Chemistry of Contraceptives

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,142 )

Chapter 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 Norethindrone Norethindrone is 17α-ethinyl-17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one. It is also known by its chemical names like norpregneninolone and norethisterone. It is commonly used in some combined oral contraceptive pills, progestogen only pills and is also available as a stand-alone drug. It is white to creamy white in color, odorless, non-hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Norethindrone was the first orally highly active progestin to be synthesized. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Quantified Amount of Beta Carotene from Galiella Sp

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,389 )

Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the results on quantified value of beta - glucan and beta - carotene from Galiella sp. extracts. Analysis of beta – glucan contents Table 1. Quantified amount of beta – glucan from thallus The table shows the mean of three trials and general mean as quantified value of beta – glucan using the microwave assisted ...

Click here to read more arrow

Metabolic Pathways of Galactosemia

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,943 )

An Overview of Galactosemia and Its comparison to Electron Transport Chain and Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Yu Shang Any deficiencies of the enzymes in a metabolic pathway will likely lead to a metabolic disorder. Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism.1 The disease is caused by the deficiency in galactokiase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), or UDP-galactose 4’ epimerase.1 The deficiency in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Rat Pancreatic Islets

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,554 )

Discussion We here report, for the first time, that rat pancreatic islet cells and the rat INS-1 β-cell line express detectable levels of transcripts encoding the key enzymes of the TKP. Importantly, this is associated with the spontaneous release of significant levels of the TKP metabolites KYN and KYNA by the rat islets, therefore suggesting some degree of functionality of the TKP in the rat islet cells in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Correlation of Phenotypic Traits in Maize Different Hybrids

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,065 )

Evaluation correlation between phenotypic traits in corn hybrids and their change trends under drought stress and non-stress conditions at flowering and grain filling stages Rahim mohammadian,Behnam tahmasebpour, Peyvand Samimifar,Habib Lotfi Abstract To investigate the correlation of phenotypic traits in maize different hybrids, an experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications under stress-free conditions and irrigation cutting treatments on flowering and grain ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,287 )

The Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: A meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials Running title: A meta-analysis of Tai Chi and BMD Highlights: This was a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. A total of 6 articles involving 182 interventions and 168 controls were included. Meta-analysis of BMD at lumbar spine showed no heterogeneity. Attrition bias, reporting bias and other bias ...

Click here to read more arrow

Morphological Characterization of Aromatic Pickle Mango

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,003 )

Morphological Characterization of a few Farmers'-Identified Unique Aromatic Pickle Mango varieties of the Central Western Ghats Manohar Sunagar, Vasudeva R, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao   Key words: Aromatic pickle-mango, morphological characterization, descriptors, farmers varieties Abstract Aromatic pickle mango (locally called appemidi and GI tagged) is a special type of pickle mango harvested and semi-domesticated from rivenrine habitats of the Western Ghats. These ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cell Culture for Producing Influenza Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,200 )

Cell Culture: an Alternative Method for Producing Influenza Vaccines Layth Abdul-Majeed Abdul-Khaleq   Importance of the field: Cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production offers various advantages over egg-based manufacturing method during influenza pandemics. Areas covered in this review: Benefits of cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production have been discussed, including: Increasing vaccines production capability during pandemics, preventing the development of mutations and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bacterial Transcription Initiation

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,790 )

YONG YA FEN What are the mechanisms of bacterial transcription initiation? The transcription initiation is dependent on the interaction between RNA polymerase and promoter. The way that RNA polymerase interacts with promoter determines the direction for transcription because it decides which DNA strand to be the template strand and the site where transcription begins (Russell, 2010). A promoter is a DNA sequence ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship between Amyloid-/I and Oxidative Stress

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,621 )

Oxidative stress increases amyIoid-~production, and, conversely, amybid-/ I increases oxidative damage. To address the relationship between amyloid-/I and oxidative stress in vivo, we examined, using an array of oxidative markers, transgenic mice that overexpress amyloid-/3 precursor protein and, as in Alzheimer’s disease, develop characteristic amyloid-/3 deposits within the brain parenchyma. Transgenic animals show the same type of oxidative damage that is found in Alzheimer’s disease, and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Oxygen and Oxidative Stress on Ageing

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,118 )

Critically discuss the research evidence that oxygen and oxidative stress are responsible for ageing For decades there have been hundreds of hypotheses regarding theories of ageing (finch). Most of these ideas have been disregarded and several theories now captivate much research on ageing. Random damage secondary to free radicals (FR), notably, reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in the process of ageing. The damage caused ...

Click here to read more arrow

Transferability of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

30 Jan 2018

11 (4,236 )

Transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) to some Trifolium species Abstract Microsatellite markers previously developed for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) were used in cross-amplification tests of eight other Trifolium species. Of the 20 SSR loci tested, 9 (47.37%) had positive results and were found to be transferable to all eight species tested. The number of alleles ...

Click here to read more arrow

In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,623 )

Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri on glucose uptake in L6 cells: Figure 79 represents the effect of hexane fractions of P. niruri whole plant, insulin and metformin on glucose uptake by L-6 myotubes. It is evident from the results that hexane fraction of P. niruri caused increases glucose uptake in concentration dependent manner in L6 cells. The hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Debate on GM Crops

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,072 )

GM crops: Natural or unnatural? For many of us, all we know about the food and vegetables that we consume daily are their shapes, their colours, their freshness, and how much they cost. Little do we know about the whole process behind the pack of banana or tomatoes in our bag: how were they cultivated? What pesticides were used on them? Or how were they ...

Click here to read more arrow

Phosphoglucose Isomerase (Pgi) Locus in Butterfly Population

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,864 )

Benjamin Killick Modelling the evolution of the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) locus in butterfly metapopulations: project proposal. Background: Metapopulation theory, as developed by R. Levins in 1969, concerns the dynamics of metapopulations, which consist of several distinct local populations that exhibit some degree of interaction and occupy isolated areas of suitable habitat, referred to as patches. Each local population occupies a patch and has a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Anti Cancer Activity of Some Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,321 )

Abstract At present, the criteria used to select finest novel anticancer drug candidates include inhibitors of cell proliferation, necessary reaction and pathways in cancerous cells. In silico advance resulting in the identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of our study is to study the interaction of quinazoline derivatives with 8 selected anticancer drug target enzymes in Silico molecular ...

Click here to read more arrow

Genetically Inherited Diseases: Gaucher’s Disease

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,114 )

Nikita Mountford   1. what is a genetically inherited disease? Genetic disorders are typically inherited (passed down) in either a dominant or recessive way. We each have two copies of every gene on our 22 numbered chromosomes. When a disorder is dominant, the disease can occur when there are DNA mistakes in only one of the two gene copies. This means that if a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship Between Exercise and Reaction Time: Research

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,982 )

EXERCISE AND REACTION TIME RESEARCH QUESTION: How, and to what extent, do varying intensities of aerobic exercise affect the visual and auditory reaction times of males between ages 15-20? INTRODUCTION: The field of reaction time has been one with much interest and study over the past few years, especially given its pertinence and applicability in things ranging from athletics and sport science to motor skills and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Major Discoveries in Modern Biology

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,417 )

Emily Faulkner BIOLOGY is a major branch of science that deals with the living organisms. Many discoveries are emerged in this area and the focus of this paper is on major discoveries of modern biology in the field of DNA, biotechnology and cell biology. Cell Biology Nature Cell Biologywas proposed 10 years ago to give an opportunity to "raise the discussion of ideas between ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Human Population Growth

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,640 )

The Growth of the Human Population Chris Long   Since the worlds origin we have seen a steady growth in the worldwide population. From the first records of humans on this earth we have seen the cycle of birth and death. The population increases and decreases are determined by the number of births compared with the number of deaths over the same period. As ...

Click here to read more arrow

STAT-3 and the Invasion of Cervical Cancer Cell Relationship

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,311 )

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer is one of the most highly leading cancers among the women in the world. The estimated number of cervical cancer cases and death in the world is increase to 527,624 and 265,653 respectively in year 2012 (Saranath & Khanna, 2014). This statistic had influenced the society to be more aware about cervical cancer and learn how to lower the possibility of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Methods of Pest Control for Crop Productivity

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,768 )

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Crop productivity is highly affected by the presence of pests. Insect pests are one of the major causes of low agricultural yield worldwide (Ferre et al., 2008). In spite of the crop protection measurements, large number of crop is lost to insect pests attack (Oerke, 2006). For sustainable agricultural production to meet the needs of increased population, chemical insecticides are used against ...

Click here to read more arrow

Applications of Probiotics

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,622 )

Probiotics: A Biotherapeutics Application of Potentially Beneficial Microorganisms Vandana Bharti*, Archana Mehta, Siddharts Singh and Neha Jain, Shuchi Mehta   ABSTRACT The term “Probiotics” comes from the Greek word “pro bios” meaning “for life”. Use of Probiotics are not a new invention but it has formed a vital part of diets for thousands of years, in the form of fermented milk and vegetable products ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies of Gene Sequencing

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,217 )

Databanks When a gene is sequenced for the first time, it is submitted to a databank such as DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ), GenBank or European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). The submission of the nucleotide sequence databanks via the internet, undergo a simple automatic process which done electronically with web-based procedures. The databanks that share their information on a day-to-day basis can be ...

Click here to read more arrow

Do Meal-worms Prefer the Dark? Experiment

29 Jan 2018

7 (2,520 )

Joseph, Jesse, and Hannah Biology-0/1st Behavior Lab- Mealworms Introduction: Mealworms, scientifically known as Tenebrio molitor, are the brown and white colored worm-like larvae of the darkling beetles. They go through a life cycle of transforming from larvae into pupa and then finally into adult darkling beetles. Mealworms are typically found near their food sources (both organic and rotting vegetation), underneath rocks (they highly prefer ...

Click here to read more arrow

Literature Review on Butea Monosperma (Lam.)

29 Jan 2018

8 (3,104 )

LITERATURE SURVEY Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (Fabaceae) 1. Botanical synonyms Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb; Erythrina monosperma Lamk. 1.2. Common names Bengali: kinaka, palas, paras, polashi; English: flame of the forest; Gujarati: kakria, kesudo, khakara, khakharo, palasso, phullas; Hindi: chinchra, dhak, palas, paras; Kannada: brahmavriksha, mathuga, mutthugada mara, muttuga, palasa, plashu, thoras; Malayalam: brahmavriksham, mukkappuyam, palas, palasin samatha; Marathi: palas, paras, phulas; Oriya: kinjuko, palasa, polas, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Climate Change on Moose Numbers

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,084 )

Moose in the Noose? From Montana to Minnesota, Ontario and Wyoming to Hew Hampshire moose numbers are in steep decline. Could climate change be to blame? These majestic animals, which can be over 6 feet tall and weigh 700 kg, are a highlight for wildlife enthusiasts visiting America’s northern states and bring in much needed revenue for local communities. They are also important components of the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biological Significance of BST2 Overexpression in OSCC

29 Jan 2018

8 (3,029 )

Overexpression of BST2 is associated with nodal metastasis and poorer prognosis in oral cavity cancer ABSTRACT Objective: Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) was one of the proteins which were found related to tumor metastasis in our previous proteomic study. Now we want to examine its clinical role on the oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Study Design: Individual retrospective cohort study and basic research. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Increased Temperature on Delosperma Cooperi

29 Jan 2018

9 (3,447 )

Eunice Oh The Impact of Increased Temperature due to Global Warming on Pollen Germination of Delosperma Cooperi Introduction: There have is an ongoing crisis that is beginning to influence ecosystems throughout the world, which may lead to been large scalemany natural disasters and impacts due to a rise in earth’s temperature, due to the rise in temperature from the global warming. According to NASA’s ...

Click here to read more arrow

Surgical Extraction of a Large Left Ventricular Hydatid Cyst

29 Jan 2018

4 (1,317 )

Surgical extraction of a large left ventricular hydatid cyst under transesophageal echocardiography monitoring Abstract We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed both hepatic and cardiac hydatid cysts by multimodality imaging. The left ventricular hydatid cyst was surgically removed not only under direct vision but transesophageal echocardiography monitoring. And the patient recovered uneventfully. Keywords: echinococcosis; hepatic hydatid cyst; left ventricular hydatid cyst; multimodality ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Euonine on Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells

29 Jan 2018

10 (3,665 )

Effect of Euonine on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells Running title: Role of euonine on uterine leiomyoma Highlights: The proliferation rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined. The apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined. The phosphorylation levels of EGFR from uterine leiomyoma cells were measured. Abstract Objective: To explore the effect of euonine on the proliferation and apoptosis ...

Click here to read more arrow

Fatty Acid Analysis of Magnetospirillum Sp

29 Jan 2018

4 (1,208 )

ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and have been identified from almost every continent. Magnetospirillumsp., the most studied MTB was commonly found in estuarine and fresh water habitat. The characterstics of bacteria can be determined by computer-assisted fatty acid profiling. Three strains of Magnetospirillumsp. was grown for 72 hours under defined cultural conditions using Magnetospirillum growth media (MSGM). ...

Click here to read more arrow

Constraints on the Expansion of Global Food Production

29 Jan 2018

9 (3,267 )

Introduction It has been observed that In spite of the fact that the food production has increased almost twice in the last few decades, but there are people who are insecure of the food conditions and do not get enough nutritious food to eat (Wu et al. 2011). As per the world population data the people who do not get adequate nutritious food to eat has ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bluetongue Virus (BTV): Causes, Types and History

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,272 )

The disease was first reported in Pakistan in 1959 and in India in 1964 (Sapre, 1964). After that BT outbreaks have been reported from sheep and goat in several states of India. Being India endemic for BT, 21 different serotypes of BTV have been reported (Prasad, 2000). However, recently the 22nd serotype i.e. BTV21 has also been isolated from India (Susmitha et al., 2012). Bluetongue is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Water Quality in South Africa's Rivers

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,264 )

Diseases Related to Microbial Organism’s found in the drinking water in South Africa Shelley-Anne Bentham Due: 17 March 2014 Definitions: cfu/ml: Colony Forming Units per mililitre Keywords: Cholera, Entamoeba Histolticia, Giardia Lamblia and Tricuris Trichuira, Rota Virus, Salmonella Abstract Aim: Is to determine the quality of water in the rivers of South Africa and determine the amount of pollution which may cause water borne ...

Click here to read more arrow

Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis: Causes and Prevalence

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,529 )

The genesis of the problem has been the introduction of the 6 cows from Rajasthan, a hot and dry state of India in the Holstein cross bred herd in the Graphic Era University dairy at Dehradun capital of hill state of India. Suddenly after introduction of these Sindhi cows there was death of death of 8 cross breed cows in 2010. In spite all possible veterinary ...

Click here to read more arrow

Screening of Exopolysaccharides Producing Bacteria Strains

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,617 )

1.0 Introduction Among the microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play a significant role in main physiological functions and applications. The increased demand for current and natural polymeric materials by several industrial fields such as pharmaceutical, food and others has moved the interest to the polysaccharides produced by microorganism during the past years. Polysaccharide is a macromolecule comprising more than about ten monosaccharides residues linked glycosidically in branch ...

Click here to read more arrow

Functions of Food and Food Types

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,722 )

Introduction: A look over past decade shows an evident surge of consumer concern towards the health augmenting role of some specific foods which are refer as functional foods. Evidently all foods that we consume are functional in nature as they dispense specific aroma, taste and nutritive value, however during last decade the term has been related to the food stuff which has some additional ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analyzing the Phylum Chordata through Biology

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,550 )

Hamza Ali Introduction: The topic chosen for this biological study was the Kingdom Animalia. This study will specifically be analyzing the Phylum Chordata, by providing an introduction to Chordates, Vertebrates, The Classification method of Cladistics, Fish, Amphibian, and Reptiles. What are vertebrates? -Vertebrates are known as animals that have an internal spine made of bone.Vertebrates include reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds, mammals, primates, rodents and ...

Click here to read more arrow

CD8+ effector and memory T cells Differentiation

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,328 )

What controls CD8+ effector and memory T cells differentiation? Introduction: The capability of initiating and cultivating a population of memory T cells is the key component of an effective adaptive immune response and the fundamental foundation for a productive vaccine since memory cells can trigger an aggressive response upon reinfection. Throughout an infection, T cells can differentiate into a multitude of effector and memory cells, which ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role Of Bacteria In Assisting Cancer

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,080 )

Cancer can be promoted by several pathogenic bacteria to initiate abnormal cell growth by attacking the immune system or suppressing apoptosis (Mager 2006). However, bacterial toxins can still be used for tumor suppressor and cancer vaccines on immunotoxins of bacterial origin(Patyar et al. 2010). Bacterial colonization of tumors was initially attributed to the hypoxic nature of solid tumors (low O2 levels).30 It has been proposed that ...

Click here to read more arrow

ATP and Adenosine: Biochemistry and Metabolism

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,569 )

ATP and adenosine: biochemistry and metabolism Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenously occurring nucleoside triphosphate, which is ubiquitous in all cell types and constitutes the natural precursor molecule of adenosine, (AD) a purine nucleoside formed by adenine and ribose. One ATP molecule consists of three phosphate groups, and is synthetized by several enzymes, namely ATP synthase, from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) on Biology

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,416 )

PCR- How has this technique revolutionised molecular biology in the last 30 years? PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has been in existence for several decades now and in that time has become one of the most commonly used of all lab techniques in biology. In its simplest form it is a way of enzymatically replicating a chosen section of DNA in vitro, without the need for any ...

Click here to read more arrow

Absent Joining Chain Effect on Immune Response

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,604 )

Critical Review of a Journal Kallberg, E. and Leanderson, T., 2006. Joining-chain (J-chain) negative mice are B cell memory deficient. European Journal of Immunology, 36, 1398-1403. Overview The journal article falls under the main subject area of cellular immune response, where the effect of the absence of joining chain locus on T- cell dependent immune responses on mice was explored. While the authors’ previous study establishes ...

Click here to read more arrow

High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays: Uses and Formats

25 Jan 2018

17 (6,512 )

The increasing demands placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to produce a rapid turnaround of new drugs is a driving factor in the automation of the processes at the initial screening stage of drug discovery. This has lead to the development of numerous high throughput screening (HTS) assays, with the increasing miniaturization of the whole process (1). An explosion in genomic and proteomic studies in recent decades ...

Click here to read more arrow

Microbial Mutagenicity Tests: Strategies and Benefits

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,720 )

Human beings are exposed to an ever-increasing array of chemicals; from food additives, medicines and cosmetics to environmental exposure to pesticides and flame-retardants. It is essential to establish the potential toxicity of these compounds before they are used, and in particular to assess their capacity to cause mutational damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Such genotoxicity can cause heritable damage to germline DNA or may increase the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Classification System of Ectomychorrhizae Fungi

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,290 )

Introduction Cladistics is a method of phylogenetic systematics which aims to determine an organism's classification, by decent, in a taxonomic system. Cladistics uses synapomorphies, which are shared derived characteristics, between groups of organisms to make decisions about how the group fits into the classification system. For this cladistic study the group of organisms known as ectomycorrhizae fungi has been selected. Ectomychorrhizal (EM) fungi plays a key ...

Click here to read more arrow

Antibodies Inhibit Prion Propagation

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,206 )

Critical Essay of “Antibodies inhibit prion propagation and clear cell cultures of prion infectivity.” Background Information Prions are the actual action centers of nervous system diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They are a dendritic package that replicates and spreads neural diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They also are can be considered the pathways or pathogenic agents that help to transmit various nervous system diseases such as scrapie and ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Occurrence and Function of Play Behaviour in Mammals

25 Jan 2018

8 (3,098 )

Summary Play in mammals is a widely reported behaviour. It tends to occur in younger mammals and diminishes as they reach adulthood. Play in young mammals often mimics adult behaviour that is essential for survival e.g., predatory skills. This has led to the theory that the function of play is to enable young mammals to practice and develop the skills that are required for adult survival. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Saliva Analysis for Diabetes: Pros and Cons

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,148 )

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a common and widespread disease, characterised by poor regulation of glucose due to pancreatic insufficiency. Traditional methods of diagnosis and monitoring utilise blood glucose analysis and highly accurate mechanisms exist for this. However, as many insulin dependent diabetics have to monitor their own blood glucose, the constant obtaining and testing of blood can be very inconvenient and reduce patient compliance. Therefore the ...

Click here to read more arrow

MCP-1: Origins and Uses for Inflammatory Treatment

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,545 )

Introduction Chemokines are able to attract and activate leukocyte subsets in exclusion to other subsets (1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine that targets monocytes, T lymphocytes and cells that express the C-C chemokine receptor (2) including myocytes (3). MCP-1 (also known as CCL2) was the third chemokine to be purified to homogeneity, after platelet factor 4 and interleukin 8 (4). It ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Microstructure of a Cell

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,404 )

The microstructure of a cell is made up of a complex system of organelles. Each organelle has an important function with regards to the production and transport of information into the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein. The nucleus contains DNA, the coded information required for protein synthesis. The genetic information coded within the nucleus is transcribed and exported via mRNA to associate with the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Literature Review on Impacts and Causes of Food Bacteria

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,778 )

The results show that foods tested varied considerably both in the degree of microbial contamination and the types of bacteria present. Bile salts in the MacConkey agar allow selective growth of bacteria adapted to grow in the mammalian intestinal tract (Heritage et al. 1996). The majority of these are Enterobacteriacae (enteric bacteria), including pathogens such as Escherichia coli (coliforms) and Salmonella spp., many of which are ...

Click here to read more arrow

Anti-inflammatory Profile of Alnus nepalensis Leaves

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,725 )

Anti-inflammatory profile of Alnus nepalensis leaves extracts: In-vitro and in-vivo study Archana Saxena1, Deepti Yadav2, Anant kumar1, Madan M.Gupta2, Dnyaneshwar U.Bawankule1   ABSTRACT Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alnus nepalensis has been used in the traditional medicine to treat the inflammatory conditions in India, Korea and China but it lacks proper pharmacological intervention. Aim of the study: To evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory profile of A. nepalensis leaves ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biological Causes of Alzheimer's Disease

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,070 )

Alzheimer’s disease is driven by two processes: extracellular deposits of beta amyloid and intracellular accumulation of tau protein.[9] “It is characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase.”[10p554] The APP gene provides instructions for making APP. This protein is found in many tissues and organs including the brain and the spinal cord. It plays ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,610 )

The essay aims to investigate the issue of Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan, with particular emphasis on the meat traceability system adopted by the Japanese regulatory authorities and its implications for the Japanese food markets, its beef industry, and the hospitality industry. Presumably written in late 2005 or early 2006, some three years after BSE reared its head in Japan, the essay attempts to trace ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cell Cycle-related Genes Expression in HGA

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,346 )

Cell cycle-related genes are prognostic markers of survival in high grade astrocytomas Highlights: A total of 598 genes were identified as significant risk genes for prognosis. Prognosis genes including CDC6 and AURKA had higher degrees in the PPI network. CDC6, AURKA and CHEK1 were mainly enriched in cell cycle and mitotic cell cycle. Abstract Objective: High grade astrocytoma (HGA) is a kind of aggressive ...

Click here to read more arrow

Efficacy of Antimicrobial Preservatives

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,687 )

Abstract. The aim of the experiment is to test the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives by means of investigating the survival of one selected species of micro-organism which is deliberately introduced into the tested products. Introduction. Cosmetic products are not expected to be sterile as the raw materials used in their production, especially those originating from plants, animals or soil are often contaminated with micro-organisms. The extent ...

Click here to read more arrow

DNASE1 VNTR polymorphism and SLE

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,429 )

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNASE1) polymorphism and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iranian population Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani1,2 ,Saeedeh Salimi1,2*, Maryam Moossavi3,Mahnaz Sandoughi4, Zahra Zakeri4, Maryam Khoddamian2 Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease. The etiology of SLE is multi-factorial and both genetic and environmental factors play role. In SLE patients a reduction of DNASE1 activity is observed. The aim of this study was ...

Click here to read more arrow

Understanding an Unknown Protein Sequence

25 Jan 2018

8 (3,032 )

Title Understanding an unknown protein sequence provided that was found to be [Physcomitrella patens] >gi|162695322|gb|EDQ81666.1| Seq ID: gi|168001481|ref|XP_001753443.1S Abstract A protein sequence was provided to be subjected to the manipulation of various bioinformatics tools. The protein was found to be a predicted protein of Physcomitrella patens that is an important bryophyte that is utilised in general genomic studies such as reverse genetics, molecular farming, the production ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Testicular Histological Structure in Lambs

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,411 )

Testicular Histological Structure and Scrotal During Postnatal Development till puberty Circumference in Najdi and Naemi Ram Lambs Ahmed A. Al-kawmania,,. Faisal M. Abou-Tarbousha,. Mohammad Abul Faraha,. Mansour M. Alfuraijib,. Salah A. Ibrahima. Abstract The present work is conducted to elucidate the relationship among chronological age, testis size, and the postnatal development of the seminiferous epithelium of the testes of the Najdi and Naemi ram ...

Click here to read more arrow

Threats to Urban Bird Populations

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,408 )

Emily Bailes, Ann Bailey, Matheus Blezer Plumm, Tom McClellan-West, Lizzie Yarwood - Introduction The enigmatic creatures of the sky, birds are creatures that are treasured by many around the world, by some as cultural symbolism, others a hobby to indulge in and some just find their presence a pleasant addition to a grey and largely urban world. Human colonisation has had a huge impact ...

Click here to read more arrow

Characterization of Leishmania Major in Dogs

25 Jan 2018

10 (3,658 )

Characterization of Leishmania major in dogs as a reservoir of the parasite, in Shiraz, southern Iran Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been increased over the last decade. The primary hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals of several orders (Rodentia, Marsupialia, Carnivora, etc.). A PCR assay using a of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Proteins for Xylose Utilization

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,549 )

Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass, comprising up to 35% of the total carbohydrates (Lee, 1997; Saha, 2003; Jeffries and Jin. 2004; Qin et al, 2012). Microorganisms possess three different pathways for D-xylose degradation. The first pathway, present in many bacteria and few fungi, involves xylose isomerase which converts d-xylose to xylulose and phosphorylation of xylulose by xylulokinase followed by its entry ...

Click here to read more arrow

Types of Agriculture and Farming

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,421 )

AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES Food is the major indispensable, fundamental and vital need of the people. “It has been calculated that a human under stress, performing hard labor, needs 2000grams of water, 470 grams of dry weight various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70grams of dry weight proteins and the appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals. Otherwise said, the colony will need a minimum of 30000 ...

Click here to read more arrow

Determining Side Effects of Tumor Size Reducing Drugs

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,770 )

[APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SIDE EFFECTS OF TUMOR SIZE REDUCING DRUGS] 1. Introduction: Objective: Pfizer have developed a new drug that appears to reduce the size of specific tumors but are concerned about what effect the drug might have on normal tissue. Outline how you would use DNA technology to address this issue. Cancer disease has large ...

Click here to read more arrow

Pseudomonas Syringae Caused by Avrpt2

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,623 )

‘RIN 4 Orthologs’ Maheen Rashid   Introduction Plants are susceptible to a wide range of bacterial diseases. Depending on the origin of the infection, these diseases can be localized within the stems, leaves or the roots of the infected plant. When a human body is compromised, as a result of it being infected by a bacterial disease, the infection’s symptoms can thus be visually ...

Click here to read more arrow

Management and Mechanism of Amikacin induced Nephrotoxicity

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,148 )

Jasmeen Kaur Savita Kumari Amit Barwal Dr. Anil Sharma   Abstract— Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problem. It occurs when the body is exposed to various agents like drugs like aminoglycoside, antimicrobial agents, NSAIDS etc or toxins such as mercury, lead, arsenic etc. Aminoglycosides are one of the oldest antibiotics used to treat serious infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive ...

Click here to read more arrow

Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) Caused by Clomipramine

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,464 )

Clomipramine-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia-like syndrome leading to acute respiratory failure: a report of first described case Drugs are well-known causes of eosinophilic lung disease and patients with drug-induced eosinophilic lung disease can have variable clinical presentations. Clinical features may range from asymptomatic eosinophilic infiltrates to acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP)-like syndrome leading to acute respiratory failure. This report describes the first case of clomipramine-induced AEP-like syndrome causing ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Water Supply for E.Coli

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,442 )

In Canada, the research shows that at least one coliform or pathogenic bacterium present in 28% of water dispensed in workplaces when compared to 22% of contaminated tap water samples (Rim, 2009). The quality of drinking water dispensed from water cooler were complying with the WHO drinking water standard and Egyptian drinking water standard that concluded that microbial contamination had occurred inside the water cooler. The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role of Genetics in Obesity

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,275 )

Sabita Tamang Introduction This non-practical research report will include the role of individuals’ genetics in abnormal weight gain (obesity). Obesity is described as someone whose weight is above the normal weight (Medicinenet, 2013). A person is considered to be obese if their weight is 20% above the ideal weight, taking into consideration of their height, age, sex and figure (Medicinenet, 2013). . National Institutes ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role of the Microglia Cells

25 Jan 2018

3 (1,093 )

Joshua Sael Microglia is an endogenous immunohomeostatic neuronal support cells in the Central nervous system (CNS) (Kettenmann et al., 2011). Microglial cells are responsible for surveying brain and spinal cord (invertebrates and vertebrates), in protection from pathogens and injury, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity and immune homeostasis (Garden and Moller, 2006). Microglia’s homeostatic function achieves profound salubrious therapeutic state corollary for prophylaxis of neurological health in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Dominant Hemisphere of the Brain for Languages

25 Jan 2018

8 (2,933 )

BRAIN TUMOR A STUDY OF THE DOMINANT HEMISPHERE FOR LANGUAGES IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN TUMOR Author –Mitali Srivastava ABSTRACT Tumors are deviant organ system containing a convoluted interplay between the neoplastic compartment and recruited vascular, inflammatory, and stromal elements, Human brain tumor consist of multitude of various different tumors that can be distinguish at both histological as well as molecular level, it consist of wide ...

Click here to read more arrow

Extraction of DNA from Green Split Peas and Chicken Livers

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,429 )

Lisa Lyons   Abstract: In this experiment, I extracted DNA from the cells of Green Split Peas and Chicken Livers. I used different variables for each. First, I did the experiment with all materials being cold. The second time I did the experiment with materials at room temperature. My objective was to see which method would extract more DNA. The results were that the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Understanding Nutrient Interactions Within Simple Ecosystem

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,016 )

Jenny Shoener Lab Partners: Garrett, Jilda, & Ying Purpose The purpose of conducting this experiment was to see an overview of how an ecosystem works. Also to view how organisms and the environment interact to carry out a functional system. While observing and experimenting, it would show how the cycles work together along with organisms living in the ecosystem effect the water quality. This ...

Click here to read more arrow

α-glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Coffee

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,413 )

Abstract The activity-based fractionation of coffee solutions by a series of chromatography techniques led to the isolation of an active compound I which exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. The structure of compound I was established as norharman (9H-pyrido[3.4-b]indole) on the basis of HR-FAB-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 1H-1H COSY spectra. Compound I potently inhibited α-glucosidase in a concentration dependent manner but it did ...

Click here to read more arrow

Oxygen Production During Photosynthesis

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,012 )

Oxygen Production During Photosynthesis Meera Kapadia and Amirah Mohd Ariff   Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the role of light in the production of oxygen gas through photosynthesis. The independent variable for this investigation was the time elapsed between recordings of the location of the sodium bicarbonate edge; the dependent variable was the displacement of the sodium bicarbonate edge; and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Master Genes Involved in Cotton Fiber Development

25 Jan 2018

3 (1,173 )

Cotton fibers are seed trichomes, which are single celled and arose from the epidermal layers of ovules. Fibre formation in cotton has divided into four distinct stages viz; fibre initiation, elongation, secondary cell wall accumulation and maturation. In fiber initiation stage up to 15-25% of epidermal cells of cotton ovules are differentiated into lint fibers which generally occurs between 0 to 1 DPA, then these fibre ...

Click here to read more arrow

Protein Precipitation & Isolation of Casein from Milk

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,862 )

A. Dilshan Jayawickrama Protein Precipitation Methods and Isolation of Casein from Milk  Introduction Protein is one of the major constituent of all living organisms on earth which are made up of in a sequence of amino acid. They are linear polymers of amino acids with high molecular weights which are known as ...

Click here to read more arrow

Oil Degrading Bacteria: History of and Processes

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,752 )

Oil Degrading Bacteria Introduction Oil degrading bacteria are considered as the dominant hydrocarbon which helps in degrading the aquatic systems such as oceans. These bacteria’s are capable of diverse metabolic pathways which enable them to utilize most recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons that are not present in fungi. In recent years the microbial biodegradation of pollutants is a sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environment which is strive by ...

Click here to read more arrow

Life Cycle of the G. Lamblia

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,787 )

Thuy Truc Pham Giardiasis Giardiasis, which is a protozoan infection in human, is caused by Giardia lamblia (synonyms as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). This disease is sometimes known as traveller’s diarrhoea, causing problems all around the world. The causative agent presents in two distinct forms: the disease-causing trophozoite and the dormant infectious cyst. This essay is to review the strategies employed by G. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship Between Myofibroblasts and Progenitor Cells

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,595 )

Introduction The liver is an organ with high regenerative ability in case of massive parenchymal cell loss it can restore its mass. Even if often thought of in the circumstance of acute liver damage. The liver reconstitution and regeneration are also related with fibrosis in acute liver damage. It is provided by recent literature that it has novel insights establishing a job for progenitor cells and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Therapeutic Effects of Caffeine

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,943 )

Abstract Caffeine which is part of many beverages like tea, coffee, energy drinks, cola drinks and chocolates is one of the widely used stimulants by the human population all over the world. The consumption of caffeine varies across age groups. Generally adults follow a pattern in the consumption related to the time of the day, the sleep-wake cycle and other behavioral attributes. Caffeine acts as adenosine ...

Click here to read more arrow

Using Fish Geometric Morphometric Markers

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,249 )

Use of Fish Geometric Morphometric Markers for Characterizing Shape Variations of Selected Fishes: Family Leiognathidae in the Marine Waters of Zamboanga City, Western Mindanao, Philippines Roldan T. Echem Abstract [AU1] In this investigation, geometric morphometric analysis was used to determine the extent and degree of morphological diversity within and among four species of fishes under Family Leiognathidae and one out-group under Family Menidae collected ...

Click here to read more arrow

Declining Honey Bee Population: Causes and Effects

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,305 )

Abstract Introduction Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) numbers have declined significantly in recent years and there are numerous theories as to why. One of the fore runners is the emergence of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), which is: “an unsolved decline in honey bees from parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia” (Evans and Schwarz 2011). Even though a comprehensive idea of what causes Colony Collapse Disorder ...

Click here to read more arrow

Preparation and Characterization of Mulbery Silk Films

23 Jan 2018

6 (2,131 )

Abstract: The silk films were prepared by dissolving degummed Bombyx mori raw silk fibers in LiBr salt solution using double distilled water as a solvent and subjecting the solution to dialysis using cellulose tube. These films may be of some use in treating burn injuries. We have characterized these films using X-rays and other physical methods to obtain information about the structure-property relation. We have also ...

Click here to read more arrow

Environmental Impact of Tobacco

23 Jan 2018

5 (1,636 )

Price Anders Environmental Biology Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Surgeon General's report, approximately 443,000 U.S. adults die from smoking-related illnesses each year. In addition, smoking has been estimated to cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity annually (Current Cigarette). ...

Click here to read more arrow

Peregrine Falcon Management in Pennsylvania

23 Jan 2018

8 (3,165 )

Nikki McGaughey   Introduction Peregrine falcons are incredibly creatures, in and around the United States throughout history. They have been captivating our imaginations, being the fastest animal in the world, reaching up to 278 miles per hour in a stoop. According to scientists this should not even be possible, with the average weight of a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Feasibility of Single-port Complete Thoracoscopic Lobectomy

23 Jan 2018

7 (2,775 )

Clinical comparisons of single-port versus three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer patients Abstract Objective: To compare the feasibility and safety of single-port versus three-port complete thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 60 lung cancer patients from June 2014 to August 2014 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University. There were 30 patients in single-port complete ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies for Prevention of Global Warming Effects

23 Jan 2018

9 (3,292 )

Rachel Tomsett How can we as a species prevent the continued effects of global warming and to what extent has irreversible damage already occurred? Global warming, also known as climate change, describes the rising temperature of the atmosphere and ocean. Throughout all of earth’s history climate has been a very fluctuate factor (for example the ice age). However if you take into account how ...

Click here to read more arrow

Insertion of L. hesperus TuSp1 Gene into B. mori

23 Jan 2018

9 (3,560 )

Research Plan Detailing the Insertion of L. hesperus TuSp1 gene into B. mori Team 5: Riley Capizzi, Mingming Li, Jia Mikuls, Sarah Mrozek, Eric Nagarajan, Chandini Nair, Nate Payne, Matt Smith, Evan Templeman; 7 May 2014 Introduction: Figure 1. TuSp1 molecular structure (Solution structures of TuSp1 domains). The amino acid sequence of the TuSp1 gene contains a signal peptide at the N terminus that is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Dent's Disease: Symptoms, Genetics, and Treatments

23 Jan 2018

7 (2,415 )

Dent's Disease Alessander Leyendecker Junior Clinical Aspects Dent's disease is a recently characterized syndrome caused by a genetic mutation that leads to a renal tubular disorder and is characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction. The proximal tubule is responsable for the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose and low-molecular-weight proteins (like retinol binding protein and α1 microglobulin and β2 microglobulin) and for the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Development of Relational Enzymes Function Model

23 Jan 2018

13 (4,875 )

Development of Relational Enzymes Function Model for Medicinal Plants. June 2015 CHAPTER 4 SYSTEM DESIGN System Perspective/Architectural Design The main perspective of the system is to manage the enzymes details with proper structure and EC no. As the system is organized specially for the differently abled people it is designed in such a way that the person must be convenient in using the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Testing GMO Content of Food Products

23 Jan 2018

9 (3,273 )

In order to double food production for the increasing population of the world. That is predicted to be around 11 billion people by the year 2050 (James and Krattiger 1996). The scientists and the developing communities believed that the conventional agriculture process would not produce enough food and resources to sustain the increasing population. This has lead scientists to research new technologies that will help increase ...

Click here to read more arrow

Comparison of Light Microscope and Electron Microscope

23 Jan 2018

7 (2,708 )

  Light Microscope Electron Microscope (EM) How it works The stage of the microscope holds slides containing specimens. You can adjust the stage adding further light or move it allowing different layers of the object to be in focus. The user then looks through the microscope eyepiece, where amirrorat the bottom of the microscope ...

Click here to read more arrow

Retroviral Mediated Gene Transfer

23 Jan 2018

6 (2,381 )

Retroviral methodology is an effectual method to integrate interested genes into animal genomes (Van et al., 1985). It is considered as a naturally occurring gene transfering system to integrate DNA into mammalian cells (Varmus, 1998). In 1974, the first healthy mice, that carry copies of foreign viral DNA was made by microinjecting SV40 DNA into the blastocysts (Jaenisch R, Mintz, 1974). Consequently, the germline transmission of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Literature Review: Diabetes, Inflammation and Obesity

23 Jan 2018

6 (2,396 )

LITERATURE REVIEW DIABETES The metabolic disease diabetes mellitus is marked by high blood glucose concentration as a result of impairment in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. The primary cause of high blood glucose concentration is most of the time not obvious as to be a result of either defects in insulin secretion or insulin action on target tissues since both impairments often occur in the same ...

Click here to read more arrow

Allelic Polymorphisms of Leptin Gene in Sheep

23 Jan 2018

8 (2,922 )

Allelic polymorphisms of Leptin gene in Najdi and Naeimi sheep of Saudi Arabia Mahmoud A.H.1, Saleh A.A. 2, Almealamah N.A. 3, Abou-tarboush F.M. 1, Aljumaah R.S. 3 and Abouheif M.A. *3 Abstract Leptin hormone plays an important role in many biological processes in animals and humans, such as appetite, immune system and reproduction. In the present study, the genetic variability in the leptin (LEP) exon 3 gene ...

Click here to read more arrow

Report on RNA-seq Transcriptomics

23 Jan 2018

8 (2,921 )

Giannakis Nikolaos Introduction Transcriptomics Transcriptomics is the field of biology that studies the RNA transcripts in a large scale manner. Transcriptome is the whole set of RNAs transcribed by the genome from a specific tissue or cell type at a developmental stage and/or under a certain physiological condition (Willingham and Ginger and Gingeras, 2006; Jacquier, 2009). RNAs are either coding or non-coding, which means ...

Click here to read more arrow

Friedrich Miescher's Experiments on the Nuclei

23 Jan 2018

4 (1,222 )

In the year 1869, a Swiss physiological chemist named Friedrich Miescher identified a substance called nuclein which he found inside the nuclei of human white cells. He was the first to identify such a substance from leukocytes also called white blood cells. Miescher’s intention was not to isolate the nuclein from the white blood cells but rather to isolate the components of the protein in the ...

Click here to read more arrow
Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.