Distinguishing Fear From Anxiety

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental diseases in European countries {Andlin-Sobocki et al., 2005, Eur J Neurol, 12 Suppl 1, 1-27}. Human anxiety disorders can be categorized into generalized anxiety disorders, panic attacks, Posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and special phobias, are amongst the most prevalent with a 28% lifetime prevalence and an incidence of 18% {Kessler et al., 2005, Arch Gen ...

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Critical Evaluation of Allports

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Allports claim that "The individual in the crowd behaves just as he [sic] would behave alone, only more so" (Allport, 1924) is an interesting and influential part of social psychology and has lead to numerous pieces of research trying to either support or disprove this claim. How people and their behaviour is affected by social context is a huge part of social psychology. Understanding this allows us ...

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Dynamics of the Psyche: Jung's Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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This essay will discuss Jung's theories including conscious, personal unconscious and collective unconscious, archetypes, complexes, universal influences, the principal of equivalence, the principle of entropy, the principal of polarity and how they relate or not relate to people in the latter stages of life. The Conscious, Personal Unconscious and Collective Unconscious Jung believed the psyche was made up of three parts, the conscious, which he described as ...

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Differences in Counselling Skills

23 Feb 2017 10 Jan 2018

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People working within the caring profession such as nurses, doctors, teachers, befrienders, fire and ambulance services, may incorporate counselling skills & techniques within their work places. However there is a difference between incorporating counselling skills within a work place & being a qualified counsellor. The main difference between someone using counselling skills and a qualified and trained counsellor is that 'the counsellor is bound by a code ...

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Impacts on Resilient Capacity of Child

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a child to deal effectively with stress and pressure, to cope with everyday challenges, to rebound from disappointments, mistakes, trauma, and adversity, to develop clear and realistic oneself and others with respect and dignity. (P. 297) This paper focuses on the risks and adversities which affect the resilient capacities of the child as familial adversities and exosystemic and sociodemographic ...

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Analysis of Child Rearing Styles

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Child rearing is a generic term for raising children which is the basic provision of food, shelter and clothing it also encompasses the socialisation of the child, shaping of their personality, character, talents, cultural and moral values aswell and the emotional and physical well-being of the child into adult life. There are many contributing factors that have an impact on what methods or styles of child rearing ...

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Psychodynamic Approach in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Psychodynamic approaches are those that assume that the human personality development and disturbances is rooted in the interplay or dynamics of psychosocial energies that is the drives, needs and instincts within the individual or between the individual and society. Greenberg, J et al (1983:12) postulates that the ways in which the individual expresses these drives in childhood determines or patterns his personality. The psychodynamic approach was developed ...

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Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction: Research Method

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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This chapter discusses the methodology of the research. The research questions and objectives mentioned in Chapter 1 will be identified and analyzed via appropriate research instruments to accomplish the main purpose of the research, which is to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction among individual employees in the workplace. The elements which will be elaborated throughout this chapter are respondents of the study, research ...

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Weiner's Attribution Theory: Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Critically analyse Weiner's attribution theory Weiner's (1979, 1985, 1986, as cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2008) attribution theory was built upon the attributional dimensions of task achievement, primarily focusing on the causes and consequences of the types of attribution made depending on whether the task in question was seen as a success or a failure. Weiner (1979) believed that when a task is completed, emotions are elicited ...

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Hans Eysenck's Trait Theory of Personality: Analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction Essentially physiology and genetics where mainly relevant in, Eysenck's theory Even though he was a behaviourist he considered that learned habits where of great importance, he also believed personality differences grew out of our genetic inheritance. Working within these areas of personality Eysenck discovered that there were two disciplines within psychology regarding personality. The first consisted of theorist who studied personality, interested in just developing theories ...

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Impact of Parental Behaviour on Children's Food Intake

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Critically evaluate the impact that parental behaviour can have upon children's food intake With the current obesity epidemic being widely publicised of late, the childhood obesity scourge has been at the forefront as it has become increasingly omnipresent, with the pervasiveness rates doubling during the past two decades (Troiano & Flegal, 1998). Ways to combat the problem have been very prominent within news headlines, this is due ...

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Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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In human anatomy, the nervous system is a whole network of specialised cells which coordinate actions by sending signals from one part of the body to another. The signals can either be in form of electrochemical waves or chemical releases. This system is divided into two parts: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Central Nervous System The CNS is comprised of the ...

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Neural Mechanisms in Aggression and Aggressive Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Agressive behaviour is that kind of behaviour when a person is very angry and has the intention to destroy, hurt something or someone. Sometimes the person's intention would actually come into practice and so they would do it. There are studies which tell that behaviour is somewhat related to biochemical activities while others have insisted that environmental and social factors are the main source of this behaviour. ...

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Strategies of Counselling Interventions

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Counselling Interventions Counselling interventions have been defined in professional literature as a unique interrelationship between a client and a counsellor, which aims to create a change and a growth in three main areas: Personal development, social adjustment, and professional development. During the counselling process, the counsellor has the responsibility to contribute to the process of change, concerning to his or her client's personal development (Bordin, 1968). The ...

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Concepts and Theories of Phobias

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction A phobia can be defined as an intense uncontrolled and irrational fear of specific items, activities, animals or individuals. People suffering from phobias usually suffer from anxiety attacks when they find themselves in or close to the situations, objects or the individuals they have fear of. Phobias are more often acquired through traumatic experiences though some of them are inherent to the victims. If left untreated, ...

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Effect of Auditory and Visual Stimulus on Short-term Memory

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness between auditory and visual stimuli on short-term memory for learning purposes. 50 subjects were assigned to receive auditory stimulus while another 50 were assigned to receive visual stimulus. After a 4-minute filler task, 1 minute was given to the subjects to recall the passage given. The subjects were tested on their abilities to answer the memory quiz given ...

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How Does Lack Of Motivation Affect The Workplace?

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Top decision makers and managers will benefit from awareness of motivational factors that influence workers' decisions to remain in their current workplace. Workers' career decisions are dependent upon many factors with intrinsic work motivation as one of the core components; therefore, examining intrinsic work motivation factors or dynamics serves as a pivotal point for the study of workers' decisions to remain in the job. ...

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Causes and Types of Synaesthesia

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Synaesthesia is a hereditary and neurological condition (Roberston & Sagiv, 2005, pp.12) whereby senses that are normally experienced separately, such as taste, smell, sound and so on, become 'fused' together and are experienced at the same time. For example, someone may experience a taste in their mouth whilst saying certain words (lexical-gustatory synaesthesia) (Ward & Simner, 2003), or experience seeing colour when looking at different letters and ...

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Role of Schedules of Reinforcement

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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To what extent are schedules of reinforcement more than just rules governing which responses will be reinforced? Illustrate your answer with basic and applied research examples. I am writing this essay in order to illustrate the role of schedules of reinforcement; basic and applied research examples provide evidence that schedules of reinforcement are more than just rules governing which responses will be reinforced. A schedule of reinforcement ...

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Promoting Positive Behaviour in the Classroom

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Improving Classroom Behaviour. This paper will address three questions based around the general topic of improving class room behaviour. The three questions to be discussed are how can teachers promote positive behaviour? How can teachers pre-empt misbehaviour? The final question is how can teachers deal with misbehaviour? As well as answering these questions, connections will be drawn to the behaviour management notes (appendix). At the conclusion of ...

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Types and Theories of Motivation

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction: The former CEO of General Electric Jack Welch, one of the finest entrepreneur worldwide quotes: "No company, large or small, can succeed over the long run without energized employees who believe in the mission and understand how to achieve it."(Motivate your employees like Jack Welch, 2009) Motivation: Every individual has their own purpose to motivate themselves which is not necessarily because of the money that is ...

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Impact of Stress on Employees Performance

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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World, the tense situation in any action or person who physically or psychologically, whatever the balance individual can not rest on the particular application space. Although physical demand answers to such strange clothes, and pressure are countless forms. Unconscious tension, but also the city or the sound of driving a daily chore. Perhaps a statement like that about stress can be businessmen and university professors that it ...

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Impact of Pay Satisfaction in the Workplace

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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2.2 Pay satisfaction Pay satisfaction is one of the most important factors in Human Resource Management and Organizational metrics. Pay satisfaction can be defined as the amount of overall positive or negative affect (or feelings) that individuals have toward their pay (ML Williams, 2006). For having a complete understand of Pay satisfaction, reviewing of its construct is necessary. Pay as an important reward for motivating employees has ...

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Supervision in Counselling

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Supervision is the practice where a counsellor can talk to a professional who is trained to identify any psychological or behavioural changes in the counsellor that could be due to an inability to cope with issues presented by clients. A supervisor is also responsible for challenging practices and procedures, developing improved or different techniques, and informing clients of alternative theories and/or new practices, as well as industry ...

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Muscle Dysmorphia: Causes and Impacts

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Muscle Dysmorphia “70 eggs, 14 tins of tuna, 10.5 pounds of beef, I 0 pounds of chicken, 9 gallons of non-fat milk, 4 loaves of bread, and as many sacks of brown rice, whole wheat pasta, baking potatoes, and fruits as I could load into my shopping carts” (Fussell, 1991) may seem like a extra ordinary list of food to buy, considering its just for one person! ...

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Paradigms in the Field of Cognitive Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Cognition Cognition refers to the mental processes that are involved in the acquisition of knowledge and how it is used. This includes aspects such as sensation, perception, judging, learning, attention, memory, thinking, and problem solving. It is thus involved with how people acquire knowledge, use it in their lives, and change their preferences accordingly with the passage of time. Cognition has been closely associated with the mind ...

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Fallacy on Slippery Slope

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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What is Slippery Slope (Ruscio, Chapter 3)? Define, explain and provide one or two real-life examples. Definition According to Ruscio (2006), Slippery slope is based on logical-thinking either in one agreement or the initial arguments which results into logical fallacy, leading to an inevitable conclusion which nevertheless was not adopted. Explanation Michael (2009) stated that The Slippery Slope is a fallacy in which ...

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Facets of Emotional Intelligence by Salovey and Mayer

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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The 10 original facets of Emotional Intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer. Introduction: Emotion is a relatively difficult concept to clearly delineate but it is generally accepted that it is an organised mental response that includes physiological, experiential and cognitive aspects (Mayer et al. 2001).  Emotions are largely, but not exclusively, related to interpersonal relationships and specific emotions are relatively resistant to cultural and individual differences, although ...

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Influence of Peer Pressure on Teenage Sexual Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Research Proposal Introduction: The budding of a child from the innocence of childhood to the maturity of an adult can be a complicated phase for many. An important factor that plays a very significant role throughout a person's life is their sexual behavior. After the mass commercialization of every product imaginable and available to consumers through print advertisements or TV advertisements, the idea of sex is being ...

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Negative Priming Experiment

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Negative Priming: The effect of inhibitory mechanisms on the probe of a pair of trials in a Stroop style ink identification task. Abstract The investigation was based on the work of Dalrymple-Alford and Budayr (1966), who investigated the phenomenon of negative priming in relation to the Stroop task. In the original experiment by Dalrymple-Alford and Budayr (1966), it was discovered that if in a trial, the ink ...

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Empiricism and Positivism: Is Psychology a Science?

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction In trying to answer the important and complex question of whether psychology is a science, we will first take a brief look at two major philosophical influences that help to create psychology- Empiricism and Positivism. Then study the view of determinism, indeterminism and nondeterminism of different psychologists to discuss the mind and subject matter of psychology. And finally, try to compare determinism and free will and ...

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Relationship Between Cognitive Processes of Learning

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction It is commonly accepted that within the instructional literature, affective variables have an indirect enhancing impact on learning through acting on the cognitive processes to control what people learn (Tobias, 1994). One of these affective variables which received significant attention is interest. This paper first reviews the development of interest through literature, and then explores the relationship between two variables, namely the interest and the motivation, ...

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Essential Elements of a Scientific Research Study

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Using examples describe and evaluate essential elements of a scientific research study. Essential elements of a scientific research study include: research ethics, validity and reliability, statistics such as the average and range, experimental design, sampling, methods of data collection and hypothesis. There are obviously a lot of different elements of a study and those are just an example of them. There will be a few chosen to ...

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Evolution of Counselling Theories

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Discussing the evolution of psychoanalysis and how it has formed the basis of behaviour and approaches to traditional psychodynamic, psychotherapeutic and contemporary counselling. Discussing counselling and psychotherapy now and in the future. McLeod (1998) suggested in order to understand the development of contemporary counselling, and to distinguish the significance of the current patterns of the way counselling is practice within the Western culture now, it is important ...

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Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a therapeutic methodology developed by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD).[1][2] DBT combines standard cognitive-behavioral techniques for emotion regulation and reality-testing with concepts of mindful awareness, distress tolerance, and acceptance largely derived from Buddhist meditative practice. DBT is the first therapy that has been experimentally demonstrated to be effective ...

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Interventions and Prevention of Child sexual abuse

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Introduction The UN Children's Fund mentioned in their released report that up to five percent of boys and up to 10 percent of girls in rich nations suffered from severe sexual abuse during their childhood on October 6, 2009. Up to three times that proportion experience some form of sexual abuse in industrialized countries and in general it is estimated that throughout the course of their childhood, ...

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Role of Emotion Regulation in Children’s Development

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Emotions Social Development Although the concept of ‘emotion regulation’ is an important one for Differential Emotions and Social Constructivist theories, these two theories approach emotional development in different ways. Compare and contrast these two approaches and discuss the evidence about the role of emotion regulation in children’s development. Introduction Emotions have a vital role in everyday life. Like other psychological phenomena, emotions are easily recognised but difficult ...

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Reflection on Supervisor Relationship in Placement

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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My placement was with Cruse Bereavement Services and, having completed their training and successfully passed their acceptance interview, I was told to let them know when I was ready to take my first client. This was to be my first 'real client' and I was nervous and apprehensive, but also fairly confident that my training from both Cruse and from the college had provided me with the ...

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Human Development and Learning Theories

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Every age group has their own physiological developments according to psychologist such as Bandura, Piaget, Kohlberg, and Maslow. Bandura believes that behavior is based on the monkey see, monkey do theory. Piaget's believes that everyone goes through a developmental process. Kohlberg believes in moral development and they are broken down into stages like Piaget. Maslow believes in his hierarchy of needs, every individual must me one step ...

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Research Methods in Psychology

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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Psychologists have used in the past and continue to use today a wide range of research methods in psychological investigations which provide techniques and help them to gather and make sense of their data. From their investigations, data is collected in two forms which are quantitative (data expressed in the form of numbers e.g. time in seconds) and qualitative (data is expressed in a descriptive manner e.g. ...

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Theories of Authority and Conformity

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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People are social beings, who like to play by the rules, therefore Social Influence, Social Power, Obedience to Authority and Conformity is one of the most effective ways of changing a person's behaviour. However, studying this topic empirically leads to ethical problems. Discuss. Over the years, many studies have been carried out by social psychologists whose primary aim is to understand behaviour in a social context and to ...

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Developmental Psychology: Social Development

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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The influence of inborn biological factors and the contrasting aspect of environmental issues has been applied to many areas of psychology and development. The debate concerning nature and nurture has indeed become a central and enduring feature within developmental psychology. It addresses whether it is one's innate biological nature that influences behavioural traits or if it is life experiences and nurture from the their social environment. Classic ...

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Developing Voluntary Attention

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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When you give attention to something, it means that you are responding to a particular stimulus and recording it in your subconscious. If this information is considered important or relevant, then it is transferred to the long term storage part of the brain to be stored as memory and to be retrieved later when desired. However, for all this to happen, first of all the stimulus must ...

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Theory of Planned Behavior for Promiscuity

23 Mar 2015 10 Jan 2018

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How much you know about promiscuity? Promiscuity refers to unselecting casual sex with multiple sexual partners without engaging in an monogamous relationship with those partners (Markey & Markey, 2007). Promiscuity carries a religion and moral judgement. There are some cultures accept it as norm and immoral. Sexual promiscuity has classified into “Risky Sexual Behavior” (Hoyle, Fejfar & Miller, 2000; Schmitt & Shackelford, 2008) because promiscuity is a ...

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Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Qualitative and quantitative research are the two main schools of research, and although they are often used in tandem, the benefits and disadvantages of each are hotly debated. Particularly in the social sciences, the merits of both qualitative and quantitative research are fought over, with intense views held on both sides of the argument. It is generally agreed upon, however, that there are some phases of research ...

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Family Life Cycle and Solution Focused Therapy (SFT)

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Even though families can be developed in different ways, every household will pass through the family life cycle. This cycle is made up of emotional and intellectual stages you pass through from childhood to your retirement years as a member of a family. The stages of the family life cycle are independence, coupling or marriage, parenting: babies through adolescents, launching adult children, and retirement or senior years ...

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Student Transition Readiness Research

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Abstract The number of mature students, from Colleges, full time, and part time employment now choosing to go into higher education is on the increase. A majority of students manage this transition well but a small minority don't. Having a negative experience early on could lead them to dropping out with in their first year. Simply put the number of students who do not finish their degree ...

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Eclectic Therapeutic Intervention of a Case Study

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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The following analysis is concerned with a case study (appendix i) of a 32 year-old Irish male named Sean Murphy. He has been referred for clinical assessment by his solicitor, in order to receive treatment and in aid of an upcoming court case for arson and burglary. The aim of this case study is to identify the key problems with Sean's behaviour and how these problems affect ...

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Guidebook on Seizures: Causes and What To Do

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Self instructional module is one of the educational material that helps individualized learning. It is important to go through the module in schematic way. Take your own to read this material slowly and carefully in the place/room provide for you in the hospital premises. In case if you have any doubt regarding the content make a note and clarify with the investigator. Try to answer the question ...

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Difference Between Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Millions of people struggle daily with social anxiety disorder and shyness. The lasting effects of both can affect an individual psychologically, socially and emotionally. Human beings have struggled with social anxiety and shyness for centuries, in this paper I will be explore the truth about Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) verses shyness and we will examine a few reasons why some people suffer in silence and others publicly. ...

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A Report of a Child Observations

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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For confidentiality reason, I will refer to the child as A. Child A is a three years and two months old male, from a working class, mixed heritage background: mum is Indian and dad is English. He is a middle child with an older brother aged four and a nine months old sister. Parents are married and they all live together. A naturalistic, non-participant, target child observation ...

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Recycling Behavior Among University Students

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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The purpose of our study is to find the factors affecting multimedia students to recycle. We have four independent variables which are health consciousness, health consciousness, rewards convenience, and one dependent variable which is students recycling behavior. What appears unavailable is documentation on critical issues involved and how to address them. This paper, therefore, examines the attitudes portrayed by students towards recycling. We used survey questionnaire to ...

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Television Advertisements and Their Effects on Body Image

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Media has an impact on children through the explicit messages sent by advertisements regarding body image. The media depicts body image by displaying thin models and emphasizes messages that are directed toward beauty and success. Children watching television compare their own bodies to the images they see within advertisements. After viewing the advertisements, children can develop a negative self-perception of their appearance and weight, which could lead ...

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Relationship Between Filial Piety and Mother-child Conflict

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between filial piety and parent-child conflict. Respondents were 285 secondary school Malaysian Chinese students aged between 12 to 16 years, who were selected by using cluster sampling based on class. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Dual Filial Piety Scale was employed to measure the reciprocal and authoritarian filial piety to ...

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Personality Traits in Adulthood

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Personality traits are the unique motivations, thoughts and behaviors that are possessed by an individual. In the past, changes in personality were only thought to happen in the developmental stages in childhood up to adolescence. After the teenage years, it is thought to be 'set like plaster', or the change seen is thought to be inconsequential or absent (Srivastava, John, Gosling & Potter, 2003). However, recent studies ...

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Effects of Teacher Training on New Instructional Behaviour

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Abstract This paper is an academic critique of an article written by de Jager, Reezigt, and Creemers (2002) titled: The effects of teacher training on new instructional behaviour in reading comprehension. The authors undertook a research study to examine the results of teacher inservicing on practical teacher behaviours. My examination systematically focuses on specific aspects of the article in terms of process and validity of research methods ...

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Effects of the Placebo Effect on the Brain

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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This research paper attempts to explore the mechanism of Placebo effect and how it affects the brain. Starting with a detailed introduction to the Placebo Effect, touching the background of Placebo technique lightly, the paper will review some available, relevant theories and research literature on the topic and will conclude with a summary of the research review findings, in relation with the theoretical explanations available for the ...

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Sources of Stress at the Workplace

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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DEFINITION OF STRESS: Definition - Work-Related stress is the response produced by individual when faced with work demands and pressure that individual cannot match with their knowledge and abilities and it challenges their ability to cope. SOURCES OF STRESS AT WORK PLACE: Stress related illness is not confined to either high or low status workers (Cooper et al, 2001). Regardless of how one job may compare to ...

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Health Belief Model and Protection Motivation Theory

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Outline of Health Belief Model and Protection Motivation Theory and their Application to Screening Behaviour. Introduction The aim of this essay is to describe health belief model (HBM) and protection motivation theory (PMT), their application to screening behaviour, prediction they offer and some of the research done in the area. Furthermore, personal understanding, criticism, models' comparison and possible additions will be discussed. In the end, decision will ...

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Communication Process of Neurons in the Brain

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Neurons are the specialized cells that control the electrical impulses of the brain. The responsibility of the neurons is to convey all of the information that is transmitted between the neurons and the other cells. The neurons are considered to be the excitable parts within the nervous system. The brain communicates with the different systems within the body as well as with the neurons which are responsible ...

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Psychological Perspectives of Sleep and Sleep Deprivation

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Sleep deprivation has the potential to result in a range of problematic behaviour, from which serious adverse effects can result. In order to design a treatment it is critical to initially establish an understanding of what motivates normal and abnormal behaviour. This essay will evaluate the 5 different psychology perspectives to establish which has the best study methods, and their perception on the motivation for sleep and ...

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Sense of Community Among University Students | Research

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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The study is primarily aimed at identifying level of sense of community among students who enrolled in the psychology and social work programmes at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. It was also carried out to investigate whether there were relationships between a sense of community and altruistic behaviour, academic achievement, age, and student's involvement in club or organizational activities. One hundred and fifty one students participated in ...

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Approaches to Qualitative Research

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Examples of qualitative methods are action research, case study research and ethnography. Qualitative data sources include observation and participant observation (fieldwork), interviews and questionnaires, documents and texts, and the researcher's impressions and reactions Quantitative research Is mean of testing objective theories by examining the relationship among variables. These variables in turn can be measured typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analyzed using statically procedures. ...

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Analysis of the Big Five Personality Factors and Education

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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The study of personality has a long history in psychology, with many different approaches focusing on different aspects of personality with plenty of theories, for example, humanistic approach, psychodynamic approach, and the social learning approach just to name a few. It also has many different theories, the more prominent ones being Cattell's sixteen personality factors, and the Big-Five. There is no consensus on the measurement of personality, ...

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Research into Phonological Mean Length of Utterance (pMLU)

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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Specific language impairment (SLI) is a disorder defined by exclusion. Children with SLI exhibit language difficulties in the absence of other factors, such as hearing loss, mental impairment, physical impairment, emotional disturbance, or environmental deprivation (Bishop, 1992a, 1992b; Lubert, 1981). Children with SLI have difficulty acquiring one or more of the components of language, i.e. form (phonology, morphology, and syntax), content (semantics), and use (pragmatics). The field ...

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The Development of Children's Scientific Thinking

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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This research aims to seek further into the concept of flotation and sinking surrounding two participants in varying age relating to the findings of Piaget, Vygotsky and Selley (1993). Piaget's views are based on constructivism that we learn with age, and Vygotsky's is based on social constructivism that social interaction is also needed. Selley states about a way of measuring how far learning has developed in relation ...

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Effect of Music on the Level of Happiness

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the role of music in increasing the level of happiness of college students. The convenient sample comprised of 120 (sixty men and 60 women) undergraduate students from G.C University, Lahore. Their age range was 17 - 23 years (M = 20.38, SE =0.11). This study used a 2(Gender) X 3(Music) X 2(Phase X S) mixed factorial design, with gender ...

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Relationship Between Non Word Repetition (NWR) and Dyslexia

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

6 (2,088 )

Rationale for research: The journal article relates to the ability of non-word repetition (NWR) among children suffering from dyslexia (at-risk) and specific language impairment (SLI). NWR is considered as a marker in language impairment (Bishop, North, & Donlan, 1996; Conti-Ramsden, Botting, & Faragher, 2001). Research in the past relates to the poor language abilities in the patients suffering from these disorders. Investigations focussed on deficiency of Phonological ...

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Extraversion Personality and Achievement Relationship

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

9 (3,392 )

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extraversion personality and university academic achievement. There were 36 participants with age ranging from 18 to 27. The extraversion questionnaire and general information questionnaire was given to each participants. The extraversion score and the first-year average were obtained. A bivariate correlation design was used to determine the relationship between those two factors. A relatively significant result ...

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Theories of Development: Overview and Analysis

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,996 )

Human development is regarded as the scientific study of psychological changes that occur in human beings over their life stages. This is also termed as Developmental Psychology. There exist several concepts or approaches which are related to human development. The three main theories among them are stage theory, differential approach and the ipsative approach. The stage approach is also known as developmental or classical approach since it ...

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Impact of Internet Addiction on Social Skills

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

6 (2,123 )

The world continues to progress all the time with the rapid development of new technologies. Inventions like telephone, television, computers, and Internet being one of the most recent in a series of technological developments have proven that people are no longer limited by geographical boundaries. Almost everyone will agree that Internet is the largest and most flexible source of information in the world today. It is widely used by the business ...

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Role of Mirror Neuron System (MNS) in Autism

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

8 (3,048 )

Mirror neuron system (MNS) plays an important role in the specific behavioral features of people with autism. In this paper the central aspects, such as neuropathology, etiology and prevalence, of autism and related disorders will be discussed. In addition the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory and Theory of Mind (ToM), two theories linking the autistic brain with the specific behavior of the disease, will be discussed. The next two ...

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Causes and Effects of Schizophrenia

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

9 (3,457 )

The world shuns those that are labeled abnormal. When a person is diagnosed with any form of mental illness, their life and their loved one's lives are forever changed. Someone that has schizophrenia suffers in many areas of their life; however, the medical and psychological communities are fighting for the understanding and freedom for all that are involved. The following essay is a brief over view of ...

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Gender Differences in Stroop Effect

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,899 )

Gender differences were examined in the speed of processing, in the context of a Stroop colour-word task. Overall, the Stroop interference effect was observed. Word-reading was faster than colour-naming. Response times were much slower when naming the colour of incongruent colour words than series of Xs. Female participants seemed to respond faster in naming colours of incongruent colour words than males. In contrast, female and male participants ...

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Interventions for Conduct Disorder

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

3 (1,196 )

Conduct Disorder symptoms. How to prevent and intervene with a child with Conduct Disorder will be discussed in the following paper. Basic information about Conduct Disorder will be discussed in the first half of the paper while interventions will be discussed in the second half of the paper. What exactly is childhood Conduct Disorder? The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) describes Conduct Disorder as: ...

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Impact of the Stressors of Undercover Operations

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

9 (3,209 )

The present paper has three purposes: (a) to discuss undercover operatives and the stressors inherent to undercover operations based on literature review, (b) to outline the proposed research project, (c) and to examine the expecting findings, conclusions, limitations and relevance for policy and practice of the proposed research project. Keywords: undercover officer, police, stress, personality test It is almost impossible to turn on the news or to ...

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Biopsychosocial Model Case Study: Depression

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,894 )

The client interviewed by my classmate was Stanley Miller, a fifty eight year old white divorced man, with four children, two boys and two girls. He attended catholic and vocational schools, and later joined the Air force for two years as an Army National guard. He is a graduate with associate's degree, and was once employed as a social worker with Charles Belavia though he is unemployed ...

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Causes of OCD: Genetics or Environment?

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,831 )

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder that has been affecting about 1 - 2% of the population. Individuals with OCD tend to do repetitive behaviours such as washing and checking in an attempt to cover unwanted thoughts and images to reduce their anxiety. Though OCD is a common anxiety disorder, it is still unknown if OCD is caused by genetic or environmental factors; ...

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Causes of Stress Among School Teachers

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

8 (3,171 )

The effects of stress upon a persons life can be profound. Different studies have shown that job related stress affects work satisfaction and over all happiness. Increasing stress is becoming recognized occupational hazard in the educational profession. In a country like Pakistan we cannot ignore the situation in educational setting. Teachers` agitations and class boycotts are common practice that shows their dissatisfaction. Both quantity and quality of ...

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Langer's Theory of Reflection on Practice

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,939 )

Arthur Langer's article Reflecting on Practice: Using Learning Journals in Higher and Continuing Education, attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of learning journals when utilized in the nontraditional classroom (2002). He used a two part methodology involving random sampling of a non-traditional college technology class and self-selection based volunteers to examine the usefulness of learning journals in this forum. This evaluator analyzed Langer's research question, review of literature, ...

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Effects of Theatre Arts on Emotional Intelligence

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

9 (3,402 )

This study has attempted to examine the impact that an individual's involvement in Theatre Arts has on his or her Emotional Intelligence (EI). The hypothesis in the present research is thus, "there is a positive relationship between one's involvement in theatre arts and their emotional intelligence." Participants of this study were residents of Bangalore city, India (N=80). The scale which was employed in this research to administer ...

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Case Study: Lifespan Development and Personality

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,739 )

Describe and evaluate the notion that adolescence is a period of 'storm and stress'Adolescence is a period in development between the onset of puberty and adulthood. It usually begins between 11 and 13 years of age with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and spans the teenage years, terminating at 18 to 20 years of age with the completion of the development of the adult form. During ...

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Overview of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

16 (6,149 )

According to Beck, the cognitive approach to psychotherapy "is best viewed as the application of the cognitive model of a particular disorder with the use of a variety of techniques designed to modify dysfunctional beliefs and faulty information processing characteristic of each disorder". At its current stage of development, CBT is considered one of the best validated psychotherapies available (Bennett-Levy et al, 2004; Salkovkis, 1996), indeed, surveys ...

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Performance Measure of PCA and DCT for Images

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

15 (5,945 )

Generally, in Image Processing the transformation is the basic technique that we apply in order to study the characteristics of the Image under scan. Under this process here we present a method in which we are analyzing the performance of the two methods namely, PCA and DCT. In this thesis we are going to analyze the system by first training the set for particular no. Of images ...

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Colour Preference and Emotional Maturity | Research

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

13 (4,979 )

Previous scientific studies have shown that children and adolescents are driven by genes and hormones. However, beyond adolescence, an individual has to choose maturity. The purpose of this studywas to see whether colour preference indicates degrees of emotional maturity. The research was aimed to find that there exists a co-relation between colour preference and emotional maturity. For the purpose, through quota sampling method, 30 adults aged 20-21 ...

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Effects That Caffeine Consumption

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

10 (3,994 )

Caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the United States (Roehrs & Roth, 2008). Regular coffee drinkers consume an average of 200-500mg of caffeine per day (Julien, 2005). Caffeine is found in a broad variety of sources including coffee, tea, energy drinks, chocolate and some over the counter medications (Roehrs & Roth, 2008). Upon consumption, caffeine reaches peak plasma levels in 30-75 minutes and has ...

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Difference Between Friendship and Romantic Relationships

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

2 (716 )

How do friendships differ from romantic relationships? Is there overlap between the two types of intimate relationships? What aspects are the same? The Circle of Friends is a movie that involves three close friends Benny, Eve and Nan. Benny and Eve are much closer friends than they are with Nan. Benny and Eve's friendship stems from when they were children and continues well into university. The friendship ...

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Definitions of Emotional Labour

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

7 (2,462 )

Introduction Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion. Emotional labor may facilitate task effectiveness and self-expression, but it also may prime customer expectations that cannot be met and may trigger emotive dissonance and self-alienation. However, following social identity theory, they argue that some effects of emotional ...

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Effects of Co-sleeping

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

2 (723 )

Con: Co-Sleeping; Angelica Sewake The research paper will examine the effects of co-sleeping. The definition of co-sleeping is, "The standard custom in collectivist cultures, of having a child and parent share a bed" (Belsky, 2010, 87). A collectivist culture pertains to, "Societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness over independent achievement" (87). In the United States the issue of practicing co-sleeping has become controversial ...

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Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

6 (2,301 )

The ''Mozart effect,'' was a study published Nature in 1993. The researchers Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993) reported that college students who spent 10 minutes listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major had improved their IQ scores 8-9 points higher on the Stanford-Binet subtest for spatial ability. This was compared with students who either listened to a relaxation tape or listened to nothing. While ...

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Conduct Disorder in Children

23 Mar 2015 09 Jan 2018

5 (1,687 )

This paper will examine Conduct Disorder in children. A description of the disorder's subtypes and various methods of diagnosis will be discussed. Specific attention will be given to the method of counselling a prepubescent child who is causing serious problems in school for both teachers and classmates. The skills and strategies used to counsel this child's parents and teachers will also be outlined. Conduct Disorder is defined ...

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Cognitive–behavioural Syndromes of Neglect and Anosognosia

03 Oct 2016 09 Jan 2018

8 (2,881 )

Considering the neuropsychological diseases discussed during the course, critically compare and discuss theoretical interpretations of at least two syndromes Consciousness is one of the most interesting phenomena of the human mind. Consciousness refers to the integration of the cognitive experiences about self and the external environment (Orfei et al., 2007). However, when this psychological function is damaged, it may lead to dysfunctions in the attention and awareness ...

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Impact of Stress on the Body

03 Oct 2016 09 Jan 2018

4 (1,568 )

Stress Study Stress we hear that term every day in our life from either friend, someone we know at work or especially among the college student. It pushes our mind to think and try to find out what is STRESS. This question raises in my mind many times until I found myself asking friends, family, and everyone around me. People actually define stress in different ways, ...

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Holding and Containing - Winnicott (1960)

13 Sep 2016 14 Dec 2017

8 (2,897 )

Keywords: psychoanalytic, holding and containing, winnicott Holding and containing. The same or different? The psychoanalytic terms “holding” and “containing” originate, from the writings of two prominent psychoanalysts: 'Holding' in the papers of Winnicott (1960); 'containing' in the papers of Bion (1962). The current focus in psychoanalysis of emotional nurture and exchange rather than one of hedonic satisfaction, is primarily as result of Winnicott’s writings and observations. ...

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Theories of Aggression: An Introduction

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,203 )

In today’s world, mental illness and aggression are frequently inevitably linked, creating a stigma for patients and an uncomfortable environment for health care professionals. Hospitals, especially the psychiatric wards frequently face agitated or aggressive patients whom they have to manage. If not managed properly, these situations can quickly turn into a crisis, which results in nuisance and frustration for the staff members and a dangerous environment ...

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MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI)

29 Nov 2017

8 (3,155 )

Discussion The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) in Malayalam. For the present study, 160 parents of infants aged eight months to fifteen months were administered MCDI test-part 1 words and gestures. Say Malayalam version….The study findings are discussed under two sections. Section 1 is developmental trend in early words understanding and productionand section 2 is developmental trend ...

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Trends in Psychology

29 Nov 2017

3 (1,171 )

Psychology and current trends in psychology The study of thoughts and behaviours of mind is ideally called as psychology. The behaviours we do, feel, think and say everything is determined by the functioning of the mind and this behaviours are used as a raw data for analyzing about how the mind works and this all theoretical testing's of mind is called as psychology. Psychology is a ...

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Augmentation Therapy in Treatment-resistant Depression

27 Nov 2017

6 (2,184 )

Augmentation therapy in treatment-resistant depression – a case report Dr. Sushil Kumar Sompur V*   Abstract: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly debilitating condition, and utilizes more healthcare costs than many other chronic debilitating disorders. Among patients with depression, MDD seems to be the most debilitating. We report a case of a 75-year-old female patient who has experienced multiple episodes of MDD. The recurrent nature ...

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Impact of HIV/AIDS on Child Mental Health

23 Nov 2017

4 (1,317 )

Chapter 1 Introduction Since the advent of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 80’s, over 75 million persons have been infected with the deadly virus. Recent statistics shows that there were about 38.8 million people living with HIV/AIDS in 2012 [1]. Over 36 million AIDS related deaths has been recorded since the start of the epidemic, with a reduction in AIDS related mortality from 2.3 million ...

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Psycho Educational Family Groups in Psychosis

23 Nov 2017

6 (2,241 )

Psycho educational family groups in Psychosis The purpose of this paper is to give a scope of illustrations of clinical work of people with families in which an individual has encountered psychosis. Working with families can be exceptionally difficult and numerous clinicians don't feel certain to offer this sort of intercession. As research shows that consumer outcomes improve if families receive information and support (Dixon ...

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