Exosomes: Roles and Applications to Cancer

09 Mar 2018

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Exosomes (The research behind cancer biomarkers) Afnan Elhag Introduction Exosomes are small vesicles which are found in many body fluids, such as blood and urine (1, 2). Its diameter is between 30 and 100nm, but much smaller than a bacterial cell. Exosomes can be released from the plasma membrane or by multi vesicular bodies fusing with the plasma membrane (3). Specialized functions of exosomes play a ...

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Phylogenetic Analysis of Universal Stress Proteins (USPs)

09 Mar 2018

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ABSTRACT Resistance to different stress conditions constitutes regulation of many proteins among which Universal stress proteins (USPs) are the most important group of proteins found in plant cells. USPs are reported to be essential in different stress conditions and assigned as conserved domain, were subjected to database search. We found 35 homologs of USP in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cicer arietinum, Solanum lycopersicum, Oryza sativa and Sorghum bicolor ...

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Experiment on Characteristics of Invertebrates

09 Mar 2018

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Lab 6 – invertebrate diversity Amine A. Harb Introduction Invertebrates are classified in relation to their lack of backbone or spinal column. A few distinguishing characteristics of invertebrates include distinctive respiratory organs, segmentation, radial and bilateral symmetries, and body organization. This experiment required us to dissect and examine an earthworm and a squid. The squid’s taxonomic classification derives from the Family Loligindae, Order Teuthoidea, Class Cephaopoda, ...

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Expression Levels of Artemis in Taxane-based Chemotherapy

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Although decreasing in most countries, gastric cancer remains one of the most leading causes of cancer death in the world with poor prognosis. Patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer usually have poor outcomes, with 5-year mortality of more than 95% [1]. Diffuse types of gastric cancer are strongly suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2000, including poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma and well-differentiated ...

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Effects of the Lionfish Invasion

09 Mar 2018

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Lionfish invasion Should Lionfish be removed? Introduction The lionfish are biological pollutants, they are considered predators and close to the top of the food chain, this makes them dangerous to the ecosystem and humans as they can inflict extremely painful stings. They are currently out-competing native predatory fish such as grupers as well as reducing herbivorous fish population through consumption, with no herbivorous fish controlling the ...

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Spatial Learning Ability of Male and Female Mice in Mazes.

09 Mar 2018

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PREPARED BY: ELANCHELIAN A/ L THEVER116637 FARAH HANI BINTI MUNJIAT116640 NURUL FATINIZZATI BINTI ABD HALIM116704 LUCIA EMPINA HARRY116650 NURFAZRINA BINTI JAINULABADEEN116685 INTRODUCTION: The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. House mouse can live together with humans. The house mouse has been domesticated ...

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Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis of Agarwood

09 Mar 2018

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1.0 Introduction Agarwood is considered as the most expensive wood in the world which can be derived mostly from genera Aquilaria and Gyrinops from the family Thymelaeaceae (Akter, Tanvir, Zulkefeli, & Khan, 2013). According to Subasinghe, Hettiarachchi, and Rathnamalala (2012), some of the species from the Aquilaria and Gyrinops can be found across at least 12 countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, ...

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Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment Methods

09 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Autoimmunity is the inability of an organism in recognizing its own parts asself, which triggers an abnormal immune response against its own cells or tissues. Due to such a response, autoimmune diseases occur. Autoimmune diseases are broadly divided into the following: Systemic autoimmune diseases: The symptoms and damage occurs throughout the body, i.e the antigen is not tissue-specific. Localized autoimmune diseases: The ...

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Streptococcus Mutans: Causes, Effects and Transmission

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria responsible for dental cavities in humans. The full taxonomy, or classification of the organism, is Bacteria Firmicutes Bacilli Lactobacillales Streptococcaceae Streptococcus Mutans (1). From S. mutans’ scientific name one can understand quite a bit about the bacteria. The domain and kingdom are Bacteria, meaning S. mutans is a one celled organism that doesn’t have a distinct nucleus. The phylum ...

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Diagnosing Diseases from Ancient Human Tissue

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction The pathogenesis of human diseases has been further understood based on findings in the study of ancient populations across thousands of human history [1]. The premise of these work is the diagnosis of ancient diseases [2]. With the progress in biology and medicine, archaeologists and palaeopathologists can obtain a great deal of biological information from ancient human specimens [1]. More information can be obtained from ...

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Synthesis of Structure Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis C

09 Mar 2018

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  C1.RESEARCH AREA Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Biochemistry D.PROJECT DIGEST HCV is very common infectious disease all around the world (180 million people effected per year) and in Pakistan too and is a cause of chronic liver hepatitis C. It’s a small virus containing RNA as a genetic material. Over the course of evolution this virus has developed ...

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Thermophilic Bacteria and Psychrophilic Bacteria Analysis

09 Mar 2018

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DISCUSSION Sikkim lies in The Great Himalayan Range, which is considered as a relatively young range of mountains in the world. Sikkim is also regarded as a hot spot having huge diversity in flora, fauna and microbial community. Sikkim has several hot springs; however, till date no systematic studies have been conducted on these hot springs which provide an opportunity to study the microbiological studies. In ...

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Welfare of Animals at the Time of Slaughter

09 Mar 2018

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Matthew Indge Animal Welfare Assignment 2: Literature review The Welfare of Animals at The Time Of Slaughter Abstract Introduction Animal slaughter is one of the most key processes in gaining food for many human beings. In many countries such as the US and Europe there are strict regulations on the Slaughter of animals (Nakyinsige et al., 2013). The problem arrises when these rules are either, not ...

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Analysis of Monthly Values of Magnesium in Water

09 Mar 2018

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Magnesium: Magnesium is required universally by chlorophyllus plants as the component of chlorophyll molecule. Magnesium is associated with calcium in all kinds of water but its concentration remains generally lower than the calcium (Venkatsubramani and Meenambal, 2007). It is a main cation causing water hardness. In natural water magnesium comes from natural processes i. e. dissolvent of mineral containing magnesium and from other sources like industrial ...

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Analysis of Cotton Growing in India

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Important cash crop in India is Cotton. India is second largest producer of cotton after China and grown on twelve million hectares. Currently in India only Insect resistant Bt cotton is grown. Remarkable growth has been seen in production and cultivation of Bt cotton in India. This growth is seen with introduction of Bt cotton that has genes of soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and therefore ...

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Developing Immunology in Pregnancy

09 Mar 2018

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Immunology of Pregnancy (In human context) ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are cases of infertility, preeclampsia and recurrent abortions. For treating these problems it is important to gain knowledge of complex mechanism underlying pregnancy. These mechanisms are studied in the field of reproductive immunology. Immunology of pregnancy is not fully understood due to its complexity, yet a very interesting topic to study. Foetus acts like a semi-allograft, ...

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Causes of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI)

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction During the past two decades, significant and advance scientific researches in molecular biology and genetics have set the stage for a revolution in medical science. Advance researches in gene cloning, gene mapping and mutation study have contributed to an explosion of new information regarding the fundamental biological and patho-physiological basis for hundreds of human diseases. After the completion of Human Genome Project, a new wave ...

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UCA1 in Cisplatin Induced Ovarian Cancer Cell Resistance

09 Mar 2018

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The Expression of Long Non-coding RNA UCA1 in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Its Role in Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Vitro Running title: UCA1 in cisplatin induced ovarian cancer cell resistance Highlights Increasing expression of UCA1 RNA was found in ovarian cancer tissues. UCA1 can increase the cell migration, invasion and cisplatin resistance. The effect of UCA was extended through targeting SRPK1 and apoptosis related pathway. ...

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Molecular Causes of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMOP)

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Purpose: We aimed to explore the molecule mechanism underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and smoking-related PMOP. Methods: The microarray data of GSE13850 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differential expression genes (DEGs) between high and low bone mineral density (BMD) samples (DEG1) and postmenopausal female smokers with high and low BMD (DEG2) were analyzed. The GO (Gene ontology) and immune enrichment analysis were ...

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Relationship between Genetics and Prostate Cancer Risk

09 Mar 2018

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Abstract Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Numerous studies have investigated the role of genetic variants in PCa risk. However, the results remain unclearly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rs2228001 in XPC, rs4073 in IL8, and rs2279744 in MDM2 with PCa susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Electronic database of PubMed, Medline and Embase were searched for relevant studies ...

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Effect of Serratia Marcescens Pilli on Red Blood Cells

09 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION. The aims of the investigation are to identify the effect of bacteria, for example, what effect can Serratia marcescens pilli on red blood cells gives when mixed with molecular inhibitor. Also, to examine how pathogenic bacteria for example Clostridium perfringes produce toxin and what effect does toxin have on cells. In addition to the above, to examine the microbial resistance by using four different antibiotics ...

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ERG11 in Drug-resistant of C. Krusei

09 Mar 2018

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Erg11 mutations and up-regulation in clinical itraconazole-resistant isolates of Candida krusei Some C. krusei isolates were resistant the antifungal drugs. Mutations including T939C, T642C and A756T were found in ERG11 of C. krusei. ERG11 was highly expressed in resistant C. krusei strains.. Abstract Objective We aimed to provide with light for better understanding of ERG11 gene in drug-resistance mechanisms in Candida krusei (C. krusei). ...

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Harmful Effects of Dyes and Additives

09 Mar 2018

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Bella Zavlanova Bioresearch Professor Schiffenbauer DO FOOD ADDITIVES/ DYES CAUSE HARM TO CONSUMERS? The objective of this paper is to find out if dyes and additives such as red 40, yellow 5, yellow 6 and blue 2, which are added to foods, drugs, and cosmetics, are harmful to the consumers? Do we really believe these dyes or additives can cause cancer or other more ...

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Oxygen Consumption By Different Animals

09 Mar 2018

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  Name & Matric No. Calvin Belulok Ngang 40754 Malinka Anak Sikim 41989 Philovenny Anak Pengiran 43733 Brenda May Engkian anak Nandong @ Sulie 40747 Christ Hani binti Lian Lee 40907 Racheal Anak Rosedy 43768 Hilda Jelembai Anak Nelson Ilan 41423 Muazzah Bt Abd Latif 42327 LABORATORY 2 INTRODUCTION There are two types of ...

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Ecosystem Based Management

09 Mar 2018

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Marine environments are complex adaptive systems adjoined across multiple scales by ocean currents and species movements (Ruckelshaus et al 2008). These ecosystems worldwide are in serious decline, primarily as a result of broadening anthropogenic pressures that exploit marine resources such as shipping, energy exploration, fisheries and tourism (MA 2005; Curtin et al 2010), which can alter natural ocean systems through habitat fragmentation, pollution, eutrophication, and biodiversity ...

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Effect of pH and Temperature: Enzyme Catalase Reaction Rate

09 Mar 2018

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The effect of pH and temperature on the reaction rate of the enzyme catalase INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells that act as catalysts during a reaction, meaning they lower the activation energy needed for that reaction to occur. Activation energy is the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction (ES), the substance that is to be acted ...

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Impact of Haemolysis in Accuracy of PT/APTT

09 Mar 2018

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Topic: Impact of haemolysis in accuracy of PT/APTT (Important of fast and accurate PT/APTT results in managing patients) CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PT and APTT Theprothrombin time(PT) and its derived measures ofprothrombin ratio(PR) andinternational normalized ratio(INR) are measures of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation [3, 7]. They are used to determine the clotting tendency of blood, in the measure of warfarin dosage, liver damage, and vitamin K status. PT measures factors I ...

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Effect of Benzodiazepine Addiction on Genomes

09 Mar 2018

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BIO621 – GENETICS AND GENOMICS RESEARCH PROPOSAL Submitted By: Rabia Iftikhar Submitted to: Dr Aziz Mithani Date: 25th May, 2015 TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT Genome wide study of transcriptional and epigenetic changes induces upon addiction to benzodiazepine and their inheritance. RESEARCH AREA Pharmacogenetics PROJECT DIGEST Some drugs that are available over the counter as well as those prescribed are known ...

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Determination of Heavy Metals in Pigeon Feathers

09 Mar 2018

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DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PIGEON FEATHERS IN THE DIFFERENT AREA OF AJMER CITY. Rajeshwari Acharya and Asha Sharma   ABSTRACT Metal determination using pigeon feather is most common method of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of mental exposure and its risks. Pigeon feather were collected from different area of Ajmer city of Rajasthan (India) and were analyzed for lead (Pb), ...

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Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum

09 Mar 2018

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In-Vitro Study on Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum Authors:, Dr Jagadeesh K, Dr Shreenivas Revankar, Dr Jagadeesh S C.   ABSTRACT: In ancient India many herbal plant products were used for their medicinal values. Calotropis procera known as arka, madar, milkweed. It was used as antimicrobial, anti-fertility, anticancer, leprosy and antihelmintic. In the present study the ethanolic extract of the leaf was used to ...

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Homeostasis, Co-ordination and Control and Excretory System

09 Mar 2018

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Stanley Agu   TAQ 1 Homeostasis is a term translated from the words Homeo meaning ‘’same’’ and stasis meaning ‘‘standing still’’. This term simply describe a dynamic state of equilibrium and the ability of the body to maintain a stable internal condition with a changing outside environment. This process is used to maintain and regulate body temperature, blood sugar level, blood pressure, endocrine system, ...

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Shotgun Metagenomics of the Human Stomach

09 Mar 2018

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Materials and Methods Biopsy samples Four fresh biopsy specimen taken from stomach. Two from antrum and two from the body. One biopsy from each side was stored in liquid nitrogen and another piece was used for the culture. For culturing, the fresh biopsy tissues was homogenized and simultaneously inoculated onto selective plates [5% horse blood and in the case of selective media antibiotics included trimethoprim (5 ...

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Reducing Levels of Diacetyl in Saccharomyces Pastorianus

09 Mar 2018

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A critique of approaches to understand and reduce levels of diacetyl in saccharomyces pastorianus Michelle Aherne Section 1: Background and Context Diacetyl is a vicinal diketone (VDK), produced as a by-product of intermediates in the valine biosynthetic pathway of yeast lager stains (Krogerus and Gibson, 2013b). It causes an unfavourable butterscotch flavour (Gibson et al., 2014). Yeast can remove diacetyl, but the process requires a long ...

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PD-targets for Voriconazole and Posaconazole

09 Mar 2018

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Based on the estimates of the PD-targets for voriconazole and posaconazole we can now determine if there remains a role for voriconazole or posaconazole in the management of azole-resistant disease. The integration of all above information is given in Table 5 for voriconazole and Table 6 for posaconazole. The underlying resis- tance mechanisms are provided for each MIC-value. Based on the estimates of the PD-target, the ...

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Intestinal Parasites in Wild Rates

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Mauritius is a small island of 1865 km2 situated 900 km east of the Malagasy Republic in the southern Indian Ocean. The island was found to be suitable as a port of call for traders travelling along the famous Spice Route from Europe round the Cape of Good Hope to the East Indies and was named East India trade route. The Dutch introduced sugarcane, orange ...

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Hyaluronic Acid in Pharmacology and Drug Delivery: A Review

09 Mar 2018

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Introduction Hyaluronic acid (HA), also known as hyaluronan, is a naturally occurring biodegradable mucopolysaccharide that is found in mammals, bacteria, and most types of organisms. Hyaluronic acid has many biological functions, such as influence of cell differentiation and proliferation, regulation of cell adhesion and motility, as well as giving tissues various biochemical properties. HA also has many cell surface receptors (CD44, ICAM-1, RHAMM) that allow it ...

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Scanning Electron Microscopy on Silk Mesh Network

09 Mar 2018

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4.1 SEM of Silk Scanning electron microscopy was performed on dialyzed complete chain (degummed silk fraction), soluble silk (light chain) and Insoluble silk (heavy chain). On SEM imaging of complete silk mesh network of silk fibers was observed, but, on separation of silk fibers no such fiber network is observed which shows complete separation of light and heavy chains. The white spots present in complete silk ...

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Analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea Campanulata Leaves

09 Mar 2018

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Experimental and Computational analysis of Phytocompounds in Spathodea campanulata leaves Priyanka Pattnayak, Pankhuri Tiwari,   Shanthi V.   Abstract: Spathodea campanulata (Fountain Tree) has several remedial uses. The bark has antiseptic properties and can be used as a laxative and its other parts like roots, seeds and flowers also have medicinal uses. The leaves of Spathodea contain iridoids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids; classes of plant secondary metabolites. ...

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Biodegradation of Profenofos Using Fungal Isolates

09 Mar 2018

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Dr. Jayanthi Abraham*   Anjali.M, Caroline Jessica Solomon, V.Vinothini.   Abstract Biodegradation is a sustainable and eco friendly way to clean up contaminated environments. The biological processes harnessed play a major role in the removal of contaminants and they make use of the catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade/covert compounds which are toxic and difficult to breakdown. The study was done to determine the biodegradation of ...

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In Vitro Activity of Malia Azedarach Linn

09 Mar 2018

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In vitro activity of Malia azedarach Linn. Against amphotericn B resistant Leishmania tropica strain Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still a big health problem around the world and drug resistance has emerged as a major problem in treatment. The purpose of the study was to generate Amphotericin B resistant strain and evaluate the crude extract of Melia azedarach against wild and lab generated resistant strain of Leishmania ...

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Differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

30 Jan 2018

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Prokaryotes are a group of mostly unicellular organisms which do not have a membrane bound nucleus; they are made up of two main groups, the archaea and the bacteria. Eukaryotes on the other hand are mainly multicellular with a membrane bound nucleus, and are broken done into four main kingdoms; animals, plants, fungi and protoctista. Despite archaea and bacteria being grouped together under the title prokaryotes, ...

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Epidermolysis Bullosa: Mutations of Type VII Collagen Gene

30 Jan 2018

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A novel deletion mutation and two recurrent substitutions on type VII collagen gene in seven Iranian patients with epidermolysis bullosa Armita Kakavand Hamidi, Mohammad Moghaddam, Nasim Hatamnejadian, Bahar Sedaghati Khayat, Ahmad Ebrahimi   Abstract Epidermolysis bullosa is one of the most important series of mechano-bullous heritable skin disorders which is categorized into four major types according to the layer that bullae forms within basement ...

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Metabolism of Insulin: An Analysis

30 Jan 2018

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The metabolism of insulin and DDI between insulin and several anti-diabetes drugs Zhe Li In this paper, I am going to study the metabolism of insulin in human body and briefly introduce the drug-drug interactions between insulin and some anti-diabetes drugs. In the first part of the paper, I will introduce background information of insulin. Then, in the second part, I will talk about ...

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Developing Groundwater Sources in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT We all know that UAE is located in the desert where there is only limited sources of underground water, little rain and no rivers. This is the main problem that UAE government facing today having water shortage. That's why UAE rely in some water sources like desalination of sea water, Groundwater, Surface water and treatment of water. UAE is one of the biggest and populous ...

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Aspergillus Fumigatus Identification and Molecular Character

30 Jan 2018

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IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF Aspergillus fumigatus FROM SOIL R.V.Shalini, and Dr.K.Amutha,   ABSTRACT: Soil was collected, serially diluted and pure culture obtained; slant was prepared in potato dextrose agar and maintained throughout the study. Morphological, microscopical and macroscopically identification were carried out on the isolated organism. DNA was isolated from the 24 hour culture, for ITS-PCR amplification. DNA was amplified by mixing the template DNA ...

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Effect of Steroid Sulfatase (STS) on Sex Selective Disorders

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction The inner workings of the body are amazing. Through evolutionary time and random chance, proteins used in one area of the body become crucial in others. It would seem very unlikely that one enzyme would be responsible for proper brain function AND proper skin maintenance, because the two areas seem different in terms of function and composition. However, enzymes are associated with both of these ...

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Relationship Between Serum Folate Level and Cervical Cancer

30 Jan 2018

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The association between serum folate level and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis Abstract Objectives: This study is to evaluate the association between serum folate level and cervical cancer. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google scholar was searched for relevant trials. Rev.Man5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were collected and calculated ...

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Cocaine: Properties and Effects

30 Jan 2018

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Cocaine is a drug refined from Erytroxylon cocoa bush leaves which grows in Peru and Bolivia. It is referred to using several names such as C, snow, flake, blow, or crack. Generally, it is sold on the streets as a hydrochloride salt. It has a fine, white crystalline powder appearance usually diluted with resembling substances such as talcum powder, or amphetamine. There are several methods of ...

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Identification of Fatty Acids in Launaea Procumbens

30 Jan 2018

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Identification of fatty acids in leaves and roots of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and assessment of flavonoid and phenolic content and antioxidant activity This study presents an analysis of fatty acid composition of in root and leaves of Launaea procumbens by GC-MS and hexane extract were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolic content along with scavenging assays by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).This analysis ...

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Incidence of Mycoflora in Spices

30 Jan 2018

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Incidence of mycoflora associated with some spices Hedawoo GB, Mishra SA and Maggirwar RC   Abstract: Black pepper, fennel and cumin are extensively used as spices in India. Seed pathogens adversely affect the production and quality of spices. The mycoflora associated with spices not only deteriorate the quality of spices but also increase the chance of consuming toxic elements through harmful fungi like Aspergilli. The present investigation ...

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Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon Caesius

30 Jan 2018

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Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Cymbopogon caesius (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf. of Kemmannugundi Regions of Karnataka, India Avinash K.S. and Y.L. Krishnamurthy*   Abstract: Cymbopogon grass produces many bioactive compounds and used for many medicinal purposes. In this study healthy leaf, stem and root segments were cultured on media like Potato dextrose agar and Malt extract agar medium and pure cultured. Endophytic fungi were isolated from ...

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Poultry Diseases: Impact, Types and Causes

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction: Poultry diseases had made an adverse effect on the industry during past few years. The data and studies related to the impact of poultry diseases and their prevalence is still not enough. The interpretation, forecasting of poultry diseases and their epidemiological analysis is very important at national and international levels. The monitoring of production and vigilant approach for disease control is very important ...

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Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Nodules

30 Jan 2018

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Multi-slice Computer Tomography (MSCT) Analysis of Benign and Malignant Nodules in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Highlights MSCT features is useful in differentiate the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients. MSCT is superior than plain CT scan in nodule diagnosis in CLT patients MSCT may apply as an important diagnostic modality in the clinical practice. Abstract Objective To assess the clinical significance of ...

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Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab for Heart Failure Treatment

30 Jan 2018

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Synergistic Effect of Exogenous IL-10 and Golimumab in the Treatment for Heart Failure in Rats Running title: Heart Failure Treatment Highlights: The level of TNF-α decreased after treatment with IL-10 and golimumab. The level of IL-10 was increased by IL-10 combined with golimumab. IL-10 and golimumab have a synergistic effect on HF in rats. ABSTRACT Objectives We attempted to assess the therapeutic effect of ...

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The Future for Clinical Immunology

30 Jan 2018

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A.N. Other (SID ), Department of Pathobiology, University of Turku, Finland. The last ten years has seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of different disorders. clinical immunology is a specialism which is currently developing in different ways, some of which are highlighted here. This discipline has a responsibility to provide a complete array of analytical measurements for the diagnosis and treatment ...

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Risks to the Human Population

30 Jan 2018

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Human Populations are at Risk from outbreaks of New Diseases Diseases are the disturbance of body processes impacting homeostasis, the emergence and resurgence of diseases is majorly dependent on social, ecological and geographical change rather than the molecular or microbiological aspects (Mayer, 2000). This essay will cover the growing evidence that climate change poses health concerns for the ...

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Annotated Bibliography: Bt Cotton Studies

30 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Tabashnik et al. explained that using transgenic crops such as Bt cotton could significantly reduce the use of chemical insecticides and pesticides. They also pointed out that excessive use of transgenic crops initiated the development of resistance in pests, which must be delayed. They suggested the use of two different Bt toxins to target the same pest, such as integration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab ...

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Production of Mutant Based Epsilon Toxin (ETK) Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

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Critique of Li et al. Article: A low-toxic site-directed mutant of Clostridium perfringens É›-toxin as a potential candidate vaccine against enterotoxemia Name: Donnelle Phillips Vaccines improve the immune system of an animal or human by stimulating the production of antibodies to fight and combat bacteria, protozoan or viruses effectively creating ...

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Pink Disease of the Rubber Tree: Causes and Effects

30 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION The rubber tree is the most important source of natural rubber. It is constantly under threat from various pathogens that cause severe diseases like abnormal leaf fall, Corynespora leaf disease, brown root disease, and pink disease and Colletotrichum leaf disease. Leaves alternate, palmate and each leaf with 3 leaflets. Leaflets elliptic petiolated, with a basal gland, pointed at the tip with lengths varying up to ...

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Impacts on Population Growth

30 Jan 2018

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Submitted By MUHAMMAD BILAL   Contents (Jump to) 1. POPULATION 2. POPULATION GROWTH WITHOUT ANY REGULATION 2.1 BIOTIC POTENTIAL 2.2 EXPONANTIOAL GROWTH EXAMPLE 2.2.1 ASSUMPTIONS OF EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 2.2.2 APPLICATIONS OF THE EXPONENTIAL MODEL 3. POPULATION REGULATION 3.1 EXTRENSIC FACTORS 3.1.1 ABIOTIC FACTORS 3.1.2 BIOTIC FACTORS 3.2 INTRINSIC FACTORS 4. DENSITY INDEPENDENT FACTORS 4.1 CLIMATE 4.2 SPACE 4.3 SUNLIGHT 4.4 RAINFALL 4.5 Natural Disasters 4.6 SEASONAL ...

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Role of Cell Signalling in Regulation of Homeostasis

30 Jan 2018

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NEHA HITENDRA RANE Introduction What is Homeostasis? Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. Homeostasis is a ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though there is continuous change in outside world. The term homeostasis is derived from the two Greek words homeo and stasis. Homeo which means unchanging and stasis means standing. It means ...

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Analysis of Nilaparavata Lugens (Stal.)

30 Jan 2018

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Nilaparavata lugens (Stal.) Nilaparvata lugens is generally called as brown plant hopper or Asian rice brown plant hopper (BPH). N. lugens comes under order: Hemiptera, Suborder: Auchennorrhyncha and Family: Delphacidae. The delphacid genus Nilaparvata consists of 18 species. Nilaparvata is a crucial genus economically, with one amongst its member N. lugens being serious insect pests of rice and are cosmopolitian particularly in tropical Asia wherever rice ...

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Alzheimer's Disease and Calcium Signalling

30 Jan 2018

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The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is complex, and involves many molecular, cellular and physiological pathologies. The leading candidate for the trigger of Alzheimer’s disease is the Aβ peptide,which is produced by the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP; BOX 1). Its primacy has been manifested in the ‘amyloid-cascade hypothesis’,which posits that the accumulation of Aβ (resulting from overproduction, altered processing or a failure of ...

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Effect of Different Substrate and Temperature on Yeast

30 Jan 2018

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background information introduction to cellular respiration Cellular respiration is the catabolic process of converting the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP. Adenosine triphosphate is a high energy molecule, used in cells as a "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer(Bergman, J 1999). Cells are capable of working when the energy released from ATP, when ...

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Development of the Bio-Chemical Sector in the UAE

30 Jan 2018

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Saman Masood BIO-CHEMICALS: The term ‘bio-chemical’ comprises of two words, that is, ‘bio’ which means ‘life and ‘chemical which means any ‘chemical substance’ that arises from a chemical compound which makes up a living cell. There are number of bio-chemicals which can be obtained from various sources, for example, proteins from beef pancreas, plants and other natural ways. Just like a small example, when ...

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Pluripotent Stem Cells: Benefits, Properties and Uses

30 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION Pluripotent stem cells give rise to nearly all cells types of the body, like, muscle, nerve, heart, and blood. They hold huge promise for both research & health care. The advance in human biology continues to generate interest among scientists, patients suffering from a wide range of diseases, including cancer, heart disease and diabetes, their families. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, is derived from inner cell ...

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Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds From Lichens

30 Jan 2018

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Efficient method of extraction and separation of antioxidant molecules from Lichens obtained from Kolli hills of Tamil Nadu Abstract Lichens are made by symbiotic association of both fungi and algae. The fungi was found to be the major partner and in the metabolite production too. The lichen metabolites were found to be very unique compared with the other plant kingdom. Most of the lichen compounds were ...

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The Ethics of Human Enhancement

30 Jan 2018

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Bor Shin Chee Human Enhancement The term ‘human enhancement’ embraces a range of approaches to improve aspects of human function such as memory, hearing and mobility to improve human performance, hence raising these function to a level considered to be beyond the existing human range. Human enhancement categorized into particular areas: life extension, physical enhancement, cognitive enhancement, enhancement of mood or personality, and pre- ...

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Biological Effects of Smoking on Health

30 Jan 2018

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Kim Rissario A report into the biological effects of smoking on health Cigarette smoke is composed of over 4000 different chemicals, many of which are extremely toxic. Cigarettes consist of the following components; tar, nicotine and Carbon Monoxide (CO), which are hazardous to our health. The tar settles in the lungs and stimulates a series of changes that leads to obstructive lung disease (see ...

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Bamboo as a Source of Phytosterols

30 Jan 2018

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Functional foods containing phytosterols are now available in the form of margarines, spreads, baked products, meat, soups and salad dressings. Present sources of phytosterols are limited being derived from vegetable oil and tall oil, a by-product of paper production from wood, and it is estimated that 2500 tons of these oils need to be refined to produce 1 ton of phytosterols. Techniques have been developed to ...

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Chemistry of Contraceptives

30 Jan 2018

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Chapter 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 Norethindrone Norethindrone is 17α-ethinyl-17β-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one. It is also known by its chemical names like norpregneninolone and norethisterone. It is commonly used in some combined oral contraceptive pills, progestogen only pills and is also available as a stand-alone drug. It is white to creamy white in color, odorless, non-hygroscopic, crystalline powder. Norethindrone was the first orally highly active progestin to be synthesized. ...

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Quantified Amount of Beta Carotene from Galiella Sp

30 Jan 2018

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Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the results on quantified value of beta - glucan and beta - carotene from Galiella sp. extracts. Analysis of beta – glucan contents Table 1. Quantified amount of beta – glucan from thallus The table shows the mean of three trials and general mean as quantified value of beta – glucan using the microwave assisted ...

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Metabolic Pathways of Galactosemia

30 Jan 2018

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An Overview of Galactosemia and Its comparison to Electron Transport Chain and Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Yu Shang Any deficiencies of the enzymes in a metabolic pathway will likely lead to a metabolic disorder. Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism.1 The disease is caused by the deficiency in galactokiase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), or UDP-galactose 4’ epimerase.1 The deficiency in ...

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Analysis of Rat Pancreatic Islets

30 Jan 2018

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Discussion We here report, for the first time, that rat pancreatic islet cells and the rat INS-1 β-cell line express detectable levels of transcripts encoding the key enzymes of the TKP. Importantly, this is associated with the spontaneous release of significant levels of the TKP metabolites KYN and KYNA by the rat islets, therefore suggesting some degree of functionality of the TKP in the rat islet cells in ...

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Correlation of Phenotypic Traits in Maize Different Hybrids

30 Jan 2018

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Evaluation correlation between phenotypic traits in corn hybrids and their change trends under drought stress and non-stress conditions at flowering and grain filling stages Rahim mohammadian,Behnam tahmasebpour, Peyvand Samimifar,Habib Lotfi Abstract To investigate the correlation of phenotypic traits in maize different hybrids, an experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications under stress-free conditions and irrigation cutting treatments on flowering and grain ...

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Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density

30 Jan 2018

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The Effects of Tai Chi on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: A meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials Running title: A meta-analysis of Tai Chi and BMD Highlights: This was a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. A total of 6 articles involving 182 interventions and 168 controls were included. Meta-analysis of BMD at lumbar spine showed no heterogeneity. Attrition bias, reporting bias and other bias ...

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Morphological Characterization of Aromatic Pickle Mango

30 Jan 2018

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Morphological Characterization of a few Farmers'-Identified Unique Aromatic Pickle Mango varieties of the Central Western Ghats Manohar Sunagar, Vasudeva R, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao   Key words: Aromatic pickle-mango, morphological characterization, descriptors, farmers varieties Abstract Aromatic pickle mango (locally called appemidi and GI tagged) is a special type of pickle mango harvested and semi-domesticated from rivenrine habitats of the Western Ghats. These ...

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Cell Culture for Producing Influenza Vaccines

30 Jan 2018

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Cell Culture: an Alternative Method for Producing Influenza Vaccines Layth Abdul-Majeed Abdul-Khaleq   Importance of the field: Cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production offers various advantages over egg-based manufacturing method during influenza pandemics. Areas covered in this review: Benefits of cell culture-based method for influenza vaccines production have been discussed, including: Increasing vaccines production capability during pandemics, preventing the development of mutations and ...

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Bacterial Transcription Initiation

30 Jan 2018

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YONG YA FEN What are the mechanisms of bacterial transcription initiation? The transcription initiation is dependent on the interaction between RNA polymerase and promoter. The way that RNA polymerase interacts with promoter determines the direction for transcription because it decides which DNA strand to be the template strand and the site where transcription begins (Russell, 2010). A promoter is a DNA sequence ...

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Relationship between Amyloid-/I and Oxidative Stress

30 Jan 2018

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Oxidative stress increases amyIoid-~production, and, conversely, amybid-/ I increases oxidative damage. To address the relationship between amyloid-/I and oxidative stress in vivo, we examined, using an array of oxidative markers, transgenic mice that overexpress amyloid-/3 precursor protein and, as in Alzheimer’s disease, develop characteristic amyloid-/3 deposits within the brain parenchyma. Transgenic animals show the same type of oxidative damage that is found in Alzheimer’s disease, and ...

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Effect of Oxygen and Oxidative Stress on Ageing

30 Jan 2018

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Critically discuss the research evidence that oxygen and oxidative stress are responsible for ageing For decades there have been hundreds of hypotheses regarding theories of ageing (finch). Most of these ideas have been disregarded and several theories now captivate much research on ageing. Random damage secondary to free radicals (FR), notably, reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in the process of ageing. The damage caused ...

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Transferability of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

30 Jan 2018

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Transferability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) to some Trifolium species Abstract Microsatellite markers previously developed for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) were used in cross-amplification tests of eight other Trifolium species. Of the 20 SSR loci tested, 9 (47.37%) had positive results and were found to be transferable to all eight species tested. The number of alleles ...

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In-vitro Study of Hexane Fraction of P. Niruri Whole Plant

30 Jan 2018

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Effect of hexane fraction of P. niruri on glucose uptake in L6 cells: Figure 79 represents the effect of hexane fractions of P. niruri whole plant, insulin and metformin on glucose uptake by L-6 myotubes. It is evident from the results that hexane fraction of P. niruri caused increases glucose uptake in concentration dependent manner in L6 cells. The hexane fraction of P. niruri whole plant ...

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The Debate on GM Crops

30 Jan 2018

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GM crops: Natural or unnatural? For many of us, all we know about the food and vegetables that we consume daily are their shapes, their colours, their freshness, and how much they cost. Little do we know about the whole process behind the pack of banana or tomatoes in our bag: how were they cultivated? What pesticides were used on them? Or how were they ...

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Phosphoglucose Isomerase (Pgi) Locus in Butterfly Population

30 Jan 2018

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Benjamin Killick Modelling the evolution of the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) locus in butterfly metapopulations: project proposal. Background: Metapopulation theory, as developed by R. Levins in 1969, concerns the dynamics of metapopulations, which consist of several distinct local populations that exhibit some degree of interaction and occupy isolated areas of suitable habitat, referred to as patches. Each local population occupies a patch and has a ...

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Anti Cancer Activity of Some Novel Quinazoline Derivatives

30 Jan 2018

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Abstract At present, the criteria used to select finest novel anticancer drug candidates include inhibitors of cell proliferation, necessary reaction and pathways in cancerous cells. In silico advance resulting in the identification of essential reactions and pathways spreads across several parts of metabolism. The aim of our study is to study the interaction of quinazoline derivatives with 8 selected anticancer drug target enzymes in Silico molecular ...

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Genetically Inherited Diseases: Gaucher’s Disease

30 Jan 2018

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Nikita Mountford   1. what is a genetically inherited disease? Genetic disorders are typically inherited (passed down) in either a dominant or recessive way. We each have two copies of every gene on our 22 numbered chromosomes. When a disorder is dominant, the disease can occur when there are DNA mistakes in only one of the two gene copies. This means that if a ...

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Relationship Between Exercise and Reaction Time: Research

30 Jan 2018

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EXERCISE AND REACTION TIME RESEARCH QUESTION: How, and to what extent, do varying intensities of aerobic exercise affect the visual and auditory reaction times of males between ages 15-20? INTRODUCTION: The field of reaction time has been one with much interest and study over the past few years, especially given its pertinence and applicability in things ranging from athletics and sport science to motor skills and ...

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Major Discoveries in Modern Biology

30 Jan 2018

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Emily Faulkner BIOLOGY is a major branch of science that deals with the living organisms. Many discoveries are emerged in this area and the focus of this paper is on major discoveries of modern biology in the field of DNA, biotechnology and cell biology. Cell Biology Nature Cell Biologywas proposed 10 years ago to give an opportunity to "raise the discussion of ideas between ...

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Impact of Human Population Growth

29 Jan 2018

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The Growth of the Human Population Chris Long   Since the worlds origin we have seen a steady growth in the worldwide population. From the first records of humans on this earth we have seen the cycle of birth and death. The population increases and decreases are determined by the number of births compared with the number of deaths over the same period. As ...

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STAT-3 and the Invasion of Cervical Cancer Cell Relationship

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer is one of the most highly leading cancers among the women in the world. The estimated number of cervical cancer cases and death in the world is increase to 527,624 and 265,653 respectively in year 2012 (Saranath & Khanna, 2014). This statistic had influenced the society to be more aware about cervical cancer and learn how to lower the possibility of ...

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Methods of Pest Control for Crop Productivity

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Crop productivity is highly affected by the presence of pests. Insect pests are one of the major causes of low agricultural yield worldwide (Ferre et al., 2008). In spite of the crop protection measurements, large number of crop is lost to insect pests attack (Oerke, 2006). For sustainable agricultural production to meet the needs of increased population, chemical insecticides are used against ...

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Applications of Probiotics

29 Jan 2018

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Probiotics: A Biotherapeutics Application of Potentially Beneficial Microorganisms Vandana Bharti*, Archana Mehta, Siddharts Singh and Neha Jain, Shuchi Mehta   ABSTRACT The term “Probiotics” comes from the Greek word “pro bios” meaning “for life”. Use of Probiotics are not a new invention but it has formed a vital part of diets for thousands of years, in the form of fermented milk and vegetable products ...

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Strategies of Gene Sequencing

29 Jan 2018

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Databanks When a gene is sequenced for the first time, it is submitted to a databank such as DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ), GenBank or European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). The submission of the nucleotide sequence databanks via the internet, undergo a simple automatic process which done electronically with web-based procedures. The databanks that share their information on a day-to-day basis can be ...

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Do Meal-worms Prefer the Dark? Experiment

29 Jan 2018

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Joseph, Jesse, and Hannah Biology-0/1st Behavior Lab- Mealworms Introduction: Mealworms, scientifically known as Tenebrio molitor, are the brown and white colored worm-like larvae of the darkling beetles. They go through a life cycle of transforming from larvae into pupa and then finally into adult darkling beetles. Mealworms are typically found near their food sources (both organic and rotting vegetation), underneath rocks (they highly prefer ...

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Literature Review on Butea Monosperma (Lam.)

29 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE SURVEY Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (Fabaceae) 1. Botanical synonyms Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb; Erythrina monosperma Lamk. 1.2. Common names Bengali: kinaka, palas, paras, polashi; English: flame of the forest; Gujarati: kakria, kesudo, khakara, khakharo, palasso, phullas; Hindi: chinchra, dhak, palas, paras; Kannada: brahmavriksha, mathuga, mutthugada mara, muttuga, palasa, plashu, thoras; Malayalam: brahmavriksham, mukkappuyam, palas, palasin samatha; Marathi: palas, paras, phulas; Oriya: kinjuko, palasa, polas, ...

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Impact of Climate Change on Moose Numbers

29 Jan 2018

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Moose in the Noose? From Montana to Minnesota, Ontario and Wyoming to Hew Hampshire moose numbers are in steep decline. Could climate change be to blame? These majestic animals, which can be over 6 feet tall and weigh 700 kg, are a highlight for wildlife enthusiasts visiting America’s northern states and bring in much needed revenue for local communities. They are also important components of the ...

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Biological Significance of BST2 Overexpression in OSCC

29 Jan 2018

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Overexpression of BST2 is associated with nodal metastasis and poorer prognosis in oral cavity cancer ABSTRACT Objective: Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) was one of the proteins which were found related to tumor metastasis in our previous proteomic study. Now we want to examine its clinical role on the oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Study Design: Individual retrospective cohort study and basic research. ...

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Impact of Increased Temperature on Delosperma Cooperi

29 Jan 2018

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Eunice Oh The Impact of Increased Temperature due to Global Warming on Pollen Germination of Delosperma Cooperi Introduction: There have is an ongoing crisis that is beginning to influence ecosystems throughout the world, which may lead to been large scalemany natural disasters and impacts due to a rise in earth’s temperature, due to the rise in temperature from the global warming. According to NASA’s ...

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Surgical Extraction of a Large Left Ventricular Hydatid Cyst

29 Jan 2018

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Surgical extraction of a large left ventricular hydatid cyst under transesophageal echocardiography monitoring Abstract We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed both hepatic and cardiac hydatid cysts by multimodality imaging. The left ventricular hydatid cyst was surgically removed not only under direct vision but transesophageal echocardiography monitoring. And the patient recovered uneventfully. Keywords: echinococcosis; hepatic hydatid cyst; left ventricular hydatid cyst; multimodality ...

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