Role of amygdala in the experience of fear

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,454 )

The amygdalae (from the Greek for 'almond') are two groups of almond-shaped nuclei located deep within the medial temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans, (see Fig 1 below). Research has shown that the amygdalae perform a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions, and are considered to be part of the limbic system. [pic] Fig 1: Location of Amygdala. (Image ...

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Family and Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,929 )

The family is the foundation of humanity. Children who are rejected by their parents, who grow up in homes with considerable conflict, or who are inadequately supervised are at the greatest risk of becoming delinquent. Adolescence is a time of expanding vulnerabilities and opportunities that go along with it, widens social and geographic exposure to life beyond school or family. Family is one of the most influential ...

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The core assumptions of the biological and psychoanalytic

23 Mar 2015

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The psychoanalytic perspective grew out of subsequent psychoanalytic theories (1901, 1924, and 1940) following decades of interactions with clients with the use of an innovative procedure developed by Sigmund Freud that required lengthy verbal interactions with patients during which Freud probed deep into their lives. In a nutshell, the psychoanalytic perspective looked too explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focussing on the influence of early childhood ...

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Sex Differences In The Brain Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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There has been ongoing debate and research on the differences between the male and female brain by endless amounts of researches. According to a few researches (Leonard et al., 2009), not much has been researched to show a sex difference in terms of behavioural. While many or some still believe that women and men think and act the same, there are actually some differences in each other's ...

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Features of a cognitive behavioural approach to counselling

23 Mar 2015

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In order to answer this question effectively I will first discuss what cognitive behaviour therapy is and its key features. Then I will elaborate on a couple of other approaches to counselling and explain why it is different. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can help you to change how you think ("Cognitive") and what you do ("Behaviour)". These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of ...

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Trait theory and personal construct

23 Mar 2015

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The psychological study of individual differences traditionally has roots in the clinical, psychometric and experimental traditions (Butt,2007). Trait theory is based in the experimental approach. More recently the phenomenological perspective has made headway into the study of individual differences, as demonstrated by personal construct theory (PCT). This essay will start by describing trait theory and PCT, highlighting the important differences between the two approaches. An evaluation of ...

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Memory Research And Cognitive Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The area that's been studied in this experiment is cognitive psychology; it's how people acquire process and store information. Cognitive researches have numerous practical applications, such as how to increase decision-making accuracy, and ways to improve memory, and how to structure educational curricula to enhance learning. The major topic cognitive psychology study is Perception, Language, Attention, Memory, Problem Solving, Intelligent, Decision Making and Judgment (Robert, L. S. ...

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Treatment Of Alzheimers Disease And Dementia Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,035 )

Music therapy has been a widely used source of treatment for many patients suffering from mental, physical or communicational disorders as well as learning difficulties and eating disorders. This type of therapy uses various methods to develop verbal interaction, offers opportunities to create positive changes in mood, emotional states and increase self-confidence and awareness. Outcomes such as these are vital in the treatment of mental disorders such ...

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Alcoholism from a social learning theory perspective

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,126 )

Alcohol can be traced as far back as 8000 B. C. when the people of the Middle East created a drink from honey and wild yeast (Alcohol Facts, n.d.). Since then, it has been used in religious ceremonies such as communion, for medicinal purposes as well as during social events. When a person begins to abuse alcohol by drinking large quantities and/or daily consumption, it can lead ...

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Motivation In Sport: Relationships With Peers And Parents

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,025 )

Parents, friends, and the peer group are the fundamental contributors to motivational outcomes of the young athletes, providing unique influences on their psychological development (Brustad & Partridge, 2002; Sullivan, 1953).Weinberg and Gould (2007) also emphasize the importance of friends and peer group and the effects they have on child's motivation. According to them, with affiliation being a main motive of child's sport participation, positive peer relationships leads ...

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Examining the theory of mind hypothesis for autism

23 Mar 2015

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The Theory of Mind (TofM) hypothesis for autism has been investigated extensively in the last 30 years. This essay will review the literature which examines this theory, considering a wide range of methodological and theoretical approaches. It will be argued that whilst there are several strengths of the theory, the TofM hypothesis cannot account for the non-social symptoms of ASD, and therefore cannot be considered to provide ...

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Attitudes Towards Help Seeking Behaviour In Individuals Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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A questionnaire survey was conducted among the participants the Victoria University Students chose to determine whether attitudes towards seeking professional help changed when focusing upon certain situational variables. The 697 participants in this study each completed a questionnaire which evaluated on a 3 point scale their current attitude towards seeking professional counselling services, whether help had been obtained and their future intentions in seeking help. The study ...

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Research report on substance related disorders

23 Mar 2015

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Substance use is a common factor world-wide throughout our social society. Substance related disorders are also on the rise due to its abusers. In today's world we witness thousands of people who pass away due to substance related disorders. Ask anybody in today's society if they know someone who has died, or has suffered severely due to any substance related use or abuse. Then ask them if ...

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Attitudes Towards Tourism And Hospitality Career Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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To explain human behavior is a very difficult and complex task. But approaching it from different levels such as the person's attitude and perception factors and so on, sheds light to this complexity. Concepts referring to behavioral dispositions, such as social attitude, and personality trait, have played an important role in these attempts to predict and explain human behavior (Ajzen, 1998; Campbell, 1963; Sherman & Fazio, 1983). ...

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Piagets And Vygotskys Theories Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are regarded as two of the most influential contributors in developmental psychology. Both theorists presented their own constructivist view on childhood development; constructivism is a theory which explains that people organize information based on their previous experiences (Powell & Kalina, 2009). However, while Piaget emphasized the importance of children learning by interacting with their environment, Vygotsky believed that children learn through their ...

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Pros And Cons Of Rehabilitation Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The proposed literary review establishes a frame of reference for this particular study and examines a synthesis for solution and possible alternatives to address factors and other specific issues regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation. This research review accommodates many concepts in regards to assessing behavior modification including an individual's social, psychological, and biological development which determines a need for treatment. Moreover, the review exhibits a combination of ...

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Two Approaches To Counselling Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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In this essay, I will attempt in brief to compare the chosen approaches, psychodynamic and the personal centred in terms of the basic concepts, goals, element of relationship in therapy, techniques and application. The greater part will be left to the examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. Finally a conclusion will be given at the end summarising the whole discussion. As stated, the psychodynamic ...

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When do children develop a theory of mind

23 Mar 2015

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Interest into the understanding of mind in children can be recorded back to Piaget's early research (Piaget, 1928). The term theory of mind was first introduced to psychology in 1978 by Premack and Woodruff when they studied whether chimpanzees had a theory of mind. Theory of mind is used to describe how we take into account the feelings, pretence, desires and beliefs of others when we interact ...

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Effects of the recession on students well being

23 Mar 2015

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During an economic downturn, many people are negatively affected by the financial strain that ensues. The primary intention of this research was to identify if a relationship existed between financial insecurity and students reported mental well being. A second objective was to find out if students who work part time during college score higher on the GHQ than those who do not. The sample consisted of 100 ...

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Culture challenge in defining abnormality

23 Mar 2015

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Psychologists are usually faced with the challenge of universally defining what abnormality is. The aspect of cultural relativism is of the argument that, beliefs on abnormality differ across cultures and sub-cultures. A perfectly acceptable behavior as perceived in one cultural set up may be regarded abnormal in another. Any attempt to define abnormality faces a certain degree of limitation from cultural variations. As such, psychologists may never ...

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What The Dsm Attempts To Do Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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DSM-IV is a classification of mental disorders that was developed for use in clinical, educational, and research settings. American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, 2000 What the DSM attempts to do is have specific criteria for specific disorders, but at the same time, not have the manual be used in a cookbook fashion. Meaning that the specific diagnostic criteria in the DSM are meant to serve as guidelines concurrently ...

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Link between obesity and mental health

23 Mar 2015

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Obesity may seem like it's a choice--a lifestyle option that many have chosen. Many believe that obesity is really about overeating due to greed and lack of discipline, but this is often not the case. Obesity can be a side effect of a mental health problem which can even occasionally be the main source of all the fat to begin with. Let's dig deeper into the various ...

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The Need For Affiliation And Henry Murrays Theory

23 Mar 2015

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Henry Murray's educational training was anything but typical for that of a psychology professor; he attained a bachelor's degree in History, a master's degree in biology from Columbia University, and a doctorate in Biochemistry. It was after reading several of Carl Jung's published work and establishing a meeting with the legendary Swiss psychiatrist that he was persuaded into studying psychoanalysis. He completed his training in Harvard University ...

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Effectiveness Of Self Monitoring Technique Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The term self-esteem comes from a Greek word meaning reverence for self. The self part of self-esteem pertains to the values, beliefs and attitudes that are held about one's own self. Self-esteem refers to the degree of regard or respect that individuals have for themselves and is a measure of worth that they place in their abilities and judgments. No one is born with a self-image. Self-esteem ...

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The Respective Theories Of Motivation Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The term motivation derived from the Latin word movere, meaning to move. Motivation represents those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented (Mitchell, 1982). Motivation as defined by Robbins (1993) is the "willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need. A need in this context is ...

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Basic philosophy of the skilled helper model

23 Mar 2015

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In the first edition of "The Skilled Helper",published in 1975, Egan expounded a model of the helping process with the goal "to establish a training technology that applies to helper training and to the helping process itself". The subtitle of "The Skilled Helper" is " A Problem Management and Opportunity Development Approach to Helping", and this reflects Egan's focus on problem solving and goal setting rather than ...

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Comparing and Contrasting Freuds and Eriksons Theories

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,730 )

This paper explores the first three stages of Sigmund Freud's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Erik Erickson's Psychosocial Development side by side. At each comparative stage, a brief description of Erickson's version then a brief description of Freud's version is given. After describing both perspectives on each stage of development, comparisons are drawn and connections shown to any common traits between the two theories. A description explains ...

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Sigmund freuds influenced in the field on psychology

23 Mar 2015

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Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856 in Frieberg, Moravia. Today the present area is Czech Republic. The parents of Sigmund Freud are Jacob and Amalia Freud. Sigmund grew up in a Jewish family. Sigmund Freud has made an amazing influence in pshche. Sigmund advanced the study of the mind and how it works. With the studies, people where aware of how the brain influenced our ...

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Self perception inventory

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,413 )

The Belbin Self Perception Inventory (SPI), developed by Dr Meredith Belbin, is a self-assessment that is designed to help people understand their role and behaviour in a team setting. This makes it a behavioural test and not a personality one. The SPI has several statements about a person's behaviour in a team, to which you distribute points according to how well they describe you. By transposing these ...

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The Effects Of Distractions Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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To maintain individuals short-term memory one must be able to discern and ignore distractions. Referring to some elements of previous studies and approaching a different perspective, this report aimed to investigate memory recall under different levels of distraction and t if the relevance of words has an effect on number of items to be recalled. 40 participants, 20 males and 20 female were tested and what was ...

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The Effectiveness of Pictures and Words on Memory Recall

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,488 )

Abstract This experiment was designed to investigate whether people would be able to recall pictures or words more after seeing them for a brief period of time. To carry out this study, 52 subjects with the same age were divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. During the test, group A was asked to see a list of 20 pictures, while the other group was ...

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Self Awareness Among Patients With Schizophrenia Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (927 )

Bailey et.al., conducted a study to explore the relation exist between lack of awareness of illness and the result of a cognitive deficit involving prefrontal cerebral dysfunction. This study also reveals the relationship exist with miscellaneous domains of self awareness in patients with schizophrenia and other participants with serious mental disorders. The samples were one hundred and eight patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 patients with bipolar ...

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Extraversion on Academic Achievement in University Students

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,276 )

University fosters an environment encouraging both academic achievements and personal developments. Each individual's experience differs due to their choice of engagement in academic and social events. As academic events are still more important in an academic institution, achieving excellence in academics should be the priority for every student. The choice of participation and degree of academic involvement may depend upon an individual's personality. Thus, the relationship between ...

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Theories Regarding Attitude Formation And Function Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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As far back as Allport, attitudes have frequently featured in psychology research and literature, emerging from which are differing theories with regards their formation and function (Katz, 1960). Despite the differing ideas of their origins and formation mechanisms, many theories are similar in their emphasis on likes and dislikes, or preferences towards forming a definition of attitudes (Bem, 1970; Fishbein & Azjen, 1975). To the degree that ...

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Case Study on the nature vs nurture debate

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,684 )

Is a child's development influenced by genetics or could the majority of influence be found in the child's environment? The nature vs. nurture debate has been at the forefront of psychology for many decades. The purpose of this essay is to try and answer this question using the case study of Genie. The essay shall also look at some of the roles that a multidisciplinary team would ...

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Several Stages Of Individual Development Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The development of an individual undergoes several stages of development, which change and replace one another respectively to the cognitive development of the individual. At the same time, the development of individual psychology and personality has been a subject to heat debates between specialists for a long time. In this regard, Piaget's developmental theory played an extremely important role in the formation of views of scientists and ...

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Effects of multitasking on human physiological

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,474 )

It is believed by scientists that rather than simultaneous attending to all tasks at once, what really happens during multitasking is a rapid change of focus between tasks. While research supports the fact that "highly practiced skills can be easily performed while one is thinking about something else, but the addition of a task that requires decision making switches ones attention to that task. When people perform ...

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Efficacy of cognative behavioural therapy for depression

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,187 )

World Health Organisation estimated that by the year 2020 depression will be the leading cause of illness in developed countries. Furthermore, clinical depression at present = 3% to 16% of the total population (as cited in Grant et al., 2010). Symptoms of depression found in the DSM-IV. According to the Dictionary of Psychology, depression can be defined as a "mood state characterised by a sense of inadequacy, ...

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Facial feedback theory

23 Mar 2015

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Abstract Facial feedback theory testing was the main question of this study. Administering water drops to the cheek will result in reduction in the perceived humour of funny statements. One individual tested four people; in total there were 1128 subjects with half of them having water droplets dropped on their cheek and half on their temple. The results in funniness rating of the experimental group (tears) were ...

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The Hypothetico Deductive Method Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Research method is a process whereby issues in a scientific study are systematically resolved. This method involves the identification of the steps required in the performance of a scientific study and how they are to be applied. The selection of a research method has to be done with a specific purpose in mind and the researcher has to identify the reason(s) why a particular method is preferred, ...

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Literature review on the effectiveness of group therapy

23 Mar 2015

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This chapter presents a review of some of the major theoretical approaches, which attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapy of group and family contribution in the treatment process. Thus we will look at, existing studies and support on group therapy as an effective method of treatment, and, family contribution to a substance addict individual, and family therapy. Effectiveness of Group therapy "By the crowd they have ...

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Neuroplasticity Refers To The Ability Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Attempts to improve visual acuity and quality of vision have included advances in visual outcomes evaluation, optical imaging and surgical techniques. However, even if we had the perfect method to correct the optics of the eye, our vision would still be determined by the retina-brain interaction. Vision is also a perception and not only an optically perfect image. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to ...

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Effect of Colour on Recall Memory of Images

23 Mar 2015

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This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of colour on memory recall. 30 subjects were shown 15 slides. Each slide has one coloured images and one black and white images. After 3 minute-long filler task, the subjects were given two minutes to recall as many images they could remember. Statistical test was carried out on the data collected using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test and the results ...

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Language Tests Reliability and Validity

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,677 )

A test is reliable to the extent that whatever it measures, it measures it consistently. If I were to stand on a scale and the scale read 15 pounds, I might wonder. Suppose I were to step off the scale and stand on it again, and again it read 15 pounds. The scale is producing consistent results. From a research point of view, the scale seems to ...

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Obsessions and compulsions in pakistani community of adults

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,814 )

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an Anxiety Disorder, the core features of OCD are obsessions and compulsions. According to DSM-IV-TR, obsessions are recurrent and persistent intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that enter the mind of individual for no apparent reason, and are experienced as disturbing and inappropriate (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). People who have such obsessions try to resist or suppress them, or to neutralize them with ...

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Anger Is An Emotion Characterized Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Anger is an emotion characterized by a strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility toward someone or something you feel has deliberately done wrong. According to Berger "Anger is an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage". Sometime anger can be a good thing because it gives us a way to express negative feelings until it get worst. Intensity of anger depends ...

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Facial expressions of emotion of sighted and blind

23 Mar 2015

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Facial expressions of emotion are very common in the humane world. Every individual expresses different kinds of facial emotions for diverse situations. Emotions evolved as a rapid and synchronized response system and facial expressions are part of this response system, which allows humans to quickly and expertly respond to events that affect their welfare. The fabrication of spontaneous facial expressions of emotion is not dependent on observational ...

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Comparing Research Methods Qualitative Versus Quantitative Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The debate of qualitative versus quantitative research is one of the oldest in social research and particularly in psychological investigations. Simply put, the quantitative approach is differentiated by its emphasis on structured, pre-planned design and a categorization of possible research outcomes. It focuses on numbers: events are counted, classified and interpreted through statistical models and tools (Neill, 2007). Options are discrete, and results are directly comparable to ...

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Emotional Intelligence And Team Performance Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence (EI) on work team performance are very numerous, both in commercial and scientific literature. In this study, EI was assessed using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). Paper examined the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance of 15 teams selected from telecom organizations of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi. A single questionnaire was used to gather data from the teams, ...

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Study on theories of motivation

23 Mar 2015

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There a number of theories been developed as an attempt to identify and explain what motivates employees within the organization. Ivancevich and Matteson (1999) mention that motivation is a tough concept to measure and thus it illicited manipulating by certain conditions and observing how behavior changes with those conditions. There are two groups of motivational theories is can be seen, they are: Early motivation theories and Contemporary ...

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Case study: Aging Mind and Memory

23 Mar 2015

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abstract Hearing loss is one of the most common problems of aging affecting older adults. Hearing loss, in particular happens for many reasons. The purpose of this research is to find the age related causes of decline in cognitive functions and hearing abilities of older adults Research indicates that loss of hearing is a serious condition faced by almost one third of aging adults. Hearing loss also ...

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From a social psychological point of view

23 Mar 2015

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Group behaviour (how the individual affects a group and vice-versa) has been widely studied in social psychology but has been hard to theorise (Brown, 2007). Within social psychology there are many social psychological perspectives that have used different theoretical frameworks to study group behaviour. Although each perspective is in agreement that social categorisation (the way an individual and others are classified part of the same or different ...

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Key Concepts In The Psychoanalytic Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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There are several key concepts in the psychoanalytic theory; Freuds view of human nature being deterministic is one of them. The term deterministic or determinism in short means to be born with it, Corey (2009) stated that "according to Freud, our behavior is determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, and biological and instinctual drives" (p.58). So Sigmund Freud notion that there is no such thing as human ...

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Gender Language Acquisition And Language Use Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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INTRODUCTION Over the last thirty years there has been a sharp increase of research on the differences between men and women, in particular the extent to which men and women use language differently. The purpose of this project is to identify the differences between male and female speech and how society's attitude towards gender has an impact on language acquisition and language use. Firstly this project will ...

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Relationship importance and Factors of Marital Adjustment

23 Mar 2015

12 (4,430 )

Over the course of life, people learn to establish different relationships, with different values, expectations and commitments. One of those relationships is the marital relationship. For A good marital relationship marital adjustment is essential. Sinha & Mukerjee (1990) defines marital adjustment as "The state in which there is an overall feeling in husband and wife of happiness and satisfaction with their marriage and with each other". Locke ...

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Negative Schizotypy Reflect A Continuously Deficit Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The DSM-IV: APA, diagnosiss schizophrenia based on reoccurring symptoms, including hallucinations delusions, disorganised speech, disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative. One reason for cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia is the processing of context. Cohen (1999) states 'context processing' is used in general to mean the functioning of mental effort or cognitive control. It is referred to actively holding information to be used to mediate task appropriate behaviour. ...

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Five factor model of personality and work performance

23 Mar 2015

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Researchers have long been absorbed in relationships between personality and work performance. With the development of personality in the field of psychology, organizations realize that employee characteristics that influence how people think, feel and behave on and off the job are arduous to change. They select suitability of job applicants for positions and evaluate employees' work performance through personality measures, for example: psychological test. In this essay, ...

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Comparison Of Erikson And Bandura Theories Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Albert Bandura was born on 4th December 1925 in Mundare which is a small town in Alberta, Canada. His parents were of polish descent. His theory was developed based on his belief that previous and earlier theorists had not dealt completely with the most important psychological issues and processes. Thus, his new view was referred to as observational learning. This is a theory that discussed human learning ...

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Freuds psychodynamic approach and rogers humanistic approach

23 Mar 2015

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For this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the psychodynamic approach concentrating on Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and humanistic approach looking at Carl Rogers theory (1902-1987) focussing on mainly the middle adult stage of human development. "The Psychodynamic approach emphasises unconscious dynamics within the individual such as inner forces, conflict or the movement of instinctual energy" The founding father of the psychodynamic approach was Sigmund Freud, he ...

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Efficacy Of Binocular Vision Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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This research will be conducted in order to identify Binocular Vision techniques that commonly used at various regions of the world and then find the most reliable and efficient among all the binocular vision techniques used in clinical practice. The comparison will present the status of reliability, efficiency, strength and weakness of the each techniques in binocular vision measurement assessment. The research also stress on suitability of ...

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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Study Research

23 Mar 2015

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Introduction This work is to present the case study as a research approach, showing that its characterization is not an easy task, due mainly to its many different approaches and applications. It highlights its increasing importance as a research tool, exploring its origins, meanings and delineation as an investigation methodology. In order to demonstrate its application, it indicates its most common advantages and constraints, stressing the important ...

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Does flanker orientation (radial and tangential) affect visual crowding

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,747 )

Crowding is defined as a breakdown of object recognition and occurs when objects are too close together so that features from several objects are combined. As an illustration of crowding, one can try and identify a letter (target) to the right of another (fixation point) without looking at it directly. The distance between the target and flanking letters at which crowding occurs is called the 'critical spacing', ...

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The developmental stages of adolescence and adulthood

23 Mar 2015

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As a growth stage, adolescence is characterized by exponential and dramatic physical milestones which enable an individual develop from childhood to adulthood. It is during this stage that secondary sexual characteristics emerge due to a surge in production of testosterone in boys as well as estrogen in case of girls (Slee, 2002). These hormones continue being produced until total maturation is achieved. Onset of adolescence and puberty ...

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Strategies For Improving Working Memory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Research has indicated that working memory is not only associated with academic achievement, but also behaviour in class and at home (Alloway et al., 2009; Aronen, Vuontela, Steenari, Salmi, & Carlson, 2005; Gathercole et al., 2008). Some have found that working memory underlies that ability to control attention and resist distraction from irrelevant stimuli (Kane et al., 2007), which are both important determinants for behaviour. In fact, ...

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The History Of The Inhibition Control Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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As far back as the 1800's William James came up with the notion of a primary memory with limited capacity a distinction from long term memory. Today working memory is defined as a limited capacity work space, a processing form of memory distinguished from short term memory which has been depicted as a short term store rather than a processor. Whilst driving the car you are also ...

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The Causes Of Depression Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The emotion of sadness is normal in response to everyday stressful or upsetting events like losing a loved one or running into financial difficulty. These feelings are usually only temporarily and should resolve once the grieving period is over or once the disturbing event has been resolved. When the feeling of sadness remains for longer than is reasonable or it starts to interfere with an individual's daily ...

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Core Conditions Proposed By Carl Rogers Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Client centred therapy which is also known as person-centred therapy is an adaption to the humanistic approach within counselling. The heart of client-centred therapy was fathered by Carl Ransom Rogers in the 1950's and is known today as Rogerian therapy. Carl was born in 1902, beginning his career within religion but soon found his feet firmly in this field as a remarkable psychologist and was one of ...

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The role age plays in the susceptibility to enduring attitude changes

23 Mar 2015

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In order to do this in a clear way, relevant research and theories will be considered. Attitudes can be defined as a person's positive and negative views on another person or object or even an event. These are often referred to as 'attitude objects.' Attitudes can be seen as people's judgements on something or someone. These develop through the 'ABC model.' The ABC model stands for the ...

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Reliability of eyewitness testimony in adults and children

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,176 )

Eyewitness testimony can be defined as the evidence given by an individual in court about people and events of a crime. Eyewitnesses testify about many things, for example, the identification of a perpetrator, which hand a gunman used, the colour of a car, or even recollections of a conversation (Wells & Olsen, 2003). Comprehensive psychological research into eyewitness testimony has been compiled all over the world and ...

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Effects Of Background Music On Short Term Memory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Irrelevant sound effect describes the empirical finding that short-term memory is disturbed by background sounds that are irrelevant to the memory task at hand, even though participants are told to ignore them (Beaman & Jones, 1997). To date, accumulating research evidence suggests that the irrelevant sound effect is a highly robust and reliable finding, as demonstrated by which it has been replicated in numerous studies using ...

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Psychological reasons and effects of phobia amongst children

23 Mar 2015

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A phobia is a persistent, abnormal and often irrational fear of particular activity, thing, situation or even person. Phobias are not uncommon in children and can be managed. However, critical attention has to be paid to a child so as to determine the cause of the phobia and to assist in the selection of the most appropriate method of treatment to partake. Misdiagnosis or the lack of ...

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Study on phelan mcdermid syndrome

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,518 )

Seventy-five percent of individuals with Phelan-McDermid Syndrome have pure 22q deletions, which are either terminal or interstitial. A terminal deletion involves a single break in the long arm of chromosome 22 that removes the distal portion. An interstitial deletion occurs when two breaks occur within the long arm of chromosome 22 and only the segment between the two breaking points is lost. In Phelan-McDermid Syndrome, terminal deletions ...

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Research into how mental disorders are classified

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,180 )

"DSM-IV is a classification of mental disorders that was developed for use in clinical, educational, and research settings." (American Psychiatric Association, DSM-IV-TR, 2000) What the DSM attempts to do is have specific criteria for specific disorders, but at the same time, not have the manual be used in a "cookbook" fashion. Meaning that the specific diagnostic criteria in the DSM are meant to serve as guidelines concurrently ...

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Psychology Essays - Depression and Treatments

23 Mar 2015

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Evaluate the effectiveness of 3 (or more) different treatments of depression. The treatments examined can include drug therapy, dietary changes, cognitive behavioural therapy, and psychotherapy, or any othertreatment which has been scientifically evaluated. Depression and Treatments Depression is not only one of themost widespread and prevalent of the major psychiatric disorders but also oneof the most excessively researched mental illnesses. It has oftenfundamentally affects people's well-being and ...

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The Evolutionary Aspects Of Fear Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,694 )

This paper presents an exclusive discussion of what is known about the biological basis of fear. In presenting this discussion, the paper shall explore the main concepts relating to the biology behind fear in humans with the main ideas being the definition of fear, the evolutionary aspects of fear, as well as the emotional response of the brain in the event of fear or anxiety. The paper ...

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Exploring the similarities and differences

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,430 )

Studies has revealed that different types of therapy have similar success rates, nevertheless of the theoretical underpinnings (Smith & Glass, 1977). For instance, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy are equally effective in treating depression (see Leichsenring, 2001 for a review). This has led to the suggestion that the therapeutic working alliance relationship, which is common to all one-to one therapy, maybe an important aspect in ...

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Psychological Theories Of Life Span Development Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Development can be defined as systematic changes that occur in the individual between conception and death, or from womb to tomb. These depend on multiple factors. Life has been divided into number of stages. Prenatal period: conception to birth: This stage included the time from conception to birth. Though the child has not come to the outside world but a life is there, the heart is beating ...

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Difference between Self Confidence and Self Efficacy

23 Mar 2015

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When the word self-efficacy is heard, it is often understood as self-confidence by many people. Self-confidence is not the same as self- efficacy. So, what does it mean by self-confidence and self efficacy. According to M. Colman (2002), self-confidence is defined as a trust or assertion in oneself, believing in one's aptitude, making a choice which maybe referring to a general context or to a specific event ...

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A Study on Research Methods And Approaches

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,302 )

This section describes the methods used in carrying out this research. Methodology is an overall approach to research process, from theoretical underpinning to the collection of data (Collis and Hussey, 2003). This section informs the reader of research design, whether it is explanatory, descriptive or he exploratory, and why a particular design is design is chosen. It informs the reader about the primary and secondary sources of ...

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The enhancing effects of music on happiness

23 Mar 2015

12 (4,549 )

This thesis examines the enhancing effects of music on happiness.Music is the purest form of art. It can be said that it has an impact on almost everyone. Certain pieces of music have a relaxing effect, while others stimulate us to act, and some cause change in or emphasize our mood. This work specifically concentrates on how listening to different kinds of music can increase the level ...

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An audit looking at how many patients are with thyroid dysfunction

23 Mar 2015

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What is the function of thyroid gland and thyroid hormones The thyroid gland is located in the anterior part of the neck, attached to the thyroid cartilage. It consists of two lobes, approximately 5 cm each, that lie either side of the trachea joined in the middle by an isthmus. The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of three thyroid hormones: Calcitonin (involved with calcium homeostasis), ...

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The Genetic Basis Of Schizophrenia Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Schizophrenia is a debilitating, psychiatric disorder. Primarily characterized by distortions to both thinking and perception, an individual suffering from this illness will experience progressive cognitive and behavioural impairment. Manifesting into pyschosis, patients tend to develop an array of positive and negative symptoms that can ultimately leave a person totally withdrawn from society. Coined by Eugen Bleuler in 1911, the term schizophrenia has developed significantly from the days ...

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Theoretical Perspective Constructivism And Naturalistic Inquiry Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Qualitative descriptive designs draw from tenets of Naturalistic Inquiry which is embedded in the constructivist paradigm (Lincolin & Guba, 1989). Constructivism, as understood through the work of Egon Guba and Yvonne Lincolin (Lincolin & Guba 1985; 1989; Guba 1990) aims to carry out research in natural settings seeking to examine and understand the variety of constructions that people have within their social world. The inquiry aim of ...

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The Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity in itself and for pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation. Vallerand 2004. Behaviour chosen for the pleasure of participants provide own satisfaction. The Athlete felling free, enjoy the competition, excitement and having fun. A good example is tennis player Roger Federer. Extrinsic motivation is a constructed that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable ...

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facial expression and emotion

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,480 )

The existence of a 2-way connection between facial expression and emotion has been an enduring concept; however, the connection's directional bias and strength have been points of enduring contention. The name used to describe this relationship is the Facial Feedback Hypothesis. In scientific literature it was initially presented in two different forms, with both origins from other a century ago. The first version relates to Darwin's (1872) ...

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Credit Card Usage Among Young Adults Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,383 )

Credit card is an electronic payment instrument or indispensable credit that allows buying products and services without using cash. With credit card usage, it needs to be disciplined, if not; it can cause harsh consequences. According to Tan (2003) consequences such as uncontrollable debt, low credit ratings that will affect credibility of applying loan in future, forcing to work for debts (indirectly influencing the intention of working ...

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What extent is Psychopathy a disorder of empathy

23 Mar 2015

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Current literature seats "a lack of empathy" as one of the most distinguishing symptoms of psychopathy (APA, 1994). Commonly found amongst the factor one items of diagnostic criteria, it is valued as part of the 'core' psychopathic personality; essential to understanding the disorder (Kantor 2006). It is, for example both common and plausible to attribute the recidivistic violation of social, moral and legal norms (characteristic to psychopathy) ...

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Family dynamics and development of borderline personality disorder

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,706 )

Nature versus nurture is a huge debate that will likely continue for centuries to come. Nature advocates state, "just as a sunflower grows in an orderly way - unless flattened by an unfriendly environment - so does the human grow in an orderly way" (Santrock, 2010, p.22). This sentence alone completely negates the nature-nurture debate. Stating that orderly growth can be flattened by an unfriendly environment further ...

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Bowlby developed and refined the concept of attachment

23 Mar 2015

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Attachment theory originated in the work of the British psychiatrist John Bowlby (2907-90) who argued that the propensity to for strong emotional bonds with particular individuals was a fundamental characteristic of human young; it had survival value by bringing nurturance, protection and security to infant. John Bowlby developed and refined the concept of attachment over a number of years, He drew on ideas from psychodynamic theory of ...

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Gender differences when attending a mirror tracing task

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,111 )

The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses of speed and accuracy when practicing Mirror Tracing between men and women as well as the difference between genders with skill transferring when completing this task. The sample consisted of 243, 170 females and 73 males online and on campus university students who participated in the Mirror Tracing task for one week. Results indicated that as predicted, ...

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The significance of preventing accidents In a construction industry

23 Mar 2015

18 (7,179 )

Today, most of the top managers, contractors and workers, who work in construction industry, are aware about the significance of preventing accident.( In fact they know that ignoring safety and health can impose a high penalty on a company -large or small. Also individual accident or injury can mean compensation, time off and lost production and what have seemed to be a minor risk becomes a major ...

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Historical and scientific perspectives on homosexuality

23 Mar 2015

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Homosexuals are individuals that are attracted both romantically and sexually to the same sex. All throughout history homosexuality has been viewed in a controversial light with many people viewing it as a disgrace, while others view it as an accepted way of life. Without question homosexuality can be described as one of the most resilient and taboo minorities in our society. History as well as science has ...

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Case study: SIGMUND FREUD

23 Mar 2015

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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Austrian physician, neurologist, and founder of psychoanalysis, who created an entirely new approach to the understanding of human personality. Through his skill as a scientist, physician, and writer, Freud combined ideas prevalent at the time with his own observation and study to produce a major theory of psychology. Most importantly, he applied these ideas to medical practice in the treatment of mental illness. His newly created ...

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The Potential Problems Of Group Decision Making Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,327 )

Introduction: Discussions about group decision-making have become popular since the widespread use of teamwork. The quality circle, originally developed in Japan, is a typical example of group decision-making. It brought about dramatic improvements in the quality and economic competitiveness of Japanese goods since the Second World War. (Eillis&Dick, 2000)However, a large number of misadventures attributed to group decision-making such as the sinking of Titanic (1912), the Bay ...

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Helping Attitude Is Predisposition Of Helping Behaviour Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,420 )

Helping is something that expected to be voluntary. Helping behaviour itself can be characterized as helpful behaviours that do not expect rewards in return. However, people helped frequently to get desired response, such as materials or social rewards, is not based on sincerity (Hasan, 2010). In fact, the not-expecting-reward helping behaviour or altruism has tremendous impact to society, as shown by Mother Theresa (1910-1997) (Hasan, 2010). Helping ...

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Study On Anxiety And Autism Spectrum Disorder

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,080 )

Autism spectrum disorder and anxiety disorders can be co-occurring disorders in youth who are high functioning and aware of their different social disability. The reviewed research conducted on anxiety in children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder reviewed aims to sum up the empirical research on the treatment, occurrence and presentation of anxiety in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This review hopes to provide ...

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What is psychological contract?

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,247 )

BACKGROUND TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT: The term psychological contract is more of a kind of contradiction. If we have a contract with somebody, it refers to a legal binding of us with the other person involving an exchange of service or money. Examples of contract are: - Contract to buy a home. Buying a ticket to fly on an airline etc. But ...

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Decision Making Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,185 )

One of the pioneer works in exploring medical decision making by Lusted and colleagues suggested that clinical reasoning was based on logic, probability, and value theory [1]. In their work Ledley and Lusted outlined a physician explanation of medical diagnosis process as follows: First, obtain the case facts from the patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Second, evaluate the relative importance of the different signs and ...

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Research on scribbling and its different stages

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,016 )

Scribbling is a process that involves writing or drawing hurriedly without heed to style or legibility. It can also be said to be part of natural human behavior that involves playing, processing and manipulating. It usually comes naturally as a child explore and discover many new things in his or her surroundings. Children begin to scribble roughly at the age of 2 years and continue until they ...

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Psychoanalysis Of Gordon Gekko Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,999 )

The paper will describe a character, Gordon Gekko from Wall Street (Edwin & Stone, 1987) from a psychoanalytic perspective of Dr. Sigmund Freud. This paper will pair several quotes of Gordon Gekko with the appropriate perceived diagnosed disorder. In particular, this will illustrate Gekko's two personality disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder and the Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The paper will conclude by summarizing these faults and then present an ...

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