Hyaluronic Acid in Pharmacology and Drug Delivery: A Review

09 Mar 2018

4 (1,238 )

Introduction Hyaluronic acid (HA), also known as hyaluronan, is a naturally occurring biodegradable mucopolysaccharide that is found in mammals, bacteria, and most types of organisms. Hyaluronic acid has many biological functions, such as influence of cell differentiation and proliferation, regulation of cell adhesion and motility, as well as giving tissues various biochemical properties. HA also has many cell surface receptors (CD44, ICAM-1, RHAMM) that allow it ...

Click here to read more arrow

Scanning Electron Microscopy on Silk Mesh Network

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,758 )

4.1 SEM of Silk Scanning electron microscopy was performed on dialyzed complete chain (degummed silk fraction), soluble silk (light chain) and Insoluble silk (heavy chain). On SEM imaging of complete silk mesh network of silk fibers was observed, but, on separation of silk fibers no such fiber network is observed which shows complete separation of light and heavy chains. The white spots present in complete silk ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea Campanulata Leaves

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,213 )

Experimental and Computational analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea campanulata leaves Priyanka Pattnayak, Pankhuri Tiwari,   Shanthi V.   Abstract: Spathodea campanulata (Fountain Tree) has several remedial uses. The bark has antiseptic properties and can be used as a laxative and its other parts like roots, seeds and flowers also have medicinal uses. The leaves of Spathodea contain iridoids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids; classes of plant secondary metabolites. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biodegradation of Profenofos Using Fungal Isolates

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,415 )

Dr. Jayanthi Abraham*   Anjali.M, Caroline Jessica Solomon, V.Vinothini.   Abstract Biodegradation is a sustainable and eco friendly way to clean up contaminated environments. The biological processes harnessed play a major role in the removal of contaminants and they make use of the catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade/covert compounds which are toxic and difficult to breakdown. The study was done to determine the biodegradation of ...

Click here to read more arrow

In Vitro Activity of Malia Azedarach Linn

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,746 )

In vitro activity of Malia azedarach Linn. Against amphotericn B resistant Leishmania tropica strain Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still a big health problem around the world and drug resistance has emerged as a major problem in treatment. The purpose of the study was to generate Amphotericin B resistant strain and evaluate the crude extract of Melia azedarach against wild and lab generated resistant strain of Leishmania ...

Click here to read more arrow

Differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,507 )

Prokaryotes are a group of mostly unicellular organisms which do not have a membrane bound nucleus; they are made up of two main groups, the archaea and the bacteria. Eukaryotes on the other hand are mainly multicellular with a membrane bound nucleus, and are broken done into four main kingdoms; animals, plants, fungi and protoctista. Despite archaea and bacteria being grouped together under the title prokaryotes, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Epidermolysis Bullosa: Mutations of Type VII Collagen Gene

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,772 )

A novel deletion mutation and two recurrent substitutions on type VII collagen gene in seven Iranian patients with epidermolysis bullosa Armita Kakavand Hamidi, Mohammad Moghaddam, Nasim Hatamnejadian, Bahar Sedaghati Khayat, Ahmad Ebrahimi   Abstract Epidermolysis bullosa is one of the most important series of mechano-bullous heritable skin disorders which is categorized into four major types according to the layer that bullae forms within basement ...

Click here to read more arrow

Metabolism of Insulin: An Analysis

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,327 )

The metabolism of insulin and DDI between insulin and several anti-diabetes drugs Zhe Li In this paper, I am going to study the metabolism of insulin in human body and briefly introduce the drug-drug interactions between insulin and some anti-diabetes drugs. In the first part of the paper, I will introduce background information of insulin. Then, in the second part, I will talk about ...

Click here to read more arrow

Developing Groundwater Sources in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,699 )

ABSTRACT We all know that UAE is located in the desert where there is only limited sources of underground water, little rain and no rivers. This is the main problem that UAE government facing today having water shortage. That's why UAE rely in some water sources like desalination of sea water, Groundwater, Surface water and treatment of water. UAE is one of the biggest and populous ...

Click here to read more arrow

Aspergillus Fumigatus Identification and Molecular Character

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,066 )

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF Aspergillus fumigatus FROM SOIL R.V.Shalini, and Dr.K.Amutha,   ABSTRACT: Soil was collected, serially diluted and pure culture obtained; slant was prepared in potato dextrose agar and maintained throughout the study. Morphological, microscopical and macroscopically identification were carried out on the isolated organism. DNA was isolated from the 24 hour culture, for ITS-PCR amplification. DNA was amplified by mixing the template DNA ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Steroid Sulfatase (STS) on Sex Selective Disorders

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,609 )

Introduction The inner workings of the body are amazing. Through evolutionary time and random chance, proteins used in one area of the body become crucial in others. It would seem very unlikely that one enzyme would be responsible for proper brain function AND proper skin maintenance, because the two areas seem different in terms of function and composition. However, enzymes are associated with both of these ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship Between Serum Folate Level and Cervical Cancer

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,076 )

The association between serum folate level and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis Abstract Objectives: This study is to evaluate the association between serum folate level and cervical cancer. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google scholar was searched for relevant trials. Rev.Man5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected and calculated ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cocaine: Properties and Effects

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,194 )

Cocaine is a drug refined from Erytroxylon cocoa bush leaves which grows in Peru and Bolivia. It is referred to using several names such as C, snow, flake, blow, or crack. Generally, it is sold on the streets as a hydrochloride salt. It has a fine, white crystalline powder appearance usually diluted with resembling substances such as talcum powder, or amphetamine. There are several methods of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Identification of Fatty Acids in Launaea Procumbens

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,522 )

Identification of fatty acids in leaves and roots of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and assessment of flavonoid and phenolic content and antioxidant activity This study presents an analysis of fatty acid composition of in root and leaves of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and hexane extract were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolic content along with scavenging assays by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).This analysis ...

Click here to read more arrow

Incidence of Mycoflora in Spices

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,148 )

Incidence of mycoflora associated with some spices Hedawoo GB, Mishra SA and Maggirwar RC   Abstract: Black pepper, fennel and cumin are extensively used as spices in India. Seed pathogens adversely affect the production and quality of spices. The mycoflora associated with spices not only deteriorate the quality of spices but also increase the chance of consuming toxic elements through harmful fungi like Aspergilli. The present investigation ...

Click here to read more arrow

Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon Caesius

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,497 )

Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf. of Kemmannugundi Regions of Karnataka, India Avinash K.S. and Y.L. Krishnamurthy*   Abstract: Cymbopogon grass produces many bioactive compounds and used for many medicinal purposes. In this study healthy leaf, stem and root segments were cultured on media like Potato dextrose agar and Malt extract agar medium and pure cultured. Endophytic fungi were isolated from ...

Click here to read more arrow

Poultry Diseases: Impact, Types and Causes

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,183 )

Introduction: Poultry diseases had made an adverse effect on the industry during past few years. The data and studies related to the impact of poultry diseases and their prevalence is still not enough. The interpretation, forecasting of poultry diseases and their epidemiological analysis is very important at national and international levels. The monitoring of production and vigilant approach for disease control is very important ...

Click here to read more arrow

Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Nodules

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,623 )

Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Benign and Malignant Nodules in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Highlights MSCT features is useful in differentiate the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients. MSCT is superior than plain CT scan in nodule diagnosis in CLT patients MSCT may apply as an important diagnostic modality in the clinical practice. Abstract Objective To assess the clinical significance of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab for Heart Failure Treatment

30 Jan 2018

11 (4,123 )

Synergistic Effect of Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab in the Treatment for Heart Failure in Rats Running title: Heart Failure Treatment Highlights: The level of TNF-α decreased after treatment with IL-10 and golimumab. The level of IL-10 was increased by IL-10 combined with golimumab. IL-10 and golimumab have a synergistic effect on HF in rats. ABSTRACT Objectives We attempted to assess the therapeutic effect of ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Future for Clinical Immunology

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,548 )

A.N. Other (SID ), Department of Pathobiology, University of Turku, Finland. The last ten years has seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of different disorders. clinical immunology is a specialism which is currently developing in different ways, some of which are highlighted here. This discipline has a responsibility to provide a complete array of analytical measurements for the diagnosis and treatment ...

Click here to read more arrow

Risks to the Human Population

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,720 )

Human Populations are at Risk from outbreaks of New Diseases Diseases are the disturbance of body processes impacting homeostasis, the emergence and resurgence of diseases is majorly dependent on social, ecological and geographical change rather than the molecular or microbiological aspects (Mayer, 2000). This essay will cover the growing evidence that climate change poses health concerns for the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Annotated Bibliography: Bt Cotton Studies

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,187 )

LITERATURE REVIEW Tabashnik et al. explained that using transgenic crops such as Bt cotton could significantly reduce the use of chemical insecticides and pesticides. They also pointed out that excessive use of transgenic crops initiated the development of resistance in pests, which must be delayed. They suggested the use of two different Bt toxins to target the same pest, such as integration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab ...

Click here to read more arrow

Production of Mutant Based Epsilon Toxin (ETK) Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,101 )

Critique of Li et al. Article: A low-toxic site-directed mutant of Clostridium perfringens É›-toxin as a potential candidate vaccine against enterotoxemia Name: Donnelle Phillips Vaccines improve the immune system of an animal or human by stimulating the production of antibodies to fight and combat bacteria, protozoan or viruses effectively creating ...

Click here to read more arrow

Pink Disease of the Rubber Tree: Causes and Effects

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,574 )

INTRODUCTION The rubber tree is the most important source of natural rubber. It is constantly under threat from various pathogens that cause severe diseases like abnormal leaf fall, Corynespora leaf disease, brown root disease, and pink disease and Colletotrichum leaf disease. Leaves alternate, palmate and each leaf with 3 leaflets. Leaflets elliptic petiolated, with a basal gland, pointed at the tip with lengths varying up to ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impacts on Population Growth

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,762 )

Submitted By MUHAMMAD BILAL   Contents (Jump to) 1. POPULATION 2. POPULATION GROWTH WITHOUT ANY REGULATION 2.1 BIOTIC POTENTIAL 2.2 EXPONANTIOAL GROWTH EXAMPLE 2.2.1 ASSUMPTIONS OF EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 2.2.2 APPLICATIONS OF THE EXPONENTIAL MODEL 3. POPULATION REGULATION 3.1 EXTRENSIC FACTORS 3.1.1 ABIOTIC FACTORS 3.1.2 BIOTIC FACTORS 3.2 INTRINSIC FACTORS 4. DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS 4.1 CLIMATE 4.2 SPACE 4.3 SUNLIGHT 4.4 RAINFALL 4.5 Natural Disasters 4.6 SEASONAL ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role of Cell Signalling in Regulation of Homeostasis

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,233 )

NEHA HITENDRA RANE Introduction What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. Homeostasis is a ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is continuous change in outside world. The term homeostasis is derived from the two Greek words homeo and stasis. Homeo which means unchanging and stasis means standing. It means ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Nilaparavata Lugens (Stal.)

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,438 )

Nilaparavata lugens (Stal.) Nilaparvata lugens is generally called as brown plant hopper or Asian rice brown plant hopper (BPH). N. lugens comes under order: Hemiptera, Suborder: Auchennorrhyncha and Family: Delphacidae. The delphacid genus Nilaparvata consists of 18 species. Nilaparvata is a crucial genus economically, with one amongst its member N. lugens being serious insect pests of rice and are cosmopolitian particularly in tropical Asia wherever rice ...

Click here to read more arrow

Alzheimer's Disease and Calcium Signalling

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,239 )

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is complex, and involves many molecular, cellular and physiological pathologies. The leading candidate for the trigger of Alzheimer’s disease is the Aβ peptide,which is produced by the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP; BOX 1). Its primacy has been manifested in the ‘amyloid-cascade hypothesis’,which posits that the accumulation of Aβ (resulting from overproduction, altered processing or a failure of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Different Substrate and Temperature on Yeast

30 Jan 2018

3 (1,191 )

background information introduction to cellular respiration Cellular respiration is the catabolic process of converting the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP. Adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule, used in cells as a "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer(Bergman, J 1999). Cells are capable of working when the energy released from ATP, when ...

Click here to read more arrow

Development of the Bio-Chemical Sector in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,416 )

Saman Masood BIO-CHEMICALS: The term ‘bio-chemical’ comprises of two words, that is, ‘bio’ which means ‘life and ‘chemical which means any ‘chemical substance’ that arises from a chemical compound which makes up a living cell. There are number of bio-chemicals which can be obtained from various sources, for example, proteins from beef pancreas, plants and other natural ways. Just like a small example, when ...

Click here to read more arrow

Pluripotent Stem Cells: Benefits, Properties and Uses

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,532 )

INTRODUCTION Pluripotent stem cells give rise to nearly all cells types of the body, like, muscle, nerve, heart, and blood. They hold huge promise for both research & health care. The advance in human biology continues to generate interest among scientists, patients suffering from a wide range of diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes, their families. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, is derived from inner cell ...

Click here to read more arrow

Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds From Lichens

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,432 )

Efficient method of extraction and separation of antioxidant molecules from Lichens obtained from Kolli hills of Tamil Nadu Abstract Lichens are made by symbiotic association of both fungi and algae. The fungi was found to be the major partner and in the metabolite production too. The lichen metabolites were found to be very unique compared with the other plant kingdom. Most of the lichen compounds were ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Ethics of Human Enhancement

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,924 )

Bor Shin Chee Human Enhancement The term ‘human enhancement’ embraces a range of approaches to improve aspects of human function such as memory, hearing and mobility to improve human performance, hence raising these function to a level considered to be beyond the existing human range. Human enhancement categorized into particular areas: life extension, physical enhancement, cognitive enhancement, enhancement of mood or personality, and pre- ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biological Effects of Smoking on Health

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,192 )

Kim Rissario A report into the biological effects of smoking on health Cigarette smoke is composed of over 4000 different chemicals, many of which are extremely toxic. Cigarettes consist of the following components; tar, nicotine and Carbon Monoxide (CO), which are hazardous to our health. The tar settles in the lungs and stimulates a series of changes that leads to obstructive lung disease (see ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bamboo as a Source of Phytosterols

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,905 )

Functional foods containing phytosterols are now available in the form of margarines, spreads, baked products, meat, soups and salad dressings. Present sources of phytosterols are limited being derived from vegetable oil and tall oil, a by-product of paper production from wood, and it is estimated that 2500 tons of these oils need to be refined to produce 1 ton of phytosterols. Techniques have been developed to ...

Click here to read more arrow

Chemistry of Contraceptives

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,142 )

Chapter 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 Norethindrone Norethindrone is 17α-ethinyl-17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one. It is also known by its chemical names like norpregneninolone and norethisterone. It is commonly used in some combined oral contraceptive pills, progestogen only pills and is also available as a stand-alone drug. It is white to creamy white in color, odorless, non-hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Norethindrone was the first orally highly active progestin to be synthesized. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Quantified Amount of Beta Carotene from Galiella Sp

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,389 )

Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the results on quantified value of beta - glucan and beta - carotene from Galiella sp. extracts. Analysis of beta – glucan contents Table 1. Quantified amount of beta – glucan from thallus The table shows the mean of three trials and general mean as quantified value of beta – glucan using the microwave assisted ...

Click here to read more arrow

Metabolic Pathways of Galactosemia

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,943 )

An Overview of Galactosemia and Its comparison to Electron Transport Chain and Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Yu Shang Any deficiencies of the enzymes in a metabolic pathway will likely lead to a metabolic disorder. Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism.1 The disease is caused by the deficiency in galactokiase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), or UDP-galactose 4’ epimerase.1 The deficiency in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Rat Pancreatic Islets

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,554 )

Discussion We here report, for the first time, that rat pancreatic islet cells and the rat INS-1 β-cell line express detectable levels of transcripts encoding the key enzymes of the TKP. Importantly, this is associated with the spontaneous release of significant levels of the TKP metabolites KYN and KYNA by the rat islets, therefore suggesting some degree of functionality of the TKP in the rat islet cells in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Correlation of Phenotypic Traits in Maize Different Hybrids

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,065 )

Evaluation correlation between phenotypic traits in corn hybrids and their change trends under drought stress and non-stress conditions at flowering and grain filling stages Rahim mohammadian,Behnam tahmasebpour, Peyvand Samimifar,Habib Lotfi Abstract To investigate the correlation of phenotypic traits in maize different hybrids, an experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications under stress-free conditions and irrigation cutting treatments on flowering and grain ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,287 )

The Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: A meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials Running title: A meta-analysis of Tai Chi and BMD Highlights: This was a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. A total of 6 articles involving 182 interventions and 168 controls were included. Meta-analysis of BMD at lumbar spine showed no heterogeneity. Attrition bias, reporting bias and other bias ...

Click here to read more arrow

Morphological Characterization of Aromatic Pickle Mango

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,003 )

Morphological Characterization of a few Farmers'-Identified Unique Aromatic Pickle Mango varieties of the Central Western Ghats Manohar Sunagar, Vasudeva R, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao   Key words: Aromatic pickle-mango, morphological characterization, descriptors, farmers varieties Abstract Aromatic pickle mango (locally called appemidi and GI tagged) is a special type of pickle mango harvested and semi-domesticated from rivenrine habitats of the Western Ghats. These ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cell Culture for Producing Influenza Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,200 )

Cell Culture: an Alternative Method for Producing Influenza Vaccines Layth Abdul-Majeed Abdul-Khaleq   Importance of the field: Cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production offers various advantages over egg-based manufacturing method during influenza pandemics. Areas covered in this review: Benefits of cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production have been discussed, including: Increasing vaccines production capability during pandemics, preventing the development of mutations and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bacterial Transcription Initiation

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,790 )

YONG YA FEN What are the mechanisms of bacterial transcription initiation? The transcription initiation is dependent on the interaction between RNA polymerase and promoter. The way that RNA polymerase interacts with promoter determines the direction for transcription because it decides which DNA strand to be the template strand and the site where transcription begins (Russell, 2010). A promoter is a DNA sequence ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship between Amyloid-/I and Oxidative Stress

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,621 )

Oxidative stress increases amyIoid-~production, and, conversely, amybid-/ I increases oxidative damage. To address the relationship between amyloid-/I and oxidative stress in vivo, we examined, using an array of oxidative markers, transgenic mice that overexpress amyloid-/3 precursor protein and, as in Alzheimer’s disease, develop characteristic amyloid-/3 deposits within the brain parenchyma. Transgenic animals show the same type of oxidative damage that is found in Alzheimer’s disease, and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Oxygen and Oxidative Stress on Ageing

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,118 )

Critically discuss the research evidence that oxygen and oxidative stress are responsible for ageing For decades there have been hundreds of hypotheses regarding theories of ageing (finch). Most of these ideas have been disregarded and several theories now captivate much research on ageing. Random damage secondary to free radicals (FR), notably, reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in the process of ageing. The damage caused ...

Click here to read more arrow

Transferability of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

30 Jan 2018

11 (4,236 )

Transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) to some Trifolium species Abstract Microsatellite markers previously developed for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) were used in cross-amplification tests of eight other Trifolium species. Of the 20 SSR loci tested, 9 (47.37%) had positive results and were found to be transferable to all eight species tested. The number of alleles ...

Click here to read more arrow

In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,623 )

Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri on glucose uptake in L6 cells: Figure 79 represents the effect of hexane fractions of P. niruri whole plant, insulin and metformin on glucose uptake by L-6 myotubes. It is evident from the results that hexane fraction of P. niruri caused increases glucose uptake in concentration dependent manner in L6 cells. The hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Debate on GM Crops

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,072 )

GM crops: Natural or unnatural? For many of us, all we know about the food and vegetables that we consume daily are their shapes, their colours, their freshness, and how much they cost. Little do we know about the whole process behind the pack of banana or tomatoes in our bag: how were they cultivated? What pesticides were used on them? Or how were they ...

Click here to read more arrow

Phosphoglucose Isomerase (Pgi) Locus in Butterfly Population

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,864 )

Benjamin Killick Modelling the evolution of the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) locus in butterfly metapopulations: project proposal. Background: Metapopulation theory, as developed by R. Levins in 1969, concerns the dynamics of metapopulations, which consist of several distinct local populations that exhibit some degree of interaction and occupy isolated areas of suitable habitat, referred to as patches. Each local population occupies a patch and has a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Anti Cancer Activity of Some Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,321 )

Abstract At present, the criteria used to select finest novel anticancer drug candidates include inhibitors of cell proliferation, necessary reaction and pathways in cancerous cells. In silico advance resulting in the identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of our study is to study the interaction of quinazoline derivatives with 8 selected anticancer drug target enzymes in Silico molecular ...

Click here to read more arrow

Genetically Inherited Diseases: Gaucher’s Disease

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,114 )

Nikita Mountford   1. what is a genetically inherited disease? Genetic disorders are typically inherited (passed down) in either a dominant or recessive way. We each have two copies of every gene on our 22 numbered chromosomes. When a disorder is dominant, the disease can occur when there are DNA mistakes in only one of the two gene copies. This means that if a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship Between Exercise and Reaction Time: Research

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,982 )

EXERCISE AND REACTION TIME RESEARCH QUESTION: How, and to what extent, do varying intensities of aerobic exercise affect the visual and auditory reaction times of males between ages 15-20? INTRODUCTION: The field of reaction time has been one with much interest and study over the past few years, especially given its pertinence and applicability in things ranging from athletics and sport science to motor skills and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Major Discoveries in Modern Biology

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,417 )

Emily Faulkner BIOLOGY is a major branch of science that deals with the living organisms. Many discoveries are emerged in this area and the focus of this paper is on major discoveries of modern biology in the field of DNA, biotechnology and cell biology. Cell Biology Nature Cell Biologywas proposed 10 years ago to give an opportunity to "raise the discussion of ideas between ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Human Population Growth

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,640 )

The Growth of the Human Population Chris Long   Since the worlds origin we have seen a steady growth in the worldwide population. From the first records of humans on this earth we have seen the cycle of birth and death. The population increases and decreases are determined by the number of births compared with the number of deaths over the same period. As ...

Click here to read more arrow

STAT-3 and the Invasion of Cervical Cancer Cell Relationship

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,311 )

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer is one of the most highly leading cancers among the women in the world. The estimated number of cervical cancer cases and death in the world is increase to 527,624 and 265,653 respectively in year 2012 (Saranath & Khanna, 2014). This statistic had influenced the society to be more aware about cervical cancer and learn how to lower the possibility of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Methods of Pest Control for Crop Productivity

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,768 )

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Crop productivity is highly affected by the presence of pests. Insect pests are one of the major causes of low agricultural yield worldwide (Ferre et al., 2008). In spite of the crop protection measurements, large number of crop is lost to insect pests attack (Oerke, 2006). For sustainable agricultural production to meet the needs of increased population, chemical insecticides are used against ...

Click here to read more arrow

Applications of Probiotics

29 Jan 2018

5 (1,622 )

Probiotics: A Biotherapeutics Application of Potentially Beneficial Microorganisms Vandana Bharti*, Archana Mehta, Siddharts Singh and Neha Jain, Shuchi Mehta   ABSTRACT The term “Probiotics” comes from the Greek word “pro bios” meaning “for life”. Use of Probiotics are not a new invention but it has formed a vital part of diets for thousands of years, in the form of fermented milk and vegetable products ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies of Gene Sequencing

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,217 )

Databanks When a gene is sequenced for the first time, it is submitted to a databank such as DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ), GenBank or European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). The submission of the nucleotide sequence databanks via the internet, undergo a simple automatic process which done electronically with web-based procedures. The databanks that share their information on a day-to-day basis can be ...

Click here to read more arrow

Do Meal-worms Prefer the Dark? Experiment

29 Jan 2018

7 (2,520 )

Joseph, Jesse, and Hannah Biology-0/1st Behavior Lab- Mealworms Introduction: Mealworms, scientifically known as Tenebrio molitor, are the brown and white colored worm-like larvae of the darkling beetles. They go through a life cycle of transforming from larvae into pupa and then finally into adult darkling beetles. Mealworms are typically found near their food sources (both organic and rotting vegetation), underneath rocks (they highly prefer ...

Click here to read more arrow

Literature Review on Butea Monosperma (Lam.)

29 Jan 2018

8 (3,104 )

LITERATURE SURVEY Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (Fabaceae) 1. Botanical synonyms Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb; Erythrina monosperma Lamk. 1.2. Common names Bengali: kinaka, palas, paras, polashi; English: flame of the forest; Gujarati: kakria, kesudo, khakara, khakharo, palasso, phullas; Hindi: chinchra, dhak, palas, paras; Kannada: brahmavriksha, mathuga, mutthugada mara, muttuga, palasa, plashu, thoras; Malayalam: brahmavriksham, mukkappuyam, palas, palasin samatha; Marathi: palas, paras, phulas; Oriya: kinjuko, palasa, polas, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Climate Change on Moose Numbers

29 Jan 2018

6 (2,084 )

Moose in the Noose? From Montana to Minnesota, Ontario and Wyoming to Hew Hampshire moose numbers are in steep decline. Could climate change be to blame? These majestic animals, which can be over 6 feet tall and weigh 700 kg, are a highlight for wildlife enthusiasts visiting America’s northern states and bring in much needed revenue for local communities. They are also important components of the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biological Significance of BST2 Overexpression in OSCC

29 Jan 2018

8 (3,029 )

Overexpression of BST2 is associated with nodal metastasis and poorer prognosis in oral cavity cancer ABSTRACT Objective: Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) was one of the proteins which were found related to tumor metastasis in our previous proteomic study. Now we want to examine its clinical role on the oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Study Design: Individual retrospective cohort study and basic research. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Increased Temperature on Delosperma Cooperi

29 Jan 2018

9 (3,447 )

Eunice Oh The Impact of Increased Temperature due to Global Warming on Pollen Germination of Delosperma Cooperi Introduction: There have is an ongoing crisis that is beginning to influence ecosystems throughout the world, which may lead to been large scalemany natural disasters and impacts due to a rise in earth’s temperature, due to the rise in temperature from the global warming. According to NASA’s ...

Click here to read more arrow

Surgical Extraction of a Large Left Ventricular Hydatid Cyst

29 Jan 2018

4 (1,317 )

Surgical extraction of a large left ventricular hydatid cyst under transesophageal echocardiography monitoring Abstract We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed both hepatic and cardiac hydatid cysts by multimodality imaging. The left ventricular hydatid cyst was surgically removed not only under direct vision but transesophageal echocardiography monitoring. And the patient recovered uneventfully. Keywords: echinococcosis; hepatic hydatid cyst; left ventricular hydatid cyst; multimodality ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Euonine on Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells

29 Jan 2018

10 (3,665 )

Effect of Euonine on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells Running title: Role of euonine on uterine leiomyoma Highlights: The proliferation rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined. The apoptosis rate of uterine leiomyoma cells was determined. The phosphorylation levels of EGFR from uterine leiomyoma cells were measured. Abstract Objective: To explore the effect of euonine on the proliferation and apoptosis ...

Click here to read more arrow

Fatty Acid Analysis of Magnetospirillum Sp

29 Jan 2018

4 (1,208 )

ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and have been identified from almost every continent. Magnetospirillumsp., the most studied MTB was commonly found in estuarine and fresh water habitat. The characterstics of bacteria can be determined by computer-assisted fatty acid profiling. Three strains of Magnetospirillumsp. was grown for 72 hours under defined cultural conditions using Magnetospirillum growth media (MSGM). ...

Click here to read more arrow

Constraints on the Expansion of Global Food Production

29 Jan 2018

9 (3,267 )

Introduction It has been observed that In spite of the fact that the food production has increased almost twice in the last few decades, but there are people who are insecure of the food conditions and do not get enough nutritious food to eat (Wu et al. 2011). As per the world population data the people who do not get adequate nutritious food to eat has ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bluetongue Virus (BTV): Causes, Types and History

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,272 )

The disease was first reported in Pakistan in 1959 and in India in 1964 (Sapre, 1964). After that BT outbreaks have been reported from sheep and goat in several states of India. Being India endemic for BT, 21 different serotypes of BTV have been reported (Prasad, 2000). However, recently the 22nd serotype i.e. BTV21 has also been isolated from India (Susmitha et al., 2012). Bluetongue is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Water Quality in South Africa's Rivers

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,264 )

Diseases Related to Microbial Organism’s found in the drinking water in South Africa Shelley-Anne Bentham Due: 17 March 2014 Definitions: cfu/ml: Colony Forming Units per mililitre Keywords: Cholera, Entamoeba Histolticia, Giardia Lamblia and Tricuris Trichuira, Rota Virus, Salmonella Abstract Aim: Is to determine the quality of water in the rivers of South Africa and determine the amount of pollution which may cause water borne ...

Click here to read more arrow

Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis: Causes and Prevalence

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,529 )

The genesis of the problem has been the introduction of the 6 cows from Rajasthan, a hot and dry state of India in the Holstein cross bred herd in the Graphic Era University dairy at Dehradun capital of hill state of India. Suddenly after introduction of these Sindhi cows there was death of death of 8 cross breed cows in 2010. In spite all possible veterinary ...

Click here to read more arrow

Screening of Exopolysaccharides Producing Bacteria Strains

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,617 )

1.0 Introduction Among the microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play a significant role in main physiological functions and applications. The increased demand for current and natural polymeric materials by several industrial fields such as pharmaceutical, food and others has moved the interest to the polysaccharides produced by microorganism during the past years. Polysaccharide is a macromolecule comprising more than about ten monosaccharides residues linked glycosidically in branch ...

Click here to read more arrow

Functions of Food and Food Types

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,722 )

Introduction: A look over past decade shows an evident surge of consumer concern towards the health augmenting role of some specific foods which are refer as functional foods. Evidently all foods that we consume are functional in nature as they dispense specific aroma, taste and nutritive value, however during last decade the term has been related to the food stuff which has some additional ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analyzing the Phylum Chordata through Biology

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,550 )

Hamza Ali Introduction: The topic chosen for this biological study was the Kingdom Animalia. This study will specifically be analyzing the Phylum Chordata, by providing an introduction to Chordates, Vertebrates, The Classification method of Cladistics, Fish, Amphibian, and Reptiles. What are vertebrates? -Vertebrates are known as animals that have an internal spine made of bone.Vertebrates include reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds, mammals, primates, rodents and ...

Click here to read more arrow

CD8+ effector and memory T cells Differentiation

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,328 )

What controls CD8+ effector and memory T cells differentiation? Introduction: The capability of initiating and cultivating a population of memory T cells is the key component of an effective adaptive immune response and the fundamental foundation for a productive vaccine since memory cells can trigger an aggressive response upon reinfection. Throughout an infection, T cells can differentiate into a multitude of effector and memory cells, which ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role Of Bacteria In Assisting Cancer

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,080 )

Cancer can be promoted by several pathogenic bacteria to initiate abnormal cell growth by attacking the immune system or suppressing apoptosis (Mager 2006). However, bacterial toxins can still be used for tumor suppressor and cancer vaccines on immunotoxins of bacterial origin(Patyar et al. 2010). Bacterial colonization of tumors was initially attributed to the hypoxic nature of solid tumors (low O2 levels).30 It has been proposed that ...

Click here to read more arrow

ATP and Adenosine: Biochemistry and Metabolism

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,569 )

ATP and adenosine: biochemistry and metabolism Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenously occurring nucleoside triphosphate, which is ubiquitous in all cell types and constitutes the natural precursor molecule of adenosine, (AD) a purine nucleoside formed by adenine and ribose. One ATP molecule consists of three phosphate groups, and is synthetized by several enzymes, namely ATP synthase, from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) on Biology

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,416 )

PCR- How has this technique revolutionised molecular biology in the last 30 years? PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has been in existence for several decades now and in that time has become one of the most commonly used of all lab techniques in biology. In its simplest form it is a way of enzymatically replicating a chosen section of DNA in vitro, without the need for any ...

Click here to read more arrow

Absent Joining Chain Effect on Immune Response

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,604 )

Critical Review of a Journal Kallberg, E. and Leanderson, T., 2006. Joining-chain (J-chain) negative mice are B cell memory deficient. European Journal of Immunology, 36, 1398-1403. Overview The journal article falls under the main subject area of cellular immune response, where the effect of the absence of joining chain locus on T- cell dependent immune responses on mice was explored. While the authors’ previous study establishes ...

Click here to read more arrow

High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays: Uses and Formats

25 Jan 2018

17 (6,512 )

The increasing demands placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to produce a rapid turnaround of new drugs is a driving factor in the automation of the processes at the initial screening stage of drug discovery. This has lead to the development of numerous high throughput screening (HTS) assays, with the increasing miniaturization of the whole process (1). An explosion in genomic and proteomic studies in recent decades ...

Click here to read more arrow

Microbial Mutagenicity Tests: Strategies and Benefits

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,720 )

Human beings are exposed to an ever-increasing array of chemicals; from food additives, medicines and cosmetics to environmental exposure to pesticides and flame-retardants. It is essential to establish the potential toxicity of these compounds before they are used, and in particular to assess their capacity to cause mutational damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Such genotoxicity can cause heritable damage to germline DNA or may increase the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Classification System of Ectomychorrhizae Fungi

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,290 )

Introduction Cladistics is a method of phylogenetic systematics which aims to determine an organism's classification, by decent, in a taxonomic system. Cladistics uses synapomorphies, which are shared derived characteristics, between groups of organisms to make decisions about how the group fits into the classification system. For this cladistic study the group of organisms known as ectomycorrhizae fungi has been selected. Ectomychorrhizal (EM) fungi plays a key ...

Click here to read more arrow

Antibodies Inhibit Prion Propagation

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,206 )

Critical Essay of “Antibodies inhibit prion propagation and clear cell cultures of prion infectivity.” Background Information Prions are the actual action centers of nervous system diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They are a dendritic package that replicates and spreads neural diseases (Selkoe, 2005, 193). They also are can be considered the pathways or pathogenic agents that help to transmit various nervous system diseases such as scrapie and ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Occurrence and Function of Play Behaviour in Mammals

25 Jan 2018

8 (3,098 )

Summary Play in mammals is a widely reported behaviour. It tends to occur in younger mammals and diminishes as they reach adulthood. Play in young mammals often mimics adult behaviour that is essential for survival e.g., predatory skills. This has led to the theory that the function of play is to enable young mammals to practice and develop the skills that are required for adult survival. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Saliva Analysis for Diabetes: Pros and Cons

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,148 )

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a common and widespread disease, characterised by poor regulation of glucose due to pancreatic insufficiency. Traditional methods of diagnosis and monitoring utilise blood glucose analysis and highly accurate mechanisms exist for this. However, as many insulin dependent diabetics have to monitor their own blood glucose, the constant obtaining and testing of blood can be very inconvenient and reduce patient compliance. Therefore the ...

Click here to read more arrow

MCP-1: Origins and Uses for Inflammatory Treatment

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,545 )

Introduction Chemokines are able to attract and activate leukocyte subsets in exclusion to other subsets (1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine that targets monocytes, T lymphocytes and cells that express the C-C chemokine receptor (2) including myocytes (3). MCP-1 (also known as CCL2) was the third chemokine to be purified to homogeneity, after platelet factor 4 and interleukin 8 (4). It ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Microstructure of a Cell

25 Jan 2018

4 (1,404 )

The microstructure of a cell is made up of a complex system of organelles. Each organelle has an important function with regards to the production and transport of information into the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein. The nucleus contains DNA, the coded information required for protein synthesis. The genetic information coded within the nucleus is transcribed and exported via mRNA to associate with the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Literature Review on Impacts and Causes of Food Bacteria

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,778 )

The results show that foods tested varied considerably both in the degree of microbial contamination and the types of bacteria present. Bile salts in the MacConkey agar allow selective growth of bacteria adapted to grow in the mammalian intestinal tract (Heritage et al. 1996). The majority of these are Enterobacteriacae (enteric bacteria), including pathogens such as Escherichia coli (coliforms) and Salmonella spp., many of which are ...

Click here to read more arrow

Anti-inflammatory Profile of Alnus nepalensis Leaves

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,725 )

Anti-inflammatory profile of Alnus nepalensis leaves extracts: In-vitro and in-vivo study Archana Saxena1, Deepti Yadav2, Anant kumar1, Madan M.Gupta2, Dnyaneshwar U.Bawankule1   ABSTRACT Ethnopharmacological relevance: Alnus nepalensis has been used in the traditional medicine to treat the inflammatory conditions in India, Korea and China but it lacks proper pharmacological intervention. Aim of the study: To evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory profile of A. nepalensis leaves ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biological Causes of Alzheimer's Disease

25 Jan 2018

6 (2,070 )

Alzheimer’s disease is driven by two processes: extracellular deposits of beta amyloid and intracellular accumulation of tau protein.[9] “It is characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β peptide, generated by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase.”[10p554] The APP gene provides instructions for making APP. This protein is found in many tissues and organs including the brain and the spinal cord. It plays ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan

25 Jan 2018

5 (1,610 )

The essay aims to investigate the issue of Bovine Spongy Encephalitis (BSE) in Japan, with particular emphasis on the meat traceability system adopted by the Japanese regulatory authorities and its implications for the Japanese food markets, its beef industry, and the hospitality industry. Presumably written in late 2005 or early 2006, some three years after BSE reared its head in Japan, the essay attempts to trace ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cell Cycle-related Genes Expression in HGA

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,346 )

Cell cycle-related genes are prognostic markers of survival in high grade astrocytomas Highlights: A total of 598 genes were identified as significant risk genes for prognosis. Prognosis genes including CDC6 and AURKA had higher degrees in the PPI network. CDC6, AURKA and CHEK1 were mainly enriched in cell cycle and mitotic cell cycle. Abstract Objective: High grade astrocytoma (HGA) is a kind of aggressive ...

Click here to read more arrow

Efficacy of Antimicrobial Preservatives

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,687 )

Abstract. The aim of the experiment is to test the efficacy of antimicrobial preservatives by means of investigating the survival of one selected species of micro-organism which is deliberately introduced into the tested products. Introduction. Cosmetic products are not expected to be sterile as the raw materials used in their production, especially those originating from plants, animals or soil are often contaminated with micro-organisms. The extent ...

Click here to read more arrow

DNASE1 VNTR polymorphism and SLE

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,429 )

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNASE1) polymorphism and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Iranian population Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani1,2 ,Saeedeh Salimi1,2*, Maryam Moossavi3,Mahnaz Sandoughi4, Zahra Zakeri4, Maryam Khoddamian2 Abstract Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease. The etiology of SLE is multi-factorial and both genetic and environmental factors play role. In SLE patients a reduction of DNASE1 activity is observed. The aim of this study was ...

Click here to read more arrow

Understanding an Unknown Protein Sequence

25 Jan 2018

8 (3,032 )

Title Understanding an unknown protein sequence provided that was found to be [Physcomitrella patens] >gi|162695322|gb|EDQ81666.1| Seq ID: gi|168001481|ref|XP_001753443.1S Abstract A protein sequence was provided to be subjected to the manipulation of various bioinformatics tools. The protein was found to be a predicted protein of Physcomitrella patens that is an important bryophyte that is utilised in general genomic studies such as reverse genetics, molecular farming, the production ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Testicular Histological Structure in Lambs

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,411 )

Testicular Histological Structure and Scrotal During Postnatal Development till puberty Circumference in Najdi and Naemi Ram Lambs Ahmed A. Al-kawmania,,. Faisal M. Abou-Tarbousha,. Mohammad Abul Faraha,. Mansour M. Alfuraijib,. Salah A. Ibrahima. Abstract The present work is conducted to elucidate the relationship among chronological age, testis size, and the postnatal development of the seminiferous epithelium of the testes of the Najdi and Naemi ram ...

Click here to read more arrow

Threats to Urban Bird Populations

25 Jan 2018

9 (3,408 )

Emily Bailes, Ann Bailey, Matheus Blezer Plumm, Tom McClellan-West, Lizzie Yarwood - Introduction The enigmatic creatures of the sky, birds are creatures that are treasured by many around the world, by some as cultural symbolism, others a hobby to indulge in and some just find their presence a pleasant addition to a grey and largely urban world. Human colonisation has had a huge impact ...

Click here to read more arrow

Characterization of Leishmania Major in Dogs

25 Jan 2018

10 (3,658 )

Characterization of Leishmania major in dogs as a reservoir of the parasite, in Shiraz, southern Iran Summary Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with diverse clinical manifestations is prevalent and remains a major public health problem in Iran and its incidence has been increased over the last decade. The primary hosts of Leishmania are sylvatic mammals of several orders (Rodentia, Marsupialia, Carnivora, etc.). A PCR assay using a of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Proteins for Xylose Utilization

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,549 )

Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass, comprising up to 35% of the total carbohydrates (Lee, 1997; Saha, 2003; Jeffries and Jin. 2004; Qin et al, 2012). Microorganisms possess three different pathways for D-xylose degradation. The first pathway, present in many bacteria and few fungi, involves xylose isomerase which converts d-xylose to xylulose and phosphorylation of xylulose by xylulokinase followed by its entry ...

Click here to read more arrow

Types of Agriculture and Farming

25 Jan 2018

7 (2,421 )

AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES Food is the major indispensable, fundamental and vital need of the people. “It has been calculated that a human under stress, performing hard labor, needs 2000grams of water, 470 grams of dry weight various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70grams of dry weight proteins and the appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals. Otherwise said, the colony will need a minimum of 30000 ...

Click here to read more arrow
Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.