ALT Associated Mutations in Histone H3, ATRX and DAXX

11 Apr 2018

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Besides the contribution of DNA sequence and the state of shelterin binding in telomeric recombination and ALT activity, telomere architecture, and specially histone modifications, are responsible for some phenotypic characteristics of ALT. Recent studies of ALT tumors correlate telomere maintenance mechanism of ALT with activity of the complex ATRX/DAXX. ATRX and DAXX form a chromatin remodeling complex that moderates chromatin changes. ATRX is responsible for encoding ...

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Impact of Sperm DNA Fragmentation on Fertilization Rate

10 Apr 2018

7 (2,488 )

The influence of human sperm DNA fragmentation on the rate of fertilization and sperm nuclear condensation after in vitro maturation of oocyte in stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles ABSRACT Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on the fertilization rate and sperm nuclear decondensation after introcytoplasmic injection of sperm (ICSI) into cumulus-free germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from ...

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Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) Abuse

09 Apr 2018

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Deborah Crim A. Neurobiology of Ecstasy (MDMA) Abuse B. Article 1 Analysis: Article Title Behavioral sensitization to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA ecstasy) is long lasting and modulated by the context of drug administration (Ball, Klein, Plocinski, & Slack, 2012) The research method used in this article. The research method used consisted of 64 adult Sprague-Dawley rats which each rats weighing ...

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Bacterial Plasmid Transformation and Isolation

02 Apr 2018

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INTRODUCTION Preparation of competent E. coli by Inoue method Competent cell refers to cells with capability of taking up extracellular genetic material. Chemically competent cells treated with buffer consisting calcium chloride (CaCl2) and other salts will disrupt the cell membrane, forming ‘holes’ allowing exogenous plasmids to enter the cell (Sigma, 2006). Competent cells are commonly produced chemically as they are less costly than electrocompetent cells. It ...

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Characteristics of Plasmids and Bacteria

02 Apr 2018

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Bor Shin Chee Plasmids Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements which retain important proportion of overall genome and gene that necessary for the growth of the cell. Plasmids usually are circular but some are linear, they have supercoiling DNA structure which undergoes the process of under-winding of DNA strands in order to compact DNA molecules. Moreover, plasmids can also be classified into two groups: low ...

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Receptor Activator of NK-κB for Tumor Cells

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction Cancers figure among the leading causes of death worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012 .Lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 within the next two decades Over the past several years, proteolytic cleavage and release of the ectodomain of membrane-bound ...

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Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) Antigens Identification

02 Apr 2018

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Metods: study design: The present study consists of two parts. In the first part, analysis and database search were performed to find a conserved and specific regions of HCMV genome leading to selection of immunogenic and proper region expressed in several species of CMV. The second part consists of various analyses of the selective gene such as epitope mapping, secondary and tertiary ...

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Magnetoreception Research: Authors and Applications

02 Apr 2018

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Species Selection Authors Following a thorough journal trawl, it is revealed who are the major contributors to magnetoreception research, many of which are specialised in a certain group of vertebrate. Wiltschko and Wiltschko (1999) for example, are key providers of magnetoreceptor information in homing pigeons and European robins, Lohmann and Lohmann (1994) for loggerhead sea turtles and Phillips (1986) for eastern newts. These publishers, among others, ...

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Flow Cytometry and Cancer Cells

02 Apr 2018

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Flow cytometry is a laser based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. When sample solution is injected into a flow cytometer, the particles are randomly distributed. The sample is ordered into a single particle stream then can be interrogated by the machine’s detection system. After ...

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Detection of Fungal Infections in Plants

02 Apr 2018

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Histopathological Technique for Detection of Fungal Infections in Plants Vijai Kumar Gupta and Brejesh Kumar Pandey Abstract Microscopic examination of the interaction between pathogenic fungi and their host plants has been instrumental in deciphering the biology of this relationship and can serve as a useful diagnostic tool. In this chapter, we describe the technique of fixing fungal infections of plant samplings for histopathological experiments. ...

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Theories of Sexual Selection in Animals

02 Apr 2018

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1. Introduction. It was more than 100 years ago that Charles Darwin formulated his ideas on sexual selection in The Descent of Man and Selection with regard to Sex (Darwin, 1871). He noticed that animals frequently possessed exaggerated traits which appeared detrimental to their survival, such as the large and decorative train of a peacock and bright plumage colors in many other birds. He recognized that ...

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Effects of Water Restriction on Plants

02 Apr 2018

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Brodie Smart   Background: Plants need water to sustain life and vitality and to maintain turgor pressure, therefore vast amounts of water pass through plants. However, 99% of it evaporates from the leaves and is lost into the atmosphere. The remaining 1% of water is actually used for growth (http://academic.evergreen.edu, 2015). The movement of water through a plant can be spilt into three sections: ...

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Prey Optimization in Patchy Environments

02 Apr 2018

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Introduction All animal classes exploit resources that are dispersed in distinct areas of the environment and therefore we should expect natural selection to favour individuals that utilize these sporadically-distributed reserves most proficiently. Put in perspective, optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals should improve their patch staying-time so they can maximize the rate at which resources are found and captured (Stephens and Krebs 1986; Henneman 1998). ...

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Principles of DNA Preparation and Polymerase Chain Reaction

02 Apr 2018

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Shathurdekah Siwasubramaniam   Download from Moodle and print a picture of your gel (nobody else’s). Attach this to your write-up. If your gel shows clear documentation of each of your DNA preparations you should use this in the subsequent analysis. If (and only if) your experiments have not worked, you should use the specimen gel provided on Moodle. Measure the distance migrated from the ...

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Antibacterial Properties of Compounds From S. Frutescens

02 Apr 2018

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Kabir Prema Introduction Rationale There are approximately 6.1 million people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in South Africa (Unaids.org, 2014). People with HIV/Aids have a higher risk of getting secondary infections and diseases such as Tuberculosis, which is the cause of many deaths in South Africa (Tbfacts.org, 2014). About 5.5 million people in South Africa are infected with ...

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Nutrition and the Digestive System

02 Apr 2018

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Problem 3. Define nutrition and state its importance http://voices.yahoo.com/nutrition-its-importance-human-health-2453908.html?cat=5 Nutrition is the source of minerals and vitamins found in food that is needed by organisms to ensure their healthy growth and survival. A variety of nutrients are needed to ensure that the components of the body i.e., its cells, tissues and organs are healthy. If the body is without the sufficient supply of nutrients ...

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Astaxanthin Production in Tobacco Chloroplasts

02 Apr 2018

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METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF ASTAXANTHIN PRODUCTION IN TOBACCO CHLOROPLASTS The Plant Journal 55, 857–868 Tomohisa Hasunuma, Shin-Ichi Miyazawa, Satomi Yoshimura, Yuki Shinzaki, Ken-Ichi Tomizawa, Kazutoshi Shindo, Seon-Kang Choi, Norihiko Misawa and Chikahiro Miyake.(2008). Introduction Astaxanthin (C40H52O4) is a carotein pigment and a fat soluable nutrient about 596.8 Dalton (Fig.1 and 2). The extended chain of conjugated (alternating double and single) double bonds is responsible for its red ...

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Causes of Pleomorphisim

02 Apr 2018

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3.0 Introduction Arenaviruses have been shown to be rodent-borne agents of various diseases, which include the potentially lethal human hemorrhagic fevers (238). From Chapter 1, it was revealed that the arenaviruses have an enveloped, encapsidate, bisegmented ambisense single-stranded RNA genome, that can be packaged in variable copy numbers (106). The electron cryomicroscopy and image analysis of New World Pichinde and Tacaribe arenaviruses and Old World lymphocytic ...

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Neurogenesis Genes and Mechanisms

02 Apr 2018

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In vertebrates and insects, the prospective ectoderm is subdivided into a neurogenic and a non-neurogenic portion by the antagonistic activity of homologous secreted molecules decapentaplegic/BMP-4 and short gastrulation/chordin [1]. The neurogenic ectoderm, composed initially of proliferative cells, give rise to neural progenitor cells, most of these being multipotential. In order to acquire their specificity, these cells go through a complex and tightly regulated set of events. ...

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How to Write a Biology Dissertation

02 Apr 2018

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A biology dissertation is a document designed to demonstrate a candidate’s ability to investigate, document, analyse and present the findings of a biological investigation. The final report, or dissertation, must be written in a coherent and logical manner with all arguments backed up by valid findings from the author’s own work, or by reference to other, peer reviewed, academic publications. In general, biology dissertations are laid ...

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Classifications of Disease Types

02 Apr 2018

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Hibban Zaffar Classifying diseases A disease is the modification of the structure and function where it affects the body from working normally in the body’s system. The characteristics of a disease can be shown from particular signs and symptoms. These diseases are classified into different types. Acquired disease: This is where the disease is not present from birth therefore it is not inherited. These ...

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Microbiological Quality of Different Yogurt Brands

02 Apr 2018

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Andrea Roberta Martinez Zepeda   Which yogurt brand consumed in Nicaragua is healthier for the human body? Introduction: Believing that we are germ-free is an antiquate way of thinking. When you ask someone if they are free from germs one out of four people will answer yes.[1]Truth is that out body contains more than ten trillion germs in our intestinal tracks. There are more than 500 ...

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Effects of Iron Glycine Chelate (Fe-Gly) on Broilers

02 Apr 2018

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Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of iron glycine chelate (Fe-Gly) on growth, immune organ indexes, and liver antioxidant enzyme activities in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial broilers were randomly allotted to eight dietary treatment groups with six replications of ten chicks per replicate. Broilers were fed a control diet with 120mg/kg FeSO4, while seven other treatment ...

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Antioxidant Activity of Different Indian Green Teas

02 Apr 2018

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SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT INDIAN GREEN TEAS FOR THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Rashmita Pradhan, Debika Chakraborty, Reshma Priti Ekka and Podili Koteswaraiah   ABSTRACT Three varieties of green tea grown in different regions of India (Darjeeling, Nilgiri and Assam) along with Tulsi green tea (TGT) and Jasmine green tea JGT) were screened for antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were extracted using methanol and the total phenolics ...

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Effects of Soy Products on Cancer

02 Apr 2018

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Jessica Chen Soy Products and Cancer What we eat everyday poses a threat in some shape whether it be sweets, salty foods, or soy products. The latest trend right now is to consume soy produce to reduce weight and become animal conservatives. Soy products are very popular because people who have allergies or people who are vegetarian/vegan have an alternative to get daily intake ...

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Escherichia coli O157:H7 Protection by Bifidobacterium

02 Apr 2018

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Protection from Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection by Bifidobacterium Bifidobacteria: an important member of the gut microbiota The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited along all its length by a diverse microbial ecosystem formed by around 1 x 1014 colony forming units of bacteria from more than 1000 different species which belong to about 190 genera. The predominant genera of those 190 are Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, ...

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UV Light and Cisplatin Induced DNA Damage Response

02 Apr 2018

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Simiao Lyu Abstract One of the essential function of an organism is to maintain its genome integrity, in order to survive and pass on its genetic materials to the next generation. However, as the carrier of genomic information, DNA is constantly being damaged by exogenous and endogenous factors. Therefore, through evolution, a variety of mechanisms that counter the effect of DNA damage emerged. In ...

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Polyphenolic-rich Maple Syrup Extract Applications

02 Apr 2018

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Polyphenolic-rich Maple syrup extract can be used as anti-bacterial agent to mitigate multidrug resistance, biofilm formation and virulence gene expression in different pathogenic bacteria. The synergistic combination of antibiotic and polyphenolic-rich maple syrup extract might have potential to treat urinary tract infections and other chronic infections. This maple syrup extract can be potentially used as natural and safe antimicrobial treatments, combinatorial therapy with existing antibiotics, in ...

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Report on Inherited Disease and Pre-natal Investigations

02 Apr 2018

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Hemma Summan Part One: Guthrie Test What is PKU and biopterin deficiency? Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease; it is an extremely common inborn defect of amino acid metabolism. Insufficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) prejudices the body’s capability to metabolise phenylalanine: consequently accumulation of phenylalanine in tissues, plasma and urine is characterised resulting in hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA). Over 500 genetic mutations in ...

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Causes and Effects of Unhealthy Blood in the Human Body

02 Apr 2018

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Explain the causes and effects of unhealthy blood in the human body The blood is composed by red cells (erythrocytes), white cells (leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes), suspended in a pale yellow fluid as known as plasma (Titmuss, 1970 and Pallister and Watson, 2011). In the initial of the 20th century, Karl Landsteiner, a scientist in Vienna, “took red cells suspensions and serum from six men in ...

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Significance of Bleeding on Probing During Periodontal Exam

02 Apr 2018

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Chuen Lin Hong ­­­­Discuss the significance of bleeding on probing during your periodontal examination. A thorough periodontal examination is an integral component of clinical examination. It encompasses periodontal diagnostic parameters such as probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and suppuration. For the purpose of this essay, the diagnostic value of BOP will be focused upon. Before delving into this, ...

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Homoeopathic Medicines Against Fruit Rot of Apple

02 Apr 2018

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Application of certain homoeopathic medicines used against fruit rot of apple caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Baviskar RN and Suryawanshi NS   ABSTRACT Blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important serious destructive post harvest disease in India. Twenty three isolates of Penicillium expansum were isolated from rotted fruits of apple collected from APMC fruit market of Vashi, Navi Mumbai. Their ...

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Microenvironment of a Cardiac Tissue

02 Apr 2018

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NEHAL PATEL Engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro through the micropatterning approach Introduction In the United States, each year 600,000 people die from some form of a cardiovascular disease [ref]. Due to heart’s limited ability to regenerate and complications from organ transplants, there is a strong rationale to find an alternative solution to treat heart injuries. Tissue engineering aims to repair and restore damaged ...

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Factors that Influence Alcohol Use

02 Apr 2018

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Biological Factors Alcohol use is impacted by several genetic factors, and family histories, twins, adopted children, different racial groups and animals (Alcohol Health and Research World, 1995; Shuckit, 1999). Hereditary elements likewise seem to play a role that is associated with tobacco and different medications (Madden & Heath, 2002). Resistance and physical reliance The more utilization of alcohol can change the body’s ...

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Novel Cell and Molecular Detection Techniques Comparison

02 Apr 2018

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Paper Comparison: Shachaf C.M. et al A Novel Method for Detection of Phosphorylation in Single Cells by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Composite Organic-Inorganic Nanoparticles (COINs). Plos ONE. 4 1-12 (2009). Kumar.S. et al Multiplex Flow Cytometry Barcoding and Antibody Arrays Identify Surface Antigen Profiles of Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer Cell Lines. Plos ONE. 8 1-9 (2013). Soumit Saha Background On February 28, 1928, ...

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