ALT Associated Mutations in Histone H3, ATRX and DAXX

11 Apr 2018

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Besides the contribution of DNA sequence and the state of shelterin binding in telomeric recombination and ALT activity, telomere architecture, and specially histone modifications, are responsible for some phenotypic characteristics of ALT. Recent studies of ALT tumors correlate telomere maintenance mechanism of ALT with activity of the complex ATRX/DAXX. ATRX and DAXX form a chromatin remodeling complex that moderates chromatin changes. ATRX is responsible for encoding ...

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Impact of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Fertilization Rate

10 Apr 2018

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The influence of human sperm DNA fragmentation on the rate of fertilization and sperm nuclear condensation after in vitro maturation of oocyte in stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles ABSRACT Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on the fertilization rate and sperm nuclear decondensation after introcytoplasmic injection of sperm (ICSI) into cumulus-free germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from ...

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Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) Abuse

09 Apr 2018

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Deborah Crim A. Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) Abuse B. Article 1 Analysis: Article Title Behavioral sensitization to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ecstasy) is long lasting and modulated by the context of drug administration (Ball, Klein, Plocinski, & Slack, 2012) The research method used in this article. The research method used consisted of 64 adult Sprague-Dawley rats which each rats weighing ...

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Bacterial Plasmid Transformation and Isolation

02 Apr 2018

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INTRODUCTION Preparation of competent E. coli by Inoue method Competent cell refers to cells with capability of taking up extracellular genetic material. Chemically competent cells treated with buffer consisting calcium chloride (CaCl2) and other salts will disrupt the cell membrane, forming ‘holes’ allowing exogenous plasmids to enter the cell (Sigma, 2006). Competent cells are commonly produced chemically as they are less costly than electrocompetent cells. It ...

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Characteristics of Plasmids and Bacteria

02 Apr 2018

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Bor Shin Chee Plasmids Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements which retain important proportion of overall genome and gene that necessary for the growth of the cell. Plasmids usually are circular but some are linear, they have supercoiling DNA structure which undergoes the process of under-winding of DNA strands in order to compact DNA molecules. Moreover, plasmids can also be classified into two groups: low ...

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Receptor Activator of NK-κB for Tumor Cells

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction Cancers figure among the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012 .Lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 within the next two decades Over the past several years, proteolytic cleavage and release of the ectodomain of membrane-bound ...

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Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Antigens Identification

02 Apr 2018

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Metods: study design: The present study consists of two parts. In the first part, analysis and database search were performed to find a conserved and specific regions of HCMV genome leading to selection of immunogenic and proper region expressed in several species of CMV. The second part consists of various analyses of the selective gene such as epitope mapping, secondary and tertiary ...

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Magnetoreception Research: Authors and Applications

02 Apr 2018

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Species Selection Authors Following a thorough journal trawl, it is revealed who are the major contributors to magnetoreception research, many of which are specialised in a certain group of vertebrate. Wiltschko and Wiltschko (1999) for example, are key providers of magnetoreceptor information in homing pigeons and European robins, Lohmann and Lohmann (1994) for loggerhead sea turtles and Phillips (1986) for eastern newts. These publishers, among others, ...

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Flow Cytometry and Cancer Cells

02 Apr 2018

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Flow cytometry is a laser based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. When sample solution is injected into a flow cytometer, the particles are randomly distributed. The sample is ordered into a single particle stream then can be interrogated by the machine’s detection system. After ...

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Detection of Fungal Infections in Plants

02 Apr 2018

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Histopathological Technique for Detection of Fungal Infections in Plants Vijai Kumar Gupta and Brejesh Kumar Pandey Abstract Microscopic examination of the interaction between pathogenic fungi and their host plants has been instrumental in deciphering the biology of this relationship and can serve as a useful diagnostic tool. In this chapter, we describe the technique of fixing fungal infections of plant samplings for histopathological experiments. ...

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Theories of Sexual Selection in Animals

02 Apr 2018

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1. Introduction. It was more than 100 years ago that Charles Darwin formulated his ideas on sexual selection in The Descent of Man and Selection with regard to Sex (Darwin, 1871). He noticed that animals frequently possessed exaggerated traits which appeared detrimental to their survival, such as the large and decorative train of a peacock and bright plumage colors in many other birds. He recognized that ...

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Effects of Water Restriction on Plants

02 Apr 2018

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Brodie Smart   Background: Plants need water to sustain life and vitality and to maintain turgor pressure, therefore vast amounts of water pass through plants. However, 99% of it evaporates from the leaves and is lost into the atmosphere. The remaining 1% of water is actually used for growth (http://academic.evergreen.edu, 2015). The movement of water through a plant can be spilt into three sections: ...

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Prey Optimization in Patchy Environments

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction All animal classes exploit resources that are dispersed in distinct areas of the environment and therefore we should expect natural selection to favour individuals that utilize these sporadically-distributed reserves most proficiently. Put in perspective, optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals should improve their patch staying-time so they can maximize the rate at which resources are found and captured (Stephens and Krebs 1986; Henneman 1998). ...

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Principles of DNA Preparation and Polymerase Chain Reaction

02 Apr 2018

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Shathurdekah Siwasubramaniam   Download from Moodle and print a picture of your gel (nobody else’s). Attach this to your write-up. If your gel shows clear documentation of each of your DNA preparations you should use this in the subsequent analysis. If (and only if) your experiments have not worked, you should use the specimen gel provided on Moodle. Measure the distance migrated from the ...

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Antibacterial Properties of Compounds From S. Frutescens

02 Apr 2018

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Kabir Prema Introduction Rationale There are approximately 6.1 million people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in South Africa (Unaids.org, 2014). People with HIV/Aids have a higher risk of getting secondary infections and diseases such as Tuberculosis, which is the cause of many deaths in South Africa (Tbfacts.org, 2014). About 5.5 million people in South Africa are infected with ...

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Nutrition and the Digestive System

02 Apr 2018

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Problem 3. Define nutrition and state its importance http://voices.yahoo.com/nutrition-its-importance-human-health-2453908.html?cat=5 Nutrition is the source of minerals and vitamins found in food that is needed by organisms to ensure their healthy growth and survival. A variety of nutrients are needed to ensure that the components of the body i.e., its cells, tissues and organs are healthy. If the body is without the sufficient supply of nutrients ...

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Astaxanthin Production in Tobacco Chloroplasts

02 Apr 2018

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METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCTION IN TOBACCO CHLOROPLASTS The Plant Journal 55, 857–868 Tomohisa Hasunuma, Shin-Ichi Miyazawa, Satomi Yoshimura, Yuki Shinzaki, Ken-Ichi Tomizawa, Kazutoshi Shindo, Seon-Kang Choi, Norihiko Misawa and Chikahiro Miyake.(2008). Introduction Astaxanthin (C40H52O4) is a carotein pigment and a fat soluable nutrient about 596.8 Dalton (Fig.1 and 2). The extended chain of conjugated (alternating double and single) double bonds is responsible for its red ...

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Causes of Pleomorphisim

02 Apr 2018

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3.0 Introduction Arenaviruses have been shown to be rodent-borne agents of various diseases, which include the potentially lethal human hemorrhagic fevers (238). From Chapter 1, it was revealed that the arenaviruses have an enveloped, encapsidate, bisegmented ambisense single-stranded RNA genome, that can be packaged in variable copy numbers (106). The electron cryomicroscopy and image analysis of New World Pichinde and Tacaribe arenaviruses and Old World lymphocytic ...

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Neurogenesis Genes and Mechanisms

02 Apr 2018

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In vertebrates and insects, the prospective ectoderm is subdivided into a neurogenic and a non-neurogenic portion by the antagonistic activity of homologous secreted molecules decapentaplegic/BMP-4 and short gastrulation/chordin [1]. The neurogenic ectoderm, composed initially of proliferative cells, give rise to neural progenitor cells, most of these being multipotential. In order to acquire their specificity, these cells go through a complex and tightly regulated set of events. ...

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How to Write a Biology Dissertation

02 Apr 2018

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A biology dissertation is a document designed to demonstrate a candidate’s ability to investigate, document, analyse and present the findings of a biological investigation. The final report, or dissertation, must be written in a coherent and logical manner with all arguments backed up by valid findings from the author’s own work, or by reference to other, peer reviewed, academic publications. In general, biology dissertations are laid ...

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Classifications of Disease Types

02 Apr 2018

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Hibban Zaffar Classifying diseases A disease is the modification of the structure and function where it affects the body from working normally in the body’s system. The characteristics of a disease can be shown from particular signs and symptoms. These diseases are classified into different types. Acquired disease: This is where the disease is not present from birth therefore it is not inherited. These ...

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Microbiological Quality of Different Yogurt Brands

02 Apr 2018

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Andrea Roberta Martinez Zepeda   Which yogurt brand consumed in Nicaragua is healthier for the human body? Introduction: Believing that we are germ-free is an antiquate way of thinking. When you ask someone if they are free from germs one out of four people will answer yes.[1]Truth is that out body contains more than ten trillion germs in our intestinal tracks. There are more than 500 ...

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Effects of Iron Glycine Chelate (Fe-Gly) on Broilers

02 Apr 2018

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Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, immune organ indexes, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial broilers were randomly allotted to eight dietary treatment groups with six replications of ten chicks per replicate. Broilers were fed a control diet with 120mg/kg FeSO4, while seven other treatment ...

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Antioxidant Activity of Different Indian Green Teas

02 Apr 2018

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SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INDIAN GREEN TEAS FOR THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Rashmita Pradhan, Debika Chakraborty, Reshma Priti Ekka and Podili Koteswaraiah   ABSTRACT Three varieties of green tea grown in different regions of India (Darjeeling, Nilgiri and Assam) along with Tulsi green tea (TGT) and Jasmine green tea JGT) were screened for antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were extracted using methanol and the total phenolics ...

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Effects of Soy Products on Cancer

02 Apr 2018

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Jessica Chen Soy Products and Cancer What we eat everyday poses a threat in some shape whether it be sweets, salty foods, or soy products. The latest trend right now is to consume soy produce to reduce weight and become animal conservatives. Soy products are very popular because people who have allergies or people who are vegetarian/vegan have an alternative to get daily intake ...

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Escherichia coli O157:H7 Protection by Bifidobacterium

02 Apr 2018

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Protection from Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection by Bifidobacterium Bifidobacteria: an important member of the gut microbiota The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited along all its length by a diverse microbial ecosystem formed by around 1 x 1014 colony forming units of bacteria from more than 1000 different species which belong to about 190 genera. The predominant genera of those 190 are Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, ...

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UV Light and Cisplatin Induced DNA Damage Response

02 Apr 2018

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Simiao Lyu Abstract One of the essential function of an organism is to maintain its genome integrity, in order to survive and pass on its genetic materials to the next generation. However, as the carrier of genomic information, DNA is constantly being damaged by exogenous and endogenous factors. Therefore, through evolution, a variety of mechanisms that counter the effect of DNA damage emerged. In ...

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Polyphenolic-rich Maple Syrup Extract Applications

02 Apr 2018

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Polyphenolic-rich Maple syrup extract can be used as anti-bacterial agent to mitigate multidrug resistance, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in different pathogenic bacteria. The synergistic combination of antibiotic and polyphenolic-rich maple syrup extract might have potential to treat urinary tract infections and other chronic infections. This maple syrup extract can be potentially used as natural and safe antimicrobial treatments, combinatorial therapy with existing antibiotics, in ...

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Report on Inherited Disease and Pre-natal Investigations

02 Apr 2018

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Hemma Summan Part One: Guthrie Test What is PKU and biopterin deficiency? Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease; it is an extremely common inborn defect of amino acid metabolism. Insufficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) prejudices the body’s capability to metabolise phenylalanine: consequently accumulation of phenylalanine in tissues, plasma and urine is characterised resulting in hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA). Over 500 genetic mutations in ...

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Causes and Effects of Unhealthy Blood in the Human Body

02 Apr 2018

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Explain the causes and effects of unhealthy blood in the human body The blood is composed by red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes), suspended in a pale yellow fluid as known as plasma (Titmuss, 1970 and Pallister and Watson, 2011). In the initial of the 20th century, Karl Landsteiner, a scientist in Vienna, “took red cells suspensions and serum from six men in ...

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Significance of Bleeding on Probing During Periodontal Exam

02 Apr 2018

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Chuen Lin Hong ­­­­Discuss the significance of bleeding on probing during your periodontal examination. A thorough periodontal examination is an integral component of clinical examination. It encompasses periodontal diagnostic parameters such as probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and suppuration. For the purpose of this essay, the diagnostic value of BOP will be focused upon. Before delving into this, ...

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Homoeopathic Medicines Against Fruit Rot of Apple

02 Apr 2018

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Application of certain homoeopathic medicines used against fruit rot of apple caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Baviskar RN and Suryawanshi NS   ABSTRACT Blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important serious destructive post harvest disease in India. Twenty three isolates of Penicillium expansum were isolated from rotted fruits of apple collected from APMC fruit market of Vashi, Navi Mumbai. Their ...

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Microenvironment of a Cardiac Tissue

02 Apr 2018

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NEHAL PATEL Engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro through the micropatterning approach Introduction In the United States, each year 600,000 people die from some form of a cardiovascular disease [ref]. Due to heart’s limited ability to regenerate and complications from organ transplants, there is a strong rationale to find an alternative solution to treat heart injuries. Tissue engineering aims to repair and restore damaged ...

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Factors that Influence Alcohol Use

02 Apr 2018

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Biological Factors Alcohol use is impacted by several genetic factors, and family histories, twins, adopted children, different racial groups and animals (Alcohol Health and Research World, 1995; Shuckit, 1999). Hereditary elements likewise seem to play a role that is associated with tobacco and different medications (Madden & Heath, 2002). Resistance and physical reliance The more utilization of alcohol can change the body’s ...

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Novel Cell and Molecular Detection Techniques Comparison

02 Apr 2018

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Paper Comparison: Shachaf C.M. et al A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs). Plos ONE. 4 1-12 (2009). Kumar.S. et al Multiplex Flow Cytometry Barcoding and Antibody Arrays Identify Surface Antigen Profiles of Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer Cell Lines. Plos ONE. 8 1-9 (2013). Soumit Saha Background On February 28, 1928, ...

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Origins, Characteristics and Future of the Coywolf

02 Apr 2018

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Joshua Homberger   Introduction A new top predator has slipped unnoticed through cities on the Eastern Seaboard (Fleming, 2013). A mammal, some scientists consider the most adaptable on Earth, a hunter, versatile enough to feast on animals ranging in size from the moose (Alces alces) to hares (Lepus). The Coywolf (Canis Latraus) was born on a thin a strip of land on the southern ...

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Transcription Section of the Central Dogma

02 Apr 2018

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Fulya TÜRKER TRANSCRIPTION: ONE OF THE KEY POINTS OF THE CENTRAL DOGMA ALTERNATIVE SPLICING It is known that the central dogma is the most important principle for an organism to carry on its lifespan. In the central dogma, there are 3 major stages: DNA replication and repair, transcription and translation. DNA replication can be simply described as the duplication of DNA. Transcription is the process of ...

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Function and Role of the Lateral Line

02 Apr 2018

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CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW The amazing ability of various blind or deep-sea fish to navigate through waters, where little or no light penetrates can be attributed to the presence of a sensory system found in fish and amphibia, which is responsible for spatial navigation, balance and even social behaviours like schooling and mate selection- the lateral line. The lateral line system, present in fish and amphibians, is ...

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Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) for Gene Studies

02 Apr 2018

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Select one publish paper in Expressed Sequence Tags and Describe the briefly methodology involved in preparing an EST database. Explain how this method can be used to discover new genes. NUR EZZATI BINTI HAMDIN   Based on the Plant Biology Journal entitled “Gene discovery in the wood-forming tissues of poplar: Analysis of 5,692 expressed sequence tags”, by Sterky et al., 1998, expressed sequence tags ...

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Analysis of T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin 1 Gene -416G

02 Apr 2018

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Association analysis of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin 1 gene -416G > C polymorphism with asthma in center of Iran. Background TIM1, One of the gene family members of T cell immunoglobulin (Ig) domain and mucin domain (TIM) expressing on TH2 cells, promotes producing of Th2 signiture cytokines and increases a series of responses in this cells which could be one of the causes of asthma or ...

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To What Extent Can Loss of Biodiversity Be Offset by Humans?

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction The first global conference “No Net Loss of Biodiversity Conference 2014”, on approaches to avoid, minimize, restore, and offset biodiversity loss will be held in London Jun 2014. Similar conferences were held in the past. Back in 2002, the Convention on Biological Diversity was committed to significantly reduce the biodiversity loss by 2010. Needless to say that it did not happen and also there is ...

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XRCC1 Polymorphism and SLE

02 Apr 2018

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XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg194Try Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Iranian population (a pilot study) Saeedeh Salimi, Milad Mohammadoo-khorasani, Ehsan Tabatabai, Mahnaz Sandoughi, Zahra Zakeri Corresponding Author: Milad Mohammadoo-khorasani Background & objectives: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multisystem disease that both genetic and environmental factors are effective in predisposing to SLE. DNA repair enzymes ceaselessly checked the chromosomes to correct ...

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Parts and Their Functions of Compound Light Microscope

02 Apr 2018

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1.1 Introduction:- The compound light microscope is use for anatomy and physiological uses. (Robert et al. 2007). The people observe an enlarged image of a small object by using spherical shaped glass like thing in 2000 years ago (Chen, Zheng and Liu, 2011). The scientist named Janssen and his son made a assembled cylinder by using more lenses into a cylinder in 16th century (Chen, Zheng ...

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Hydrocarbon Contamination: Causes and Effects

02 Apr 2018

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ABSTRACT One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petro chemical industry. Accidental release of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon component have been known to the family of carcinogens and neuro toxic organic pollutant currently accepted disposal method of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants ...

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Energy Cost of Reproduction Effects on Parasite Infestations

02 Apr 2018

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Oliver Lewin The energy cost of reproduction and its effects on the parasite infestations in Scyllium Canicula and Scyliorhinus stellaris   Energy consumption: Higher investment in reproduction decreases the immune defences, and conduces to the use of structural resources, which may render individuals more susceptible to some parasites. (Veiga,. Et al 1998) this is consistent with the idea that an increase in reproductive effort ...

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Experimental Design and the Importance of Controls

02 Apr 2018

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Emma Powell Were the conclusions you drew from your submitted manuscript valid? Explain your reasoning. The conclusions are invalid as there is little supporting evidence and controls are absent. There are no controls within either experiment and so the variables have not been investigated. For example, in the first experiment, without controls, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of the ...

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Questions and Answers on DNA and MRNA

02 Apr 2018

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Rumana Anam Q1. What is the full forms of the following: D.N.A Deoxyribonucleic (The Free Dictionary, 2015) MRNA Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (The Free Dictionary, 2015) TRNA Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (The Free Dictionary, 2015) Q2. Complete the following sentences The synthesis of mRNA from DNA is known as:- Transcription (The Free Dictionary, 2015) The synthesis of proteins from RNA is known as:- Protein Synthesis (The ...

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Comparison of X Chromosomes of Bovidae Animals and Humans

02 Apr 2018

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Kristy Martin   "Do you want to know the gender now, or are you keeping it a surprise?", the nurse asked. The couple shook their head and eagerly clasped hands. The nurse then responded, "It's-- a boy." The father did a victory dance, and the mother smiled. When an organism reproduces sexually, then the gender is determined by the sex chromosomes received during fertilization. ...

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Why is Mercury a Water Pollutant?

02 Apr 2018

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PARTICIPANT DETAILS MAHALI, Thobias MAHENGE, Baraka MAKALA Emmanuel S. KAPINGA, Luiza MAJANI, Ainea MALEKELA, Shauri MANGE, Rehema S. QUESTION; Mercury is considered as serious water pollutant while there are only few major sources of ...

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Biodiversity: Theory and Quantification

02 Apr 2018

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1.3.1 Biodiversity components Biodiversity includes existing species in a place, within species phenotypic and genotypic variation, and also the spatial and temporal variation in the communities and ecosystems contributed by the constituent species (Tilman 2001). Quantifying such a broad concept that includes diversity from gene to ecosystem level has proven to be a quite difficult task. To bypass such unusual situation, ecologists have divided ‘biodiversity’ into ...

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Rhizoremediation of Lead Using Alternanthera Versicolor

02 Apr 2018

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Shalini S., Priyasha G., Sohini B. and Jabez Osborne W*   Abstract: Anthropogenic development has been a major drawback due to the increased discharge of heavy metals into the environment containing the saturated and unsaturated zones of soil. Heavy metals are those which have density more than 5gram per cm cube. Lead causes major health hazards like Plumbism (lead poisoning) at higher concentrations. In the present ...

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Role of Cyanobacteria on Monuments and Caves

02 Apr 2018

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STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF EPILITHIC AND CRYPTOENDOLIHIC CYANOBACTERIA ON MONUMENTS AND CAVES OF WESTERN ODISHA AND STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGY. ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria are morphologically diverse group of Gram negative photosynthetic prokaryotes successfully colonize and inhabit almost all kind of terrestrial and aquatic habitat including extreme habitats such as rocks and external walls of monuments and buildings. Natural and rock cut cave characterized by ...

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Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP)

02 Apr 2018

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Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) score for predicting severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in the early phase. Method The PubMed, Cochrane library and EMBASE databases were searched until May 2014. The strict selection criteria and exclusion criteria were determined, and we applied hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) model and ...

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Adjuvant Arthritis Experiment

02 Apr 2018

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1.1 Experimental Animals Adult Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice of both sexes (19-22g) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of female (180-220g) were used for the experiment. The animals were procured from the Hunan slack king of laboratory animal Co. Ltd. and maintained in the animal house of the College of Pharmacy, Hunan Chinese Medical University for 3 days for acclimation. They were housed in the standard ...

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Analysis of 14-3-3 Proteins

02 Apr 2018

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INTRODUCTION 14-3-3 represents a family of highly conserved, 28-33 kDa, acidic dimeric proteins. [B, H1] These proteins were first identified and isolated by Moore and Perez during their systematic study of protein fractions from mammalian brain tissue. [B1] Their nomenclature reflects the system used by the researchers to classify the various protein fractions, based on their migration pattern on starch gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional DEAE chromatography. ...

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Analysis of Peripherin-2 Cone Mutation V268I

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction: 1.1 Composition of Retina: Eye an organ which is known for its sensory function - Vision, serves as a basis for perception of the world outside. Three layers of tissues enclose the eye, outermost layer sclera, middle layer choroid and inner layer retina. Central macular region of the retina called as fovea consist of photoreceptor cells, where maximum visual acuity is possible due ...

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Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Methylome Proposal

30 Mar 2018

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  A.TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT: Analysis of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy’s effect on Methylome of Cervical cancer cells by using Next Generation Sequencing techniques and quantifying Transcriptome using RT PCR D.PROJECT DIGEST. Describe the proposed research geared to the non-specialist reader (max. 250 words). Cancer cells are fast growing entities so they need more nutrients and oxygen etc. But in ...

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Anti-cancer Properties of Lupeol in Arabidopsis Thaliana

30 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background Nowadays, cancer treatment is not only a quest of eliminating cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis. New curative strategies also include targeting the tumour micro-environment, preventing angiogenesis, regulating the immune response or the chronic inflammation that is commonly associated with cancer. And for the last few decades, we have known that plants provide a wide platform of potential drug substances ...

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Physiochemical Analysis of Dye Soil

30 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Decline in the quality of soil by the act of human and nature is called soil pollution or soil contamination. The main factors of soil pollution include excessive erosion, excessive use of soil fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, urban and industrial wastes, forest fires, water logging, leaching and drought etc. Studies have shown that soil contamination is increasing day by day in rural and urban areas. ...

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Prostate Cancer Pathology and Effects

30 Mar 2018

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Megan Rosa   Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer, or also referred to as adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is a type of cancer affecting solely men, as it is formed in prostate tissues, which is a gland found in the male reproductive system. It is the second most common cause of cancer-related male mortality, in the United States (Velcheti). According to the National Cancer Institute, about ...

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Approaches Used in Phylogenetic Analysis

30 Mar 2018

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Numerical Taxonomy Numerical taxonomy is the name given to various procedures whereby a set of individuals or units (termed as OTUs "Operational Taxonomic Unities" 1) is divided into two or more assemblages or subgroups (clusters) on the basis of a set of attributes which they share. Every OUT shows its own set of constant and variable characters. A character is defined as any property that can ...

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Metabolic Risk Factors for Thyroid Nodules in Different Ages

30 Mar 2018

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The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and the Correlation between Thyroid Nodules and its Metabolic Risk Factors in Different Age Groups Running title Metabolic Risk Factors for TN Highlights Elderly people has higher prevalence of TN; Hypertension, T2DM and smoking may be risk factors for TN in elderly people; Hypertension might be independent risk factors for TN in non-elderly people. Abstract Objective: To explore the ...

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Blood Stem Cell Research and Sources

30 Mar 2018

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BLOOD/HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS (HSC) First identified stem cells were the blood stem cells that were discovered in the 1960s and began the stem cell research. They are also known as haematopoietic stem cells and have self-renewal property. There are two kinds of blood stem cells. One is called hematopoietic stem cells, that can give rise to virtually all types of blood cells. The second population is known ...

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Characterizing HP’s from Leptospira Interrogans

30 Mar 2018

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Introduction: Genome sequencing projects and genetic engineering has revealed many aspects of complex cellular environment containing large number of proteins. Despite sequences of most of organisms are available and proteins coded are studied experimentally, there are some proteins whose functions are unknown, need to be characterised(5). Such proteins are known as Hypothetical proteins (HP) sequences of which are known but there is no evidence of experimental ...

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Activation of Intracellular Signalling

30 Mar 2018

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Paul Dunn Intracellular signalling For cells to carry out their physiological role, they must be able receive and respond to a variety of extracellular messages (Ségaliny, Tellez-Gabriel, Heymann, & Heymann, 2015).The activation of intracellular signalling comes from the cells ability to interpret extracellular chemical and protein messengers via the binding of ligands (ions, hormones etc.) to their specific receptor. The binding of ligands to ...

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Alternatives to the ‘universal’ Genetic Code Theory

30 Mar 2018

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Introduction The existence of a ‘genetic code’ was established through genetic and biochemical experiments that revealed an association between the sequence of nucleotides in DNA and the sequence of amino acids in polypeptides (Singer and Berg 1991). In 1961, Nirenberg and colleagues conducted in vitro studies using synthetic oligo- and polyribonucleotides as messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They demonstrated that a cell-free Eschericia coli system was able to ...

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Effect of Light Intensity on Transpiration Rates

30 Mar 2018

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Biology Plan Title: Comparative Analysis of the effect of Light Intensity on the Transpiration Rate of Prunus domestica and Tropaeolum peregrinum. Introduction: Transpiration is the loss of water in plants, which occurs through the stomata or intercellular spaces, and in smaller amounts through the exposed walls of surface cells. The process facilitates the ascent of sap, which is the fluid consisting of ...

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Proteomics in the Diagnosis of Human Disease

30 Mar 2018

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Abstract Introduction Chapter 1: Techniques used in proteomics 1.1 Brief history of the development of proteomics 1.2 Two-dimensional protein electrophoresis 1.3 Mass spectrometry 1.3.1 MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry 1.4 Protein arrays 1.5 Protein databases Chapter 2: Application of proteomics in the diagnosis of human disease 2.1 Application of proteomics in the diagnosis of blood-related disease 2.1.1 Hodgkin’s lymphoma 2.1.2 Acute leukaemias 2.1.2.1 ...

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How Well Adapted Are Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB)?

30 Mar 2018

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Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of motile bacteria that has been observed in freshwater and marine aquatic environments. Discovered in 1975 by Richard Blakemore, these microorganisms are able to passively navigate along the earth’s magnetic field toward the bottom of their aquatic habitats, to efficiently find low oxygen environments. The MTB passive navigation is enabled by the biomineralization of crystals of the iron ...

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Cholinergic System and Cholinesterase Inhibitors

30 Mar 2018

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Therapy targeting the cholinergic system: Cholinesterase inhibitors have observed the failure of the ascending cholinergic system of the brain. There are both marked reduction and neuronal dropout in synaptic densities in the projections from cholinergic neurones located in substantia innominata of the basal forebrain, which includes the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which projects to all cortical areas, and the septal nuclei, projecting to the hippocampus. This is hypothesised to be ...

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Bacterial Magnetosomes Synthesized by Magnetotactic Bacteria

30 Mar 2018

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ABSTRACT: Bacterial magnetosomes synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn immense attention due to its unique features. Immobilized enzymes have a number of applications in today’s industries. Studies have shown that immobilized enzymes have a better shelf life and kinetics when compared to free enzymes. Magnetosomes have been used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. This study reports the efficient ...

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Nitrogen Fixation in Pasture Systems

29 Mar 2018

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Biological nitrogen fixation plays an essential role in the improvement of agricultural sustainability, particularly with regard to the contribution of pasture legumes. In fact, pasture legumes are among the most efficient leguminous plants in terms of nitrogen fixation and, depending on adequate management and on the establishment of effective symbioses with adequate rhizobia, they may contribute with high input rates of fixed-nitrogen into the soil (Materon ...

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Complex of β- Sitosterol with Co Analysis

29 Mar 2018

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COMPLEX OF β- SITOSTEROL WITH Co AT DIFFERENT MOLE RATIO AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES TALAT MAHMOOD, YASMEEN BIBI, IFFAT MAHMOOD, SYED NASEEM HUSSAIN SHAH, ANEELA WAHAB,SIKINDAR SHERWANI, HUMAIRA ANWAR   Abstract The principle of present work is to build up a plant-based method to reduce toxicity in our body which is caused due to high level of some essential trace metals. This current effort ...

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PATRIC Database: Significance, Applications and Drawbacks

29 Mar 2018

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Name: Gopinath. S PATRIC Database Biological significance of PATRIC Database: A strategic plan was developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for conducting research on Biodefense. They have developed a subsequent watch list of genera from their own defined list of ‘Priority Pathogens’ and they were categorized as A, B and C microbial pathogens with respective priority levels. In order to understand ...

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Molecular Heterogeneity of Carnation Mottle Virus in Iran

29 Mar 2018

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Barzegar A   Abstract Carnation is commercially one of the most important cut-flower crops worldwide. Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is the type member of the genus Carmovirus of Tobamovirideae family. It can be mechanically transmitted and causes significant losses including poor quality of cut-flowers and fewer yields on carnation crops. In an attempt to surveying the CarMV heterogeneity, 120 CarMV isolates were collected from ...

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Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in the Menopause

29 Mar 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Schisterman et al. [32] reviewed the evidence amongst the premenopausal women by comparing the lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle. Mainly, lipoprotein cholesterol levels have been noticed to alter during the menstrual cycle as reproductive hormone levels change. During the follicular phase, triglyceride cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol are observed to be highest and throughout the luteal phase their level decreases. Meanwhile, ...

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Urine Tests on Antibacterial Activity

29 Mar 2018

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Urine sample U20 was allocated and the first thing done was to record the visual appearance of the urine. The urine was golden yellow with a pungent smell. At first sight, the urine did not appear to have any blood present in it. Further biochemical test using Ames Multistix Strips was done. The strip was dipped into the urine and at appropriate time intervals, results such ...

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Effect of Temperature on Milk | Experiment

29 Mar 2018

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Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to understand the conditions which encouraged and inhibited bacterial growth by observing the rate of bacterial reproduction in milk samples stored at different temperatures. The results collected after the six day period of observation revealed that factors which influenced the rate of bacterial growth were temperature, pH level, moisture and the amount of food sources available. It was concluded ...

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Regulation of Human Haematopoietic Stem Cell Self-renewal

29 Mar 2018

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PAPER REVIEW Regulation of human haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal by the microenvironment’s control of retinoic acid signalling Ghiaura et al. (2013) PNAS 110 no. 40 pp 16121–16126 Constant blood cell production is dependent on perpetual reconstitution of the hematopoietic system via a series of lineage-restricted intermediates. This remarkable cell renewal process is supported by a rare and small subpopulation of bone marrow cells called hematopoietic stem ...

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Phytophtora Palmivora (Black Pod Disease) Causes and Effects

29 Mar 2018

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Phytophtora palmivora (Black pod disease) MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN MOHD RAZAK   INTRODUCTION A long time ago, Malaysia is one the exporter of cocoa because they can produce abundance in tonnes of cocoa yield. This crop has become one of backbone of Malaysia economy during at the time (Malaysia Cocoa Board, 2013). Due to the rapid development of this industry, government was establish Malaysian Cocoa Board in ...

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Isolation and Characterisation of SVMP Inhibitor

29 Mar 2018

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Patricia B.J. et al., 2003 – Isolation, characterisation of SVMP inhibitor. Patricia et al. Investigated the PO41 as a SVMP inhibitor which was isolated from Philander opossum serum. The study was carried out using proper grade chemicals, the wistar rats were used as the test animal. For the isolation of the PO41 a DEAE-sephacel column (1.0 x 10.5) was used. 10mM sodium acetate (pH 3.7, flow ...

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Chemoreception in Insects: Study on Ladybeetle Behaviour

29 Mar 2018

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Covert Considerations to Overt Odors! Giuseppe Tumminello http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022681928142 Insects, like most biotic organisms, leave a trail of chemical information wherever they travel. Chemical cues are left where they walk, abandoned in their feces, expelled from their mandibles, and deposited from their abdomens. The dissipated chemical bouquets serve many purposes for both the recipients and originators. Semiochemicals can be for the sake of purposeful communication and are often ...

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Evolution of the Echinoids

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,771 )

In response to the essay question: “Echinoids – the key to geologic time?” School of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology Thomas Glann Echinoidea, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, are probably the most interesting and compelling palaeontological story to date. Their story starts in the late Ordovician period, approximately 460 million years ago, and you can still observe the echinoids in modern day environments as sea urchins, heart ...

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Cell Adhesion Molecules in Formation of Olfactory Connection

29 Mar 2018

3 (1,058 )

This dissertation study investigated expression, function and the regulatory mechanism of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of olfactory connections. Identification and characterization of a novel protocadherin, Pcdh20, provided additional evidence that multiple cell adhesion molecules are involved in the development of the olfactory system. In combination with several established studies by Sakano and Yoshihara’s group, my study further supports the neural identity model and provides ...

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Genetic Degradation of the White Campion (Silene Latifolia)

29 Mar 2018

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The Y chromosome of the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has undergone genetic degradation, losing some genes entirely from its Y chromosome. Charlotte Gardener, Danielle Hewson, Abbie O’Connor, Francis Windram This year, Bergero et al.(1) have shown that the White Campion (Silene latifolia) has lost genes from its Y sex chromosome entirely, and does not yet show significant dosage compensation. Plants ...

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Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Collection, Preparation and Uses

29 Mar 2018

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Samuel Good Fresh Frozen Plasma Introduction Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is the name for the liquid portion of human blood, which has been frozen and preserved. It is taken by blood donation and is stored until needed for blood transfusion. FFP has been available since 1941 (Hoffman, et al, 1990), it was used initially as a volume expander (Erber, et al, 2006), but is ...

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Periodicity of the Banding in Polished and Etched Shells

29 Mar 2018

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CHAPTER 3: GENERAL METHODOLOGY Background This chapter describes the sampling areas and methodological procedure used in all experiments undertaken in this study. Specific materials and methods are explained in the respective chapters. Sample collection Various experiments were carried out to determine the periodicity of the banding in polished and etched shell section. A total of 950 samples of A. granosa (shell length: 10 mm) were obtained ...

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Vespidae Wasps: Importance and Genetic Diversity

29 Mar 2018

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General introduction Hymenopterans play an vital role in the terrestrial ecosystems as producers, predators and pollinators. Aculeata is a subgroup of the order Hymenoptera whose significant speciality is the conversion of the female ovipositor into a venom injecting device or stinger . The members of which are commonly called as ants, bees and wasps. India has a rich fauna of Aculeata (P. Gireeshkumar et al., 2014). ...

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Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,626 )

Allergies, also known as hypersensitive reactions, that occurs when one’s immune system over reacts to a substance which otherwise is harmless. These substances are known as allergens, they could be house hold material, pets [1], cockroaches [2], dust, food items [3] like milk, nuts, sun and even water. Among all the substances that are known to cause an allergy, one of the most common is pollen. ...

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Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp and Synechocystis sp Comparison

29 Mar 2018

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Reconstruction and Comparison of the Metabolic Potential of Cynobacteria Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 SITI HARYANI BINTI ANUAR Problem Background Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic cell which do not have nucleus and lack some organelles. They also unicellular and reproduce or divide by binary fission. They habitats are common in lakes, ponds, springs, wetlands, streams, rivers and also in soil or on rock. Cyanobacteria ...

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Influences on Fish Pigmentation

29 Mar 2018

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Pigmentation: Melanotropic axis Skin colouration is one of the most striking features of the teleost phenotypes. Fish pigmentation is a plastic feature that can be adjusted to according to fish needs: e.g. social interactions (Grosenick et al., 2007), camouflage (predator avoidance) (Doolan et al., 2009) or mating selection (Grether et al., 2005). Pigmentation (colour and pattern) is determinate by the amount, type and distribution ...

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Health Benefits and Effects of Plant Derived Antioxidants

29 Mar 2018

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INTRODUCTION Plant derived antioxidants especially, the phenolics have gained considerable importance due to their potential health benefits. Several epidemiological studies have shown that the intake of plant food containing antioxidants improve the quality of health because it down-regulates many degenerative processes and can effectively lower the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Arabshahi and Urooj, 2007). The revitalization of antioxidant compounds from plant materials is typically ...

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Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Experiment

29 Mar 2018

5 (1,635 )

Abstract Mental rotation involves mind when it tries to recognize objects in the surrounding and figuring out what the altered objects really are. The aim of this experiment was to determine reaction time of different angles of rotation and influence of gender differences. The task involved comparing three letters, some letters appeared the same and others were difficult to tell during rotation. I also noted that, ...

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Mismatch Repair (MMR) Pathways and Deficiencies

29 Mar 2018

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1- Mismatch Repair The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is a bidirectional excision-resynthesis system that corrects mismatches generated during DNA replication or homologous recompination (HR). MMR adds up to 1000 fold increase in the fidelity of DNA replication (Kolodner, 1996; Preston et al., 2010). Mismatches fall into two groups, base-base mispairs resulting from incorrect nucleotide insertion by DNA polymerses and insertion-deletion loops (IDLs) resulting from slippage ...

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Transformation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli)

29 Mar 2018

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TRANSFORMATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI INTRODUCTION : Transformation is a process whereby the genetic materials of a cell are altered by introducing DNA (exogenous DNA) from the surrounding environment through the cell membrane of the organism. It involves the uptake of DNA from either a plasmid or a small fragment of linear DNA by a specific recipient cell. Transformation could occur naturally in some bacteria such as ...

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Expression of KITLG and KIT-Receptor Analysis

29 Mar 2018

8 (2,989 )

Varicocele is the pathological dilation of the venous pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord (Naughton et al., 2001). Varicocele might be associated with male infertility. With diagnostic techniques such as scrotal ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging, varicocele has been demonstrated in up to 91% of subfertile human cases (Gonzalez et al., 1985; Resim et al., 1999) The pathophysiologies of the testicular damage in varicocele are not ...

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Genetic Causes of Epilepsy

29 Mar 2018

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Epilepsy: It is estimated that at many as 10% of the general populace will experience a seizure in their lifetime. (Persad et al., 2003) Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease defined by its characteristic symptom, recurrent and spontaneous seizures. (Berg et al., 2011) (Asher Y et al., 2012) Epilepsy is a common condition with an occurrence of up to 3% in the population (Deng H et al., ...

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Resistance of Wheat to Mycosphaerella Graminicola

29 Mar 2018

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Resistance of wheat to Mycosphaerella graminicola involves early of gene expression INTRODUCTION Wheat is one of the three cereal grain crops, together with rice and maize, being used for human food feed for more than 5000 years ago (Peng et al., 2011). The world annual wheat production is about 671 million tons in the total cultivated area (FAO, 2012). It is estimated that the demand for wheat ...

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Effects of Light and Cell Cycle on Expression Level of EChR1

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,571 )

Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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Mechanisms of Rapamycin Production Discrepancy

29 Mar 2018

4 (1,564 )

Fermentation kinetics supplied the extracellular cues for cell growth and rapamycin production. However, the mechanism of rapamycin production discrepancy was not still understood. To solve this, the profiles of intracellular metabolites were carried out by GC-MS to reveal key biomarkers and metabolic module as well as key enzymes in rapamycin overproduction. Samples were obtained for wild-type strain and mutant strain U2-3D9 to detect intracellular metabolites pool ...

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