Silicone Oil for Internal Temponande: Complications

29 Mar 2018

6 (2,361 )

Frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment ABSTARCT Objective; To know about the frequency of complications due to silicone oil used for internal temponande in the treatment of retinal detachment Methodology ; This cross sectional study was conducted in ophthalmology department of Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from Jan 2013 to May 2014 with total duration of ...

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Significant DEGs in Bladder Cancer

29 Mar 2018

9 (3,311 )

Differences analysis of gene expression in bladder cancer with microarrays High lights Totally 619 common DEGs were screened by using 2 mocroarrays PGR, MAFG, CDC6 and MCMs may play key roles in BC The core histones were also considered to have major functions in BC. Abstract Purpose: We aim to identify significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and analyze the modification of gene expression in ...

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Pathophysiology of Liver Diseases

29 Mar 2018

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LIVER Failure ONG SUAN LING Liver Failure The liver is responsible for regulatory, detoxification, metabolic and synthetic activities. Liver cell known as hepatocyte, is responsible for about 500 or more specific biologic processes [2]. Liver failure occurs when large parts of the liver become damaged and the liver is dysfunction [1]. Liver failure occurs over many years and gradually. However, the acute liver failure ...

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The Progression of an Eco-Column Over Time

29 Mar 2018

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Jake Loftin   Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this lab is to provide the opportunity to view how an ecosystem functions, and how it changes over time. It allows one to observe and assess the properties and various components within the eco-column. The eco-column is set up with an aquatic habitat, decomposition habitat, and a terrestrial habitat. The diverse compartments enable the eco-column to be complete with ...

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The Role of Adenosine on Motor Control

29 Mar 2018

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Eber A. S. Beck Junior ABSTRACT Adenosine have been receiving focus in many researches of nowadays. It was found that adenosine acts in important chemical interactions in human beings and in mice models. Different subtypes of adenosine were based on pharmacology and signal transduction mechanisms, dividing in A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptors. The movement control system and locomotor function, regulated primarily by the basal ganglia, ...

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Conditions for Exopolysaccharide Production

29 Mar 2018

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Isolation and optimization of cultural conditions for exopolysaccharide production from Blue Green Algae. Mohanapriya R and Geetharamani D   Abstract Polysaccharides are renewable resources representing an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest. They offer a wide variety of potentially useful products to mankind. Extracellular polysaccharides of microbial origin are of interest due to their novel functionality, reproducible physio-chemical properties, stable cost and supply. Cyanobacteria ...

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Processing of T RNA, R RNA and Small RNAs

29 Mar 2018

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To form physiologically active RNA molecules, bacteria process the primary transcripts for r RNA and t RNA. The newly synthesized RNA molecule i.e the primary transcripts differ from the physiologically active r RNA and t RNA molecules in three important aspects: Mature r RNA and t RNA molecules are terminated by a 5’ –monophosphate instead of the expected triphosphate which is found at the ends ...

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Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37

29 Mar 2018

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Expression and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 in Dog Peripheral Blood Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Vitro Highlights The lentivirus vector pGC-FU-LL37-GFP was constructed and characterized Dog peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) were successfully obtained Expression of LL37 in was achieved by lentivirus infection. A combination of the anti-infection effect of LL37 and angiogenesis of EPCs might be achieved to benefit clinical therapy Abstract Objective ...

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miRNA-34 Family Tumor Suppression Potential in P53 Network

29 Mar 2018

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Jennifer Dell 1. Introduction The very well-studied p53 network has been revealed to regulate multiple miRNA's and is known as tumor suppressor gene. Promising research in cancer repression is going on among the miRNA family of miRNA-34 (miR-34). As one part of the p53 network this family might play a key role in cancer therapy one day. Cell cycle arrest and meanwhile DNA-repair are ...

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P.abrotanoides Karel Role in Aggregation on Target Proteins

29 Mar 2018

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There is direct relation between proteins structure and their function. Hydrophobic areas has a less contact with water. In contrast, hydrophilic areas absorb with water. With change in the biochemical compounds of humans body such as PH, temperature or bodys chemical condition in protein structure change as well and these changes can cause denaturation of protein. Some diseases can let of significant change in the protein ...

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Causes of Allergies Essay

28 Mar 2018

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NUT ALLERGY INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is an allergy? When exposed to certain foreign substances, a reaction takes place in our immune system which is referred to as allergy [1]. Population of more than 25% in industrialized countries suffer from allergies [2]. These reactions are exaggerated because these foreign substances are recognized as harmless and no response takes place in non-allergic individuals. Most of the ...

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Incorporation of Lucrin-TPO into Resin Based Composites

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction The use of resin based composites (RBCs) continues to increase at different rates internationally, partly due to the demise of amalgam. They provide a versatile and robust restoration material [1] [2], however, in recent years the biocompatibility of dental composite restorations has come into question [3]. Degree of conversion and degree of crosslinking are key concepts within RBC formulation as they directly impact the biocompatibility ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

28 Mar 2018

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Manoj Kanth  Contents (Jump to) Introduction Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction: Protein is a biomolecule composed of different 20 amino acids and plays a major role in living organisms ( Rangwala, 2008). Protein can be classified into four major categories according to its structure as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary structure (Rangwala, 2008). The structure of a protein differs according to the change ...

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Methods Used to Detect Enteric Pathogens

28 Mar 2018

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OMOYOSOLA EKOSANMI Antibody & DNA Technology Compare and contrast Immunological and Molecular methods used to detect Enteric Pathogens Enteric pathogens are gram-negative organisms that live and are found in the human gastrointestinal tract, some examples of enteric pathogens are Clostidium difficile, Campylobacter, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella. Most enteric pathogens that enter the gut won’t cause any harm but there are some harmful bacteria that ...

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Genetic Profile of the BVL Lutra Lutra Population Study

28 Mar 2018

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An attempt to optimize the PCR amplification of nDNA (microsatellites) extracted from otter faeces to develop a genetic profile of the BVL Lutra lutra population Diana Ferreira, Carlos Fonseca, Eduardo Ferreira, Rita Rocha Introduction The determination of wild species distribution and abundance is extremely necessary for conservation biology studies since some species, such as carnivores, are elusive and secretive and mostly difficult to observe in the ...

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Study of the African Ostrich Brain

28 Mar 2018

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Morphological and Anatomical study of the brain of the african ostrich that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered Dahmardeh Moslem, Akbari Mohammad Ebrahim Abstract: The morphological and anatomical specifications of the African ostrich brain that between the ages of 7 and 15 month in the city of zabol have been slaughtered were researched in ...

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Challenges in Gene Sequencing

28 Mar 2018

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“Tracing the Roots of Intelligence - Brings More Harms than Goods” Introduction BGI, or previously known as the Beijing Genomics Institute located in Shenzhen, China has leapt to the forefront of gene sequencing. This opportunistic organization had successfully completed numerous genome projects, such as sequencing 1% of the human genome for the International Human Genome project, decoded the SARS virus genome within 36 hours, fully sequenced ...

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Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) in the Brain: Effect of Ageing

28 Mar 2018

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Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells that can generate the typicalphenotypesof thenervous system. NSCs are produced throughout the life of an adult via the process known to be asneurogenesis. Like other tissue-specific stem cells, NSCs persists as separate small and discrete populations in the brain and can undergo extensive proliferation giving rise to new glia and neurons. In mammals they persist throughout the entire life ...

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Mucor Hiemalis Sexual Reproduction and Uses

28 Mar 2018

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All species of mold are of the eukaryotic kingdom Fungi, of which are commonly used in the production of food, such as cheese, or brewing, or are described as pests that are harmful towards humans, and aesthetically unappealing. With up to 120 000 identified species and an estimate of 1.5 million different species, rendering the Fungi kingdom as the least-explored (Webster & Weber, 2007). Fungi have ...

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Walking Pneumonia: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

28 Mar 2018

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Heather Kramer This paper will discuss the atypical bacterium Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) that triggers Walking Pneumonia. M. pneumoniae is a pathogen common among humans causing a respiratory infection in the lungs. Research on the discovery and history, taxonomy and classification, cell biology, signs and symptoms, transmission, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention of Walking Pneumonia was completed. With the growing population of the world, ...

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Diosgenin in the Treatment of Osteoporosis

28 Mar 2018

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Diosgenin prevents bone loss on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis rats Highlights: 1. Diosgenin has preventive and therapeutic effect on osteoporosis. 2. Diosgenin can prevent bone loss. 3. Model group of osteoporosis are successfully induced by retinoic acid. Object: To observe the preventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: The rats induced by retinoic acid were used as rat model ...

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Apoptosis: Mechanisms and Anti-Cancer Drugs

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Among Cell biologists ‘Apoptosis’ is the most studied topics. It plays an important role in understanding the development of many disease and therefore gives clues for its treatment. Cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth of cells. In cancer there is imbalance in the rate of cell division and cell death. It is due to resistance or too little apoptosis. Apoptosis acts like a double edge ...

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Physiology & Treatment

28 Mar 2018

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Physiological traits Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and deadly disease. Many with ALS experience grief and many families of those affected endure the same. At present medical science has demonstrated great potential in finding a workable cure or efficacious therapy. However, at present no such cure or efficacious therapy exists. A number of ...

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DNA Databases: Technology and Legislation

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction to DNA databases A DNA database can be defined as a databank of DNA samples which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminal cases and genetic genealogy. The DNA profiles held in these databases are stored electronically. These databases have proved to be very useful in the conviction and exoneration of suspects in criminal cases as well as providing ...

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HIV-infected Patients Malignancies in Abdominal Operations

28 Mar 2018

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Association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations Abstract Purpose Until recently, reports on malignancies in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operations are scarce. Our study was to analyze association of preoperative immunological parameters with tumor stage and postoperative sepsis in HIV-infected patients with malignancies undergoing abdominal operations from a single institution. Methods Data were analyzed ...

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Episodic Memory: Definition and Theories

28 Mar 2018

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FRITZ Claudia KRENN Nora SCHALLEHN Anna Episodic memory is defined as a memory for personal unique past experience. Experimental approaches with diverse species were done in order to test for the “what where and when” of some unique recent event. These experiments provide convergent evidence that processes similar to episodic memory occur in animals, which is the main focus of this essay. The memory ...

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Detecting ERECTA Gene Using PCR and QTL Analysis

28 Mar 2018

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Detection of ERECTA gene and QTL analysis of RI lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0)) Practical Exercises in Plant Breeding Mohammad Foteh Ali   1. Abstract: Recombinant inbreed (RI) lines of Arabidopsis thaliana have been crossed between the ecotypes Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and Columbia (Col-0) up to 8th generation. The main aim of this laboratory report is the detection of ERECTA ...

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Mitochondrial DNA Barcoding

28 Mar 2018

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The barcoding region of mitochondrial genome The barcoding region is a gene segment within a protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Protein-coding regions of DNA have specific constraints that can be useful or detrimental to this application. First of all, since a change in nucleotides will often have an effect on the amino acids and hence the protein that is produced, sequences can only experience limited ...

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Herpes Simplex Virus Drug Resistance

28 Mar 2018

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Omer Baskan The increasing drug resistance of the herpes simplex virus Abstract Herpes simplex infections remain very common worldwide, the development of new treatments is of vital importance, particularly for the severely immunocompromised individuals due to the increasing emergence of HSV resistant strains being reported. The standard treatment for HSV still remains highly effective, however there is an ever increasing risk that drug resistant ...

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Zinc Fingers in Biological Systems

28 Mar 2018

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Lino Cardoz From the very beginning biologist marvelled at cellular complexities that are found in nature, and were awe struck by the very nature of genetic information that was present within each living cell. Hence they began understanding the mechanism by which the cellular machinery would regulate and manipulate this genetic information at a molecular level [1]. With the aid of some cutting edge ...

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Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease Treatment

28 Mar 2018

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Comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass grafting for treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease in Chinese patients ABSTRACT Objective: To compare drug-eluting stents (DES) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: A total of 227 patients received revascularization because of continuous ULMCA disease in Cangzhou Center Hospital, ...

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Drug Carrier for Boswellic Acids: Proniosomal Gel

28 Mar 2018

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Proniosomal gel: a promising drug carrier for boswellic acids Abstract Over many millennia, natural products were the only means for food, to treat diseases and injuries. Recently in the field of pharmaceutical sciences great efforts are being directed towards herbal drugs by incorporating them in already existed drug delivery system to solve the problem related to poor solubility, poor bioavailability, dosing problem, stability, toxicity etc. Dermal ...

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Gene Expression Analysis: ArrayMining.net and GeneSpring

28 Mar 2018

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Noor Ameera Mazlan, Nurrul Shafiqah Abdullah, Siti Noorain Yousoff, Leong Wan Ting and Jasrena Rohanapi ABSTRACT __________________________________________________________________________________________ Gene expression can be defined as a process which information of gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. The analysis can differentiate between cancerous and normal tissues. A class of small non-coding RNAs which known as a microRNAs (miRNAs) control the gene expression ...

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Oncogenic Viruses in Gastrointestinal Cancer

28 Mar 2018

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE: ARTICLES ON ONCOGENIC VIRUSES IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER: 1. Author Nima Khalighinejad et al. worked on “Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer”. Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost ...

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Gene Mutations Causes, Types and Effects

28 Mar 2018

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Annotation of Genome Variants The major goal for genomics is that to determining the sequence of molecules that make up the genomic content of an organism. The genes are contained in the chromosomes and it can be further described as containing the fundamental units of heredity. These genes are known as transcriptional unit, those regions of chromosomes that under appropriate circumstances are capable of producing RNA ...

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Mitochondria: Genome, Inheritance and Features

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Mitochondria are energy producing Organelles present in both Human and Plant cells. They Convert Food into ATP through process of oxidative Phosphorylation. They have double membrane. Outer membrane separates inner side of mitochondria from cytoplasm, while inner membrane has invaginations forming cristae. Cristae define the matrix of mitochondria. Inner Membrane contains embedded five enzyme complexes responsible for oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria contain its ...

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Priority Pollutants and their Health Effects

28 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Man has always been carving out an easy life from nature which has always made nature to get polluted with lots of toxic chemicals. The hurry to achieve this above mentioned peace has again made heavy adverse impacts on mankind which was not that dominant in earlier days but extremely evident now-a-days. The type of pollution’s that were dealt in lower classes has probably got ...

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Telomeres: Effect of Length of the Cell

28 Mar 2018

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Telomeres: being or immortal or getting cancer? “Death takes place because a worn-out tissue cannot forever renew itself and because a capacity for increase by means of cell division is not everlasting but finite” said A.Weismann at Oxford in 1881 and without noticing that he made a brief description of the structure of what we now call as the telomere. The term is originating from ...

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Identification of Cryptosporiopsis Spp Causing Cashew Blight

28 Mar 2018

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Materials and methods Symptomatic characterization, isolation and identification of Cryptosporiopsis spp causing cashew blight Cashew plantations were regularly inspected for disease in many locations across Tanzania, during the period 2010–2011. Susceptible cashew clone AC4 was used throughout the study. Macroscopic appearances of signs and symptoms of leaf and nut blight disease from the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) were captured with ...

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Desflurane versus Sevoflurane in Pediatric Anesthesia

28 Mar 2018

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Abstract Objectives: Meta analysis to compare the effect of desflurane versus sevoflurane in pediatric anesthesia. Methods: Rev.Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 software were applied for the meta-analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of for relevant indexes of patients with fractures of radial head were collected and calculated in a fixed-effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) or a random-effects model (the ...

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Assembly of Functional Cellulolytic Enzymes

28 Mar 2018

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In the present study, we reported the assembly of functional cellulolytic enzymes using a synthetic, cell-surface engineered yeast consortium. Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII) and cellobiohydrolase II (CBHII) and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I (BGLI) were displayed as fusion proteins with the AGA2p C-terminus of a-agglutinin on the cell surface of the diploid yeast strain Saccharomyces. cerevisiae Y5. The immobilization of each enzyme on the cell surface ...

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Antiviral Activity of Camelthor’s Methanolic Extract

27 Mar 2018

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Study of antiviral activity of Camelthor’s methanolic extract on FMD virus in cell culture   Abstract: Foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, that has adverse economic impacts. Due to the high prevalence of viral infections and having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study ...

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control

27 Mar 2018

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Cellular Metabolism and the Immune Response Control PRESTES, A. F. R. O.1; KONDO, F. V.2; HUETE, G. C.3; MURILLO, O.4   Keywords: mTOR, metabolism, Akt, immune system, regulation, mitochondria, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory I. Introduction Metabolism and immune system: The metabolic system was seen only as a system of power generation and metabolites for the functioning of cells. Today we know that changes in metabolic regulation may ...

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Endothelial Dysfunction as a Genetic Predictor

27 Mar 2018

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Investigation of endothelial dysfunction as a genetic predictor of low bone mass and cognitive decline in postmenopausal females Postmenopausal health has emerged as an important public health concern in India. During postmenopause, abrupt hormone and endocrine changes occur, which impact on the physiology and as a result, body becomes vulnerable to several health problems including osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cognitive impairment. Clinically, it is evident ...

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Research Advance: Wnt Signaling Pathway in Tooth Development

27 Mar 2018

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Yu Jian [Abstract] Tooth development begins with reciprocal signaling interactions between the neural-crest-derived ectoderm epithelium and the ectomesenchyme cells. In recent two decades, a mass of signaling molecules and transcription factors which are crucial for these processes have been confirmed, among which Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of embryo tooth development. This article reviews the research advance on the ...

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Anatomical Studies of Medicinal Taxon Ajuga orientalis L.

27 Mar 2018

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The anatomical studies of medicinal taxon Ajuga orientalis L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey Abstract. Ajuga orientalis[a1], with a wide distribution area in Turkey, is traditionally used medicine in the treatment of some skin diseases in Anatolia. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical characteristics of the root[a2], leaf, petiole, calyx and corolla of medicinal taxon [a3]A. orientalis in cross sections. As a result of ...

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Transcript Expression Level of White Kelampayan

27 Mar 2018

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Functional Annotation and Transcript Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data (via NGS) from White Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) using bioinformatics approach Lim Leong Rui   Table of Contents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABI/SOLiD Applied Biosystems/Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid CHIP-Seq Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing ...

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Tomato Growth, Ripening and Postharvest Physiology

27 Mar 2018

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2.1 DEVELOPMENT Fruit anatomy moves our opinion of fruit quality. The generic term “fruit” covers a expansive range of structures, supporting and protecting the seeds, but where the diverse parts have evolved from the original fertilized flower in assorted characteristic ways. The development process of fruits can be divided into the following stages: Cell Division Cell Expansion Maturation Ripening Senescence During the early stages of ...

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Advances in Genetic Data and Genome Sequencing

27 Mar 2018

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Bio-resource refers to the total biological variation manifested as individual plants, animals or their genes, which could be utilized as drugs, food or feed, etc., along with the development of improved crops and animals for higher yield and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Man depends on these bio-resources for his continued existence and, therefore, he must use and preserve them for future generations (Sayers et ...

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Types of Leadership Styles

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Leadership is a complex and diverse place of knowledge and it transforms potential into reality. (J Antonakis, etal, 2004) According to author being a leader changes everything. It's all about contribution, performance and success. This essay describe about the leadership and the styles of leadership. Firstly the author will give the explanation of leadership with different definitions. Secondly the author will explain the styles of ...

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Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action

27 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents (Jump to) 1. Goal 2. Aims and Objectives 3. Background 4. Methadone Pharmacology and Its Mechanism of Action 4.1 Methadone History & Background 4.2 Benefits of Methadone 4.3 Deaths Involving Methadone 4.4 Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Methadone 4.4 Cytochrome P450 4.5 Cytochrome P450 Polymorphism and Adverse Drug Reactions   1. Goal Methadone is the most common and widely used drug for the opioid ...

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Streptozotocin (STZ) Induced Diabetes Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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MATERIALS AND METHODS   3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Animal Selection and Care STZ induced diabetes are commonly performed in Male Wistar Kyoto rats. In these models, male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age (200–300 g) are selected from animal supply facility of SGPGIMS Lucknow, and house in a 12-h light, 12-h dark cycle environment, temperature 25°C, with standard rat diet and water in metabolic ...

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Types of Nasal Surgeries and Procedures

27 Mar 2018

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Neurocranial restructuring Neurocranial restructuring is the relaxation of neuro tissues to relieve tension and return the skull's structure to its naturally designed appearance. Neurocranial restructuring has been successfully used for many years to relieve a variety of serious conditions as well as being used as a non invasive alternative to cosmetic therapy. The methods of actually engaging in Neurocranial restructuring vary depending on the nature of ...

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Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

27 Mar 2018

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Reactive Oxygen Species Ever since the introduction of oxygen by the oxygen releasing photosynthetic organisms Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been the unwelcomed guests of aerobic life (Halliwell, 2006). Being a free radical molecular oxygen contains two unpaired electrons sharing same spin quantum number that makes it preferable to accept electrons, generating the so called Reactive oxygen species. Most dominating ROS include Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Hydroxyl ...

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Growth Characteristics of Bacteriophage

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 4 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIOPHAGE INFECTING AQUACULTURE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS 4.1 Introduction Bacteriophage are naturally occurring viruses that predated on bacteria (Clokie et al., 2011). They self-replicate exponentially and leave the commensal flora unaffected makes them useful for industrial application (Tsonos et al., 2014). However, the high number of bacteriophage in environment (Clokie et al., 2011) provide the challenges to the discovery of the most effective phage ...

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Bacterial Transformation of E-Coli

27 Mar 2018

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Bacterial Transformation Guiadem Ntoukam   Abstract: In biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct intake of the genetic material called DNA. Bacterial transformation is a really easy way to transform due to the fact that it is single- cell. In this lab experiment, E. coli bacteria is used because it is singled-cell. The pGLO plasmid will be inserted ...

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Pegylation: Properties and Cytokines

27 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION: 1.1 What is Pegylation? The process of covalent attachment of the non-toxic, hydrophilic polymer chain of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another molecule, a drug or therapeutic protein is called as Pegylation [1]. Pegylation was first carried out in 1970s by Davies and Abuchowski for the modification of catalase and albumin [2]. Since then, Pegylation is widely and tremendously developed. Nowadays, pegylated proteins make ...

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Heavy Metal Concentration in Oyster Tissues

27 Mar 2018

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Discussion As summarised in the above chapter, a wide variation of heavy metal concentration(Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Co) in oyster tissues such as gills, muscle, shell and remaining soft tissue, sediment and seawater have been observed at the studied coastal areas. Therefore the main aim of this chapter is to establish relationship between heavy metal concentration in the oyster tissues namely gills, muscle ,shells ...

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Production of Pure Lipases

27 Mar 2018

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Most Rhizopus lipases described in the literature are produced by their host cells in very small amounts, which is not suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Another drawback of working with native microorganisms is that Rhizopus sp. usually produces different isolipases with different biocatalytic properties, which complicates biocatalytic application with unwanted side effects caused by unrelated enzymes (67). Thus, in order to implement more industrial lipase applications, ...

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Genetic Engineering: Nutritional Grain Traits in Rice

27 Mar 2018

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Genetic engineering, an alternative approach to enhance nutritional values by transgenic has been considered to be the potential tool for the sustainable and an efficient strategy for increasing the nutritional quality traits in target area of plants (Lucca et al. 2001; Zimmermann and Hurrell 2002; Holm et al. 2002). Genetic engineering flavors transferring of desired genes precisely between interspecies/ intregeneric into the target area, there by ...

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Obtaining DNA Polymerase with Proofreading Ability

27 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 1.0 : INTRODUCTION Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is widely used in biotechnology and molecular biology for various studies including genetic research and molecular studies. It is a technique developed by Kary Mullis where he was thinking about his DNA sequence experiment before this technique came into his mind (Mullis 1990). Soon, various techniques such as qPCR, RT-PCR, nested PCR and so on were being introduced. ...

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Subunit Structure of Dihydrolipoyl Transacetylase

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction In the present study, the authors of this paper mainly used limited tryptic proteolysis to explore and probe the subunit structure of dihydrolipoyl transacetylase of bovine heart. The results of the paper have demonstrated that the subunit of bovine heart dihydrolipoyl transacetylase consists of two different folding domains designated the subunit-binding domain(Mr≈26,000) and the lipoyl domain(Mr≈28,600), respectively. They also concluded that the compact subunit-binding domain ...

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Enzyme Kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase

27 Mar 2018

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David Romero Perez Enzyme kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase and its behaviour in the presence of Edrophonium. Abstract The aim of the present study was to test the effects of edrophonium on the enzyme kinetics of acetylcholinesterase. The use of s-acetylthiocholine as a substrate with its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase and the later reaction into a coloured product, allowed the utilization of colorimetric technique in conjunction with ...

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Growth of Microbes Using Hay Infusion Experiment

27 Mar 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Lab # 6 Hay Infusion Introduction: The micro organisms grow in everywhere on the earth. They can be found in the air, water, and the earth's surface. They need only the growing factors. Growth factors are varying from microbes. Most of the bacteria grow in the environment with the moderate temperature, neutral pH, and the sufficient O2 supply. Some of them ...

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Signatures for Adaptive Traits in Chicken

27 Mar 2018

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IN SILICO ANALYSIS OF SIGNATURES FOR ADAPTIVE TRAITS IN CHICKEN (Gallus domesticus)   Sigei Chepkorir Caroline ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS QTL Quantitative Trait Locus WHO World Health Organization KNBS Kenya National Bureau of Statistics GDP Gross Domestic Product MLD Ministry of Livestock Development CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background Information The indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus) is a type of bird that is widely domesticated across ...

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Drosophila Melanogaster Eyes and Wings Genetics

27 Mar 2018

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Preyash Patel Steve Hoang Introduction: The experiment conducted used drosophila or fruit flies to test certain crosses such as a sepia female drosophila x wild male drosophila, a white female drosophila x wild male drosophila, and red/vestigial female drosophila x sepia/normal male drosophila. They are easy and inexpensive to maintain and can also be easily examined (“Drosophila melanogaster"). In addition, drosophila has ...

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Importance of Rural Production Technology of BGA

27 Mar 2018

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BGA are a large and morphologically diverse group of phototrophic prokaryotes, which occur in almost every habitat on earth. This versatility may explain the remarkable lack of morphological (and presumably physiological) change seen in 3.5-billion-year-old fossilized cyanobacteria and their modern day counterparts(Adams, 2000). Total energy required for the production of global ammonium fertilizers is equivalent to 2 million barrels of oil per day. The energy crisis ...

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Analysis of GC-MS Rice Metabolomics Data

27 Mar 2018

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Integratedion pathway-based and network-based analysis of GC-MS Rice metabolomics data under Diazinon Stress with Metaboanalyst and Metabolic Networks Reveals Reporter Reactions Vahideh Mahdavi, Zhaleh Hosseini, Sayed-Amir Marashi, Alireza Ghassempour Abstract Diazinon insecticide is widely applied throghout rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Iran. However, concerns are now being raised about its potential adverse impacts on rice fields. In this study, a time-course metabolic change in rice ...

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Evaluating Anticancer Drug Efficacy With Biochemical Pathway

27 Mar 2018

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A Novel approach to evaluating anticancer drug efficacy based on biochemical pathway network Abstract and Keywords Abstract As cancer is a complex disease, recent cancer research is increasingly carried out as systems-level. And this conducts novel polypharmacological strategies to evaluate anticancer drugs which will alter the entire pathway network rather than inhibit or activate single target. In current work, a novel approach was developed by integrating ...

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DNA Protein Cross-links in Human Saliva

27 Mar 2018

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Reproducibility and sensitivity issues of K-SDS assay-inter specific cohort studies Suresh P.K[1]., Amrutha Kalyansunder*., Munmun Saha* Abstract— A covalent bonding between a protein moiety and DNA molecule forms a DNA protein crosslink (DPC). Previous work on DPC’s has attempted to identify the specific proteins and create optimized techniques for their isolation to use in proteomic studies. Our experiment involves reproducing the K-SDS assay for DPC determination ...

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Bacterial α Amylase Production

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction Starch is the primary repository of carbohydrates in evolved plants [1]. It is not only the prime form of a dietary sugar storage molecule but has extensive industrial applications in the manufacturing of packaging substances to the synthesis of alcohol [1]. The enzyme alpha amylase has the ability to degrade starch to simpler sugars with reducing ends [2]. They are termed as endohydrolases as they ...

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Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles

27 Mar 2018

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1. Introduction 1.1 The advance of nanoparticles The synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (F e3O4) has been put on with their enormous interest for a very long time. It is especially because of their tremendous technological applications in the pattern of ferrofluids. The ferrofluid is a kind of gluey suspension of fairish oiled magnetite particles in type of liquid medium having abnormal properties as a result of ...

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Regulatory Roles of Cellular Proteins

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction The degradation of proteins is an essential cellular process mainly mediated by the action of either the lysosome or the proteasome. The UPS (ubiquitin-proteasome system) consist of two separate processes in which first, ubiquitin, a small highly conserved protein is conjugated in a tri-enzyme (E1-E3) cascade to a lysine residue of the substrate, whereby the last step can be carried out by two mechanisms. While ...

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Debates on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

27 Mar 2018

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Leif Swan Kisha Hawkins-Sledge The debate of whether genetically modified foods are helpful or harmful has been getting more and more intense. GMO's were touted as essential product in feeding the world but Genetically Modified Organisms and crops are a controversial topic and the world is still hungry. GMO's have not been around long enough, and there is not enough research on the long-term ...

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Structure of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

27 Mar 2018

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Cardiovascular system component Structure Function (s) Heart Figure 1: Internal view of the heart Valves Atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid valves) - separate ventricles from atria Aortic valve - divide left ventricle + aorta Pulmonary valve - separates right ventricle + pulmonary artery One directional blood flow: -Atrioventricular: stop ...

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Prioritising Drug Targets for Antimalarial Drugs

27 Mar 2018

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Shi Ruifei Introduction Plasmodium is a single-celled amoeba which can cause malaria. In mosquitoes’ and human liver and blood, they represent in several different shapes and sizes for the sake of escaping from the attack of immune system. There is no symptom when Plasmodium in human liver, they start to thrive after entering the red blood cells then severely result in the break of red blood cells, ...

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Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) Treatment

27 Mar 2018

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EPIDEMIOLOGY There has been a surge in the number of EPTB cases in recent times (2). Share of EPTB as a proportion of total number tuberculosis [TB] cases in USA has increased from 7.6 in 1962 to 15.7% in 1993, and to 21.0% in 2006 (3-5). Bone and joint tuberculosis accounted for 5337 (11%) cases out of a total of 47,293 cases of EPTB reported in ...

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Issues with Modern Day Meat Production

27 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Modern day meat inspection currently in a practice in many developed countries has its roots back in late eighteenth century. It was developed to check out various pathogenic and transmissible diseases which were prevalent in Europe at that time (Blackmore, 1986). This meat inspection practice formed a base for the eradication of various diseases like tuberculosis during 1960’s resulting in drastic improvement in ...

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Amyloid-b Peptide Production: Alpha Secretase

27 Mar 2018

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Ab is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of APP by a group of enzymes known as secretases [Esler and Wolfe, 2001; Samabamurti et al., 2002]. APP is processed by alternative proteolytic pathways that generate different breakdown products. In the secretory pathway, at least three different secretases appear to be active. The majority of APP is cleaved at Ab16 by ‘‘a-secretase’’ to generate soluble amino-terminal derivatives of APP (sAPPa). This cleavage bisects the Ab peptide and ...

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Mutant Virus Research Dilemma

27 Mar 2018

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Harsh Patel Introduction Avian influenza (AI), also known as Bird Flu, is an infectious disease caused by various strains of AI virus. It majorly affects wild water fowl for example geese and ducks, however it can cause large-scale outbreak among domestic poultry resulting into significant economic loss1. Majority of AI viruses do not cross the species barrier and infect humans, nonetheless, two strains – ...

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Agarwood: Diseases, Applications and History

26 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 History Agarwood, or locally known as gaharu is the world’s most high-priced agro-product from karas trees. The tree is suitable for cultivations in almost all agro-climatic conditions, especially for the climate in and around mountain area. Its cultivation is an amazement in each and every condition right from the less expenses, no maintenance costly, non-labour oriented with high returns and huge global ...

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Microbial Spoilage and Hazards in Cereals and Cereal Product

26 Mar 2018

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Name: Goh JiaYeen 1.0Introduction Cereals, belonging to the Gramineae or the grass family, are the basic carbohydrates sources for the human population (Adams & Moss, 2008; Swanson, 2011). Currently, the most important cereal crops supplying the nutrients for a large proportion of people in the world are rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), and maize (Zea mays), as stated by Adams and Moss (2008) and Harris ...

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Mutagenesis and Its Effects on Crops

23 Mar 2018

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Mutagenesis is the change in genetic information of organism by use of different mutagens like physical or chemical mutagens. Or Mutagenesis is the process in which mutations are induced. Mutations can be occur due to exposure of natural mutagens e.g uv light. Mutagenesis is important because it tells about genetic mechanisms of heredity and gene expression. Protein functioning is also studied by mutations. Mutagenesis term is ...

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Risk Factors and Treatments for Diabetes

23 Mar 2018

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A healthy diet may improve or maintain an optimal health by eating a good and proper meal and apply a balanced diet in daily lifestyle. Without a healthy diet, there is no meaning for a healthy lifestyle and it can cause so many diseases that related to diet such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dental disease, osteoporosis, bone fracture and cancer. If we never take a ...

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Antiaging Compounds and Plant Extracts

23 Mar 2018

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Chapter one Introduction Introduction Aging is a progressive decline in the function and a decrease in the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis, it is associated with multiple physiological and pathological changes including formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and free radicals damage leading to impairment of cell organelle's function and an increase in the susceptibility to disease of organ (Nanda et al., 2010; Dammann et ...

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Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces on Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

23 Mar 2018

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Effect of Virchow –Robin Spaces in Early Diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis patients. A Case – Control Study in a Chinese ethenic Group. MD Eqbal Ahmad. Prof. Li Yong Mei.   Key Words:- Magnetic resonance imaging. Multiple sclerosis. Virchow –Robin space .Chinese . Abbreviation:- MS= Multiple sclerosis; VRS= Virchow robin space; CSF= Cerebro spinal fluid; FLAIR=Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; ABSTRACT:- Background: Virchow-Robin space (VRS) are pia-lined extensions ...

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Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells

23 Mar 2018

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Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism analysis on the Inhibition of Dacarbazine on Melanoma Stem Cells Proliferation in vitro Abstract Melanoma is a growing interest over the past decades and a very difficult obstacle which is needed to be overcome because of its malignant and poor outcome. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dacarbazine (DTIC) on melanoma stem cells regression and subsequent tumor recurrence. Both ...

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Bruchid Pest Management in Pulses: Past, Present & Future

23 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Pulses are the highly nutritious seeds, belong to the family Fabaceae (formerly named as Leguminosae), which usually covers all legumes grown for their dried seeds (COPR, 1981). This inhabit an indispensable position in human nutrition not only because of its rich source of high quality protein, but also for its dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch, complex of vitamins and minerals such as folate, potassium, ...

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Developing Visual Data on PCNA Markers

22 Mar 2018

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  Detection of proliferating cell population in intestinal, liver and brain tissues by way of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and use of diaminobenzidine (DAB). Lewis Buchan Introduction and Aims Immunohistochemistry as with immunocytochemistry is a visual aid in the clinical or research examination of cell growth, disease and therapy response by variation in cell protein changes (Hannon-Fletcher and Maxwell, 2009). Identification of proliferating cells without ...

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Gastric Cancer in Mice

22 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION: While incidences of stomach cancer have decreased over the past several decades, the disease remains an important public health problem. A variety of experimental animal models have been established in order to recognize pathological and molecular biochemical mechanisms (TetsuyaTsukamoto, 2007). As a result, experimental efforts have focused on identifying chemical, infectious or genetic means to induce gastric cancer in animals (Yoku Hayakawa2013). Still, most inbred ...

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Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

22 Mar 2018

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Definition and characterization of Endothelial progenitor cells Introduction Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first isolated from human peripheral blood by Asahara et al. in 1997. These were described as a population of circulating cells which displayed properties of both endothelial cells and progenitor cells. (Asahara et al., 1997; Asahara et al., 1999) Accumulating data suggests that these circulating cells play a role in new ...

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Effect of RF-EMF on Growth of Lepidium Sativum

22 Mar 2018

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Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Question: 1.2 The Original Experiment 1.3 The Everyday Significance of RF-EMF and Wi-Fi 1.4 Lepidium sativum 1.5 Pilot Study CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 Aim of Investigation 2.2 Hypothesis 2.3 Variables 2.3.1 Constant 2.3.2 Manipulative 2.3.3 Responding 2.4 Materials 2.5 Procedures 2.5.1 Set-up procedures 2.5.2 Maintenance procedures 2.5.3 Data collection procedures and sampling methods Data Collection Analysis of Data ...

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Effect of Stress on Different Personality Pulse Rates

22 Mar 2018

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Louise Rich   Title Does mild stress have a significant effect on the pulse rate of type A personalities when compared to type B’s? Contents   Summary To be completed at the end Introduction When the body encounters stress the brain produces stress responses which are managed by the hypothalamus. Stress can have a negative physiological effect on the body, including a rise in ...

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Production of Callus From Coffea Arabica

22 Mar 2018

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Materials and Methods Somatic embryogenesis There are two types of somatic embryogenesis: direct embryogenesis or indirect embryogenesis. According to Carneiro (1999), direct embryogenesis or known as low frequency of somatic embryogenesis (LFSE) uses only one medium without producing callus and there will be less number of somatic embryos obtained. However, the indirect embryogenesis or high frequency of somatic embryogenesis (HFSE) uses two media (Carneiro, 1999). The ...

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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organisms

22 Mar 2018

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Question 1 Part A Bacteria are prokaryotes. They are single celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. The size ranges from 10 to 100 micrometres long from looking at them on a microscopic level. The bacteria can have a number of shapes that determine what it look like, its three shapes include; cocci, rods and spirilla. The cocci being a round shape of ...

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Effects of Cor and US on Taxol Production of Taxus x Media

22 Mar 2018

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SUMMARY OF PROPOSED RESEARCH INCLUDING KEY GOALS For scientifically qualified assessors: Taxol is a natural diterpenoid alkaloid first isolated from the inner bark of pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia (Wani et al., 1971) and widely use in the pharmaceutical industry as the antitumor agents. However, low taxol content, high cost of extraction and the destruction of yew trees spark a major environmental controversy and cause ...

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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of α-glucosidase

22 Mar 2018

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Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of an α-glucosidase (MalA) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi Mara Cuebas-Irizarry1*, Ricardo Irizarry-Caro1*, Carol López-Morales, Keyla Badillo-Flores2, and Rafael Montalvo-Rodríguez1§   Abstract Alpha-glucosidases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing nonreducing terminal 1,4-linked D glucose residues. α-Glucosidases (EC. 3.2.1.20) constitute a widespread group of exo-acting glucoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of α-D-glucose from the non reducing ends of various α-linked substrates (Alarico et al., ...

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Hydrolysis on Reducing Capacity of Whey Protein Hydrolysate

21 Mar 2018

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Abstract The main objective of the present study was to optimize the operation conditions including pH, temperature and enzyme substrate ratio for the sequential action of pepsin and trypsin to hydrolyses whey protein isolate at the substrate concentration containing 8 per cent of protein content and investigate the effect of hydrolysis on reducing capacity of whey protein hydrolysate as compared to that of whey protein isolate. ...

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Experiment on the Functions of Antibodies

21 Mar 2018

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James King Practical Report: Heamagglutination Introduction: Many important assays are based around an antibodies ability to its antigen and cause a change in its physical state which is more often than not visible by eye. One example of this is agglutination, this often occurs when the antibody binds to the antigen which is displayed on the surface of a large particle such as ...

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Analysis of Aspergillus Fungi

21 Mar 2018

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Micheli in 1729 named one of the oldest genera of fungi as Aspergillus. Micheli, while viewing the spore bearing structure of Aspergillus under the microscope, was reminded of the device used to sprinkle holy water by the Roman Catholic clergy as part of a liturgy called as asperges (Ainsworth, 1976). Many mycologists and industrial microbiologists were attracted to study about Aspergillus not because of their occurrence ...

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