Schizophrenia And Family Interventions

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,438 )

Schizophrenia has historically been defined as a complex cluster of symptoms (Keen, 1999) which is multi faceted (Frangou and Murray, 2000) and is reported to be a major psychiatric disorder that alters an individual's perception, thoughts, affect and behaviour (NICE, 2010). Symptoms of schizophrenia will vary from individual to individual with each individual having their own unique combination of symptoms and experiences, the precise pattern of which ...

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A stressful life is an inevitable consequence

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,005 )

In our career-driven society, work can be a pervasive source of stress. According to a report cited in an edition of the Financial Times, stress at work is one of the biggest problems in European companies. It is evident that the prevalence of stress at work majorly influences job satisfaction, work performance and productivity (Mullins, 2002). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) define stress as "the adverse ...

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Growing into Successful Adults with ADHD

23 Mar 2015

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most commonly diagnosed neurobiological and behavioral disorders in children, continues through adolescence and adulthood. ADHD affects 3 to 5% of school-aged children in the United States. This means that in a classroom of 20 to 30 children, at least one will have the disorder. ADHD can be a lifelong disorder displaying four primary symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, stubbornness, and impulsiveness. Usually, the ...

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The Development Of Addiction Problems Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Universally speaking, addiction is defined as the continued use of a mood altering substance or behaviour despite adverse dependency consequences. It is an "impaired control over a reward seeking behaviour from which harm ensues", (West, 2007). Such forms of addiction can include drug abuse and alcohol abuse, which fall under the category of substance addictions. Likewise, there are addictions such as gambling and sexual activity that fall ...

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Relationship Between Job Satisfaction And Organisational Commitment Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Organisational commitment has been a focus of many research works in recent years, because of its importance to employing organisations. With todays high rate of employee turnover and floating working population it has become increasingly important for organisations to know how to retain employees and gain their loyalty (Martin & OLaughlin, 1984). It is against this background that I have taken upon myself as a requirement of ...

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The concepts of abnormality and mental health

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,366 )

What is abnormality? Who decides what abnormal behaviour? Is the society we live in deciding what normal is? People are very interesting to observe; especially when they are faced with situations they do not understand or are out of their comfort zone. People are very quick to pass judgement on others who clearly behave differently and which is deemed unacceptable in our society. Why is it unacceptable? ...

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Assess The Reliability And Accuracy Of Eyewitness Testimony Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The accuracy, reliability of memory and credibility of the eyewitness testimonies (EWTs) of children is the focus of many heated debates. There are many issues concerning child EWT: children may be more affected by the interviewer and the techniques used to acquire the testimony and developmental differences between children from different age groups may affect their ability to resist suggestibility (Goodman, 2006) and thus, their statements may ...

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Case study on formulation of cognitive behavioural perspective

23 Mar 2015

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A formulation is a tentative explanation or hypothesis as to why an individual presents and maintains a particular disorder or circumstance at a particular point in the time (Weerasekera, 1993) The present essay will look at the formulation of cognitive behavioural perspective in light of Cara's case study. Becks cognitive model of psychopathology stresses the importance of thinking in the elicitation and maintenance of depression, anxiety and ...

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Music Effects On Blood Pressure And Heart Rate Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,987 )

Music therapy has been suggested to help improve health, decrease heart rate and blood pressure for surgeries, and create a calm atmosphere for therapy sessions. Music has shown to have a beneficial effect on all aspects of life: emotional, mental, and health in general (Jeon and Bradt 2009). There are many studies regarding what music works best. Some have concluded that music, such as classical, has the ...

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The Effects Of Mindfulness On Dancers When Improvising

23 Mar 2015

14 (5,544 )

a) Introduction Introduction: Discuss more living in the now and relate it to dance and improvisation (lived body experience, phenomenology, somatic practices) -          mention key texts you use -          include a summary of what you will write in following chapters My dissertation looks at the effect better understandings and deeper experiences of mindfulness have on dancers whilst improvising. Sol Petersen defines mindfulness as "the clear and single-minded ...

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Definition Of Pain And Pain Terminology Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Pain is: "An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" 1-3, as proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). Pain is subjective. Each individual learns the application of the word through experiences related to injury in early life. Noxious stimuli are liable to damage tissue. Pain is an experience we associate ...

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Factors That May Influence Education And Educational Attainment Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,093 )

The above study examines the different factors that may influence education and there relationship to education attainment. To do the above hypothesis testing and regression analysis was used from data collected via online system. Factors studied include relationship between education and age, relationship between education and gender, relationship between marital status and education and influence of parental education on their children education. Gender and education attainment are ...

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Psychological Factors That Accompany A Successful Athletic Performance Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Within applied sport psychology it has become of extreme importance to understand the psychological factors that accompany a successful athletic performance. In order to understand what psychological processes might be contributing to quality of performance, it is important to look at the specific psychological constructs with theoretical relevance to optimal performance (Jackson, Thomas, Marsh, Smethurst; 2001). Majority of studies done in sport have been conducted from a ...

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Bowen Approach On Family Therapy Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The Bowenian theory was developed by Murray Bowen. The Bowenian theory is based on two goals to helping clients resolve their clinical problems. The goal of this theory is to help clients reduce the anxiety and help clients find a relief. Another goal of this theory is to increase each member of the family's differentiation. Bowen recognize that there was no need for family member to confront ...

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How transpersonal psychology and parapsychology differ

23 Mar 2015

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Most authors believe that the teachings and disciplines of parapsychology is a little more than a century old. Parapsychology is thought to have been developed from the foundations of mesmerism and spiritualism and was previously known as psychical research. Parapsychology includes telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, extrasensory perception (ESP), near-death experiences, out-of-body experiences, reincarnation, hauntings and poltergeists. Parapsychological research originally started when people attempted to scientifically investigate the performances ...

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The Five Theories of Psychology and Child Motivation

23 Mar 2015

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Five well known theory of psychology are namely behavioral, cognitive, developmental, humanistic and personality theory. These five theories have gained support from psychology society. Psychologist study and research various field observed child development of an attempted tasks from home or school. These five theories have helped us to understand better of child motivation and better understanding of child's aid.. Theories shows the systematic study of behavior and ...

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The Classification Of Outliers Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The concern over the outliers is one of the challenge existed for at least several hundred years. Outliers are the observations those are apart from the bulk of data. Edgeworth (1887) wrote that discordant observations those appeared differently from other observations with which they are combined. Almost every data set has the outliers in different percentages. Grubbs (1969) said that an outlier is one that appears to ...

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An Exploration Of The Person Centred Approach

23 Mar 2015

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Ever since its initial outline by the American psychologist Carl Rogers in his 1951 publication "Client Centred Therapy: Its current Practice, Implications and Theory", the Person Centred Approach has attracted much attention, both positive and negative, from academics and practitioners worldwide. I would like to explore the effect this model has had on the world of therapy, society in general and reflect upon its impact on my ...

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Media Multitasking

23 Mar 2015

14 (5,350 )

Media Multitasking and Information Processing: Looking at Media Multitasking in Today's Youth Media Multitasking A recent publication by the Kaiser Family Foundation (Foehr, 2006) sought to determine prevalence, predictors and pairings of media multitasking in today's youth. Media multitasking as described throughout the article and this paper can be defined as using different media simultaneously. Foehr explains that it is imperative to examine media multitasking due ...

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Pathological Irrational Fear Of Different Situations Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Phobias are called pathological irrational fear of the different situations, activities, things or people. Phobia is a kind of mental disorder when a person feels uncontrollable painful fear. The main symptom of this disorder is the desire by all means to avoid the object or situation causing abnormally high expression of fear, which does not have clear logical explanation. When a person is not able to control his fears ...

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The inevitability of mental decline with aging

23 Mar 2015

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Mental (or cognitive) abilities improve throughout childhood and adolescence as the brain continues to develop (see Smith, Cowie & Blades, 2003). However, the brain is fully developed by around the third decade of human life (Toga, Thompson & Sowell, 2006). Ageing, and particularly old age, is associated with the stereotype of decreased mental performance and this decline is often viewed as inevitable (Park, 2000). The current essay ...

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Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,974 )

The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is an international clinical tool, used to assess psychopathic personality disorder and indicate an offender's risk for recidivism. Critically discuss the use of this instrument for diagnosis of psychopathy and assessment of risk. Psychopathy is a clinical construct defined by a pattern of interpersonal, affective, and behavioural characteristics; some of these include superficial charm; shallow affect; lack of guilt, remorse, or empathy; manipulation; ...

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Underlying The Perception Of Colour Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Colour is an attribute of an item which comes from the light it reflects or emits; this light causes a visual perception based on its wavelength. There are three perceptual dimensions to colour; hue, saturation and brightness. These three dimensions work together, not independently to perceive the correct colour, for example the hue yellow is seen as brighter than red or blue. But the four colour hues ...

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A study on narrative therapy being emotionally focused

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,823 )

When one imagines a spouse coming home from work there is usually a question asked in the scenario, "how was your day?" Now in the household I grew up that question was usually responded to with a story or anecdote as oppose to a simple "fine" or "bad." My family has always been emotionally open, but generally withdrawn from using the emotion words like happy or sad ...

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A stereotype is defined by the Oxford Dictionary

23 Mar 2015

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Every individual holds stereotypes. A stereotype is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of Psychology (pg. 730) as: 'a relatively fixed and oversimplified generalisation about a group or class of people, usually focusing on negative or unfavourable characteristics'. When people put too much faith in stereotypical descriptions of people they can become prejudiced and can often discriminate against other groups. This can be very harmful and has led ...

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The abnormal psychology

23 Mar 2015

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Abnormality has become one of the most essential components in various movies such as "The Dark Knight." The researcher thinks "The Dark Knight" includes numerous of characters that would be diagnose with some type of psychological disorder. However, the researcher examines Batman to determine the type of psychological disorder uncovered in the movie "The Dark Knight." The reason why the researcher chose to examine Batman is because ...

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Sensation Seeking And N100 Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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This research seeks to examine the relationship between event-related potentials, specifically the N100 component, and the personality construct of sensation seeking. Nine students enrolled in a university level introductory psychology course received credit for participating in this study. With the use of an electroencephalogram, voltage information in the brain was recorded while the participant listened to auditory stimuli including a target, standard, and random tone. After separating ...

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Language Acquisition among Autistic Children

23 Mar 2015

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Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by impaired socialization, communication and language. Fraser (1981) describes autistic children and mentions that many of them are moderately or severely intellectually retarded. He defines autism, citing Rutter (1977), that it is "a disorder evident before 30 months of age, in which there is a profound and general failure to develop normal social relationships, together with delayed and deviant language ...

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An intelligence quotient

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,256 )

Introduction An Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test is a method that has been suggested to measure intelligence (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2007). This compromises the use of standardized tests that assess one's verbal, mathematical and spatial skills in determining their score of cognitive ability. This score is converted into an IQ score which is the mental age one has divided by the actual age multiplied by 100 (Maltby et al., 2007). ...

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Piagets and Vygotskys explanation

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,403 )

In this essay I will be outlining the main differences and similarities between Piaget's and Vygotsky's explanation of cognitive development in children. Cognition is the study of the thought process or mental activity by which us individuals acquire and deal with knowledge. The study of the human cognition is a vast field and there are wide varieties of topics. The two most influential theories of cognitive development ...

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Behaviour is the subject matter of psychology

23 Mar 2015

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In this essay, the concept of behaviour from the point of view of behaviour analysis will be discussed. Skinner (1953) maintained that psychology is a science. His perspective on the purpose and the subject matter of psychology and why behaviour should be studied will be examined. Skinner (1981) proposed that behaviour is shaped by the consequences that follow. The implications of this position will be considered. Behaviour ...

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Interpreting infant looking

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,580 )

Critically evaluate the evidence supporting the nativist claim that infants of around three to four months of age have core knowledge of objects, including object permanence. Over the past decade, a vast amount of research has examined young infants' knowledge of objects. Nativists claim that infants have innate core knowledge about the world. Research by authors such as Baillargeon and Spelke proposed that very young infants are ...

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Occupational Stress And Coping: Age And Gender Differences

23 Mar 2015

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The topics of stress and coping have received widespread attention in the professional literature and popular press. This widespread attention is due to the fact that excess stress has been known to have harmful effects on an individual's physical and mental state. Moreover, stress has been a common factor affecting all aspects of life including interpersonal relationships, work, school, and family (Greenglass, 2002). There has also been ...

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Case study: AMNESIA

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,358 )

This paper describes about amnesia as a disease that causes memory loss due to damage to the brain. Furthermore, this papers describes the different causes of amnesia classified in organic, which involves the effects of the brain cells due to an accident or an infection, and functional, related to events or stress; and the types of amnesia according to how it is originated, mentioning three of the ...

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Explore The Relevance Of Attachment Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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As there have been many studies carried out in child development this essay will breakdown its content into the history of attachment theory and the basics of how it works. Mary Ainsworth was well known for her 'Strange Situations' study and this essay will give a brief description of the experiment and its outcome and will be critically explored. As social deprivation is still a common factor ...

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Assessing the effectiveness of rational emotive behavioural therapy

23 Mar 2015

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Rational emotive behavioural therapy (REBT) is the practice of reducing the emotions such as anger, depression, and anxiety to their respective counterparts of annoyance, sadness, and concern according to Lipsky, Kassinov, and Miller (1980). The aim of REBT practitioners is to reduce the intensity, and frequency, as well as the duration of overly negative emotions, to a more manageable level. Earlier studies that tested the effectiveness of ...

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Effects Of Video Games On Peoples Behavior Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,081 )

Video game can be described as a game in which there is an interaction with a user interface. This interaction leads to the generation of a visual feedback on a video device. Though traditionally, the word "video" in "video game" was taken to mean a raster display device. The electronic systems that are used to play video games are known as platforms and range from large computers ...

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Motivations of an arsonist

23 Mar 2015

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Arsonist Arsonist is a person who sets anything on fire intentionally. This intentional act is called the arson. Generally a home or another type of structure has been targeted by the Arsonist. Arson is committed for a number of reasons, and the crime is strictly punished throughout the world because arsonist sets property and lives at risk. "In certain parts of the globe, if somebody expires in ...

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Research design is a framework or blueprint

23 Mar 2015

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A research methodology defines what the activity of research is, how to proceed, how to measure progress, and what constitutes success. This chapter is going to describe how the research is carried out in term of research design, data collection methods, sampling design, operational definitions of constructs, measurement scales, and methods of data analysis. The data and information obtained were further analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science ...

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Emotional Intelligence Will Affect The Performance Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The purpose of this study is to identifying how the emotional intelligence will affect the performance of staff at Jabatan Tenaga Kerja, Taiping. Due to the importance of the emotion, it was crucial for people to manage their emotions. In our study, we focused on controlling the emotions among staff at their workplace. Their daily routines include pressure, conflicts with peers, complaints from clients and work overload ...

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Cyber Bullying Is Growing Rapidly Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Although bullying has been around for centuries, it has only been in the past twenty years that researchers have tried systematically to measure bullying (Kowalski, Limber, & Agatston, 2008). In 2001, the first study of bullying in the United States was conducted with more than 15,000 students in grades 6 through 10 (Kowalski, Limber, & Agatston, 2008; Nansel, et al., 2001). Tanya Nansel and her fellow researchers ...

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The Challenges Of Becoming An Entrepreneur Business Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,717 )

Becoming an entrepreneur is a career many young people dream of. Many times however, the term 'entrepreneur' is mistakenly linked with success; which periodically develops into the impression that it will not be that hard to grow into a successful businessperson. "Who owns Microsoft? Who gets the profits from Tesco? Why did I not think of Facebook?" Such questions always wonder the mind of individuals such as ...

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Environmental Psychology Is Relatively New Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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A survey was carried out to investigate whether level of education increased attitudes to proenvironmental behaviour. The survey was completed by 67 students, including 16 level three Access to Higher Education students, 29 level four psychological studies students and 22 level five psychological studies students. Level of education does not significantly increase attitudes to proenvironmental behaviour. Although it is not suggested what factors do increase attitudes to ...

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Squash is a sport that is fiercely contested

23 Mar 2015

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Sharp (1997) described squash as one of the most dynamic and physical games played. Squash is a sport that is fiercely contested between two players inside a four walled court. Where, the performance and actions of one player consequently influences the actions of the other. Pearson, (2001) found that it is imperative to maintain pressure on the opponent by not letting them gaining authority of the middle ...

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Single or multiple intelligences

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,349 )

Is intelligence best described as a single entity, or as more than one thing? If the latter, how many "intelligences" are there? It is important to note that this question of single or multiple intelligences is not a new one. Many psychologists and scientists have tried for centuries to define the term "intelligence" in a scientifically correct and acceptable manner. It is apparent that many, who have ...

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Trait And Psychodynamic Theories Of Personality Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,048 )

By submitting this work I acknowledge that I am its author, that all sources consulted in its preparation are referenced appropriately in accordance with the referencing guide, and that I have not copied from any source. Personality theories concentrate on how traits are developed and how behaviour is generated. Personality traits are durable dispositions of behaviour that occur across a variety of situations. They are like tendencies; ...

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Validity of Main Intelligence Tests

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,726 )

Nowadays, it is getting more and more people comparing self to others in order to define their standards among the other. Besides of comparing achievements and richness, intelligence is one of the most popular items to be compared. Based on the intelligence scores, people get to prejudge and define others; this may cause people with low intelligence scores withdraw from socializing and other psychological problems. "Intelligence is ...

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The Definition Of Stress Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Stress is a term that is commonly used today but has become increasingly difficult to define. It shares, to some extent, common meanings in both the biological and psychological sciences. Stress is the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can be defined in terms of all people responding in the same biological way to the same stimulus, or ...

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Pgdip Therapeutic Counselling Integrative Pathway Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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What these transtheoretical and technical eclecticist approaches have in common is that, despite being different ends of the continuum, each represents a partial rather than a complete integration. We see this as an advantage rather than a limitation, as complete integration seems neither possible or desirable Faris and van Ooijen (2012:10). Drawing from two of the broad approaches that influence the Newport RIM, critically evaluate what makes ...

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Child development gradual change or series of stages

23 Mar 2015

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Child development is an important aspect of our life. There is new research being carried out on child's growth. To be able to answer this question, the definition of child development will be first explained. Next, the theories on gradual change, also known as continuous process, will be discussed. Then, the series of stages' theories will be explained and finally theories on both continuous and discontinuous processes ...

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Positive and negative arguments for Scientist Practitioner model

23 Mar 2015

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The Scientist-Practitioner model has become the most prevalent and favoured training model for clinical psychologists (see Kanfer, 1990; Page, 1996). I will argue that despite there being (seemingly) far more negative arguments for this model that the scientist practitioner model is not 'out-dated' and still has a lot to offer. In order to do this, it is essential to examine the positive and negative aspects of the ...

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Evaluation of the psychotherapeutic approaches and theoretical perspectives

23 Mar 2015

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Over the past century there has been a dramatic increase in counselling psychology and it has been very well known and established, mostly within mental health. Theoretical approaches such as psychodynamic approaches, cognitive-behaviour approach, existential, humanistic approach, narrative and social constructionist therapy and systemic therapy. Through counselling psychology theoretical framework has brought understanding human being in the they thinking the meaning they put into and human behaviour ...

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Should Parents Use Physical Punishment Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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It is one of the biggest challenges for most parents to manage their children's behaviour. Physical punishment is a discipline method used to cause a child to experience pain to control or correct his or her unacceptable behaviour. In physical punishment, parents usually hit a child with hands or objects such as a cane, belt, whip, shoe and so on (Harper, Horno, Lansdown, Martin, Newell, & Nilsson, ...

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The scientific management

23 Mar 2015

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Introduction In the following essay I will analyse the extent to which Taylor's "scientific management" principles are present in current organisational management practices. Therefore, I will first introduce the main ideas of scientific management. Then, I will present points of critique that emerged in reaction to Taylor's work. Subsequently, I will concentrate on modern organizations and illustrate examples of applications of Tayloristic ideas. In particular, I will ...

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the main factors affecting personality

23 Mar 2015

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Ever found yourself fuming with anger and/or hatred about something or someone? When an individual is behaving in such a manner, one is displaying signs of aggression. "Aggression is a behavior intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid that harm" (Bushman & Anderson 2001). Many consider aggression to be violent, however it can be carried out in violent and non-violent forms. For example, pushing ...

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LIMITATIONS OF CASE STUDY APPROACH

23 Mar 2015

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This chapter presents the methodology for this study in order to achieve the research aims and objectives. This chapter present several stages. First the research approach and strategy are outlined. Secondly the methods of data collection and sources, for both primary and secondary data, are presented. Also the primary data collection method which is semi-structured interviews is presented in detailed and the data analysis method is also ...

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Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

23 Mar 2015

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Cognitive development theory can be explained as a continuous and systematic order through which mental process become more sophisticated and complex (Slavin, 2009). Cognitive development is an important part of children development. Piaget an erudite scholar of psychology in his research postulated four vital stages that are very gamine to the study of child developmental and intellectual skills. All the details of Piaget's theory, findings, research, vis ...

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Is Impulsive Sexual Disorder Deviance Or Addiction Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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In the last twenty- five years people of moral character have been deemed as having an addiction to various sexual activities. Example, Jimmy Swaggart: adulterous indiscretions with a prostitute Swaggart was subsequently forced to step down from his pulpit for a year (New York Times). Swaggart was caught again by California police three years later in 1991 with another prostitute (King, Wayne). Ted Haggard: regularly visited male ...

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Research Methodology About Questionnaire Design Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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A structured questionnaire was designed for data gathering based on the several principals recommended by Cavana et al. (2001). 4.5.1. Principals of Wording of the Questionnaire The nature of the variable tapped, i.e. objective facts or subjective feelings, determines the type of questions will be asked. In this research, where objective variables such as demographic of respondents are used, a single direct question with an 'ordinal scaled' ...

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Memory Functions Of The Hippocampus Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The hippocampus, named after its resemblance to a sea horse, has many different important functions in the brain including memory functions. It is a structure included in many different brain systems such as the limbic system and medial temporal lobe. While it does play a major role in memory retention it is also involved with spatial navigation and long term potentiation. Many neurotransmitters affect the hippocampus and ...

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Key Differences Between Nature And Nurture Theories Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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Developmental psychology refers to the human development of cognitive abilities and social relationships across a lifetime (Colman, 2006). Understanding development has its importance as it provides insight into human behaviour. Over the years, a vast number of developmental theories that have aimed to offer insight into this matter have been put forward. The debate as to whether development is driven by nature (evolutionary processes) or nurture (environmental ...

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Theory Of Person Centred Counselling Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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In this essay, the theory of person centred counselling and skills for best practice will be identified. This will also show the use of my listening skills, use of the core conditions and how I manage the time boundaries of a session. Evidence of my progress will be included by demonstrating my own understanding of person centred counselling and the theory behind it. As well as my ...

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Theoretical Framework Of Internet Addiction Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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The theoretical framework that this study used to discuss about internet addiction will be Uses and Gratifications theory. UG theory founded by Elihu Katz in 1959, when Herzog examined the reasons people use the radio to listen to quiz programme (Herzog, 1942), and soap operas (Herzog, 1944) (as cited in Katz, 1959). According to Katz (1959), the outcomes of media usage depend on why and how they ...

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Methodology Of Cyberbullying Studies Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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According to Dooley, Pyzalski, & Cross (2009, p.182), to date, many authors face difficulties in defining and comparing cyberbullying because of the use of different methods. (No Flow from reason of different method to definition) Cyberbullying has been from a general perspective defined as bullying through an electronic means. Drawing from Smith et al. (2008, p.376), cyberbullying refers to an aggressive, deliberate act done by a person ...

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Neurotransmitter Serotonin Cause Depression Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

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According to the World Health Organization, about 121 million people across the globe suffer from depression and the WHO has ranked depression as fourth in a list of most urgent problems worldwide (2). It is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder and is responsible for nearly 850,000 deaths every year. Supporting this fact, statistics have revealed that the use of anti-depressants has soared over 400 percent in the ...

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Requiem for a Dream: A Case Study

23 Mar 2015

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Darren Aronofsky's second film, Requiem for a Dream, repeats in many ways the frenzied, tragic trajectory of Pi. Where Pi's Max Cohen followed his mathematical obsession into insanity and self-destruction, Requiem now shows us the decline and fall of four individuals, Sara (Ellen Burstyn), Harry (Jared Leto), Marion (Jennifer Connelly), and Tyrone (Marlon Wayans). Sara gets hooked on diet pills, and her son, Harry, his girlfriend, Marion, ...

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Do parenting styles across cultures affect how we are?

23 Mar 2015

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Abstract: This research is aiming to inspect how parenting styles can have an influence the temperament of an individual in relation to different cultures and inter-cultures. The participant used for this interview is an 18 year old male, whom is a student at the University of Lincoln studying Law. The participant was of Somali origin, born in Finland and brought up in Finland and America, then moved ...

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Differentiating between apperceptive agnosia and associative agnosia

23 Mar 2015

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Ans. According to Campbell, DeJong and Haerer, "agnosia refers to the loss or impairment to know or recognize the meaning or import of a sensory stimulus, even though it has been perceived (Campbell et al., 2005, p.91). Numerous types of agnosia has been reported till now, like finger agnosia, visuospatial agnosia, optic agnosia , apperceptive and associative agnosia to name a few. The following essay discusses the ...

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Beck Depression Inventory vs. Hamilton Depression Scale Beck

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,356 )

The revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), published in 1996 was authored by Aaron Beck, Robert A. Steer, and Gregory K. Brown. Similar to its predecessor, it consists of 21multiple choice questions that assist in determining the severity of depression. Each item consists of four statements arranged in order to ascertain the severity of a certain symptom of depression. BDI-II conforms to the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Clients ...

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Edward Titchener And Structuralism Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,181 )

Edward Titchener was a famous psychologist who was born in Chichester, England in 1867. He studied physiology, classics, and philosophy at Malvern College and Oxford University before pursuing his doctorate degree in clinical psychology at the University of Leipzig (King, Viney, & Woody, 2009). While at the University of Leipzig, Titchener studied under Wilhelm Wundt, a psychologist who is known as the father of experimental psychology (Schultz ...

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Qualitative Research Versus Quantitative Research Methods Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

18 (6,826 )

CHAPTER 3 According to Sekaran, (2003), Research is defined "as an organised, systematic, data-based, critical, objective, scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific question, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers or solutions to it". It guides (marketing) managers in making informed decisions with the information, it provides. Research is referred to as a systematic, careful inquiry or an examination to discover new information or relationships and ...

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Research paper looking at anorexia nervosa

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,601 )

Attempting to comprehend why society demands a high standard for a slender appearance is bewildering. Some individuals take extreme measures to acquire this desired look, assuming that if they achieve this look the pain within will disappear. For most men and women suffering from anorexia there are deeper, more complex emotional/mental issues to be resolved. Anorexia is common destructive eating disorder that individuals can develop overtime by ...

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Why Bother To Guide Discovery Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,568 )

This essay will explore the role of guided discovery and associated techniques in helping clients understand the origin of their problems, their maintaining factors and the processes that will allow them to bring new perspective to the problems. The paper primarily discusses the role of Socratic dialogue and its facilitating role in the process of guided discovery, and subsequent cognitive and behavioural change. In this context, the ...

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The Ravens Educational Standard Progressive Matrices

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,695 )

Raven's Progressive Matrices consist of three main forms, including Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). These different forms of test are intended to be used for individuals with different level of abilities. As the most basic form of Raven's Progressive Matrices, SPM is used for individuals with average ability (O'Leary, Rusch & Guastello, 1991). It has been widely used in ...

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Riding problems Dependence from Bit and Bridle Contents

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,854 )

INTRODUCTION No studies have yet been published to quantify the difference in ridden behavior of a horse when bitted compared with bitless and bridless, though some studies of bit influence to the horse were available (Quick and Warren-Smith, 2009; Cook, 2008, Isakov, 2006 ) . The experiment tested the null hypothesis that if a horse is ridden in a bitted bridle and then again without bit and ...

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Anxiety & Mood Disorders

23 Mar 2015

3 (933 )

Anxiety can be a negative and positive situation depending on the circumstances. It is like an alarm clock going off at 5:30 am reminding one to wake up and signaling that it is time to get ready for work or school. The alarm clock symbolizes a short lived dread for a lot of people waking up from their cozy slumber. Many people hit that snooze button over ...

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Empathy unconditional positive regard and congruence

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,178 )

(genuineness) are known as the core conditions in counselling. According to Roger's theory (1959), these conditions help both the client and the therapist. Empathy helps the counsellor to understand the client's feelings. Unconditional positive regard makes the client feel comfortable. When congruence applies to this 'relationship', the client feels that the counsellor is transparent and present. These conditions bring about the psychotherapeutic change in the client and ...

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Importance of human interaction from caregivers to infants

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,009 )

This paper, The Importance of Human Interaction from Caregivers to Infants, defines infant attachment theory and adaptive behaviors. Also portrayed, the role human interaction plays in infant psychological growth development. Adaptive behavior can be recognized as a type or classification of ones behavior, which one may use to adjust to diverse circumstances and or situations. Attachment or adaptive behaviors are commonly characterized by certain behaviors that allow ...

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Theories Of The Nature Versus Nurture Debate Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,622 )

The nature versus nurture debate is one of the most convoluted in the field of psychology. In the 17th century, a French philosopher, René Descartes posited that "we all, as individual human beings, have certain innate ideas that enduringly underpin our approach to the world" (Crawford, 1989 p 64). The use of the terms "nature" and "nurture" henceforth has referred to the roles of heredity and environment ...

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History Of Bowens Family Systems Theory Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,409 )

Murray Bowen was born in Waverly, Tennessee, at January 31, 1913. He was the oldest of Jess Sewell Bowen's and Maggie May Luff Bowen's five children. He earned B.S. degree from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in 1934, and MD from the University of Tennessee Medical School in Memphis in 1937. He was then an internship at Bellevue Hospital in New York City in 1938 and at ...

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Why Do We Want To Measure Human Intelligence Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,953 )

The study of human intelligence is one of the controversial areas in psychology. Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. [11]. It is the 'intelligence' that clarifies and organizes the se set of abilities. One of the aims of ...

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Importance of individual differences in understanding behaviour

23 Mar 2015

4 (1,460 )

If you go into any job no matter where you are in the world you will come across a multitude of different personalities and behaviours. An individual's personality doesn't just affect the individual, but everyone around them. Organizations consist of people who work together. Differences between individuals based on personality traits, may be an incentive for the development of creativity and a source of conflicts and other ...

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How Hearing Impairment Can Impact Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,589 )

For this assignment I aim to focus on the importance of lifespan development theory when appreciating the effects of hearing impairment on an individual. I aim to concentrate on the lifespan development of a child in its infancy stage (0-2 years). Human development or also known as the developmental psychology is the study of systematic emotional changes, psychological changes and social changes that occur throughout an individual's ...

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Relationship Of Gender Differences Procrastination And Academic Achievement Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

16 (6,284 )

Procrastination is prevalent among students today and has become a hindrance to positive academic achievements. The purposes of this research were to investigate the relationship between procrastination and academic achievement as well as procrastination across genders. The sample included 120 Sunway University College students (60 male and 60 females) who consisted of various ethnicities and religious affiliations. Two hypotheses were investigated in this study. Both hypotheses were ...

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The Debate on Nature versus Nurture

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,630 )

The debate between nature and nurture has been one of the most heavily researched topics over the last few centuries. The term "nurture" refers to those scientists and psychologists who believe that our personality and behaviors come from environmental factors around us. This view is also known as the environmentalist theory. The environmentalist theory stresses that our behavioral characteristics come from environmental factors such as where we ...

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Karl Popper's notion of falsifiability

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,290 )

Sir Karl Raimund Popper,(28 July 1902 - 17 September 1994) was an Austrian and Britishphilosopherand a professor at theLondon School of Economics. He is known as one of the greatestphilosophers of science of the 20th century. He has written extensively on social and political philosophy. Falsifiability, as defined by the philosopher,Karl Popper, defines the inherenttestabilityof any scientifichypothesis. In its basic form, falsifiability is the belief that for ...

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Understanding countertransference and its many critiques

23 Mar 2015

3 (1,028 )

Countertransference is described as redirection of a therapist's reactions to a patient or as a therapist's feelings tangle with a patient. Freud first pioneered the theory of countertransference in 1910; make a note of that the patient's control on the psychiatrist's unconscious emotions could impede with the treatment process (Ephi B., Heim, A., Conklin, C., and Westen, D., 2005). This early on and constricted analysis of countertransference ...

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Relationship Between Gpa And Self Esteem Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

16 (6,208 )

This research is testing the relationship between an individuals academic achievement using GPA and an individuals self-esteem using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The research evaluated the different literature reviews concerning the topic at hand and analyzing the research aspects in depth in order to get the most reliable, as well as accurate results to test the hypothesis's validity. After collecting and analyzing the results, it was discovered ...

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Stage theories of child development

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,367 )

The examination of child development is a relatively recent addition to psychological study , with its origins lying in the early part of the twentieth century. Prior to the growth of interest in this field the subject of child development, and their mental, social and emotional progress, had remained relatively untouched. However, since Sigmund Freud first touched upon the area with his beliefs in psychosexual development, many ...

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A case study on suffering with depression

23 Mar 2015

10 (3,615 )

Depression is a whole body illness, meaning it affects your body, mood and thoughts. It can be a very serious illness which affects the way you eat and sleep, the way you feel about yourself and the way you think about things. It is more than just a passing mood, and is very different from the usual feelings of sadness and feeling fed up. The feelings of ...

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Negative reinforcement explanation for smoking facilitate smoking cessation

23 Mar 2015

9 (3,505 )

The progress made towards answering this research question will now be considered by revisiting each of the studies in turn to summarise their main findings as well as to assess their strengths and limitations, along with suggestions for future work. The thesis will then be drawn to a close with some overall conclusions, suggestions for future research and a discussion of the role of theory in the ...

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Literature review on personality and coping styles

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,954 )

The different personality and coping style will cause different stress level. Coping styles may well be extensively influenced by personality (Hayes & Joseph, 2003). This statement is come from the idea that there is no reason to believe that coping responses differ necessarily from other cognitive, affective and behavioral responses. The most important taxonomy in Industrial/Organisational psychology has been the "Big Five" or Five Factor Model, which ...

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Gender Differences Emotional Intelligence Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

5 (1,795 )

Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer:Two-Factor Theory of Emotion.According to Aronson, Wilson and Akert (2010) this theory explained that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process where people met their first experience on physiological arousal and then searching for an appropriate explanation for it. Other people may understand their emotion through observing the bodily state. Take an example, Jane felt aroused but she is not ...

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Overview Of Personality Humanist Theorist: Carl Rogers

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,409 )

Carl Rogers (1902-1987) humanist theorist is best remembered for his nondirective method of therapy. His approach was based on a client-centered form of clinical work. He believed that a human's basic foundation was that of good and positive features. Rogers' theory suggests that people aspire to achieve their fullest potential if unhindered. A trained therapist should only be involved with an individual that is willing to participate ...

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Drama Therapy In Reduction Of Vicarious Trauma Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,920 )

Drama therapy is defined as an intentional and systematic application of drama/ theater processes, products, and associations towards achieving therapeutic goals of symptom relief, emotional and physical integration and individual/personal growth. Therefore, the goals of drama therapy are established from psychotherapy and the tools to achieve these goals are derived from theater Children use drama as therapy spontaneously, with no outside direction or pre-imposed structure. Dramatic play ...

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Strengths and weaknesses of counselling

23 Mar 2015

8 (2,873 )

There are many varied approaches to counselling in contemporary society to which all have their strengths and limitations. The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the strengths and limitations of Transactional analysis (TA) and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). The first section of this assignment will provide a brief overview of TA, then moving on to discuss and analyse its unique strengths and limitations and the research ...

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Describe and evaluate theories of aggression

23 Mar 2015

11 (4,035 )

There are many forms of aggression used in society today, from name calling in the playground to domestic violence, a man or women being beaten by his or her spouse. There are several on-going debates regarding aggression development, one of the main debates is nature versus nurture with Konrad Lorenz supporting the nature theory by suggesting that aggression is an instinct that we are all born with ...

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A Set Of Abnormal Psychology Cases Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

7 (2,646 )

In most cases psychologists draw their diagnostics by conducting an interview with their clients like the one conducted by Louise on Margaret. This is based on the fact that understanding ones problem from the horse's mouth is easier. There are various factors that may be deduced from such an assessment. For example Louise was able to identify many changes that her client has undergone and the difficulty ...

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The factors that shape our personality

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,040 )

Personality studies came about as a result of the fundamental idea that people are different. There are differences in the way people walk, talk, eat, drink, dress and so on, which provide great insights into the individual. A person who studies personality is called a personologist. Personologists look into these aspects of individuals and attempt to explain the reasons for these differences. There are three sources which ...

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Analysing The Use Of Electroconvulsive Therapy In Prisons Psychology Essay

23 Mar 2015

6 (2,244 )

An inmate with depression may provide many difficulties into the penal system. Among other things depression may make an inmate more prone to violent as well as suicidal tendencies. In cases such as this it is important for an inmate to receive swift treatment as, in this state, they are a hazard to themselves as well as others. Electroconvulsive therapy is a treatment method that has been ...

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