Bacterial Magnetosomes Synthesized by Magnetotactic Bacteria

30 Mar 2018

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ABSTRACT: Bacterial magnetosomes synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn immense attention due to its unique features. Immobilized enzymes have a number of applications in today’s industries. Studies have shown that immobilized enzymes have a better shelf life and kinetics when compared to free enzymes. Magnetosomes have been used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. This study reports the efficient ...

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Nitrogen Fixation in Pasture Systems

29 Mar 2018

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Biological nitrogen fixation plays an essential role in the improvement of agricultural sustainability, particularly with regard to the contribution of pasture legumes. In fact, pasture legumes are among the most efficient leguminous plants in terms of nitrogen fixation and, depending on adequate management and on the establishment of effective symbioses with adequate rhizobia, they may contribute with high input rates of fixed-nitrogen into the soil (Materon ...

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Complex of β- Sitosterol with Co Analysis

29 Mar 2018

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COMPLEX OF β- SITOSTEROL WITH Co AT DIFFERENT MOLE RATIO AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES TALAT MAHMOOD, YASMEEN BIBI, IFFAT MAHMOOD, SYED NASEEM HUSSAIN SHAH, ANEELA WAHAB,SIKINDAR SHERWANI, HUMAIRA ANWAR   Abstract The principle of present work is to build up a plant-based method to reduce toxicity in our body which is caused due to high level of some essential trace metals. This current effort ...

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PATRIC Database: Significance, Applications and Drawbacks

29 Mar 2018

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Name: Gopinath. S PATRIC Database Biological significance of PATRIC Database: A strategic plan was developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for conducting research on Biodefense. They have developed a subsequent watch list of genera from their own defined list of ‘Priority Pathogens’ and they were categorized as A, B and C microbial pathogens with respective priority levels. In order to understand ...

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Molecular Heterogeneity of Carnation Mottle Virus in Iran

29 Mar 2018

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Barzegar A   Abstract Carnation is commercially one of the most important cut-flower crops worldwide. Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is the type member of the genus Carmovirus of Tobamovirideae family. It can be mechanically transmitted and causes significant losses including poor quality of cut-flowers and fewer yields on carnation crops. In an attempt to surveying the CarMV heterogeneity, 120 CarMV isolates were collected from ...

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Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in the Menopause

29 Mar 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Schisterman et al. [32] reviewed the evidence amongst the premenopausal women by comparing the lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle. Mainly, lipoprotein cholesterol levels have been noticed to alter during the menstrual cycle as reproductive hormone levels change. During the follicular phase, triglyceride cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol are observed to be highest and throughout the luteal phase their level decreases. Meanwhile, ...

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Urine Tests on Antibacterial Activity

29 Mar 2018

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Urine sample U20 was allocated and the first thing done was to record the visual appearance of the urine. The urine was golden yellow with a pungent smell. At first sight, the urine did not appear to have any blood present in it. Further biochemical test using Ames Multistix Strips was done. The strip was dipped into the urine and at appropriate time intervals, results such ...

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Effect of Temperature on Milk | Experiment

29 Mar 2018

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Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to understand the conditions which encouraged and inhibited bacterial growth by observing the rate of bacterial reproduction in milk samples stored at different temperatures. The results collected after the six day period of observation revealed that factors which influenced the rate of bacterial growth were temperature, pH level, moisture and the amount of food sources available. It was concluded ...

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Regulation of Human Haematopoietic Stem Cell Self-renewal

29 Mar 2018

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PAPER REVIEW Regulation of human haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal by the microenvironment’s control of retinoic acid signalling Ghiaura et al. (2013) PNAS 110 no. 40 pp 16121–16126 Constant blood cell production is dependent on perpetual reconstitution of the hematopoietic system via a series of lineage-restricted intermediates. This remarkable cell renewal process is supported by a rare and small subpopulation of bone marrow cells called hematopoietic stem ...

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Phytophtora Palmivora (Black Pod Disease) Causes and Effects

29 Mar 2018

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Phytophtora palmivora (Black pod disease) MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN MOHD RAZAK   INTRODUCTION A long time ago, Malaysia is one the exporter of cocoa because they can produce abundance in tonnes of cocoa yield. This crop has become one of backbone of Malaysia economy during at the time (Malaysia Cocoa Board, 2013). Due to the rapid development of this industry, government was establish Malaysian Cocoa Board in ...

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Isolation and Characterisation of SVMP Inhibitor

29 Mar 2018

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Patricia B.J. et al., 2003 – Isolation, characterisation of SVMP inhibitor. Patricia et al. Investigated the PO41 as a SVMP inhibitor which was isolated from Philander opossum serum. The study was carried out using proper grade chemicals, the wistar rats were used as the test animal. For the isolation of the PO41 a DEAE-sephacel column (1.0 x 10.5) was used. 10mM sodium acetate (pH 3.7, flow ...

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Chemoreception in Insects: Study on Ladybeetle Behaviour

29 Mar 2018

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Covert Considerations to Overt Odors! Giuseppe Tumminello http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022681928142 Insects, like most biotic organisms, leave a trail of chemical information wherever they travel. Chemical cues are left where they walk, abandoned in their feces, expelled from their mandibles, and deposited from their abdomens. The dissipated chemical bouquets serve many purposes for both the recipients and originators. Semiochemicals can be for the sake of purposeful communication and are often ...

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Evolution of the Echinoids

29 Mar 2018

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In response to the essay question: “Echinoids – the key to geologic time?” School of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology Thomas Glann Echinoidea, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, are probably the most interesting and compelling palaeontological story to date. Their story starts in the late Ordovician period, approximately 460 million years ago, and you can still observe the echinoids in modern day environments as sea urchins, heart ...

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Cell Adhesion Molecules in Formation of Olfactory Connection

29 Mar 2018

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This dissertation study investigated expression, function and the regulatory mechanism of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of olfactory connections. Identification and characterization of a novel protocadherin, Pcdh20, provided additional evidence that multiple cell adhesion molecules are involved in the development of the olfactory system. In combination with several established studies by Sakano and Yoshihara’s group, my study further supports the neural identity model and provides ...

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Genetic Degradation of the White Campion (Silene Latifolia)

29 Mar 2018

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The Y chromosome of the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has undergone genetic degradation, losing some genes entirely from its Y chromosome. Charlotte Gardener, Danielle Hewson, Abbie O’Connor, Francis Windram This year, Bergero et al.(1) have shown that the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has lost genes from its Y sex chromosome entirely, and does not yet show significant dosage compensation. Plants ...

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Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Collection, Preparation and Uses

29 Mar 2018

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Samuel Good Fresh Frozen Plasma Introduction Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is the name for the liquid portion of human blood, which has been frozen and preserved. It is taken by blood donation and is stored until needed for blood transfusion. FFP has been available since 1941 (Hoffman, et al, 1990), it was used initially as a volume expander (Erber, et al, 2006), but is ...

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Periodicity of the Banding in Polished and Etched Shells

29 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 3: GENERAL METHODOLOGY Background This chapter describes the sampling areas and methodological procedure used in all experiments undertaken in this study. Specific materials and methods are explained in the respective chapters. Sample collection Various experiments were carried out to determine the periodicity of the banding in polished and etched shell section. A total of 950 samples of A. granosa (shell length: 10 mm) were obtained ...

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Vespidae Wasps: Importance and Genetic Diversity

29 Mar 2018

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General introduction Hymenopterans play an vital role in the terrestrial ecosystems as producers, predators and pollinators. Aculeata is a subgroup of the order Hymenoptera whose significant speciality is the conversion of the female ovipositor into a venom injecting device or stinger . The members of which are commonly called as ants, bees and wasps. India has a rich fauna of Aculeata (P. Gireeshkumar et al., 2014). ...

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Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

29 Mar 2018

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Allergies, also known as hypersensitive reactions, that occurs when one’s immune system over reacts to a substance which otherwise is harmless. These substances are known as allergens, they could be house hold material, pets [1], cockroaches [2], dust, food items [3] like milk, nuts, sun and even water. Among all the substances that are known to cause an allergy, one of the most common is pollen. ...

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Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp and Synechocystis sp Comparison

29 Mar 2018

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Reconstruction and Comparison of the Metabolic Potential of Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 SITI HARYANI BINTI ANUAR Problem Background Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic cell which do not have nucleus and lack some organelles. They also unicellular and reproduce or divide by binary fission. They habitats are common in lakes, ponds, springs, wetlands, streams, rivers and also in soil or on rock. Cyanobacteria ...

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Influences on Fish Pigmentation

29 Mar 2018

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Pigmentation: Melanotropic axis Skin colouration is one of the most striking features of the teleost phenotypes. Fish pigmentation is a plastic feature that can be adjusted to according to fish needs: e.g. social interactions (Grosenick et al., 2007), camouflage (predator avoidance) (Doolan et al., 2009) or mating selection (Grether et al., 2005). Pigmentation (colour and pattern) is determinate by the amount, type and distribution ...

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Health Benefits and Effects of Plant Derived Antioxidants

29 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Plant derived antioxidants especially, the phenolics have gained considerable importance due to their potential health benefits. Several epidemiological studies have shown that the intake of plant food containing antioxidants improve the quality of health because it down-regulates many degenerative processes and can effectively lower the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Arabshahi and Urooj, 2007). The revitalization of antioxidant compounds from plant materials is typically ...

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Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Experiment

29 Mar 2018

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Abstract Mental rotation involves mind when it tries to recognize objects in the surrounding and figuring out what the altered objects really are. The aim of this experiment was to determine reaction time of different angles of rotation and influence of gender differences. The task involved comparing three letters, some letters appeared the same and others were difficult to tell during rotation. I also noted that, ...

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Mismatch Repair (MMR) Pathways and Deficiencies

29 Mar 2018

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1- Mismatch Repair The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is a bidirectional excision-resynthesis system that corrects mismatches generated during DNA replication or homologous recompination (HR). MMR adds up to 1000 fold increase in the fidelity of DNA replication (Kolodner, 1996; Preston et al., 2010). Mismatches fall into two groups, base-base mispairs resulting from incorrect nucleotide insertion by DNA polymerses and insertion-deletion loops (IDLs) resulting from slippage ...

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Transformation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli)

29 Mar 2018

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TRANSFORMATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI INTRODUCTION : Transformation is a process whereby the genetic materials of a cell are altered by introducing DNA (exogenous DNA) from the surrounding environment through the cell membrane of the organism. It involves the uptake of DNA from either a plasmid or a small fragment of linear DNA by a specific recipient cell. Transformation could occur naturally in some bacteria such as ...

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Expression of KITLG and KIT-Receptor Analysis

29 Mar 2018

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Varicocele is the pathological dilation of the venous pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord (Naughton et al., 2001). Varicocele might be associated with male infertility. With diagnostic techniques such as scrotal ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging, varicocele has been demonstrated in up to 91% of subfertile human cases (Gonzalez et al., 1985; Resim et al., 1999) The pathophysiologies of the testicular damage in varicocele are not ...

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Genetic Causes of Epilepsy

29 Mar 2018

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Epilepsy: It is estimated that at many as 10% of the general populace will experience a seizure in their lifetime. (Persad et al., 2003) Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease defined by its characteristic symptom, recurrent and spontaneous seizures. (Berg et al., 2011) (Asher Y et al., 2012) Epilepsy is a common condition with an occurrence of up to 3% in the population (Deng H et al., ...

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Resistance of Wheat to Mycosphaerella Graminicola

29 Mar 2018

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Resistance of wheat to Mycosphaerella graminicola involves early of gene expression INTRODUCTION Wheat is one of the three cereal grain crops, together with rice and maize, being used for human food feed for more than 5000 years ago (Peng et al., 2011). The world annual wheat production is about 671 million tons in the total cultivated area (FAO, 2012). It is estimated that the demand for wheat ...

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Effects of Light and Cell Cycle on Expression Level of EChR1

29 Mar 2018

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Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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Mechanisms of Rapamycin Production Discrepancy

29 Mar 2018

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Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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Kynurenine Pathway Properties and Applications

29 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Kynurenine pathway The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a major route for the metabolism of an essential amino acid, tryptophan which results in the production of biologically active molecules, kynurenines. Most of the intermediates of the kynurenine pathway are neuroactive and known to play roles in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and free radical production. A central compound of the pathway is Kynurenine (KYN) ...

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Heterogeneity in Tumors: An Overview

29 Mar 2018

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Tumor heterogeneity-an intriguing concept Cancer or malignant neoplasia is not any single disease but a name for a group of more than 200 related diseases all characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis. It appears to be different in every single patient and continuously keeps evolving into a progressively more complex interplay of different and diverse class of tumor cells along with their ever changing ...

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Controlling the Spread of Disease

29 Mar 2018

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Cholera Cholera is caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which contaminates food and drinking water This bacterium infects the small intestines with a toxin called CTX , which in turn causes severe diarrhoea Normally present in coastal waters, attaching to crustaceans known as copepods which are found in plankton rich environments (WordPress, 2014). This bacteria does not always make people ...

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Siderophore Producing Bacteria From Sugarcane Soil Isolation

29 Mar 2018

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AMRITA B, S KIRTHANA, KAVYA R AND W. JABEZ OSBORNE* ABSTRACT- Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), are heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere and in association with roots that enhance the quality of plant growth directly or indirectly. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron chelators which convert insoluble Fe3+ to soluble Fe2+ ions. For the isolation of siderophore producing ...

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Male and Female Reproductive Systems Structure and Functions

29 Mar 2018

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Shumaila Asadullah Human Reproduction In this essay I am going to cover the structure and function of male and female reproductive system, how different organs of each reproductive system contribute to their functions. I am also going to include the brief explanation of menstruation cycle, what happens during the cycle and the hormones involved and four different phases of menstruation. The male reproductive system ...

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Silicone Oil for Internal Temponande: Complications

29 Mar 2018

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Frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment ABSTARCT Objective; To know about the frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment Methodology ; This cross sectional study was conducted in ophthalmology department of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from Jan 2013 to May 2014 with total duration of ...

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Significant DEGs in Bladder Cancer

29 Mar 2018

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Differences analysis of gene expression in bladder cancer with microarrays High lights Totally 619 common DEGs were screened by using 2 mocroarrays PGR, MAFG, CDC6 and MCMs may play key roles in BC The core histones were also considered to have major functions in BC. Abstract Purpose: We aim to identify significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and analyze the modification of gene expression in ...

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Pathophysiology of Liver Diseases

29 Mar 2018

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LIVER Failure ONG SUAN LING Liver Failure The liver is responsible for regulatory, detoxification, metabolic and synthetic activities. Liver cell known as hepatocyte, is responsible for about 500 or more specific biologic processes [2]. Liver failure occurs when large parts of the liver become damaged and the liver is dysfunction [1]. Liver failure occurs over many years and gradually. However, the acute liver failure ...

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The Progression of an Eco-Column Over Time

29 Mar 2018

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Jake Loftin   Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this lab is to provide the opportunity to view how an ecosystem functions, and how it changes over time. It allows one to observe and assess the properties and various components within the eco-column. The eco-column is set up with an aquatic habitat, decomposition habitat, and a terrestrial habitat. The diverse compartments enable the eco-column to be complete with ...

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The Role of Adenosine on Motor Control

29 Mar 2018

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Eber A. S. Beck Junior ABSTRACT Adenosine have been receiving focus in many researches of nowadays. It was found that adenosine acts in important chemical interactions in human beings and in mice models. Different subtypes of adenosine were based on pharmacology and signal transduction mechanisms, dividing in A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptors. The movement control system and locomotor function, regulated primarily by the basal ganglia, ...

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Conditions for Exopolysaccharide Production

29 Mar 2018

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Isolation and optimization of cultural conditions for exopolysaccharide production from Blue Green Algae. Mohanapriya R and Geetharamani D   Abstract Polysaccharides are renewable resources representing an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest. They offer a wide variety of potentially useful products to mankind. Extracellular polysaccharides of microbial origin are of interest due to their novel functionality, reproducible physio-chemical properties, stable cost and supply. Cyanobacteria ...

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Processing of T RNA, R RNA and Small RNAs

29 Mar 2018

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To form physiologically active RNA molecules, bacteria process the primary transcripts for r RNA and t RNA. The newly synthesized RNA molecule i.e the primary transcripts differ from the physiologically active r RNA and t RNA molecules in three important aspects: Mature r RNA and t RNA molecules are terminated by a 5’ –monophosphate instead of the expected triphosphate which is found at the ends ...

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Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37

29 Mar 2018

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Expression and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 in Dog Peripheral Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Vitro Highlights The lentivirus vector pGC-FU-LL37-GFP was constructed and characterized Dog peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) were successfully obtained Expression of LL37 in was achieved by lentivirus infection. A combination of the anti-infection effect of LL37 and angiogenesis of EPCs might be achieved to benefit clinical therapy Abstract Objective ...

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miRNA-34 Family Tumor Suppression Potential in P53 Network

29 Mar 2018

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Jennifer Dell 1. Introduction The very well-studied p53 network has been revealed to regulate multiple miRNA's and is known as tumor suppressor gene. Promising research in cancer repression is going on among the miRNA family of miRNA-34 (miR-34). As one part of the p53 network this family might play a key role in cancer therapy one day. Cell cycle arrest and meanwhile DNA-repair are ...

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P.abrotanoides Karel Role in Aggregation on Target Proteins

29 Mar 2018

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There is direct relation between proteins structure and their function. Hydrophobic areas has a less contact with water. In contrast, hydrophilic areas absorb with water. With change in the biochemical compounds of humans body such as PH, temperature or bodys chemical condition in protein structure change as well and these changes can cause denaturation of protein. Some diseases can let of significant change in the protein ...

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Causes of Allergies Essay

28 Mar 2018

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NUT ALLERGY INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is an allergy? When exposed to certain foreign substances, a reaction takes place in our immune system which is referred to as allergy [1]. Population of more than 25% in industrialized countries suffer from allergies [2]. These reactions are exaggerated because these foreign substances are recognized as harmless and no response takes place in non-allergic individuals. Most of the ...

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Incorporation of Lucrin-TPO into Resin Based Composites

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction The use of resin based composites (RBCs) continues to increase at different rates internationally, partly due to the demise of amalgam. They provide a versatile and robust restoration material [1] [2], however, in recent years the biocompatibility of dental composite restorations has come into question [3]. Degree of conversion and degree of crosslinking are key concepts within RBC formulation as they directly impact the biocompatibility ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

28 Mar 2018

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Manoj Kanth  Contents (Jump to) Introduction Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction: Protein is a biomolecule composed of different 20 amino acids and plays a major role in living organisms ( Rangwala, 2008). Protein can be classified into four major categories according to its structure as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure (Rangwala, 2008). The structure of a protein differs according to the change ...

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Methods Used to Detect Enteric Pathogens

28 Mar 2018

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OMOYOSOLA EKOSANMI Antibody & DNA Technology Compare and contrast Immunological and Molecular methods used to detect Enteric Pathogens Enteric pathogens are gram-negative organisms that live and are found in the human gastrointestinal tract, some examples of enteric pathogens are Clostidium difficile, Campylobacter, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella. Most enteric pathogens that enter the gut won’t cause any harm but there are some harmful bacteria that ...

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Genetic Profile of the BVL Lutra Lutra Population Study

28 Mar 2018

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An attempt to optimize the PCR amplification of nDNA (microsatellites) extracted from otter faeces to develop a genetic profile of the BVL Lutra lutra population Diana Ferreira, Carlos Fonseca, Eduardo Ferreira, Rita Rocha Introduction The determination of wild species distribution and abundance is extremely necessary for conservation biology studies since some species, such as carnivores, are elusive and secretive and mostly difficult to observe in the ...

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Study of the African Ostrich Brain

28 Mar 2018

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Morphological and Anatomical study of the brain of the african ostrich that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered Dahmardeh Moslem, Akbari Mohammad Ebrahim Abstract: The morphological and anatomical specifications of the African ostrich brain that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered were researched in ...

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Challenges in Gene Sequencing

28 Mar 2018

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“Tracing the Roots of Intelligence - Brings More Harms than Goods” Introduction BGI, or previously known as the Beijing Genomics Institute located in Shenzhen, China has leapt to the forefront of gene sequencing. This opportunistic organization had successfully completed numerous genome projects, such as sequencing 1% of the human genome for the International Human Genome project, decoded the SARS virus genome within 36 hours, fully sequenced ...

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Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) in the Brain: Effect of Ageing

28 Mar 2018

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Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells that can generate the typicalphenotypesof thenervous system. NSCs are produced throughout the life of an adult via the process known to be asneurogenesis. Like other tissue-specific stem cells, NSCs persists as separate small and discrete populations in the brain and can undergo extensive proliferation giving rise to new glia and neurons. In mammals they persist throughout the entire life ...

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Mucor Hiemalis Sexual Reproduction and Uses

28 Mar 2018

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All species of mold are of the eukaryotic kingdom Fungi, of which are commonly used in the production of food, such as cheese, or brewing, or are described as pests that are harmful towards humans, and aesthetically unappealing. With up to 120 000 identified species and an estimate of 1.5 million different species, rendering the Fungi kingdom as the least-explored (Webster & Weber, 2007). Fungi have ...

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Walking Pneumonia: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

28 Mar 2018

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Heather Kramer This paper will discuss the atypical bacterium Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) that triggers Walking Pneumonia. M. pneumoniae is a pathogen common among humans causing a respiratory infection in the lungs. Research on the discovery and history, taxonomy and classification, cell biology, signs and symptoms, transmission, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of Walking Pneumonia was completed. With the growing population of the world, ...

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Diosgenin in the Treatment of Osteoporosis

28 Mar 2018

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Diosgenin prevents bone loss on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis rats Highlights: 1. Diosgenin has preventive and therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. 2. Diosgenin can prevent bone loss. 3. Model group of osteoporosis are successfully induced by retinoic acid. Object: To observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: The rats induced by retinoic acid were used as rat model ...

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Apoptosis: Mechanisms and Anti-Cancer Drugs

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Among Cell biologists ‘Apoptosis’ is the most studied topics. It plays an important role in understanding the development of many disease and therefore gives clues for its treatment. Cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth of cells. In cancer there is imbalance in the rate of cell division and cell death. It is due to resistance or too little apoptosis. Apoptosis acts like a double edge ...

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Physiology & Treatment

28 Mar 2018

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Physiological traits Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and deadly disease. Many with ALS experience grief and many families of those affected endure the same. At present medical science has demonstrated great potential in finding a workable cure or efficacious therapy. However, at present no such cure or efficacious therapy exists. A number of ...

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DNA Databases: Technology and Legislation

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction to DNA databases A DNA database can be defined as a databank of DNA samples which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminal cases and genetic genealogy. The DNA profiles held in these databases are stored electronically. These databases have proved to be very useful in the conviction and exoneration of suspects in criminal cases as well as providing ...

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HIV-infected Patients Malignancies in Abdominal Operations

28 Mar 2018

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Association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations Abstract Purpose Until recently, reports on malignancies in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operations are scarce. Our study was to analyze association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations from a single institution. Methods Data were analyzed ...

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Episodic Memory: Definition and Theories

28 Mar 2018

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FRITZ Claudia KRENN Nora SCHALLEHN Anna Episodic memory is defined as a memory for personal unique past experience. Experimental approaches with diverse species were done in order to test for the “what where and when” of some unique recent event. These experiments provide convergent evidence that processes similar to episodic memory occur in animals, which is the main focus of this essay. The memory ...

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Detecting ERECTA Gene Using PCR and QTL Analysis

28 Mar 2018

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Detection of ERECTA gene and QTL analysis of RI lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0)) Practical Exercises in Plant Breeding Mohammad Foteh Ali   1. Abstract: Recombinant inbreed (RI) lines of Arabidopsis thaliana have been crossed between the ecotypes Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0) up to 8th generation. The main aim of this laboratory report is the detection of ERECTA ...

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Mitochondrial DNA Barcoding

28 Mar 2018

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The barcoding region of mitochondrial genome The barcoding region is a gene segment within a protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Protein-coding regions of DNA have specific constraints that can be useful or detrimental to this application. First of all, since a change in nucleotides will often have an effect on the amino acids and hence the protein that is produced, sequences can only experience limited ...

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Herpes Simplex Virus Drug Resistance

28 Mar 2018

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Omer Baskan The increasing drug resistance of the herpes simplex virus Abstract Herpes simplex infections remain very common worldwide, the development of new treatments is of vital importance, particularly for the severely immunocompromised individuals due to the increasing emergence of HSV resistant strains being reported. The standard treatment for HSV still remains highly effective, however there is an ever increasing risk that drug resistant ...

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Zinc Fingers in Biological Systems

28 Mar 2018

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Lino Cardoz From the very beginning biologist marvelled at cellular complexities that are found in nature, and were awe struck by the very nature of genetic information that was present within each living cell. Hence they began understanding the mechanism by which the cellular machinery would regulate and manipulate this genetic information at a molecular level [1]. With the aid of some cutting edge ...

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Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease Treatment

28 Mar 2018

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Comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass grafting for treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ABSTRACT Objective: To compare drug-eluting stents (DES) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: A total of 227 patients received revascularization because of continuous ULMCA disease in Cangzhou Center Hospital, ...

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Drug Carrier for Boswellic Acids: Proniosomal Gel

28 Mar 2018

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Proniosomal gel: a promising drug carrier for boswellic acids Abstract Over many millennia, natural products were the only means for food, to treat diseases and injuries. Recently in the field of pharmaceutical sciences great efforts are being directed towards herbal drugs by incorporating them in already existed drug delivery system to solve the problem related to poor solubility, poor bioavailability, dosing problem, stability, toxicity etc. Dermal ...

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Gene Expression Analysis: ArrayMining.net and GeneSpring

28 Mar 2018

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Noor Ameera Mazlan, Nurrul Shafiqah Abdullah, Siti Noorain Yousoff, Leong Wan Ting and Jasrena Rohanapi ABSTRACT __________________________________________________________________________________________ Gene expression can be defined as a process which information of gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. The analysis can differentiate between cancerous and normal tissues. A class of small non-coding RNAs which known as a microRNAs (miRNAs) control the gene expression ...

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Oncogenic Viruses in Gastrointestinal Cancer

28 Mar 2018

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE: ARTICLES ON ONCOGENIC VIRUSES IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER: 1. Author Nima Khalighinejad et al. worked on “Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer”. Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost ...

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Gene Mutations Causes, Types and Effects

28 Mar 2018

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Annotation of Genome Variants The major goal for genomics is that to determining the sequence of molecules that make up the genomic content of an organism. The genes are contained in the chromosomes and it can be further described as containing the fundamental units of heredity. These genes are known as transcriptional unit, those regions of chromosomes that under appropriate circumstances are capable of producing RNA ...

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Mitochondria: Genome, Inheritance and Features

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Mitochondria are energy producing Organelles present in both Human and Plant cells. They Convert Food into ATP through process of oxidative Phosphorylation. They have double membrane. Outer membrane separates inner side of mitochondria from cytoplasm, while inner membrane has invaginations forming cristae. Cristae define the matrix of mitochondria. Inner Membrane contains embedded five enzyme complexes responsible for oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria contain its ...

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Priority Pollutants and their Health Effects

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Man has always been carving out an easy life from nature which has always made nature to get polluted with lots of toxic chemicals. The hurry to achieve this above mentioned peace has again made heavy adverse impacts on mankind which was not that dominant in earlier days but extremely evident now-a-days. The type of pollution’s that were dealt in lower classes has probably got ...

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Telomeres: Effect of Length of the Cell

28 Mar 2018

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Telomeres: being or immortal or getting cancer? “Death takes place because a worn-out tissue cannot forever renew itself and because a capacity for increase by means of cell division is not everlasting but finite” said A.Weismann at Oxford in 1881 and without noticing that he made a brief description of the structure of what we now call as the telomere. The term is originating from ...

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Identification of Cryptosporiopsis Spp Causing Cashew Blight

28 Mar 2018

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Materials and methods Symptomatic characterization, isolation and identification of Cryptosporiopsis spp causing cashew blight Cashew plantations were regularly inspected for disease in many locations across Tanzania, during the period 2010–2011. Susceptible cashew clone AC4 was used throughout the study. Macroscopic appearances of signs and symptoms of leaf and nut blight disease from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were captured with ...

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Desflurane versus Sevoflurane in Pediatric Anesthesia

28 Mar 2018

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Abstract Objectives: Meta analysis to compare the effect of desflurane versus sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia. Methods: Rev.Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of for relevant indexes of patients with fractures of radial head were collected and calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) or a random-effects model (the ...

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Assembly of Functional Cellulolytic Enzymes

28 Mar 2018

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In the present study, we reported the assembly of functional cellulolytic enzymes using a synthetic, cell-surface engineered yeast consortium. Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII) and cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I (BGLI) were displayed as fusion proteins with the AGA2p C-terminus of a-agglutinin on the cell surface of the diploid yeast strain Saccharomyces. cerevisiae Y5. The immobilization of each enzyme on the cell surface ...

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Antiviral Activity of Camelthor’s Methanolic Extract

27 Mar 2018

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Study of antiviral activity of Camelthor’s methanolic extract on FMD virus in cell culture   Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, that has adverse economic impacts. Due to the high prevalence of viral infections and having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study ...

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control

27 Mar 2018

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control PRESTES, A. F. R. O.1; KONDO, F. V.2; HUETE, G. C.3; MURILLO, O.4   Keywords: mTOR, metabolism, Akt, immune system, regulation, mitochondria, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory I. Introduction Metabolism and immune system: The metabolic system was seen only as a system of power generation and metabolites for the functioning of cells. Today we know that changes in metabolic regulation may ...

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Endothelial Dysfunction as a Genetic Predictor

27 Mar 2018

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Investigation of endothelial dysfunction as a genetic predictor of low bone mass and cognitive decline in postmenopausal females Postmenopausal health has emerged as an important public health concern in India. During postmenopause, abrupt hormone and endocrine changes occur, which impact on the physiology and as a result, body becomes vulnerable to several health problems including osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cognitive impairment. Clinically, it is evident ...

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Research Advance: Wnt Signaling Pathway in Tooth Development

27 Mar 2018

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Yu Jian [Abstract] Tooth development begins with reciprocal signaling interactions between the neural-crest-derived ectoderm epithelium and the ectomesenchyme cells. In recent two decades, a mass of signaling molecules and transcription factors which are crucial for these processes have been confirmed, among which Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of embryo tooth development. This article reviews the research advance on the ...

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Anatomical Studies of Medicinal Taxon Ajuga orientalis L.

27 Mar 2018

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The anatomical studies of medicinal taxon Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey Abstract. Ajuga orientalis[a1], with a wide distribution area in Turkey, is traditionally used medicine in the treatment of some skin diseases in Anatolia. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical characteristics of the root[a2], leaf, petiole, calyx and corolla of medicinal taxon [a3]A. orientalis in cross sections. As a result of ...

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Transcript Expression Level of White Kelampayan

27 Mar 2018

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Functional Annotation and Transcript Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data (via NGS) from White Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) using bioinformatics approach Lim Leong Rui   Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABI/SOLiD Applied Biosystems/Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid CHIP-Seq Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing ...

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Tomato Growth, Ripening and Postharvest Physiology

27 Mar 2018

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2.1 DEVELOPMENT Fruit anatomy moves our opinion of fruit quality. The generic term “fruit” covers a expansive range of structures, supporting and protecting the seeds, but where the diverse parts have evolved from the original fertilized flower in assorted characteristic ways. The development process of fruits can be divided into the following stages: Cell Division Cell Expansion Maturation Ripening Senescence During the early stages of ...

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Advances in Genetic Data and Genome Sequencing

27 Mar 2018

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Bio-resource refers to the total biological variation manifested as individual plants, animals or their genes, which could be utilized as drugs, food or feed, etc., along with the development of improved crops and animals for higher yield and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Man depends on these bio-resources for his continued existence and, therefore, he must use and preserve them for future generations (Sayers et ...

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Types of Leadership Styles

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Leadership is a complex and diverse place of knowledge and it transforms potential into reality. (J Antonakis, etal, 2004) According to author being a leader changes everything. It's all about contribution, performance and success. This essay describe about the leadership and the styles of leadership. Firstly the author will give the explanation of leadership with different definitions. Secondly the author will explain the styles of ...

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Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action

27 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents (Jump to) 1. Goal 2. Aims and Objectives 3. Background 4. Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action 4.1 Methadone History & Background 4.2 Benefits of Methadone 4.3 Deaths Involving Methadone 4.4 Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Methadone 4.4 Cytochrome P450 4.5 Cytochrome P450 Polymorphism and Adverse Drug Reactions   1. Goal Methadone is the most common and widely used drug for the opioid ...

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Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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MATERIALS AND METHODS   3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Animal Selection and Care STZ induced diabetes are commonly performed in Male Wistar Kyoto rats. In these models, male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age (200–300 g) are selected from animal supply facility of SGPGIMS Lucknow, and house in a 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle environment, temperature 25°C, with standard rat diet and water in metabolic ...

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Types of Nasal Surgeries and Procedures

27 Mar 2018

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Neurocranial restructuring Neurocranial restructuring is the relaxation of neuro tissues to relieve tension and return the skull's structure to its naturally designed appearance. Neurocranial restructuring has been successfully used for many years to relieve a variety of serious conditions as well as being used as a non invasive alternative to cosmetic therapy. The methods of actually engaging in Neurocranial restructuring vary depending on the nature of ...

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Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

27 Mar 2018

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Reactive Oxygen Species Ever since the introduction of oxygen by the oxygen releasing photosynthetic organisms Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been the unwelcomed guests of aerobic life (Halliwell, 2006). Being a free radical molecular oxygen contains two unpaired electrons sharing same spin quantum number that makes it preferable to accept electrons, generating the so called Reactive oxygen species. Most dominating ROS include Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Hydroxyl ...

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Growth Characteristics of Bacteriophage

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 4 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIOPHAGE INFECTING AQUACULTURE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS 4.1 Introduction Bacteriophage are naturally occurring viruses that predated on bacteria (Clokie et al., 2011). They self-replicate exponentially and leave the commensal flora unaffected makes them useful for industrial application (Tsonos et al., 2014). However, the high number of bacteriophage in environment (Clokie et al., 2011) provide the challenges to the discovery of the most effective phage ...

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Bacterial Transformation of E-Coli

27 Mar 2018

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Bacterial Transformation Guiadem Ntoukam   Abstract: In biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct intake of the genetic material called DNA. Bacterial transformation is a really easy way to transform due to the fact that it is single- cell. In this lab experiment, E. coli bacteria is used because it is singled-cell. The pGLO plasmid will be inserted ...

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Pegylation: Properties and Cytokines

27 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is Pegylation? The process of covalent attachment of the non-toxic, hydrophilic polymer chain of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another molecule, a drug or therapeutic protein is called as Pegylation [1]. Pegylation was first carried out in 1970s by Davies and Abuchowski for the modification of catalase and albumin [2]. Since then, Pegylation is widely and tremendously developed. Nowadays, pegylated proteins make ...

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Heavy Metal Concentration in Oyster Tissues

27 Mar 2018

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Discussion As summarised in the above chapter, a wide variation of heavy metal concentration(Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Co) in oyster tissues such as gills, muscle, shell and remaining soft tissue, sediment and seawater have been observed at the studied coastal areas. Therefore the main aim of this chapter is to establish relationship between heavy metal concentration in the oyster tissues namely gills, muscle ,shells ...

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Production of Pure Lipases

27 Mar 2018

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Most Rhizopus lipases described in the literature are produced by their host cells in very small amounts, which is not suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Another drawback of working with native microorganisms is that Rhizopus sp. usually produces different isolipases with different biocatalytic properties, which complicates biocatalytic application with unwanted side effects caused by unrelated enzymes (67). Thus, in order to implement more industrial lipase applications, ...

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Genetic Engineering: Nutritional Grain Traits in Rice

27 Mar 2018

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Genetic engineering, an alternative approach to enhance nutritional values by transgenic has been considered to be the potential tool for the sustainable and an efficient strategy for increasing the nutritional quality traits in target area of plants (Lucca et al. 2001; Zimmermann and Hurrell 2002; Holm et al. 2002). Genetic engineering flavors transferring of desired genes precisely between interspecies/ intregeneric into the target area, there by ...

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Obtaining DNA Polymerase with Proofreading Ability

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 1.0 : INTRODUCTION Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is widely used in biotechnology and molecular biology for various studies including genetic research and molecular studies. It is a technique developed by Kary Mullis where he was thinking about his DNA sequence experiment before this technique came into his mind (Mullis 1990). Soon, various techniques such as qPCR, RT-PCR, nested PCR and so on were being introduced. ...

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Subunit Structure of Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction In the present study, the authors of this paper mainly used limited tryptic proteolysis to explore and probe the subunit structure of dihydrolipoyl transacetylase of bovine heart. The results of the paper have demonstrated that the subunit of bovine heart dihydrolipoyl transacetylase consists of two different folding domains designated the subunit-binding domain(Mr≈26,000) and the lipoyl domain(Mr≈28,600), respectively. They also concluded that the compact subunit-binding domain ...

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Enzyme Kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase

27 Mar 2018

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David Romero Perez Enzyme kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase and its behaviour in the presence of Edrophonium. Abstract The aim of the present study was to test the effects of edrophonium on the enzyme kinetics of acetylcholinesterase. The use of s-acetylthiocholine as a substrate with its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase and the later reaction into a coloured product, allowed the utilization of colorimetric technique in conjunction with ...

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Growth of Microbes Using Hay Infusion Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Lab # 6 Hay Infusion Introduction: The micro organisms grow in everywhere on the earth. They can be found in the air, water, and the earth's surface. They need only the growing factors. Growth factors are varying from microbes. Most of the bacteria grow in the environment with the moderate temperature, neutral pH, and the sufficient O2 supply. Some of them ...

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Signatures for Adaptive Traits in Chicken

27 Mar 2018

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IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF SIGNATURES FOR ADAPTIVE TRAITS IN CHICKEN (Gallus domesticus)   Sigei Chepkorir Caroline ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS QTL Quantitative Trait Locus WHO World Health Organization KNBS Kenya National Bureau of Statistics GDP Gross Domestic Product MLD Ministry of Livestock Development CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Information The indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) is a type of bird that is widely domesticated across ...

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