Importance of human interaction from caregivers to infants

23 Mar 2015

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This paper, The Importance of Human Interaction from Caregivers to Infants, defines infant attachment theory and adaptive behaviors. Also portrayed, the role human interaction plays in infant psychological growth development. Adaptive behavior can be recognized as a type or classification of ones behavior, which one may use to adjust to diverse circumstances and or situations. Attachment or adaptive behaviors are commonly characterized by certain behaviors that allow an individual (in this case infants) to alter or birth an unconstructive behavior, that may also be disruptive. Such behaviors are most often social and or personal behaviors. The research conducted is a specific and direct focus to illustrate a better understanding for the importance of human interaction in direct correlation to infant psychological growth. Also addressed are common side effects, from those who do not receive the proper human interaction at the crucial developmental age. Adaptive behaviors have many life-long effects that obstruct an infant's cognitive learning development process. Human interaction between caretaker and infant play essential roles for infant survival and positive psychological growth development.

The Importance of Human Interaction from Caregivers to Infants

Detailed evidence demonstrates that from time of birth, human interaction is a vital principal for ones healthy psychological development. Absorbing all social interaction is the natural instinct for an infant. Secure attachment occurs when safe environment and social interaction needs are met. During this time of life, human interaction between caretaker and infant is imperative for an infant's psychological development pattern. Interaction from a caregiver is essential for infant survival. An infant who receives proper human interaction will demonstrate positive growth throughout the developmental stages. Utilizing social interaction between caretaker and infant will also promote behavior selection. Ultimately, social interaction integrates leverage skills and emotional attachment. Lack of interaction or stimulation can cause failure to attach, as well as adaptive behaviors leading to developmental obstructions.

Founding theories and research relate directly to Sigmund Freud; with his research on love theories, he set the tone for research to follow. Albert Bandura, Erik Erikson and Mary Ainsworth are all also prominent to attachment/adaptive behavior groundwork; however, John Bowlby is the primary theorist acknowledged for the concept. Bowlby believes and describes attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1979, p. 194). He also promotes behavior in four distinctive patterns. These patterns are known as: Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent, Disorganized/Disoriented (Bowlby 1979). Securely attached infants are capable of using their caregiver to create a secure base. This base allows the infant to explore the world they are surrounded by. Avoidant children show little to no preference for the caretaker and generally have an anxious sentiment. This is commonly found in children who experience prolonged absence of intimacy from a biological caregiver. Ambivalent attachment is identified as lack of trust for strangers. It is not commonly established in the United States, only 7%-15% reported cases. This type of attachment establishes explicit distress when separated from caretaker. When the caretaker returns, the child is hesitant and resistant towards the caretaker and does not appear to be comforted. Infants who display confused behavior or dazed expressions are classified or recognized as Disorganized/Disoriented attachment. This nature demonstrates avoidance and resistant behaviors, in addition to apprehension towards their caregivers. Poor behavior or negative attention commonly coincides in relation to disorganized/disoriented attachment.

Secure attachment is significant for a healthy psychological evolution. Securely attached children display normal signs of security by being able to separate from the caretaker with a joyous reaction upon the caretakers return. Studies show that without the illustration of secure attachment, infants do not mature vigorously, leading to numerous life-long effects (Valsiner 2003). Furthermore, there is no known substantiation to provide parallel characteristics between genders. Insufficient evidence lacks the capability to prove one sex has higher risk to attachment issues versus the other gender. Adaptive behaviors have many life-long effects that obstruct an infant's cognitive learning development process. Human interaction between caretaker and infant play crucial roles for infant survival and positive psychological growth development.

Lacks of attachment and poor advancement have many risk factors. When one need is not met a child will adapt to distinguish its own technique to fill the need. As the infant begins life's journey, insecure attachment will advance to life long psychosocial difficulty. Such difficulties are: low self-esteem, disruptive and aggressive temperament, and lack of intimacy. The infant will utilize adaptive behavior to impede emotional distress. Adaptive behavior can be identified as the adjustment of behavior to satisfy the unmet need. Additionally, adaptive behaviors are age-appropriate functions for daily living. This is frequently observed through emotional outburst, temper tantrums, social skills, and personal attachments (Latham 2003). Often, children who use adaptive behaviors to cope or meet an unmet need are assessed through a series of adaptive behavior evaluations at the school age. The evaluations are preformed by parents/caretaker, teachers, and/or social workers.

Assessing concerns is a fundamental process to gaining knowledge and a better understanding for the child's special needs. To encourage secure environment, positive reinforcers must be applied (Butterworth 1994). Motivational techniques such as age-appropriate rewards for good behavior and stimulating activities can alter the child's stance.

This study provides direct support of the premise as well as reinforcing the study's stance regarding human interaction relevance. Social interactions categorized as positive experiences, in which meet the emotional needs of the infant and consistently endorse healthy psychological growth. Peer relationships are indispensable for promoting lifespan development. Attachment theories and adaptive behaviors both support and give justification to a child's early relationship concepts. Simultaneously, social interactions from caregivers along with secure attachments, sponsor necessary systematic and psychological changes to transpire. Cognitive development enforces the social intimate and environmental influences to take place in infant survival impulses. An infant who acquires the proper stimulation from the caregiver will progress with strength and wellbeing through out the human development course. Human interaction between caregiver and child is a critical element for gradual advancement towards healthy psychological development and infant survival.

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