell are not chance occurrences. Rather they often recount important events in the teller's life - births, marriages and deaths (Bruner, 1990, 1991; Gersie, 1991). For example, Bruner (1991) suggests that stories are told about events which are departures from the ordinary, so it is possible to argue that major life-events are worthy of storytelling because they are ...

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Strengths And Weaknesses Of Experimentation

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Construction management (CM) research examines real-world means and methods in an effort to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the construction industry. The academia has a critical role in developing the new knowledge that construction practitioners need to envision, undertake, and sustain successful innovation. However, the new knowledge created by the academia often does not satisfy the needs of practitioners. One reason for this unfortunate situation is ...

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What Are The Causes Of Autism?

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Over the years, autism has increasingly become people's concerns. According to Shauntay (2010) , autism is defined as "a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life". Surprisingly, the number of children with autism has increased alarmingly. In accordance with the latest statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of autistic patients increased by 78% from 2002 to ...

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Primary and secondary research

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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This chapter will be exploring the various types of research strategies that can be used for both primary and secondary research, taking into account the strategy and approach that best suites the acquisition of information and analsis of data relevant to the subject matter. This report is aimed at exploring the importance of stakeholder management as an effective tool in the rich oil and gas Niger-Delta region ...

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Alzheimers disease and music therapy

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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The uses of music to improve the lives of people with dementia and Alzheimer's disease are vast and have been investigated for decades. When reviewing the literature addressing the impact of music and music therapy interventions with dementia patients, many benefits emerge. Individuals decrease problem behaviors, increase social skills, improve emotional and cognitive skills, make gains in maintaining and improving active involvement, and have improved recall and ...

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Research: Investigation of a problem

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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4.1 Introduction The process of finding a solution to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factor is known as research (Sekaran-2000). This implies that research is an organized and systematic investigation of a problem. In a research, there are various methods, techniques and instruments been use to gather the information. After gathering the information's, those information's need to be analyzed and evaluated align ...

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Jung's Theory of Personality

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Describe and evaluate Jung's theory concerning personality types and their relationship to different forms of psychological disturbance. Introduction In addition to his contribution as a pioneering psychiatrist, Carl Gustav Jung's influence extended across an astonishing spectrum including medicine, psychology, art, literature, religion, science, and the humanities (Dunne, p.8). His wide-ranging vision consistently pointed the way for a revolution in psychic and spiritual understanding, and his work provided ...

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What Is Naturalistic Observation?

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Naturalistic observation which sometimes called field work or field observation occurs when a researcher observes a person or group in their natural habitat while restricting their own effect on the individual or group. Cozby and Bates (2012) highlighted that in a naturalistic observation, a researcher makes observations of people in their natural environment. Cozby and Bates (2012) also emphasized that both humans and animals could be used ...

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Academic Procrastination And Academic Achievement

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Academic procrastination has almost always been a substantial reason for poor academic performance especially among student who are academically capable which is shown in a study done by Onwuegbuzie and Jiao (2000), where 95% of students engage in academic procrastination in a college level while approximately 60% procrastinate at a graduate level. Despite students knowing that procrastination leads to poorer academic performance, students rarely try overcome procrastination ...

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Guilty Feelings We Tend to Have

03 Oct 2016 09 May 2017

7 (2,572 )

Introduction: Guilt can come from many different situations. The event or many events that I will be focusing in this paper is the guilt that comes with my obligations towards my family whether it’s me volunteering to take care of my siblings, doing the small things, or helping maintain the house operative. Some humans feel the obligation to do certain things for others. They could do these ...

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A study on thinking, language and intelligence

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Thinking is the capability to manipulate words and images. It requires understanding, recalling, processing information as well as the ability to communicate. According to cognitive psychology, mind is involved in perceptions organization, processing information as well as interpreting experiences. Thus, development of concept help one to simplify thing through grouping the available information of events, ideas, objects, persons among other which have commonalities. As a result this ...

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Mental Retardation Disability

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Mental Retardation Disability Introduction Mental retardation is a disability that is characterized by significant limitations that are both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior that are expressed in conceptual, social and practical skills. This will mean that such a problem will be from the age of about 18 years of age. This problem can occur to people from all races; ethnic, educational and social background meaning this ...

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The Limbic System Human Brain Function

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The limbic system can arguably be stated as the parts of the brain responsible for those functions that make us all human. The structures of the limbic system are very much related to what is necessary for our survival. The limbic structures are involved in memory and emotions such as anger, fear, and pleasure, which include feelings experienced after eating or sexual behavior. The limbic system is ...

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Psychology Of The Nazi Obedience

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The Holocaust is known as one of the most devastating, or perhaps even the most devastating incident in human history. The mass executions, the terrible conditions, the ruthlessness, and the passivity of the majority of witnesses to the traumatic events all seem like a giant, twisted story blown out of proportion to scare children. In a time of desperation, when a country was on its knees to ...

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Self Love, Self Confidence And Self Esteem

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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During clinical rotation of Mental health nursing in Karwan-e- Hayyat, I interviewed a 34 years old male patient who is diagnosed with schizophrenia. He wants to become a doctor but due to low grades he was not selected for premedical later he did his graduation and unable to complete his studies from university. He is unmarried living with his parents and brother who is mentally retarded. He ...

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Scientific perspectives on positivism and hermeneutics

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The purpose of this chapter is to describe the method that how the work will be carried out and what approach we have chosen. The aim of this research design is to answer the main questions. We would also present the overview of the choice of methods used for data collection, analysis and the results of the data. Research perspective There are two main scientific perspectives, positivism ...

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Moral development in children

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Introduction As with the rest of human life, morality and moral education have an outside and an inside. Seen from the outside, morality provides a way of getting along with others, and from the inside it is a way of getting along with oneself. More crudely, moral education is at once a necessary condition for social control and an indispensable means of self-realisation. Most of us, including ...

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How people recall memories

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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In 1932 British psychologist Frederick Bartlet put forward a theory of how people organise and recall memory. His idea was that memory is not like a video recorder that can be played back, but that in fact there are a number of factors that lead to distortion and reconstruction of information. His theory is known as reconstructive memory and his ideas are still in use in current ...

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Factors for Schizophrenia

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Schizophrenia has been diagnosed by one percent of the population all over the world. There is a cultural differences pertaining to the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. While studying the causes of schizophrenia, one must understand how genetic, biological, and environmental factors contribute to causes of the disorder. Background Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disease. It affects millions of people worldwide. ...

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Concept of lateralisation of function in the brain

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The concept of brain lateralisation is part of the main cerebral asymmetry in the brain. Laterality of function can be affected by environmental factors as much as genetical factors, such as gender, handedness and emotion. Lateralisation is relative however not absolute because both hemispheres play a role in everyday behaviour. The left hemisphere is well known for the construction of language and the right hemisphere is known ...

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Attribution Theory on human health behaviors

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The analysation of health behavior is grounded on two premises, like in nations where industrialization is more particular, ratio of fatality from main reason of decease is a certain behavior pattern which is changeable (Stroebe and Stroebe 1995). It is now clearly known that people play active part in their health by adapting certain health behaviors like doing exercise and stay away from some others things like ...

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Literature review on the research of narcissism

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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This paper explores mainly on three published research articles which report on results from research conducted on narcissism. Many research articles related to narcissism have been published. Some published research articles use theory to explain about narcissism while some use point of view. This paper chooses the research articles which use theory to do the explanation in the research. The chosen published research articles, however, vary in ...

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Image And Impression Management

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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This sections aims to uncover and analyze past researches that had been done by other researchers on related topics of image and impression management. This chapter, will provide the theoretical foundation for this research. First, the historical background of impression management will be discussed. Second, the definition and scope of impression management will be examined. Review should contain critical evaluation and discussion of other related research. Image ...

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Are faces special? How?

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Most of the people use faces to recognize others. Faces are important to signal identity, gender, race, mood, gaze direction, attractiveness and etc, however, faces would be hard to be differentiated due to the problem of structural similarity. It had been argued whether faces are special which are treated diversely from other objects by the brain (Farah, 1996, as cited in Liu & Chaudhuri, 2003; Liu & ...

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The Effect of Alzheimer's on Cognition

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Alzheimer's Disease Memory - Effect of Alzheimer's on Cognition The statement by Ronald Reagan that he had Alzheimer's disease spurred the American public into identifying their own exposure in a way no other public figure has done. Norman Rockwell and Rita Hayworth, both victims of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), were beloved and admired, but they were not former presidents of the United States and did not have the ...

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Stress is all in the mind

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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The concept stress is a popular theme used by people to suggest a state of distress. From my experience, I have observed people become apprehensive over certain issues while others within similar circumstances show less or no concern. Obviously, people behave differently but what makes a person to show less or no concern over situations that make others nervous? In view of the topic, I intend to ...

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Occupational science and therapy

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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This essay will attempt an explanation of occupational science and its' value for the Occupational Therapy profession in viewing occupational experiences, looking at the core skill of activity/occupation analyses in professional practice, and how this applies to the process of occupational analysis with a chosen personal occupational performance to discuss the 'form, function and meaning' of a personal experience and will conclude with an evaluation of how ...

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The Impacts Of Music On Health

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

5 (1,842 )

In December 2007, Dr. Claudius Conrad conducted a test on the healing effects of music. He made post-operative critical care patients listen to Mozart piano sonatas and found a 50% increase in pituitary growth hormone, which he asserted curbs inflammation and created a sedative effect. On top of that, the patients experienced a 20% drop in the stress hormones epinephrine and interleukin-6, and a reduced need for ...

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Detecting Deception From Nonverbal Behaviours

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

10 (3,631 )

Deception involves various factors that influence behaviours (Kraut, 1980). Three theoretical perspectives (the emotional, cognitive effort and attempted behavioural control) are often used to explain the relationship between deception and behavior. Depaulo, Lindsay et al's (2003) meta-analysis of cues to deception summarized 158 indicators of cues and 1338 estimates from previous studies, compared to truth tellers, liars tend to have more tense voice, less pleasant looking faces, ...

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Piaget's theory of cognitive development

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Jean Piaget (1896-1980) is well known for his theories of development which have been a hot subject not only for psychology but also for educational fields (Berger 1988). The following text is going to discuss the main features of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Furthermore, is going to analyze the concepts of schemas, the developmental stages, assimilation - accommodation and finally, equilibrium. Jean Piaget was a Swiss ...

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Mental Status Examination

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

15 (5,728 )

In order to thoroughly evaluate, Jason it would be very helpful if a Mental Status Examination is conducted. The MSE would give insight to the examinees thought process, thought content, perception, and cognition. Also, the examiner would be able to document the examinee's appearance, mood, and affect. A semi-structural interview style may be the best approach to conduct the MSE. This approach would have standard questions but ...

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Parenting Styles: Child's Holistic Development

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

3 (1,099 )

This book speaks about the effects of family, school and culture on the social, emotional and personality development of children. It addresses the topic of social and emotional development and the impact the parenting styles have on it. Additionally, it focuses on the effect of development and family influences on the topic. Jannette B. Benson and Marshall M. Hiath both have a Doctorate in Philosophy and have ...

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Study on experimental cognitive psychology

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

5 (1,825 )

It is very likely, that the worst part about this scenario would not be the pain, neither amputation, nor even the possibility of death, but the worst part would be the immediate thought that might come in mind; "this moment a shark is going to attack me." (English translation of passage taken from: http://tech.pathfinder.gr/xpaths/unexplained/622736.html ) By this simple example we can clearly view the complexity of the ...

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Case Study: Psychological Disorders

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

6 (2,246 )

A psychological disorder can occur at any stage in one's life and to anyone. Much like a physical disease such as cancer, they do not discriminate. In our society, there seems to be certain stigmas and stereotypes attached to psychological disorders (although there is more understanding in recent years) and counseling for them, even though many may be overcome, or at least managed in this way, and ...

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Quantitative Research About Likert Scales

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

6 (2,321 )

A scale is basically a continuous spectrum or series of categories and has been defined as any series of items that are arranged progressively according to value or magnitude, into which an item can be placed according to its quantification. Likert Scales originally being developed from 1946 to 1970 by a sociologist, Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan. It was being used initially as psychological attitudes ...

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Stress: Effects on nursing staff

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

19 (7,389 )

Job stress has become an increasingly common outcome of today's dynamic life. Stress in the workplace is better understood as the psychological state that represents an imbalance or inconsistency between an employee's perceptions of the demands and their ability to cope with those demands. Most jobs consist of situations or events that employees find stressful; however, some jobs encounter more job-related stress than others. It is now ...

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Social Psychological Research

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

8 (2,923 )

What are the strengths and weaknesses of a 'critical' compared to a 'traditional' approach to social psychological research? Limit your answer to one (or possibly two) areas of relevant research. How does one identify self and are there a universal set of constructs that humans use in creating and living that identity? Such are the questions of social psychology, yet the ways in which theorists and practitioners ...

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Personality Development Erikson's Eight Stages

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

15 (5,644 )

 A pool of 208 items that survived a clinical analysis was administered to 528 subjects and then factor analyzed. It focuses on life-span development. Due to this fact, the study reports on the development and initial validation of an instrument, the Inventory of psychosocial balance (IPB). It was designed to measure all eight stages, with a primary focus on its implementation to adult subjects. The method is ...

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Explain multi store model of memory

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

5 (1,925 )

Many theorists suggest that the memory system is divided into three stores. A significant theory of this type was proposed by Atikinson and Shiffrin (1968) and this essay is going to explain and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. Apart from becoming the standard description of the memory system; it is also belived that, their model was raised from the information processing approach, which in turn is ...

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Study on the definition of Motivated Forgetting

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

5 (1,703 )

In our memory system we do forget sometimes. Based on Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the founder of psychoanalysis. The major contribution in the memory research explained why we forget by Freud. 'Motivated forgetting' is developed by Freud for the painful or traumatic memories are 'banished' from the unconscious awareness and it will be forgotten too. Some of this circumstances can resurface when it's cause discomfort and emotional distress. ...

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Factors That Cause Or Influence Schadenfreude

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

7 (2,763 )

When another experiences a misfortune, we can have several emotional responses, one of which is Schadenfreude. Described by numerous psychologists as the "delighting at the misfortune of others" (Sorrow) Schadenfreude is as common an emotion in us all as happiness and sadness. The rules and constructs of society however have categorized it as a negative and even sinful emotion as declared in the Book of Proverbs, "Rejoice ...

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Psychology: The Heritability Of Intelligence

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

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One of the many popular controversies in psychology is the heritability of intelligence. While psychologists have sufficient reason to believe that the environment that an individual is exposed to plays the most important role in shaping his intellect, genetic engineers have repeatedly proven the role of genetics as being omnipotent. Despite extensive researches carried in both genetics as well as psychology over the past two centuries, concrete ...

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Validity and reliability of assessment in medical education

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

16 (6,194 )

Assessments have become a hallmark of the quality of any educational system and with a greater understanding of learning and developments in the field of psychometrics, assessors and test developers have been held accountable for the inferences that are made on the basis of the assessment scores. This has led to validation exercises in assessment and all educational assessors have to consider validity at some point of ...

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Effectiveness of group therapy

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

11 (4,044 )

This chapter presents a review of some of the major theoretical approaches, which attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapy of group and family contribution in the treatment process. Thus we will look at, existing studies and support on group therapy as an effective method of treatment, and, family contribution to a substance addict individual, and family therapy. "By the crowd they have been broken; by the ...

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Using Observation As A Tool In Research

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

10 (3,784 )

According to Cohen L et al (2009,p396) one of the distinctive feature of observation as a research process is that it offers the investigators the opportunity to gather live data from naturally occurring social situation. Therefore we can say that observation is one way to gather information directly on what's happening in a school or classroom rather than relying on second-hand. Five dimensions of observation have been ...

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Advantages of visual object and space perception battery

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

4 (1,284 )

Ans. Neuropsychological assessment is incomplete without the visual and space perception (Warrington & James, 1991 as cited in Bonello et al., 1997). Visual object and space perception (VOSP) is a new measure of perception which aims to assess those skills which people who have suffered from a right hemisphere damage show deficits (Bonello et al., 1997). VOSP is made up of eight subtests (four of object perception ...

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Cognitive Behavior Perspective In Nursing Practices

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

6 (2,247 )

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Anything, we do like eating, hanging out, sleeping, talking, sneezing is referring as behavior. Evidently, people are interested in actions and response which are observable called as overt behavior but the psychologists usually study about covert behavior refer as internal activities such as dreaming, remembering, and other mental events (Jackson, 2008). This clarifies that psychology is based ...

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Successful Aging Through Modelling Selection

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

10 (3,626 )

This article seeks to address the creativities of Albert Bandura and Martin Seligman as developmental psychologists, their views on creativity as well as how their theories can compensate Paul Baltes' SOC. It will review Paul Baltes' life stories and recognising his creativity via references to his life-long contribution to developmental psychology. It will also evaluate the applicability of Paul Baltes' theories for counselling and guidance specifically how ...

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Language Relativity Hypothesis

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

8 (3,064 )

Language Relativity Hypothesis Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis Does Language Affect Out Thoughts? Abstract Benjamin Lee Whorf and his teacher and mentor Edward Sapir developed the theory that language affects our thoughts and perceptions. This theory proposes that there is a systematic relationship between the grammar of a language a person speaks and how that person both understand the world and behaves in it. Today linguists now ...

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Fundamental Attribution Error Theories

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

2 (607 )

In social psychology attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which people attribute the behavior of themselves or others to something different then what actually was the cause for the behavior. Often time's people think that they know the reasons that others do things but in fact are incorrect because the actual reasons for the presenting behaviors are other then the suspected causes. When a person ...

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Child development: Gradual or in stages?

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

3 (1,033 )

The development of children occurs from birth to adolescence. Children start developing their physical, intellectual, social, and emotional senses at an early age and while people change throughout their lives, the developmental changes occur mostly during childhood. All the way through this stage, the infant becomes someone who can control his language, he becomes self-aware, and he can think and socialize with others. Child development is studied ...

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The Topic Of Spanking Children

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

11 (4,222 )

One day last summer, I hung out with my friends Elizabeth and Kisha. Elizabeth is a young mother with a 3-year-old son named Raine. Elizabeth did not know how to control her son; on that day, the three of us went to a strip mall to shop for clothes, and Raine was with us. While we were shopping, Raine wandered off many times from his mother, and ...

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Personality disorders and treatments

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

6 (2,044 )

Everyone has a personality with character traits such as stinginess, generosity, arrogance and independence. However, when these traits are rigid and self-defeating, they may interfere with functioning and even lead to psychiatric symptoms. Personality traits are formed by early adulthood, persist throughout life and affect every aspect of day to day behaviour. Individuals with personality disorders often blame others for their problems. They at times deny that ...

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Is profiling an art or a science?

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

5 (1,955 )

Profiling is broadly defined as a behavioural and investigative technique in forensic science that helps investigator to profile an unknown subject or offenders, with the analysis of the behaviour and circumstances associated with serious crimes in an effort to identity the probable characteristics of the perpetrator. A specific profile analysis or known as criminal investigative analysis by the FBI, offender profiling, criminal personality profiling, behavioural profiling or ...

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Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

10 (3,687 )

Work environment has gone through a lot of significant changes worldwide. It is still evolving very rapidly and relatively unexpectedly. However, many people, especially researchers, still do not think that emotions do play a major role or are useful in managing a company. Emotional intelligence is still difficult to measure and measuring methods are fully confirmed in terms of theory (Dulewicz & Higgs, 2000; MacCann & Roberts, ...

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The Origins of Psychology and psychodynamic approach

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

6 (2,286 )

Psychology emerged as a separate discipline from philosophy in the late 1800's. Philosophy is described as the study of nature of existence, of man, and man's relationship to existence and psychology is the study of the human mind and behaviour. Psychology dates back to the ancient Greeks and was a branch of philosophy until 1879, it then became a separate discipline. Other fields that psychology boarders on ...

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Speech And Language Disorders

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

4 (1,275 )

Young children can have unclear speech and mispronounce words, but as the children get older they learn how to use their tongue, lips and brain to work in harmony to say difficult and unfamiliar words. For most children speech difficulties pass with time but for some they find it hard so they repeat or pro-long sounds. This can be very hard for children so they can struggle ...

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Study of Gate Control: Theory and Pain

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

6 (2,092 )

I thought I knew what pain meant until I got asked to define it. That is when I realised my ignorance and surprisingly, I was not alone. People frequently find it hard to describe commonly used words despite the fact that they are very much part of our lives. In my search for an official definition of human pain I came upon the one provided by the ...

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