Origins, Characteristics and Future of the Coywolf

02 Apr 2018

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Joshua Homberger   Introduction A new top predator has slipped unnoticed through cities on the Eastern Seaboard (Fleming, 2013). A mammal, some scientists consider the most adaptable on Earth, a hunter, versatile enough to feast on animals ranging in size from the moose (Alces alces) to hares (Lepus). The Coywolf (Canis Latraus) was born on a thin a strip of land on the southern ...

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Transcription Section of the Central Dogma

02 Apr 2018

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Fulya TÜRKER TRANSCRIPTION: ONE OF THE KEY POINTS OF THE CENTRAL DOGMA ALTERNATIVE SPLICING It is known that the central dogma is the most important principle for an organism to carry on its lifespan. In the central dogma, there are 3 major stages: DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation. DNA replication can be simply described as the duplication of DNA. Transcription is the process of ...

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Function and Role of the Lateral Line

02 Apr 2018

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CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW The amazing ability of various blind or deep-sea fish to navigate through waters, where little or no light penetrates can be attributed to the presence of a sensory system found in fish and amphibia, which is responsible for spatial navigation, balance and even social behaviours like schooling and mate selection- the lateral line. The lateral line system, present in fish and amphibians, is ...

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Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) for Gene Studies

02 Apr 2018

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Select one publish paper in Expressed Sequence Tags and Describe the briefly methodology involved in preparing an EST database. Explain how this method can be used to discover new genes. NUR EZZATI BINTI HAMDIN   Based on the Plant Biology Journal entitled “Gene discovery in the wood-forming tissues of poplar: Analysis of 5,692 expressed sequence tags”, by Sterky et al., 1998, expressed sequence tags ...

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Analysis of T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin 1 Gene -416G

02 Apr 2018

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Association analysis of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin 1 gene -416G > C polymorphism with asthma in center of Iran. Background TIM1, One of the gene family members of T cell immunoglobulin (Ig) domain and mucin domain (TIM) expressing on TH2 cells, promotes producing of Th2 signiture cytokines and increases a series of responses in this cells which could be one of the causes of asthma or ...

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To What Extent Can Loss of Biodiversity Be Offset by Humans?

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction The first global conference “No Net Loss of Biodiversity Conference 2014”, on approaches to avoid, minimize, restore, and offset biodiversity loss will be held in London Jun 2014. Similar conferences were held in the past. Back in 2002, the Convention on Biological Diversity was committed to significantly reduce the biodiversity loss by 2010. Needless to say that it did not happen and also there is ...

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XRCC1 Polymorphism and SLE

02 Apr 2018

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XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Try Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Iranian population (a pilot study) Saeedeh Salimi, Milad Mohammadoo-khorasani, Ehsan Tabatabai, Mahnaz Sandoughi, Zahra Zakeri Corresponding Author: Milad Mohammadoo-khorasani Background & objectives: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multisystem disease that both genetic and environmental factors are effective in predisposing to SLE. DNA repair enzymes ceaselessly checked the chromosomes to correct ...

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Parts and Their Functions of Compound Light Microscope

02 Apr 2018

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1.1 Introduction:- The compound light microscope is use for anatomy and physiological uses. (Robert et al. 2007). The people observe an enlarged image of a small object by using spherical shaped glass like thing in 2000 years ago (Chen, Zheng and Liu, 2011). The scientist named Janssen and his son made a assembled cylinder by using more lenses into a cylinder in 16th century (Chen, Zheng ...

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Hydrocarbon Contamination: Causes and Effects

02 Apr 2018

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ABSTRACT One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petro chemical industry. Accidental release of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon component have been known to the family of carcinogens and neuro toxic organic pollutant currently accepted disposal method of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants ...

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Energy Cost of Reproduction Effects on Parasite Infestations

02 Apr 2018

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Oliver Lewin The energy cost of reproduction and its effects on the parasite infestations in Scyllium Canicula and Scyliorhinus stellaris   Energy consumption: Higher investment in reproduction decreases the immune defences, and conduces to the use of structural resources, which may render individuals more susceptible to some parasites. (Veiga,. Et al 1998) this is consistent with the idea that an increase in reproductive effort ...

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Experimental Design and the Importance of Controls

02 Apr 2018

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Emma Powell Were the conclusions you drew from your submitted manuscript valid? Explain your reasoning. The conclusions are invalid as there is little supporting evidence and controls are absent. There are no controls within either experiment and so the variables have not been investigated. For example, in the first experiment, without controls, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of the ...

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Questions and Answers on DNA and MRNA

02 Apr 2018

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Rumana Anam Q1. What is the full forms of the following: D.N.A Deoxyribonucleic (The Free Dictionary, 2015) MRNA Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (The Free Dictionary, 2015) TRNA Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (The Free Dictionary, 2015) Q2. Complete the following sentences The synthesis of mRNA from DNA is known as:- Transcription (The Free Dictionary, 2015) The synthesis of proteins from RNA is known as:- Protein Synthesis (The ...

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Comparison of X Chromosomes of Bovidae Animals and Humans

02 Apr 2018

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Kristy Martin   "Do you want to know the gender now, or are you keeping it a surprise?", the nurse asked. The couple shook their head and eagerly clasped hands. The nurse then responded, "It's-- a boy." The father did a victory dance, and the mother smiled. When an organism reproduces sexually, then the gender is determined by the sex chromosomes received during fertilization. ...

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Why is Mercury a Water Pollutant?

02 Apr 2018

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PARTICIPANT DETAILS MAHALI, Thobias MAHENGE, Baraka MAKALA Emmanuel S. KAPINGA, Luiza MAJANI, Ainea MALEKELA, Shauri MANGE, Rehema S. QUESTION; Mercury is considered as serious water pollutant while there are only few major sources of ...

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Biodiversity: Theory and Quantification

02 Apr 2018

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1.3.1 Biodiversity components Biodiversity includes existing species in a place, within species phenotypic and genotypic variation, and also the spatial and temporal variation in the communities and ecosystems contributed by the constituent species (Tilman 2001). Quantifying such a broad concept that includes diversity from gene to ecosystem level has proven to be a quite difficult task. To bypass such unusual situation, ecologists have divided ‘biodiversity’ into ...

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Rhizoremediation of Lead Using Alternanthera Versicolor

02 Apr 2018

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Shalini S., Priyasha G., Sohini B. and Jabez Osborne W*   Abstract: Anthropogenic development has been a major drawback due to the increased discharge of heavy metals into the environment containing the saturated and unsaturated zones of soil. Heavy metals are those which have density more than 5gram per cm cube. Lead causes major health hazards like Plumbism (lead poisoning) at higher concentrations. In the present ...

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Role of Cyanobacteria on Monuments and Caves

02 Apr 2018

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STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF EPILITHIC AND CRYPTOENDOLIHIC CYANOBACTERIA ON MONUMENTS AND CAVES OF WESTERN ODISHA AND STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGY. ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria are morphologically diverse group of Gram negative photosynthetic prokaryotes successfully colonize and inhabit almost all kind of terrestrial and aquatic habitat including extreme habitats such as rocks and external walls of monuments and buildings. Natural and rock cut cave characterized by ...

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Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP)

02 Apr 2018

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Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score for predicting severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in the early phase. Method The PubMed, Cochrane library and EMBASE databases were searched until May 2014. The strict selection criteria and exclusion criteria were determined, and we applied hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model and ...

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Adjuvant Arthritis Experiment

02 Apr 2018

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1.1 Experimental Animals Adult Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice of both sexes (19-22g) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of female (180-220g) were used for the experiment. The animals were procured from the Hunan slack king of laboratory animal Co. Ltd. and maintained in the animal house of the College of Pharmacy, Hunan Chinese Medical University for 3 days for acclimation. They were housed in the standard ...

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Analysis of 14-3-3 Proteins

02 Apr 2018

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INTRODUCTION 14-3-3 represents a family of highly conserved, 28-33 kDa, acidic dimeric proteins. [B, H1] These proteins were first identified and isolated by Moore and Perez during their systematic study of protein fractions from mammalian brain tissue. [B1] Their nomenclature reflects the system used by the researchers to classify the various protein fractions, based on their migration pattern on starch gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional DEAE chromatography. ...

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Analysis of Peripherin-2 Cone Mutation V268I

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction: 1.1 Composition of Retina: Eye an organ which is known for its sensory function - Vision, serves as a basis for perception of the world outside. Three layers of tissues enclose the eye, outermost layer sclera, middle layer choroid and inner layer retina. Central macular region of the retina called as fovea consist of photoreceptor cells, where maximum visual acuity is possible due ...

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Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Methylome Proposal

30 Mar 2018

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  A.TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT: Analysis of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy’s effect on Methylome of Cervical cancer cells by using Next Generation Sequencing techniques and quantifying Transcriptome using RT PCR D.PROJECT DIGEST. Describe the proposed research geared to the non-specialist reader (max. 250 words). Cancer cells are fast growing entities so they need more nutrients and oxygen etc. But in ...

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Anti-cancer Properties of Lupeol in Arabidopsis Thaliana

30 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background Nowadays, cancer treatment is not only a quest of eliminating cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis. New curative strategies also include targeting the tumour micro-environment, preventing angiogenesis, regulating the immune response or the chronic inflammation that is commonly associated with cancer. And for the last few decades, we have known that plants provide a wide platform of potential drug substances ...

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Physiochemical Analysis of Dye Soil

30 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Decline in the quality of soil by the act of human and nature is called soil pollution or soil contamination. The main factors of soil pollution include excessive erosion, excessive use of soil fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, urban and industrial wastes, forest fires, water logging, leaching and drought etc. Studies have shown that soil contamination is increasing day by day in rural and urban areas. ...

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Prostate Cancer Pathology and Effects

30 Mar 2018

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Megan Rosa   Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer, or also referred to as adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is a type of cancer affecting solely men, as it is formed in prostate tissues, which is a gland found in the male reproductive system. It is the second most common cause of cancer-related male mortality, in the United States (Velcheti). According to the National Cancer Institute, about ...

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Approaches Used in Phylogenetic Analysis

30 Mar 2018

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Numerical Taxonomy Numerical taxonomy is the name given to various procedures whereby a set of individuals or units (termed as OTUs "Operational Taxonomic Unities" 1) is divided into two or more assemblages or subgroups (clusters) on the basis of a set of attributes which they share. Every OUT shows its own set of constant and variable characters. A character is defined as any property that can ...

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Metabolic Risk Factors for Thyroid Nodules in Different Ages

30 Mar 2018

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The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and the Correlation between Thyroid Nodules and its Metabolic Risk Factors in Different Age Groups Running title Metabolic Risk Factors for TN Highlights Elderly people has higher prevalence of TN; Hypertension, T2DM and smoking may be risk factors for TN in elderly people; Hypertension might be independent risk factors for TN in non-elderly people. Abstract Objective: To explore the ...

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Blood Stem Cell Research and Sources

30 Mar 2018

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BLOOD/HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS (HSC) First identified stem cells were the blood stem cells that were discovered in the 1960s and began the stem cell research. They are also known as haematopoietic stem cells and have self-renewal property. There are two kinds of blood stem cells. One is called hematopoietic stem cells, that can give rise to virtually all types of blood cells. The second population is known ...

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Characterizing HP’s from Leptospira Interrogans

30 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Genome sequencing projects and genetic engineering has revealed many aspects of complex cellular environment containing large number of proteins. Despite sequences of most of organisms are available and proteins coded are studied experimentally, there are some proteins whose functions are unknown, need to be characterised(5). Such proteins are known as Hypothetical proteins (HP) sequences of which are known but there is no evidence of experimental ...

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Activation of Intracellular Signalling

30 Mar 2018

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Paul Dunn Intracellular signalling For cells to carry out their physiological role, they must be able receive and respond to a variety of extracellular messages (Ségaliny, Tellez-Gabriel, Heymann, & Heymann, 2015).The activation of intracellular signalling comes from the cells ability to interpret extracellular chemical and protein messengers via the binding of ligands (ions, hormones etc.) to their specific receptor. The binding of ligands to ...

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Alternatives to the ‘universal’ Genetic Code Theory

30 Mar 2018

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Introduction The existence of a ‘genetic code’ was established through genetic and biochemical experiments that revealed an association between the sequence of nucleotides in DNA and the sequence of amino acids in polypeptides (Singer and Berg 1991). In 1961, Nirenberg and colleagues conducted in vitro studies using synthetic oligo- and polyribonucleotides as messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They demonstrated that a cell-free Eschericia coli system was able to ...

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Effect of Light Intensity on Transpiration Rates

30 Mar 2018

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Biology Plan Title: Comparative Analysis of the effect of Light Intensity on the Transpiration Rate of Prunus domestica and Tropaeolum peregrinum. Introduction: Transpiration is the loss of water in plants, which occurs through the stomata or intercellular spaces, and in smaller amounts through the exposed walls of surface cells. The process facilitates the ascent of sap, which is the fluid consisting of ...

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Proteomics in the Diagnosis of Human Disease

30 Mar 2018

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Abstract Introduction Chapter 1: Techniques used in proteomics 1.1 Brief history of the development of proteomics 1.2 Two-dimensional protein electrophoresis 1.3 Mass spectrometry 1.3.1 MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry 1.4 Protein arrays 1.5 Protein databases Chapter 2: Application of proteomics in the diagnosis of human disease 2.1 Application of proteomics in the diagnosis of blood-related disease 2.1.1 Hodgkin’s lymphoma 2.1.2 Acute leukaemias 2.1.2.1 ...

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How Well Adapted Are Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB)?

30 Mar 2018

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Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of motile bacteria that has been observed in freshwater and marine aquatic environments. Discovered in 1975 by Richard Blakemore, these microorganisms are able to passively navigate along the earth’s magnetic field toward the bottom of their aquatic habitats, to efficiently find low oxygen environments. The MTB passive navigation is enabled by the biomineralization of crystals of the iron ...

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Cholinergic System and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

30 Mar 2018

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Therapy targeting the cholinergic system: Cholinesterase inhibitors have observed the failure of the ascending cholinergic system of the brain. There are both marked reduction and neuronal dropout in synaptic densities in the projections from cholinergic neurones located in substantia innominata of the basal forebrain, which includes the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which projects to all cortical areas, and the septal nuclei, projecting to the hippocampus. This is hypothesised to be ...

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Bacterial Magnetosomes Synthesized by Magnetotactic Bacteria

30 Mar 2018

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ABSTRACT: Bacterial magnetosomes synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn immense attention due to its unique features. Immobilized enzymes have a number of applications in today’s industries. Studies have shown that immobilized enzymes have a better shelf life and kinetics when compared to free enzymes. Magnetosomes have been used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. This study reports the efficient ...

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Nitrogen Fixation in Pasture Systems

29 Mar 2018

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Biological nitrogen fixation plays an essential role in the improvement of agricultural sustainability, particularly with regard to the contribution of pasture legumes. In fact, pasture legumes are among the most efficient leguminous plants in terms of nitrogen fixation and, depending on adequate management and on the establishment of effective symbioses with adequate rhizobia, they may contribute with high input rates of fixed-nitrogen into the soil (Materon ...

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Complex of β- Sitosterol with Co Analysis

29 Mar 2018

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COMPLEX OF β- SITOSTEROL WITH Co AT DIFFERENT MOLE RATIO AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES TALAT MAHMOOD, YASMEEN BIBI, IFFAT MAHMOOD, SYED NASEEM HUSSAIN SHAH, ANEELA WAHAB,SIKINDAR SHERWANI, HUMAIRA ANWAR   Abstract The principle of present work is to build up a plant-based method to reduce toxicity in our body which is caused due to high level of some essential trace metals. This current effort ...

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PATRIC Database: Significance, Applications and Drawbacks

29 Mar 2018

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Name: Gopinath. S PATRIC Database Biological significance of PATRIC Database: A strategic plan was developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for conducting research on Biodefense. They have developed a subsequent watch list of genera from their own defined list of ‘Priority Pathogens’ and they were categorized as A, B and C microbial pathogens with respective priority levels. In order to understand ...

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Molecular Heterogeneity of Carnation Mottle Virus in Iran

29 Mar 2018

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Barzegar A   Abstract Carnation is commercially one of the most important cut-flower crops worldwide. Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is the type member of the genus Carmovirus of Tobamovirideae family. It can be mechanically transmitted and causes significant losses including poor quality of cut-flowers and fewer yields on carnation crops. In an attempt to surveying the CarMV heterogeneity, 120 CarMV isolates were collected from ...

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Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in the Menopause

29 Mar 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Schisterman et al. [32] reviewed the evidence amongst the premenopausal women by comparing the lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle. Mainly, lipoprotein cholesterol levels have been noticed to alter during the menstrual cycle as reproductive hormone levels change. During the follicular phase, triglyceride cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol are observed to be highest and throughout the luteal phase their level decreases. Meanwhile, ...

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Urine Tests on Antibacterial Activity

29 Mar 2018

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Urine sample U20 was allocated and the first thing done was to record the visual appearance of the urine. The urine was golden yellow with a pungent smell. At first sight, the urine did not appear to have any blood present in it. Further biochemical test using Ames Multistix Strips was done. The strip was dipped into the urine and at appropriate time intervals, results such ...

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Effect of Temperature on Milk | Experiment

29 Mar 2018

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Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to understand the conditions which encouraged and inhibited bacterial growth by observing the rate of bacterial reproduction in milk samples stored at different temperatures. The results collected after the six day period of observation revealed that factors which influenced the rate of bacterial growth were temperature, pH level, moisture and the amount of food sources available. It was concluded ...

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Regulation of Human Haematopoietic Stem Cell Self-renewal

29 Mar 2018

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PAPER REVIEW Regulation of human haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal by the microenvironment’s control of retinoic acid signalling Ghiaura et al. (2013) PNAS 110 no. 40 pp 16121–16126 Constant blood cell production is dependent on perpetual reconstitution of the hematopoietic system via a series of lineage-restricted intermediates. This remarkable cell renewal process is supported by a rare and small subpopulation of bone marrow cells called hematopoietic stem ...

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Phytophtora Palmivora (Black Pod Disease) Causes and Effects

29 Mar 2018

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Phytophtora palmivora (Black pod disease) MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN MOHD RAZAK   INTRODUCTION A long time ago, Malaysia is one the exporter of cocoa because they can produce abundance in tonnes of cocoa yield. This crop has become one of backbone of Malaysia economy during at the time (Malaysia Cocoa Board, 2013). Due to the rapid development of this industry, government was establish Malaysian Cocoa Board in ...

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Isolation and Characterisation of SVMP Inhibitor

29 Mar 2018

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Patricia B.J. et al., 2003 – Isolation, characterisation of SVMP inhibitor. Patricia et al. Investigated the PO41 as a SVMP inhibitor which was isolated from Philander opossum serum. The study was carried out using proper grade chemicals, the wistar rats were used as the test animal. For the isolation of the PO41 a DEAE-sephacel column (1.0 x 10.5) was used. 10mM sodium acetate (pH 3.7, flow ...

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Chemoreception in Insects: Study on Ladybeetle Behaviour

29 Mar 2018

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Covert Considerations to Overt Odors! Giuseppe Tumminello http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022681928142 Insects, like most biotic organisms, leave a trail of chemical information wherever they travel. Chemical cues are left where they walk, abandoned in their feces, expelled from their mandibles, and deposited from their abdomens. The dissipated chemical bouquets serve many purposes for both the recipients and originators. Semiochemicals can be for the sake of purposeful communication and are often ...

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Evolution of the Echinoids

29 Mar 2018

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In response to the essay question: “Echinoids – the key to geologic time?” School of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology Thomas Glann Echinoidea, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, are probably the most interesting and compelling palaeontological story to date. Their story starts in the late Ordovician period, approximately 460 million years ago, and you can still observe the echinoids in modern day environments as sea urchins, heart ...

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Cell Adhesion Molecules in Formation of Olfactory Connection

29 Mar 2018

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This dissertation study investigated expression, function and the regulatory mechanism of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of olfactory connections. Identification and characterization of a novel protocadherin, Pcdh20, provided additional evidence that multiple cell adhesion molecules are involved in the development of the olfactory system. In combination with several established studies by Sakano and Yoshihara’s group, my study further supports the neural identity model and provides ...

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Genetic Degradation of the White Campion (Silene Latifolia)

29 Mar 2018

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The Y chromosome of the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has undergone genetic degradation, losing some genes entirely from its Y chromosome. Charlotte Gardener, Danielle Hewson, Abbie O’Connor, Francis Windram This year, Bergero et al.(1) have shown that the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has lost genes from its Y sex chromosome entirely, and does not yet show significant dosage compensation. Plants ...

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Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Collection, Preparation and Uses

29 Mar 2018

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Samuel Good Fresh Frozen Plasma Introduction Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is the name for the liquid portion of human blood, which has been frozen and preserved. It is taken by blood donation and is stored until needed for blood transfusion. FFP has been available since 1941 (Hoffman, et al, 1990), it was used initially as a volume expander (Erber, et al, 2006), but is ...

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Periodicity of the Banding in Polished and Etched Shells

29 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 3: GENERAL METHODOLOGY Background This chapter describes the sampling areas and methodological procedure used in all experiments undertaken in this study. Specific materials and methods are explained in the respective chapters. Sample collection Various experiments were carried out to determine the periodicity of the banding in polished and etched shell section. A total of 950 samples of A. granosa (shell length: 10 mm) were obtained ...

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Vespidae Wasps: Importance and Genetic Diversity

29 Mar 2018

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General introduction Hymenopterans play an vital role in the terrestrial ecosystems as producers, predators and pollinators. Aculeata is a subgroup of the order Hymenoptera whose significant speciality is the conversion of the female ovipositor into a venom injecting device or stinger . The members of which are commonly called as ants, bees and wasps. India has a rich fauna of Aculeata (P. Gireeshkumar et al., 2014). ...

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Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

29 Mar 2018

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Allergies, also known as hypersensitive reactions, that occurs when one’s immune system over reacts to a substance which otherwise is harmless. These substances are known as allergens, they could be house hold material, pets [1], cockroaches [2], dust, food items [3] like milk, nuts, sun and even water. Among all the substances that are known to cause an allergy, one of the most common is pollen. ...

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Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp and Synechocystis sp Comparison

29 Mar 2018

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Reconstruction and Comparison of the Metabolic Potential of Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 SITI HARYANI BINTI ANUAR Problem Background Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic cell which do not have nucleus and lack some organelles. They also unicellular and reproduce or divide by binary fission. They habitats are common in lakes, ponds, springs, wetlands, streams, rivers and also in soil or on rock. Cyanobacteria ...

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Influences on Fish Pigmentation

29 Mar 2018

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Pigmentation: Melanotropic axis Skin colouration is one of the most striking features of the teleost phenotypes. Fish pigmentation is a plastic feature that can be adjusted to according to fish needs: e.g. social interactions (Grosenick et al., 2007), camouflage (predator avoidance) (Doolan et al., 2009) or mating selection (Grether et al., 2005). Pigmentation (colour and pattern) is determinate by the amount, type and distribution ...

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Health Benefits and Effects of Plant Derived Antioxidants

29 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Plant derived antioxidants especially, the phenolics have gained considerable importance due to their potential health benefits. Several epidemiological studies have shown that the intake of plant food containing antioxidants improve the quality of health because it down-regulates many degenerative processes and can effectively lower the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Arabshahi and Urooj, 2007). The revitalization of antioxidant compounds from plant materials is typically ...

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Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Experiment

29 Mar 2018

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Abstract Mental rotation involves mind when it tries to recognize objects in the surrounding and figuring out what the altered objects really are. The aim of this experiment was to determine reaction time of different angles of rotation and influence of gender differences. The task involved comparing three letters, some letters appeared the same and others were difficult to tell during rotation. I also noted that, ...

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Mismatch Repair (MMR) Pathways and Deficiencies

29 Mar 2018

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1- Mismatch Repair The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is a bidirectional excision-resynthesis system that corrects mismatches generated during DNA replication or homologous recompination (HR). MMR adds up to 1000 fold increase in the fidelity of DNA replication (Kolodner, 1996; Preston et al., 2010). Mismatches fall into two groups, base-base mispairs resulting from incorrect nucleotide insertion by DNA polymerses and insertion-deletion loops (IDLs) resulting from slippage ...

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Transformation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli)

29 Mar 2018

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TRANSFORMATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI INTRODUCTION : Transformation is a process whereby the genetic materials of a cell are altered by introducing DNA (exogenous DNA) from the surrounding environment through the cell membrane of the organism. It involves the uptake of DNA from either a plasmid or a small fragment of linear DNA by a specific recipient cell. Transformation could occur naturally in some bacteria such as ...

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Expression of KITLG and KIT-Receptor Analysis

29 Mar 2018

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Varicocele is the pathological dilation of the venous pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord (Naughton et al., 2001). Varicocele might be associated with male infertility. With diagnostic techniques such as scrotal ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging, varicocele has been demonstrated in up to 91% of subfertile human cases (Gonzalez et al., 1985; Resim et al., 1999) The pathophysiologies of the testicular damage in varicocele are not ...

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Genetic Causes of Epilepsy

29 Mar 2018

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Epilepsy: It is estimated that at many as 10% of the general populace will experience a seizure in their lifetime. (Persad et al., 2003) Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease defined by its characteristic symptom, recurrent and spontaneous seizures. (Berg et al., 2011) (Asher Y et al., 2012) Epilepsy is a common condition with an occurrence of up to 3% in the population (Deng H et al., ...

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Resistance of Wheat to Mycosphaerella Graminicola

29 Mar 2018

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Resistance of wheat to Mycosphaerella graminicola involves early of gene expression INTRODUCTION Wheat is one of the three cereal grain crops, together with rice and maize, being used for human food feed for more than 5000 years ago (Peng et al., 2011). The world annual wheat production is about 671 million tons in the total cultivated area (FAO, 2012). It is estimated that the demand for wheat ...

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Effects of Light and Cell Cycle on Expression Level of EChR1

29 Mar 2018

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Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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Mechanisms of Rapamycin Production Discrepancy

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,564 )

Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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Kynurenine Pathway Properties and Applications

29 Mar 2018

8 (2,918 )

INTRODUCTION Kynurenine pathway The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a major route for the metabolism of an essential amino acid, tryptophan which results in the production of biologically active molecules, kynurenines. Most of the intermediates of the kynurenine pathway are neuroactive and known to play roles in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and free radical production. A central compound of the pathway is Kynurenine (KYN) ...

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Heterogeneity in Tumors: An Overview

29 Mar 2018

6 (2,352 )

Tumor heterogeneity-an intriguing concept Cancer or malignant neoplasia is not any single disease but a name for a group of more than 200 related diseases all characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis. It appears to be different in every single patient and continuously keeps evolving into a progressively more complex interplay of different and diverse class of tumor cells along with their ever changing ...

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Controlling the Spread of Disease

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,933 )

Cholera Cholera is caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which contaminates food and drinking water This bacterium infects the small intestines with a toxin called CTX , which in turn causes severe diarrhoea Normally present in coastal waters, attaching to crustaceans known as copepods which are found in plankton rich environments (WordPress, 2014). This bacteria does not always make people ...

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Siderophore Producing Bacteria From Sugarcane Soil Isolation

29 Mar 2018

7 (2,466 )

AMRITA B, S KIRTHANA, KAVYA R AND W. JABEZ OSBORNE* ABSTRACT- Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), are heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be found in the rhizosphere and in association with roots that enhance the quality of plant growth directly or indirectly. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron chelators which convert insoluble Fe3+ to soluble Fe2+ ions. For the isolation of siderophore producing ...

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Male and Female Reproductive Systems Structure and Functions

29 Mar 2018

6 (2,188 )

Shumaila Asadullah Human Reproduction In this essay I am going to cover the structure and function of male and female reproductive system, how different organs of each reproductive system contribute to their functions. I am also going to include the brief explanation of menstruation cycle, what happens during the cycle and the hormones involved and four different phases of menstruation. The male reproductive system ...

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Silicone Oil for Internal Temponande: Complications

29 Mar 2018

6 (2,361 )

Frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment ABSTARCT Objective; To know about the frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment Methodology ; This cross sectional study was conducted in ophthalmology department of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from Jan 2013 to May 2014 with total duration of ...

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Significant DEGs in Bladder Cancer

29 Mar 2018

9 (3,311 )

Differences analysis of gene expression in bladder cancer with microarrays High lights Totally 619 common DEGs were screened by using 2 mocroarrays PGR, MAFG, CDC6 and MCMs may play key roles in BC The core histones were also considered to have major functions in BC. Abstract Purpose: We aim to identify significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and analyze the modification of gene expression in ...

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Pathophysiology of Liver Diseases

29 Mar 2018

6 (2,061 )

LIVER Failure ONG SUAN LING Liver Failure The liver is responsible for regulatory, detoxification, metabolic and synthetic activities. Liver cell known as hepatocyte, is responsible for about 500 or more specific biologic processes [2]. Liver failure occurs when large parts of the liver become damaged and the liver is dysfunction [1]. Liver failure occurs over many years and gradually. However, the acute liver failure ...

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The Progression of an Eco-Column Over Time

29 Mar 2018

7 (2,516 )

Jake Loftin   Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this lab is to provide the opportunity to view how an ecosystem functions, and how it changes over time. It allows one to observe and assess the properties and various components within the eco-column. The eco-column is set up with an aquatic habitat, decomposition habitat, and a terrestrial habitat. The diverse compartments enable the eco-column to be complete with ...

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The Role of Adenosine on Motor Control

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,520 )

Eber A. S. Beck Junior ABSTRACT Adenosine have been receiving focus in many researches of nowadays. It was found that adenosine acts in important chemical interactions in human beings and in mice models. Different subtypes of adenosine were based on pharmacology and signal transduction mechanisms, dividing in A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptors. The movement control system and locomotor function, regulated primarily by the basal ganglia, ...

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Conditions for Exopolysaccharide Production

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,960 )

Isolation and optimization of cultural conditions for exopolysaccharide production from Blue Green Algae. Mohanapriya R and Geetharamani D   Abstract Polysaccharides are renewable resources representing an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest. They offer a wide variety of potentially useful products to mankind. Extracellular polysaccharides of microbial origin are of interest due to their novel functionality, reproducible physio-chemical properties, stable cost and supply. Cyanobacteria ...

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Processing of T RNA, R RNA and Small RNAs

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,307 )

To form physiologically active RNA molecules, bacteria process the primary transcripts for r RNA and t RNA. The newly synthesized RNA molecule i.e the primary transcripts differ from the physiologically active r RNA and t RNA molecules in three important aspects: Mature r RNA and t RNA molecules are terminated by a 5’ –monophosphate instead of the expected triphosphate which is found at the ends ...

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Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37

29 Mar 2018

7 (2,696 )

Expression and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 in Dog Peripheral Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Vitro Highlights The lentivirus vector pGC-FU-LL37-GFP was constructed and characterized Dog peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) were successfully obtained Expression of LL37 in was achieved by lentivirus infection. A combination of the anti-infection effect of LL37 and angiogenesis of EPCs might be achieved to benefit clinical therapy Abstract Objective ...

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miRNA-34 Family Tumor Suppression Potential in P53 Network

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,485 )

Jennifer Dell 1. Introduction The very well-studied p53 network has been revealed to regulate multiple miRNA's and is known as tumor suppressor gene. Promising research in cancer repression is going on among the miRNA family of miRNA-34 (miR-34). As one part of the p53 network this family might play a key role in cancer therapy one day. Cell cycle arrest and meanwhile DNA-repair are ...

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P.abrotanoides Karel Role in Aggregation on Target Proteins

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,819 )

There is direct relation between proteins structure and their function. Hydrophobic areas has a less contact with water. In contrast, hydrophilic areas absorb with water. With change in the biochemical compounds of humans body such as PH, temperature or bodys chemical condition in protein structure change as well and these changes can cause denaturation of protein. Some diseases can let of significant change in the protein ...

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Causes of Allergies Essay

28 Mar 2018

7 (2,625 )

NUT ALLERGY INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is an allergy? When exposed to certain foreign substances, a reaction takes place in our immune system which is referred to as allergy [1]. Population of more than 25% in industrialized countries suffer from allergies [2]. These reactions are exaggerated because these foreign substances are recognized as harmless and no response takes place in non-allergic individuals. Most of the ...

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Incorporation of Lucrin-TPO into Resin Based Composites

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,284 )

Introduction The use of resin based composites (RBCs) continues to increase at different rates internationally, partly due to the demise of amalgam. They provide a versatile and robust restoration material [1] [2], however, in recent years the biocompatibility of dental composite restorations has come into question [3]. Degree of conversion and degree of crosslinking are key concepts within RBC formulation as they directly impact the biocompatibility ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,946 )

Manoj Kanth  Contents (Jump to) Introduction Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction: Protein is a biomolecule composed of different 20 amino acids and plays a major role in living organisms ( Rangwala, 2008). Protein can be classified into four major categories according to its structure as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure (Rangwala, 2008). The structure of a protein differs according to the change ...

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Methods Used to Detect Enteric Pathogens

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,959 )

OMOYOSOLA EKOSANMI Antibody & DNA Technology Compare and contrast Immunological and Molecular methods used to detect Enteric Pathogens Enteric pathogens are gram-negative organisms that live and are found in the human gastrointestinal tract, some examples of enteric pathogens are Clostidium difficile, Campylobacter, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella. Most enteric pathogens that enter the gut won’t cause any harm but there are some harmful bacteria that ...

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Genetic Profile of the BVL Lutra Lutra Population Study

28 Mar 2018

7 (2,600 )

An attempt to optimize the PCR amplification of nDNA (microsatellites) extracted from otter faeces to develop a genetic profile of the BVL Lutra lutra population Diana Ferreira, Carlos Fonseca, Eduardo Ferreira, Rita Rocha Introduction The determination of wild species distribution and abundance is extremely necessary for conservation biology studies since some species, such as carnivores, are elusive and secretive and mostly difficult to observe in the ...

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Study of the African Ostrich Brain

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,105 )

Morphological and Anatomical study of the brain of the african ostrich that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered Dahmardeh Moslem, Akbari Mohammad Ebrahim Abstract: The morphological and anatomical specifications of the African ostrich brain that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered were researched in ...

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Challenges in Gene Sequencing

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,005 )

“Tracing the Roots of Intelligence - Brings More Harms than Goods” Introduction BGI, or previously known as the Beijing Genomics Institute located in Shenzhen, China has leapt to the forefront of gene sequencing. This opportunistic organization had successfully completed numerous genome projects, such as sequencing 1% of the human genome for the International Human Genome project, decoded the SARS virus genome within 36 hours, fully sequenced ...

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Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) in the Brain: Effect of Ageing

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,521 )

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells that can generate the typicalphenotypesof thenervous system. NSCs are produced throughout the life of an adult via the process known to be asneurogenesis. Like other tissue-specific stem cells, NSCs persists as separate small and discrete populations in the brain and can undergo extensive proliferation giving rise to new glia and neurons. In mammals they persist throughout the entire life ...

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Mucor Hiemalis Sexual Reproduction and Uses

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,991 )

All species of mold are of the eukaryotic kingdom Fungi, of which are commonly used in the production of food, such as cheese, or brewing, or are described as pests that are harmful towards humans, and aesthetically unappealing. With up to 120 000 identified species and an estimate of 1.5 million different species, rendering the Fungi kingdom as the least-explored (Webster & Weber, 2007). Fungi have ...

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Walking Pneumonia: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,110 )

Heather Kramer This paper will discuss the atypical bacterium Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) that triggers Walking Pneumonia. M. pneumoniae is a pathogen common among humans causing a respiratory infection in the lungs. Research on the discovery and history, taxonomy and classification, cell biology, signs and symptoms, transmission, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of Walking Pneumonia was completed. With the growing population of the world, ...

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Diosgenin in the Treatment of Osteoporosis

28 Mar 2018

10 (3,778 )

Diosgenin prevents bone loss on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis rats Highlights: 1. Diosgenin has preventive and therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. 2. Diosgenin can prevent bone loss. 3. Model group of osteoporosis are successfully induced by retinoic acid. Object: To observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: The rats induced by retinoic acid were used as rat model ...

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Apoptosis: Mechanisms and Anti-Cancer Drugs

28 Mar 2018

5 (1,759 )

Introduction: Among Cell biologists ‘Apoptosis’ is the most studied topics. It plays an important role in understanding the development of many disease and therefore gives clues for its treatment. Cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth of cells. In cancer there is imbalance in the rate of cell division and cell death. It is due to resistance or too little apoptosis. Apoptosis acts like a double edge ...

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Physiology & Treatment

28 Mar 2018

7 (2,614 )

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Physiological traits Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and deadly disease. Many with ALS experience grief and many families of those affected endure the same. At present medical science has demonstrated great potential in finding a workable cure or efficacious therapy. However, at present no such cure or efficacious therapy exists. A number of ...

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DNA Databases: Technology and Legislation

28 Mar 2018

7 (2,666 )

Introduction to DNA databases A DNA database can be defined as a databank of DNA samples which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminal cases and genetic genealogy. The DNA profiles held in these databases are stored electronically. These databases have proved to be very useful in the conviction and exoneration of suspects in criminal cases as well as providing ...

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HIV-infected Patients Malignancies in Abdominal Operations

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,377 )

Association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations Abstract Purpose Until recently, reports on malignancies in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operations are scarce. Our study was to analyze association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations from a single institution. Methods Data were analyzed ...

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Episodic Memory: Definition and Theories

28 Mar 2018

6 (2,108 )

FRITZ Claudia KRENN Nora SCHALLEHN Anna Episodic memory is defined as a memory for personal unique past experience. Experimental approaches with diverse species were done in order to test for the “what where and when” of some unique recent event. These experiments provide convergent evidence that processes similar to episodic memory occur in animals, which is the main focus of this essay. The memory ...

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Detecting ERECTA Gene Using PCR and QTL Analysis

28 Mar 2018

15 (5,778 )

Detection of ERECTA gene and QTL analysis of RI lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0)) Practical Exercises in Plant Breeding Mohammad Foteh Ali   1. Abstract: Recombinant inbreed (RI) lines of Arabidopsis thaliana have been crossed between the ecotypes Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0) up to 8th generation. The main aim of this laboratory report is the detection of ERECTA ...

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Mitochondrial DNA Barcoding

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,568 )

The barcoding region of mitochondrial genome The barcoding region is a gene segment within a protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Protein-coding regions of DNA have specific constraints that can be useful or detrimental to this application. First of all, since a change in nucleotides will often have an effect on the amino acids and hence the protein that is produced, sequences can only experience limited ...

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Herpes Simplex Virus Drug Resistance

28 Mar 2018

8 (2,948 )

Omer Baskan The increasing drug resistance of the herpes simplex virus Abstract Herpes simplex infections remain very common worldwide, the development of new treatments is of vital importance, particularly for the severely immunocompromised individuals due to the increasing emergence of HSV resistant strains being reported. The standard treatment for HSV still remains highly effective, however there is an ever increasing risk that drug resistant ...

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Zinc Fingers in Biological Systems

28 Mar 2018

4 (1,548 )

Lino Cardoz From the very beginning biologist marvelled at cellular complexities that are found in nature, and were awe struck by the very nature of genetic information that was present within each living cell. Hence they began understanding the mechanism by which the cellular machinery would regulate and manipulate this genetic information at a molecular level [1]. With the aid of some cutting edge ...

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