Bacterial α Amylase Production

27 Mar 2018

8 (3,029 )

Introduction Starch is the primary repository of carbohydrates in evolved plants [1]. It is not only the prime form of a dietary sugar storage molecule but has extensive industrial applications in the manufacturing of packaging substances to the synthesis of alcohol [1]. The enzyme alpha amylase has the ability to degrade starch to simpler sugars with reducing ends [2]. They are termed as endohydrolases as they ...

Click here to read more arrow

Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,722 )

1. Introduction 1.1 The advance of nanoparticles The synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (F e3O4) has been put on with their enormous interest for a very long time. It is especially because of their tremendous technological applications in the pattern of ferrofluids. The ferrofluid is a kind of gluey suspension of fairish oiled magnetite particles in type of liquid medium having abnormal properties as a result of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Regulatory Roles of Cellular Proteins

27 Mar 2018

7 (2,480 )

Introduction The degradation of proteins is an essential cellular process mainly mediated by the action of either the lysosome or the proteasome. The UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) consist of two separate processes in which first, ubiquitin, a small highly conserved protein is conjugated in a tri-enzyme (E1-E3) cascade to a lysine residue of the substrate, whereby the last step can be carried out by two mechanisms. While ...

Click here to read more arrow

Debates on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

27 Mar 2018

8 (2,879 )

Leif Swan Kisha Hawkins-Sledge The debate of whether genetically modified foods are helpful or harmful has been getting more and more intense. GMO's were touted as essential product in feeding the world but Genetically Modified Organisms and crops are a controversial topic and the world is still hungry. GMO's have not been around long enough, and there is not enough research on the long-term ...

Click here to read more arrow

Structure of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

27 Mar 2018

9 (3,544 )

Cardiovascular system component Structure Function (s) Heart Figure 1: Internal view of the heart Valves Atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) - separate ventricles from atria Aortic valve - divide left ventricle + aorta Pulmonary valve - separates right ventricle + pulmonary artery One directional blood flow: -Atrioventricular: stop ...

Click here to read more arrow

Prioritising Drug Targets for Antimalarial Drugs

27 Mar 2018

9 (3,364 )

Shi Ruifei Introduction Plasmodium is a single-celled amoeba which can cause malaria. In mosquitoes’ and human liver and blood, they represent in several different shapes and sizes for the sake of escaping from the attack of immune system. There is no symptom when Plasmodium in human liver, they start to thrive after entering the red blood cells then severely result in the break of red blood cells, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) Treatment

27 Mar 2018

9 (3,243 )

EPIDEMIOLOGY There has been a surge in the number of EPTB cases in recent times (2). Share of EPTB as a proportion of total number tuberculosis [TB] cases in USA has increased from 7.6 in 1962 to 15.7% in 1993, and to 21.0% in 2006 (3-5). Bone and joint tuberculosis accounted for 5337 (11%) cases out of a total of 47,293 cases of EPTB reported in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Issues with Modern Day Meat Production

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,662 )

Introduction: Modern day meat inspection currently in a practice in many developed countries has its roots back in late eighteenth century. It was developed to check out various pathogenic and transmissible diseases which were prevalent in Europe at that time (Blackmore, 1986). This meat inspection practice formed a base for the eradication of various diseases like tuberculosis during 1960’s resulting in drastic improvement in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Amyloid-b Peptide Production: Alpha Secretase

27 Mar 2018

6 (2,333 )

Ab is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of APP by a group of enzymes known as secretases [Esler and Wolfe, 2001; Samabamurti et al., 2002]. APP is processed by alternative proteolytic pathways that generate different breakdown products. In the secretory pathway, at least three different secretases appear to be active. The majority of APP is cleaved at Ab16 by ‘‘a-secretase’’ to generate soluble amino-terminal derivatives of APP (sAPPa). This cleavage bisects the Ab peptide and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Mutant Virus Research Dilemma

27 Mar 2018

5 (1,721 )

Harsh Patel Introduction Avian influenza (AI), also known as Bird Flu, is an infectious disease caused by various strains of AI virus. It majorly affects wild water fowl for example geese and ducks, however it can cause large-scale outbreak among domestic poultry resulting into significant economic loss1. Majority of AI viruses do not cross the species barrier and infect humans, nonetheless, two strains – ...

Click here to read more arrow

Agarwood: Diseases, Applications and History

26 Mar 2018

7 (2,729 )

CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 History Agarwood, or locally known as gaharu is the world’s most high-priced agro-product from karas trees. The tree is suitable for cultivations in almost all agro-climatic conditions, especially for the climate in and around mountain area. Its cultivation is an amazement in each and every condition right from the less expenses, no maintenance costly, non-labour oriented with high returns and huge global ...

Click here to read more arrow

Microbial Spoilage and Hazards in Cereals and Cereal Product

26 Mar 2018

7 (2,662 )

Name: Goh JiaYeen 1.0Introduction Cereals, belonging to the Gramineae or the grass family, are the basic carbohydrates sources for the human population (Adams & Moss, 2008; Swanson, 2011). Currently, the most important cereal crops supplying the nutrients for a large proportion of people in the world are rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), and maize (Zea mays), as stated by Adams and Moss (2008) and Harris ...

Click here to read more arrow

Mutagenesis and Its Effects on Crops

23 Mar 2018

5 (1,823 )

Mutagenesis is the change in genetic information of organism by use of different mutagens like physical or chemical mutagens. Or Mutagenesis is the process in which mutations are induced. Mutations can be occur due to exposure of natural mutagens e.g uv light. Mutagenesis is important because it tells about genetic mechanisms of heredity and gene expression. Protein functioning is also studied by mutations. Mutagenesis term is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Risk Factors and Treatments for Diabetes

23 Mar 2018

9 (3,355 )

A healthy diet may improve or maintain an optimal health by eating a good and proper meal and apply a balanced diet in daily lifestyle. Without a healthy diet, there is no meaning for a healthy lifestyle and it can cause so many diseases that related to diet such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dental disease, osteoporosis, bone fracture and cancer. If we never take a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Antiaging Compounds and Plant Extracts

23 Mar 2018

4 (1,201 )

Chapter one Introduction Introduction Aging is a progressive decline in the function and a decrease in the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis, it is associated with multiple physiological and pathological changes including formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and free radicals damage leading to impairment of cell organelle's function and an increase in the susceptibility to disease of organ (Nanda et al., 2010; Dammann et ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces on Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

23 Mar 2018

4 (1,257 )

Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces in Early Diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis patients. A Case – Control Study in a Chinese ethenic Group. MD Eqbal Ahmad. Prof. Li Yong Mei.   Key Words:- Magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple sclerosis. Virchow –Robin space .Chinese . Abbreviation:- MS= Multiple sclerosis; VRS= Virchow robin space; CSF= Cerebro spinal fluid; FLAIR=Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; ABSTRACT:- Background: Virchow-Robin space (VRS) are pia-lined extensions ...

Click here to read more arrow

Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells

23 Mar 2018

8 (3,088 )

Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism analysis on the Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells Proliferation in vitro Abstract Melanoma is a growing interest over the past decades and a very difficult obstacle which is needed to be overcome because of its malignant and poor outcome. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dacarbazine (DTIC) on melanoma stem cells regression and subsequent tumor recurrence. Both ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bruchid Pest Management in Pulses: Past, Present & Future

23 Mar 2018

6 (2,310 )

Introduction: Pulses are the highly nutritious seeds, belong to the family Fabaceae (formerly named as Leguminosae), which usually covers all legumes grown for their dried seeds (COPR, 1981). This inhabit an indispensable position in human nutrition not only because of its rich source of high quality protein, but also for its dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch, complex of vitamins and minerals such as folate, potassium, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Developing Visual Data on PCNA Markers

22 Mar 2018

8 (3,197 )

  Detection of proliferating cell population in intestinal, liver and brain tissues by way of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and use of diaminobenzidine (DAB). Lewis Buchan Introduction and Aims Immunohistochemistry as with immunocytochemistry is a visual aid in the clinical or research examination of cell growth, disease and therapy response by variation in cell protein changes (Hannon-Fletcher and Maxwell, 2009). Identification of proliferating cells without ...

Click here to read more arrow

Gastric Cancer in Mice

22 Mar 2018

4 (1,463 )

INTRODUCTION: While incidences of stomach cancer have decreased over the past several decades, the disease remains an important public health problem. A variety of experimental animal models have been established in order to recognize pathological and molecular biochemical mechanisms (TetsuyaTsukamoto, 2007). As a result, experimental efforts have focused on identifying chemical, infectious or genetic means to induce gastric cancer in animals (Yoku Hayakawa2013). Still, most inbred ...

Click here to read more arrow

Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

22 Mar 2018

4 (1,480 )

Definition and characterization of Endothelial progenitor cells Introduction Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first isolated from human peripheral blood by Asahara et al. in 1997. These were described as a population of circulating cells which displayed properties of both endothelial cells and progenitor cells. (Asahara et al., 1997; Asahara et al., 1999) Accumulating data suggests that these circulating cells play a role in new ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of RF-EMF on Growth of Lepidium Sativum

22 Mar 2018

6 (2,194 )

Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Question: 1.2 The Original Experiment 1.3 The Everyday Significance of RF-EMF and Wi-Fi 1.4 Lepidium sativum 1.5 Pilot Study CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 Aim of Investigation 2.2 Hypothesis 2.3 Variables 2.3.1 Constant 2.3.2 Manipulative 2.3.3 Responding 2.4 Materials 2.5 Procedures 2.5.1 Set-up procedures 2.5.2 Maintenance procedures 2.5.3 Data collection procedures and sampling methods Data Collection Analysis of Data ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Stress on Different Personality Pulse Rates

22 Mar 2018

12 (4,535 )

Louise Rich   Title Does mild stress have a significant effect on the pulse rate of type A personalities when compared to type B’s? Contents   Summary To be completed at the end Introduction When the body encounters stress the brain produces stress responses which are managed by the hypothalamus. Stress can have a negative physiological effect on the body, including a rise in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Production of Callus From Coffea Arabica

22 Mar 2018

4 (1,565 )

Materials and Methods Somatic embryogenesis There are two types of somatic embryogenesis: direct embryogenesis or indirect embryogenesis. According to Carneiro (1999), direct embryogenesis or known as low frequency of somatic embryogenesis (LFSE) uses only one medium without producing callus and there will be less number of somatic embryos obtained. However, the indirect embryogenesis or high frequency of somatic embryogenesis (HFSE) uses two media (Carneiro, 1999). The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organisms

22 Mar 2018

7 (2,492 )

Question 1 Part A Bacteria are prokaryotes. They are single celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. The size ranges from 10 to 100 micrometres long from looking at them on a microscopic level. The bacteria can have a number of shapes that determine what it look like, its three shapes include; cocci, rods and spirilla. The cocci being a round shape of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of Cor and US on Taxol Production of Taxus x Media

22 Mar 2018

8 (2,892 )

SUMMARY OF PROPOSED RESEARCH INCLUDING KEY GOALS For scientifically qualified assessors: Taxol is a natural diterpenoid alkaloid first isolated from the inner bark of pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia (Wani et al., 1971) and widely use in the pharmaceutical industry as the antitumor agents. However, low taxol content, high cost of extraction and the destruction of yew trees spark a major environmental controversy and cause ...

Click here to read more arrow

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of α-glucosidase

22 Mar 2018

6 (2,277 )

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of an α-glucosidase (MalA) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi Mara Cuebas-Irizarry1*, Ricardo Irizarry-Caro1*, Carol López-Morales, Keyla Badillo-Flores2, and Rafael Montalvo-Rodríguez1§   Abstract Alpha-glucosidases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing nonreducing terminal 1,4-linked D glucose residues. α-Glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) constitute a widespread group of exo-acting glucoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of α-D-glucose from the non reducing ends of various α-linked substrates (Alarico et al., ...

Click here to read more arrow

Hydrolysis on Reducing Capacity of Whey Protein Hydrolysate

21 Mar 2018

10 (3,754 )

Abstract The main objective of the present study was to optimize the operation conditions including pH, temperature and enzyme substrate ratio for the sequential action of pepsin and trypsin to hydrolyses whey protein isolate at the substrate concentration containing 8 per cent of protein content and investigate the effect of hydrolysis on reducing capacity of whey protein hydrolysate as compared to that of whey protein isolate. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment on the Functions of Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

5 (1,998 )

James King Practical Report: Heamagglutination Introduction: Many important assays are based around an antibodies ability to its antigen and cause a change in its physical state which is more often than not visible by eye. One example of this is agglutination, this often occurs when the antibody binds to the antigen which is displayed on the surface of a large particle such as ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Aspergillus Fungi

21 Mar 2018

8 (3,067 )

Micheli in 1729 named one of the oldest genera of fungi as Aspergillus. Micheli, while viewing the spore bearing structure of Aspergillus under the microscope, was reminded of the device used to sprinkle holy water by the Roman Catholic clergy as part of a liturgy called as asperges (Ainsworth, 1976). Many mycologists and industrial microbiologists were attracted to study about Aspergillus not because of their occurrence ...

Click here to read more arrow

Neural Stem Cell Niche and the EGFR Protein

21 Mar 2018

4 (1,508 )

Sina Sadeghi Abstact A stem cell niche is a microenvironment responsible for the maintenance and growth of stem cells. Each stem cell niche is responsible for the production of distinct cells. There are two neural stem cell niches located in two distinct location in the brain. The SVZ of the lateral ventricle produces neuroblast, which differentiate to neurons and other neural cells, and the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Practical

21 Mar 2018

7 (2,730 )

Intro Commonly used in immunology, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique takes advantage of the great specificity of antibodies for a particular antigen. In ELISA a protein (antigen or antibody) is fixed to the walls of a microtiter plate well using this specificity. In addition to this, an enzyme can be attached to either of them in order to create and amplify a coloured signal, allowing the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Elucidating the p53 Signalling Network by Reverse Genetics

21 Mar 2018

18 (6,912 )

Reiyyan Tariq Nizami   Aim In my research project I am working with four different strains Caenorhabditis elegans. I have been performing a double mutant screen using an RNAi knockout library. Cep-1 is a protein that causes apoptosis due to DNA damage in the worm. The cep-1 protein is an ortholog of the human tumor suppressor protein p53, which is found mutated in many ...

Click here to read more arrow

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Causes and Treatments

21 Mar 2018

8 (2,804 )

Lucy Crawshaw Irritable Bowel Syndrome – What is IBS and what are the treatments? The aim of this report is to provide information on Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and inform those diagnosed with IBS about the treatments available. IBS is a common condition of the small and large intestine, or ‘bowel’. It affects about 15% of the population and of those affected, about 9% ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Stanley Lloyd Miller's Experiment

21 Mar 2018

6 (2,073 )

“The origin of life is one of the great outstanding mysteries of science.” Paul Davies INTRODUCTION Evolution means an unfolding or unrolling-a gradual orderly change from one form to another. The principle of organic evolution states that all the various plants and animals existing at the present time have descended from other, usually simpler, organisms by gradual modifications which have accumulated in successive generations. Postulating ...

Click here to read more arrow

Types of Pathogens and Diseases

21 Mar 2018

9 (3,345 )

Pathogens and Disease TAQ 1 Pathogen is known as a microorganism that may cause disease to its host. Bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa are all microorganisms that cause disease. 1.2 Features Virus Bacteria Fungus Protozoa shape ...

Click here to read more arrow

Importance of Field Margins to Agro-ecosystems

21 Mar 2018

7 (2,510 )

Introduction: Field margins are a crucial aspect of agricultural landscapes which occur in different forms next to all agricultural fields (Marshall 1988; Moonen and Marshall 2001). These margins can provide a series of extremely important functions within the landscape which can be divided according to (de Snoo 1995; Udo de Haes 1995) into agronomy and animal husbandry function by defining land ownership, providing stock fencing and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Morphological Characters of Colchicum L. Species

21 Mar 2018

4 (1,213 )

Botanical studies of the Turkish flora have been started on botanical trips approximately 300 years ago by French botanist Tournefort on north – northeast Anatolia (Davis H.P. 2008). Following years botanical investigations have been continued and according to these investigations a well-known publication has been prepared by Davis (1965-1988) with the name of “The Flora of Turkey and East Aegian Islands” and subsequently to the publish ...

Click here to read more arrow

Developing Glycosylated Therapeutic Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

4 (1,473 )

Abstract The therapeutic property of an antibody relies on the extent and the form of glycosylation in that particular antibody [1]. Glyco-engineering has been developed to make the best use of this fact and thus manufacture glycosylated recombinant antibodies in a controlled manner so as to enhance its pharmacological property [1]. Mogamulizumab is the landmark in the field of glycosylation. Mogamulizumab is a glycosylated recombinant monoclonal ...

Click here to read more arrow

Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs

21 Mar 2018

8 (3,010 )

Contents (jump to) Introduction Chapter 1: Epidemiologic Studies of Risk Factors for Cancer in Pet Dogs 1.1 Frequency of Cancer in dogs by Site 1.2 Epidemiology of Cancer of Selected Sites in Dogs 1.2.1 Female Breast Cancer 1.2.2 Testicular Cancer References Introduction Cancer is one of the most important disease that affects humans but also companion animals. In 2008, 7.6 million cancer deaths were reported in ...

Click here to read more arrow

Overview of Glycation Related Diseases

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,768 )

D) Glycation related diseases: Glycation is a deleterious form of post translational modifications of macromolecules and has been linked to a number of diseases. (Harding et al. 1989). Cardiovascular Diseases: The in vivo accumulation of AGE’s over time contributes to changes in function and structure of the cardiovascular system which results in formation of artificial stiffening, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial relaxation abnormalities. Certain mechanisms are responsible ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment to Treat Theileria in Cows

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,798 )

Theileria is a vector borne protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis which is a fatal disease for cows. It is a disease of tropics. Theileria poses a serious challenge to the exotic crossbred cattle population. T.annulata and T. parva are considered to be the most pathogenic species of theileria. Tropical theileriosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of cattle caused by T. annulata. It is transmitted ...

Click here to read more arrow

Nasonia Vitripennis and Nasonia Giraulti Memory Analysis

12 Mar 2018

7 (2,443 )

Formation and retention memory : a comparison between Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti 1 Introduction Learning and memory are similar traits across the Animal Kingdom, at the behavioural as well as the cellular level (Dubnau, 2003). The Nasonia genus is a good model to study memory for several reasons. Indeed, these insects reproduce rapidly and easily so it ...

Click here to read more arrow

In Vitro Estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,042 )

Study of mechanism of Action of S012-0975:  In vitro estimation of Th1/Th2 Cytokines by ELISA: A drug like candidate should have the properties to completely eliminate the parasite either through activation of macrophages or by directly acting on parasite. Cure in visceral Leishmaniasis is observed by the production of Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α and enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and disease ...

Click here to read more arrow

Study of Anti-cancer Potential of Dodoneine

12 Mar 2018

7 (2,402 )

PROJECT PROPOSAL Anju Angel James Title of the project:Comparative study of anti-cancer potential of Dodoneine and its derivative. SUMMARY : Dodoneine [(R)-6-[(S)-2-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl]-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one] is a naturally occurring dihydropyranone which is isolated from Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius DC Danser, also known as African mistletoe. Tapinanthus dodoneinfolius is a parasitic plant that feeds from the sheanut tree in Burkina Faso. The unique, challenging structural and functional features of Dodoneine created ...

Click here to read more arrow

Early vs Late Reduction of Cervical Spine Injury

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,870 )

Ghulam Farooq , Alisha Sial OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of early (<72hours) surgical intervention in subaxial (C3-C7) cervical spine injury through anterior approach among adults. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION Primary Outcome: The ASIA impairment scale is a validated tool to describe a patient’s functional impairment as a result of their cervical spinal cord injury (attached as annex).The principal investigator will determine it by physical examination of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Smoking and Alveolar Repair

12 Mar 2018

8 (2,842 )

Lakshmi Mohanadas   Cigarette smoking is one of the major cause for many of the lung diseases. Smoking is a practice of burning a dried plant and inhaling the smoke. It is one of most common form of recreational drug usage. People who smoke, get addicted to smoking which leads to gradual damage to the body. The substances that are inhaled causes reactions at ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment on Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

12 Mar 2018

9 (3,440 )

May Zheng Lab Partners: Vena G. and Sara W. Observations: Part A: The Effect of Surface Area on Enzyme Activity Table1: Amount of Foam Produced by Potato Samples with Different Sizes Potato Samples Maximum Height of Foam Produced (mm) Large cubes 1mm Small cubes 5mm ...

Click here to read more arrow

Prioritisation Assessments in Species Conservation

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,754 )

Are some species more worthy of conservation than others? Due to anthropogenic activities, the present rate of extinction rise is taking place at nearly 1000 times that of then natural background level of extinction observed from the fossil record. Conservation biology traditionally focuses on preventing extinctions, This magnitude of species decline far outweighs the amount of resources available to conservation in saving each one. As we ...

Click here to read more arrow

Structure of the Male Reproductive System

12 Mar 2018

20 (7,771 )

New chapter 35 The Male Reproductive System INTRODUCTION The male reproductive system has three principal functions: The differentiation and maintenance of the primary and secondary sex characteristics under the influence of the hormone testos­terone, made in the testes. Spermatogenesis—the creation of the male gametes inside the testes. The penile delivery of sperm from the testes into the female’s vagina in the act of procre­ation. This ...

Click here to read more arrow

Public Health Issues: Type 2 Diabetes

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,215 )

Abhishek Kumar Is type 2 diabetes a public health emergency? Definition: The term “”diabetes mellitus”” describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate , fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion , insulin action , or both . The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage dysfunction and failure of various organs.(WHO) Types of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Soft Sediment Communities Composition

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,148 )

DISCUSSION 5.1 Comparison of Soft Sediment Communities Composition and Sediment Type from Different Scales Generally, macrobenthic organisms were found in abundance at Tanjung Bungah. Polychaetes have been observed to dominate in muddy area. Bivalves and gastropod were observed to be dominated in sandy area. Rhoads & Young (1970) noticed that sandy substrates tended to be dominated by suspension-feeders such as bivalves while mud substrates ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies for Feeding Livestock in the US Pork Industry

12 Mar 2018

7 (2,418 )

Literature Review Overview of the US Pork Industry The US pork industry is a dynamic and versatile industry that have progressed over the past 50 years from producing lard-type pigs to a more meaty and heavier muscled animal (Cunha, 2012). This change in progress is due to the current global population estimated at over 7.2 billion people and growing at a rate of 1.14% per annum ...

Click here to read more arrow

Article Review: Metformin and Cancer

12 Mar 2018

8 (3,052 )

“Metformin and cancer: from the old medicine cabinet to pharmacological pitfalls and prospects” Review article This essay aims to identify and explain the main points made in the Review article ‘Metformin and cancer...’ and discuss their implications and overall significance in a pharmacological context. Metformin is a synthetic biguanide and the most common prescribed drug in treating Type Two Diabetes (T2D); studies have now discovered unforeseen ...

Click here to read more arrow

Genome Study of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

12 Mar 2018

8 (2,887 )

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of hepatitis C, which is an infectious liver disease of humans. Estimates indicate that 170 million people are chronically infected globally and are at risk of developing liver disease including cirrhosis (scarring of tissue) and liver cancer. Furthermore, 350,000 deaths occur each year due to all HCV-related causes [1]. Although 20%–30% of the 170 million people infected with ...

Click here to read more arrow

Reporter System Using LuxABCDE

12 Mar 2018

9 (3,472 )

La Rosa, S.L., Diep, D.B., Nes, I.F., et al. (2012) Construction and application of a luxABCDE reporter system for real-time monitoring of Enterococcus faecalis gene expression and growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (19): 7003-7011 Reporter genes are the genes encoding a protein which can be tracked and quantified by microscopy and various biochemical assays. They provide a non-invasive and sensitive method to monitor levels of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Mechanisms of Activation of NFκB Signaling Pathway

12 Mar 2018

11 (4,111 )

Objective: we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of activation of NFκB signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of LSCC. Methods: Protein array was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins involved in NFκB signaling pathway in 50 LSCC cells compared with 50 cases of normal throat mucosa. Correlation analysis between significantly differentially expressed proteins and clinical characteristics was also performed. The expression of IKK-β was detected both ...

Click here to read more arrow

Evaluation of Purified Extracts of Leptogium Papillosum

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,946 )

INTRODUCTION Free radicals are highly reactive atom having one or more unpaired electron produced from the oxidation reaction that takes place in the transfer of electrons capable of attacking the stable biomolecules. These free radicals initiate cascades of events which ultimately lead to cellular damage [1]. However, physiologically these free radical preserve homeostatic action by signal transduction process [2]. Formation of these highly reactive free radical ...

Click here to read more arrow

Acute Nitrite Exposure of Fish Using Common Carp

12 Mar 2018

7 (2,620 )

Acute nitrite exposure of fish using common carp as a model species The acute exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to enhanced nitrite concentration at a low molar ratio of Cl-/NO2- (0.21) for 48 hours caused high mortality and increased blood plasma nitrite to concentrations 7 times that of the ambient water. Jensen et al. (1987) observed that exposure of carp to nitrite for 48 hours ...

Click here to read more arrow

Uses of Medicinal Plants: Literature Review

12 Mar 2018

4 (1,283 )

People all over the world use different medicinal plants for curing various diseases and to find a solution to various ailments. India being the home to rich flora and fauna holds the panacea to many illnesses. The branch of ethno botany becomes very relevant here as it gives clear definition as to how the use of ethnic botanic medicinal plant becomes a cure to illnesses and ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Hutchinsonian and Eltonian Shortfalls

12 Mar 2018

8 (2,955 )

A number of recognized knowledge shortfalls currently exist in biology. The first that appears to have been identified is taxonomical, and is known as the Linnean shortfall (Raven and Wilson 1992). This concerns the disparity between species described by scientists and the actual number of species in the world. The second, the Wallacean shortfall, is biogeographical, and is related to uncertainties in the geographical distribution of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Role of Taurine Against Toxic Effects of Nanosilver

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,975 )

To evaluate the preservative role of taurine against toxic effects of nanosilver, ovine epididymal sperm were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 0.4 M) of taurine (T) and nanosilver colloid (N) (1 ppm) for 120 min in vitro and then, the viability and motion parameters of sperm were assessed. The percentage of live sperm in taurine–treated groups did not differ in comparison with control (P > ...

Click here to read more arrow

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Improving Treatments

12 Mar 2018

6 (2,010 )

Summary ALS is a progressive, fatal motoneurone disease, ultimately leading to paralysis and respiratory failure within 3-5 years. There is currently only one FDA-approved drug, Riluzole, but its lack of disease prolongation combined with the aggressive disease nature means identifying new treatments is essential. This review highlights 3 of the most current and promising research areas. Recent Phase 1 Clinical trials have proven safety of stem ...

Click here to read more arrow

History of Transgenic Animals

12 Mar 2018

8 (2,805 )

Long before farmers were used selective breeding to enhance economically important trait like growth, milk production, egg production, and etc…consequently, this situation sets the foundation of genetics study that support the study of regulation and function of mammalian genes. The study was either through the observation of inherited characteristics from the parent or the unexpected occurrence of transformation (mutations). After 1950s things were changed to molecular ...

Click here to read more arrow

Origin of Multicellular Eukaryotes

12 Mar 2018

4 (1,443 )

The beginning of multicellular Eukaryotes is one of the most important event in earth’s history regarding Eukaryotic life. As we can observe, most if not all animals, plants, and fungi are multicellular Eukaryotes therefore multicellularity is a key component of the early evolution regarding complex life. However, multicellularity nor Eukaryotic cell suddenly occur at once. In fact there is an order regarding the events that occurred ...

Click here to read more arrow

Genetic Causes of Sickle Cell Anemia

12 Mar 2018

8 (3,147 )

Jay Patel Sickle cell anemia is one of the most common disorders which are inherited from a single gene disorder. Usually these disorders have been seen in African-Americans1. Sickle cell disease was first described in 1910 by dental student with pulmonary symptoms. Sickle cell shaped was first known as Herrick coined to describe the peculiar appearance of the red blood of the cell of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Bioefficacy of New Generation Insecticides

12 Mar 2018

5 (1,765 )

BIOEFFICACY OF NEW GENERATION INSECTICIDES ON Spodoptera litura (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) IN AMARANTH P. M. KRISHNA, T.B. MATHEW Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvanathapuram 695022, Kerala, Inida. Email: [email protected] gmail.com ABSTRACT: Spodoptera litura major pest on vegetable amaranth. New generation insectiicdes such as Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC - 0.006 %, Novaluron 10 % EC - 0.015 %, Flubendiamide 39.35 % SC - 0.0096 %,Spinosad ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impacts of Genetically Modified Food on Health | Literature

12 Mar 2018

9 (3,269 )

Source 1: Genetically Modified Foods Reference Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? April 2000 Written by: Deborah Whitman [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php. [Accessed 19 October 2013] Summary GM foods and crops refer to those plants created for human consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. The plants have been modified to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. Genetic engineering, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Molluscan Assemblage on the Intertidal Zones of Butuan Bay

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,224 )

MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGE (UNIVALVIA AND BIVALVIA) ON THE INTERTIDAL ZONES OF BUTUAN BAY, AGUSAN DEL NORTE, NORTHEASTERN MINDANAO ARIEYL C. JAMODIONG INTRODUCTION Coastal zone is one of the marine environments where the most intense and harsh conditions in the world occurs. This aquatic biome often deals with the changing of tide daily allowing extreme exposure to sunlight so that high temperature, increase salinity (due to ...

Click here to read more arrow

Radial Artery Access to Bronchial Artery Embolization

09 Mar 2018

13 (4,926 )

Radial artery access to bronchial artery embolization for massive hemoptysis: a case report Abstract Background: Massive hemoptysis is a potentially fatal respiratory emergency. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is commonly applied to treat massive hemoptysis. However, in most cases, BAE was performed via the access of femoral artery. The treatment via the access of radial artery is rare and challenging. Case description: Herein We we reported ...

Click here to read more arrow

Exosomes: Roles and Applications to Cancer

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,642 )

Exosomes (The research behind cancer biomarkers) Afnan Elhag Introduction Exosomes are small vesicles which are found in many body fluids, such as blood and urine (1, 2). Its diameter is between 30 and 100nm, but much smaller than a bacterial cell. Exosomes can be released from the plasma membrane or by multi vesicular bodies fusing with the plasma membrane (3). Specialized functions of exosomes play a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Phylogenetic Analysis of Universal Stress Proteins (USPs)

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,628 )

ABSTRACT Resistance to different stress conditions constitutes regulation of many proteins among which Universal stress proteins (USPs) are the most important group of proteins found in plant cells. USPs are reported to be essential in different stress conditions and assigned as conserved domain, were subjected to database search. We found 35 homologs of USP in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cicer arietinum, Solanum lycopersicum, Oryza sativa and Sorghum bicolor ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment on Characteristics of Invertebrates

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,544 )

Lab 6 – invertebrate diversity Amine A. Harb Introduction Invertebrates are classified in relation to their lack of backbone or spinal column. A few distinguishing characteristics of invertebrates include distinctive respiratory organs, segmentation, radial and bilateral symmetries, and body organization. This experiment required us to dissect and examine an earthworm and a squid. The squid’s taxonomic classification derives from the Family Loligindae, Order Teuthoidea, Class Cephaopoda, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Expression Levels of Artemis in Taxane-based Chemotherapy

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,539 )

Introduction Although decreasing in most countries, gastric cancer remains one of the most leading causes of cancer death in the world with poor prognosis. Patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer usually have poor outcomes, with 5-year mortality of more than 95% [1]. Diffuse types of gastric cancer are strongly suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) classification in 2000, including poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma and well-differentiated ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of the Lionfish Invasion

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,722 )

Lionfish invasion Should Lionfish be removed? Introduction The lionfish are biological pollutants, they are considered predators and close to the top of the food chain, this makes them dangerous to the ecosystem and humans as they can inflict extremely painful stings. They are currently out-competing native predatory fish such as grupers as well as reducing herbivorous fish population through consumption, with no herbivorous fish controlling the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Spatial Learning Ability of Male and Female Mice in Mazes.

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,532 )

PREPARED BY: ELANCHELIAN A/ L THEVER116637 FARAH HANI BINTI MUNJIAT116640 NURUL FATINIZZATI BINTI ABD HALIM116704 LUCIA EMPINA HARRY116650 NURFAZRINA BINTI JAINULABADEEN116685 INTRODUCTION: The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail. House mouse can live together with humans. The house mouse has been domesticated ...

Click here to read more arrow

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis of Agarwood

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,373 )

1.0 Introduction Agarwood is considered as the most expensive wood in the world which can be derived mostly from genera Aquilaria and Gyrinops from the family Thymelaeaceae (Akter, Tanvir, Zulkefeli, & Khan, 2013). According to Subasinghe, Hettiarachchi, and Rathnamalala (2012), some of the species from the Aquilaria and Gyrinops can be found across at least 12 countries including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment Methods

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,247 )

INTRODUCTION Autoimmunity is the inability of an organism in recognizing its own parts asself, which triggers an abnormal immune response against its own cells or tissues. Due to such a response, autoimmune diseases occur. Autoimmune diseases are broadly divided into the following: Systemic autoimmune diseases: The symptoms and damage occurs throughout the body, i.e the antigen is not tissue-specific. Localized autoimmune diseases: The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Streptococcus Mutans: Causes, Effects and Transmission

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,472 )

Introduction Streptococcus mutans is the bacteria responsible for dental cavities in humans. The full taxonomy, or classification of the organism, is Bacteria Firmicutes Bacilli Lactobacillales Streptococcaceae Streptococcus Mutans (1). From S. mutans’ scientific name one can understand quite a bit about the bacteria. The domain and kingdom are Bacteria, meaning S. mutans is a one celled organism that doesn’t have a distinct nucleus. The phylum ...

Click here to read more arrow

Diagnosing Diseases from Ancient Human Tissue

09 Mar 2018

8 (3,033 )

Introduction The pathogenesis of human diseases has been further understood based on findings in the study of ancient populations across thousands of human history [1]. The premise of these work is the diagnosis of ancient diseases [2]. With the progress in biology and medicine, archaeologists and palaeopathologists can obtain a great deal of biological information from ancient human specimens [1]. More information can be obtained from ...

Click here to read more arrow

Synthesis of Structure Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis C

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,633 )

  C1.RESEARCH AREA Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Biochemistry D.PROJECT DIGEST HCV is very common infectious disease all around the world (180 million people effected per year) and in Pakistan too and is a cause of chronic liver hepatitis C. It’s a small virus containing RNA as a genetic material. Over the course of evolution this virus has developed ...

Click here to read more arrow

Thermophilic Bacteria and Psychrophilic Bacteria Analysis

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,136 )

DISCUSSION Sikkim lies in The Great Himalayan Range, which is considered as a relatively young range of mountains in the world. Sikkim is also regarded as a hot spot having huge diversity in flora, fauna and microbial community. Sikkim has several hot springs; however, till date no systematic studies have been conducted on these hot springs which provide an opportunity to study the microbiological studies. In ...

Click here to read more arrow

Welfare of Animals at the Time of Slaughter

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,808 )

Matthew Indge Animal Welfare Assignment 2: Literature review The Welfare of Animals at The Time Of Slaughter Abstract Introduction Animal slaughter is one of the most key processes in gaining food for many human beings. In many countries such as the US and Europe there are strict regulations on the Slaughter of animals (Nakyinsige et al., 2013). The problem arrises when these rules are either, not ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Monthly Values of Magnesium in Water

09 Mar 2018

4 (1,438 )

Magnesium: Magnesium is required universally by chlorophyllus plants as the component of chlorophyll molecule. Magnesium is associated with calcium in all kinds of water but its concentration remains generally lower than the calcium (Venkatsubramani and Meenambal, 2007). It is a main cation causing water hardness. In natural water magnesium comes from natural processes i. e. dissolvent of mineral containing magnesium and from other sources like industrial ...

Click here to read more arrow

Analysis of Cotton Growing in India

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,595 )

Abstract Important cash crop in India is Cotton. India is second largest producer of cotton after China and grown on twelve million hectares. Currently in India only Insect resistant Bt cotton is grown. Remarkable growth has been seen in production and cultivation of Bt cotton in India. This growth is seen with introduction of Bt cotton that has genes of soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and therefore ...

Click here to read more arrow

Developing Immunology in Pregnancy

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,376 )

Immunology of Pregnancy (In human context) ABSTRACT: Nowadays there are cases of infertility, preeclampsia and recurrent abortions. For treating these problems it is important to gain knowledge of complex mechanism underlying pregnancy. These mechanisms are studied in the field of reproductive immunology. Immunology of pregnancy is not fully understood due to its complexity, yet a very interesting topic to study. Foetus acts like a semi-allograft, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Causes of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI)

09 Mar 2018

7 (2,621 )

Introduction During the past two decades, significant and advance scientific researches in molecular biology and genetics have set the stage for a revolution in medical science. Advance researches in gene cloning, gene mapping and mutation study have contributed to an explosion of new information regarding the fundamental biological and patho-physiological basis for hundreds of human diseases. After the completion of Human Genome Project, a new wave ...

Click here to read more arrow

UCA1 in Cisplatin Induced Ovarian Cancer Cell Resistance

09 Mar 2018

8 (2,842 )

The Expression of Long Non-coding RNA UCA1 in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Its Role in Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Vitro Running title: UCA1 in cisplatin induced ovarian cancer cell resistance Highlights Increasing expression of UCA1 RNA was found in ovarian cancer tissues. UCA1 can increase the cell migration, invasion and cisplatin resistance. The effect of UCA was extended through targeting SRPK1 and apoptosis related pathway. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Molecular Causes of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMOP)

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,331 )

Abstract Purpose: We aimed to explore the molecule mechanism underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) and smoking-related PMOP. Methods: The microarray data of GSE13850 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differential expression genes (DEGs) between high and low bone mineral density (BMD) samples (DEG1) and postmenopausal female smokers with high and low BMD (DEG2) were analyzed. The GO (Gene ontology) and immune enrichment analysis were ...

Click here to read more arrow

Relationship between Genetics and Prostate Cancer Risk

09 Mar 2018

8 (2,993 )

Abstract Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Numerous studies have investigated the role of genetic variants in PCa risk. However, the results remain unclearly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rs2228001 in XPC, rs4073 in IL8, and rs2279744 in MDM2 with PCa susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Electronic database of PubMed, Medline and Embase were searched for relevant studies ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Serratia Marcescens Pilli on Red Blood Cells

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,342 )

INTRODUCTION. The aims of the investigation are to identify the effect of bacteria, for example, what effect can Serratia marcescens pilli on red blood cells gives when mixed with molecular inhibitor. Also, to examine how pathogenic bacteria for example Clostridium perfringes produce toxin and what effect does toxin have on cells. In addition to the above, to examine the microbial resistance by using four different antibiotics ...

Click here to read more arrow

ERG11 in Drug-resistant of C. Krusei

09 Mar 2018

8 (3,170 )

Erg11 mutations and up-regulation in clinical itraconazole-resistant isolates of Candida krusei Some C. krusei isolates were resistant the antifungal drugs. Mutations including T939C, T642C and A756T were found in ERG11 of C. krusei. ERG11 was highly expressed in resistant C. krusei strains.. Abstract Objective We aimed to provide with light for better understanding of ERG11 gene in drug-resistance mechanisms in Candida krusei (C. krusei). ...

Click here to read more arrow

Harmful Effects of Dyes and Additives

09 Mar 2018

9 (3,386 )

Bella Zavlanova Bioresearch Professor Schiffenbauer DO FOOD ADDITIVES/ DYES CAUSE HARM TO CONSUMERS? The objective of this paper is to find out if dyes and additives such as red 40, yellow 5, yellow 6 and blue 2, which are added to foods, drugs, and cosmetics, are harmful to the consumers? Do we really believe these dyes or additives can cause cancer or other more ...

Click here to read more arrow

Oxygen Consumption By Different Animals

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,318 )

  Name & Matric No. Calvin Belulok Ngang 40754 Malinka Anak Sikim 41989 Philovenny Anak Pengiran 43733 Brenda May Engkian anak Nandong @ Sulie 40747 Christ Hani binti Lian Lee 40907 Racheal Anak Rosedy 43768 Hilda Jelembai Anak Nelson Ilan 41423 Muazzah Bt Abd Latif 42327 LABORATORY 2 INTRODUCTION There are two types of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Ecosystem Based Management

09 Mar 2018

4 (1,444 )

Marine environments are complex adaptive systems adjoined across multiple scales by ocean currents and species movements (Ruckelshaus et al 2008). These ecosystems worldwide are in serious decline, primarily as a result of broadening anthropogenic pressures that exploit marine resources such as shipping, energy exploration, fisheries and tourism (MA 2005; Curtin et al 2010), which can alter natural ocean systems through habitat fragmentation, pollution, eutrophication, and biodiversity ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of pH and Temperature: Enzyme Catalase Reaction Rate

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,315 )

The effect of pH and temperature on the reaction rate of the enzyme catalase INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins produced by living cells that act as catalysts during a reaction, meaning they lower the activation energy needed for that reaction to occur. Activation energy is the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction (ES), the substance that is to be acted ...

Click here to read more arrow

Impact of Haemolysis in Accuracy of PT/APTT

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,972 )

Topic: Impact of haemolysis in accuracy of PT/APTT (Important of fast and accurate PT/APTT results in managing patients) CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PT and APTT Theprothrombin time(PT) and its derived measures ofprothrombin ratio(PR) andinternational normalized ratio(INR) are measures of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation [3, 7]. They are used to determine the clotting tendency of blood, in the measure of warfarin dosage, liver damage, and vitamin K status. PT measures factors I ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Benzodiazepine Addiction on Genomes

09 Mar 2018

8 (3,021 )

BIO621 – GENETICS AND GENOMICS RESEARCH PROPOSAL Submitted By: Rabia Iftikhar Submitted to: Dr Aziz Mithani Date: 25th May, 2015 TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT Genome wide study of transcriptional and epigenetic changes induces upon addiction to benzodiazepine and their inheritance. RESEARCH AREA Pharmacogenetics PROJECT DIGEST Some drugs that are available over the counter as well as those prescribed are known ...

Click here to read more arrow

Determination of Heavy Metals in Pigeon Feathers

09 Mar 2018

6 (2,396 )

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PIGEON FEATHERS IN THE DIFFERENT AREA OF AJMER CITY. Rajeshwari Acharya and Asha Sharma   ABSTRACT Metal determination using pigeon feather is most common method of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of mental exposure and its risks. Pigeon feather were collected from different area of Ajmer city of Rajasthan (India) and were analyzed for lead (Pb), ...

Click here to read more arrow

Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum

09 Mar 2018

5 (1,740 )

In-Vitro Study on Spasmolytic Activity of Calotropis Procera In Rabbit Jejunum Authors:, Dr Jagadeesh K, Dr Shreenivas Revankar, Dr Jagadeesh S C.   ABSTRACT: In ancient India many herbal plant products were used for their medicinal values. Calotropis procera known as arka, madar, milkweed. It was used as antimicrobial, anti-fertility, anticancer, leprosy and antihelmintic. In the present study the ethanolic extract of the leaf was used to ...

Click here to read more arrow
Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.