Seasonal Influenza A/H3N2 Virus Infection

23 Apr 2018

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Seasonal Influenza A/H3N2 virus Infection and IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-28 Polymorphisms in Iranian Population L. D. Rogo, F. Rezaei, S. M. Marashi, J. Yavarian, M. Mahmoodi, M. Naseri, N. Ghavami, T. Mokhtari-Azad Abstract Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that where attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was with aim to find out ...

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Universal Diagnostic Criteria for Oral Lichen Planus

23 Apr 2018

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ABSTRACT: For years, dissentions and debates on the malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP) have been sparked not only by a lack of an accurate diagnostic criteria but also due to the failure on our part in not following single universal one. In this short communication, we try to reiterate its importance, with a goal of making the clinicians and pathologists aware of its serious ...

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Aphrodisiac Activity of Vigna Mungo Seeds

23 Apr 2018

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Pharmacological Evalution of The Potential Aphrodisiac Activity of Methanolic and Chloroform Extracts of Vigna mungo Seeds in Male Albino Rats Ravindra Babu Sajja, Eknath Royal P, Suneetha B, Sunanda S     ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the aphrodisiac activity of methanolic and chloroform extracts of seeds of Vigna mungo (MEVM and CEVM) in male albino rats. The aphrodisiac activity of ...

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Ultrasonic Evaluation of Horizontal Defects

23 Apr 2018

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A Novel Method for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Horizontal Defects Using Time-of-Flight Diffraction Abstract Time-of-flight Diffraction method (ToFD) is an amplitude-independent sizing method, which is based on the measurement of time-of-flight of defect tip diffracted waves. Although, ToFD can measure through-wall length of defect accurately, this method is not able to measure horizontal defect size. In this paper, a new time of flight diffraction (ToFD) method for ...

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Aggressive Reality Television: Impacts on Teenage Viewers

23 Apr 2018

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Nashun Gross ABSRACT The popularity of reality TV has soared among teens. Not only are teenagers watching reality TV more than any other TV show, but it also influences their behavior, which is caused by teenagers who make a connection with the cast members. Connections happen when teens imitate the behavior because they view the cast as role models. Even when the cast behaves ...

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Bark Extract Mediated Green Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis

23 Apr 2018

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Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial efficacy: A low cost effective synthesis route Debasis Nayak, Sarbani Ashe, Pradipta Ranjan Rauta, Manisha Singh, Bismita Nayak   Abstract In this current investigation we report the biosynthesis potential of the bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles without using any external reducing or capping agent. The occurrence ...

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Novel Dental Materials for Root-end Applications: A Review

23 Apr 2018

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Abstract Achieving a good apical seal is crucial for ensuring successful endodontics; especially in cases that involve a wide apex (e.g. immature apices, apical resorption, and fracture involving the tooth apex). An efficient root-end material is an absolute requisite towards achieving this goal. The recent years have witnessed a decent outflow of new products for root-end applications. However, their merits, and claims of superiority over MTA, ...

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Diagnosis and Management of Bronchopleural Fistula

23 Apr 2018

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Introduction A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the bronchial tree and the pleural space. More than two thirds of BPFs are postresectional, with an incidence ranging from 1.5-28 % after pneumonectomy, and 0.5% after lobectomy. Postresectional BPF is associated with mortality of 20-50 %.[1] BPFs can present early (1-7 days), intermediate (8-30 days), or late (more than 30 days) after pulmonary resection. Early fistulas ...

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Analysis of Bacteria Strains: Phonotypical Tests

23 Apr 2018

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Kunthavai Jeevananthan Bacterial Identification Aims: To analyse and identify 10 different strains of bacteria by conducting 19 different tests phonotypical tests. Bacteria also known as eubacteria are microorganisms that are invisible to the naked eye but exist in virtually all environments in the world. Bacteria are classified as part of the Monera kingdom which includes archaebacteria and cyanobacteria. Most bacteria are pathogenic or disease ...

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Propylene Glycol as a Pharmaceutical Excipient in Pediatrics

23 Apr 2018

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Disha Patel   The Utilization of Propylene Glycol as a Pharmaceutical Excipient in the Pediatric Field Abstract As a widely used excipient in pediatric formulations, propylene glycol functions as a solvent, emulsifier, humectant, and hygroscopic agent. It is a clear, colorless liquid whose properties enable it to have pharmacodynamic applications. Oftentimes, propylene glycol is combined with other mediations to enhance its penetration. For instance, ...

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Galactosemia Disorder: Causes, Forms and Treatments

23 Apr 2018

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Abstract: Carbohydrates are vital for energy in all living organism and also in the biosynthesis of essential glycoconjugates. One of these carbohydrates is a monosaccharide called galactose which is broken-down in humans by the Leloir pathway of the galactose metabolism.[1] Within this pathway, there are three main enzymes that is responsible for modifying galactose in order to convert it into glycolysis for the production of ...

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Hereditary Spherocytosis: Review of the Genetic Disorder

23 Apr 2018

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Ginamar Galvan Abstract This review is on the studies of several scientists whom completed research on the genetic disorder, spherocytosis. Based on several articles in the literature, it was learned that spherocytosis is an inherited anemia caused by the dysfunction of the cell’s cytoskeleton. These articles provide information of hereditary spherocytosis comprising of the disorder on the molecular level and how the patient’s diagnosis ...

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Glycosilation of Recombinant Protein in Hamster Ovary Cells

23 Apr 2018

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GLYCOSILATION OF RECOMBINANT PROTEIN IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS MANISHA YADAV   INTRODUCTION: GLYCOSYLATION OF PROTEINS The phenomenon of addition & subsequent processing of carbohydrates in most of the plasma- membrane and secretory proteins is called glycosylation. This is the principle chemical modification or post- translational modification to most of such proteins. Glycosylation reactions occur in the lumen of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) ...

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Maxillary Central Incisor Tooth Form, Facial Form and Gender

23 Apr 2018

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Title: Correlation of the maxillary central incisor tooth form with face form and gender in a section of the North Indian population – An AutoCAD analysis ABSTRACT Aim: An esthetically pleasing restoration or prosthesis should not be identifiable as artificial, but should be in harmony with the natural tooth arrangement of an individual. This study aimed to determine whether a correlation exists between the maxillary central ...

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Management of Global Warming Impacts

23 Apr 2018

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David Vellacott   Title: How are the impacts of global warming best managed? Accompanying files: n/a Did you know that there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today than at any point in the last 800,000 years?11 This is a massive contributor to global warming, is mostly induced by human activity and needs urgent attention. The impacts of global warming could feasibly ...

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Determination of Diastereoselectivity Experiment

23 Apr 2018

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Jackson Nguyen   Determination of Diastereoselectivity using Thermodynamic vs. Kinetic Controlled Reduction Procedures: A Reduction of 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone Introduction: The goal in this experiment was to oxidize 4-t-butylcyclohexanol to 4-t-butylcyclohexanone and reduce back to the original compound. Additionally, the goal was to analyze the ratio of the diastereomers and dictate the reasoning behind the ratios. Theory: In this experiment, three reactions total were performed. One ...

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Benefits of Seaweed Enhancement for Crop Growth

23 Apr 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Soil enhancement with organic materials is a common component of soil fertility management for crop production, with the aim of providing essential plant nutrients and improving overall soil physical, chemical, and biological quality (Diacano and Montemurro, 2010). Marine macro-algae, or seaweed, has been historically used as a soil enhancement material, and may have application for modern agriculture as a low ...

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Properties of Water for Organism Survival

23 Apr 2018

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NDUI PRISCILLAH Discuss the assertion that water has several unique properties that make it vital not only for human beings, but for all living organisms to survive. Introduction Water is a very important aspect of all living organisms’ plants and animals alike. What makes it so useful and relevant to survival are its unique properties which relate to its functions and hence its relevance ...

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Effect of Radiofrequency of GSM Phones on the Brain

23 Apr 2018

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CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION There has been growing concern about the possible adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency radiations (RFR), such as those from mobile communication devices. This radiation belongs to the type called non-ionizing radiation the health hazard of which remains debatable (Ayeni et al., 2011). The possible risks of microwaves for the human body has attracted interest since the 1960s (i.e., before the ...

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Orcas: Study of Habitat, Types and Social Behaviours

23 Apr 2018

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Introduction Called “whale killer” by the Spanish sailors, and also as “killing demon” to The Haida of British Columbia. Whatever it called, mariners have long been astonished by the talent of the large black - and - white dolphins known as Orcas, or killer whales. The biggest members of the dolphin family, Orcas are one of the most iconic species of cetacean which other ...

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Actin Expression in Hela Cells by APAAP Immunocytochemistry

23 Apr 2018

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Kunthavai Jeevananthan Isolation of mononuclear cells, cell counts, cell staining and immunochemistry Aims: to test the morphology of sheep’s blood smear and to calculate the number of viable cells and the percentage viability of live and dead mononuclear cells. To investigate and analyse actin expression in Hela cells by APAAP immunocytochemistry. There are three main components of blood these include erythrocytes (red blood cells), ...

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Biomedical Waste Management in Hospitals

23 Apr 2018

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Biomedical waste: Biomedical Waste Management and Handling Rules, India (1998) defines the biomedical waste as “Any waste which is produced by identification of problem, immunization of human beings or animals or treatment or in research activities pertaining or in the production or testing of biological11. According to WHO around 85% of the biomedical waste generated in the hospital were non-infectious/ non-hazardous ...

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Phosphotransferase Systems: Regulations and Types

23 Apr 2018

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Abstract Not a single specific class of antimicrobial agent during the past few decades has yet been discovered leading to development of the new improved drugs for humans. Regardless of the enhanced existing class potency, the requirements for the new agents of anti-microbes continue. The purpose of this study was to explore the PTS system, its regulation and different PTS systems and to investigate catabolite repression ...

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Neural Prosthetic Hand Developments

23 Apr 2018

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A recent innovation in the field of medical is the Neural Prosthetic hand. New origination in the field of neural prosthetics shows that they require a change in the material approach. Due to the reason, that, not all of the materials are bio-compatible and provide stability with the tissues in which they are implanted. After the successful development of various prostheses, for example, cochlear and retinal ...

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Stability Testing of Nifedeipine

23 Apr 2018

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Syed Masood Hassan Akbari   Practical 2 Stability study of Nifedipine INTRODUCTION Nifedipine is considered as a prototype compound of the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel antagonists. Nifedipine is a selective arterial dilator, and also is used in the treatment of hypertension, angina and cardiovascular disorders. The drawback associated with nifedipine is that it can undergo photo degradation thus escalating in loss of pharmacological ...

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Gene Therapy and Genetic Engineering for Curing Disorders

23 Apr 2018

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Introduction Now a days Gene therapy is a well known process of treatment of various genetic and other chronic diseases whereas, most of the drugs and vaccines have been discovered till now for almost all the kinds of diseases but still some of the diseases like cancer and AIDS are incurable. Hence, Gene therapy is seeking all the attention and is much beneficial. As gene therapy ...

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Natrol Biotin Supplements: Uses and Effects

23 Apr 2018

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Natrol biotin Natrol Biotin is a supplement that is taken to increase Vitamin B7 in the body. Biotin and vitamin H are other terms used to identify this vitamin. Biotin is sourced from different foods and is needed in small amounts in the body. This is one reason why vitamin B7 deficiency is rare. The supplement is administered to prevent as well as treat a vitamin ...

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Standard Model of Cosmology: Overview and Analysis

23 Apr 2018

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SYNOPSIS Since Hubble discovered the Universe expansion, cosmologists had been expecting the expansion would slow down due to the attractive force of gravity. However, in 1998, two independent teams of scientists studied the distant Type I supernovae (SNe) and soon realised that SNe were moving away from us more quickly than was originally thought. This revealed that the expansion of our universe is indeed accelerating. What ...

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Effects of Different Disinfectants

23 Apr 2018

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Abstract Introduction: Dentists, dental equipments and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spraying three different types of disinfectant agents: sodium hypochlorite 0.525 %, Epimax and Deconex, on condensational silicon after 5 and 10 minutes. Method and materials: In this in vitro experimental study, 66 circular samples of condensational silicon impression materials ...

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Stimuli Sensitive Polymers Types and Applications

23 Apr 2018

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The stimuli sensitive polymers have proved its applicability in forming hydro-gels [1], drug delivery[2] and target specificity[3]. Some stimuli sensitive polymers occur in nature likeeg, chitosan, cellulose, xyloglucan and many of them are routinely synthesized like, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and co-polymers of PNIPAAm[4]. Nature has designed complex structures in response to various external stimuli. For example, the nano-composite structure of collagen fibrils in sea cucumber alters stiffness ...

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Post Operative Outcome of Extended Nasolabial Flaps

23 Apr 2018

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TITLE: Reconstruction of post release intraoral Oral Submucous Fibrosis defects by Extended Naso-Labial flaps versus Platysma myocutaneous muscle flaps: A Comparative Study. ABSTRACT- We compared post operative outcome of extended Nasolabial flaps with Platysma myocutaneous muscle flaps, in the management of 20 randomly selected patients with histologically confirmed oral submucous fibrosis. Patients and Methods: All patients in the study were treated by release of fibrous bands ...

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Miniplates for Osteosynthesis of Middle Facial Fractures

23 Apr 2018

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INTRODUCTION Numerous biomechanical studies illustrate the stability of the rigid fixation for mandibular fractures4-6. However, little research has focused on the maxilla, despite the fact that Le Fort fractures and osteotomies are common clinical presentations. For the treatment of Le Fort maxillary fractures, the primary aims include the restoration of correct midfacial vertical height and anterior projection and restoration of occlusion. Nonetheless, the removal rate of ...

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Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies (IIMs)

23 Apr 2018

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1.1 Introduction to IIMs Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of rheumatic disorders affecting skeletal muscle, they are thought to be auto immune in origin (Rothwell et al., 2013), but as their name implies the actual cause remains something of an enigma. The phenotype of IMMs is generally characterised by progressive symmetrical proximal muscle weakness and rapid fatigue, MHC class 1 expression in muscle fibres ...

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Variations of Tracheal Cartilages

23 Apr 2018

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The trachea, located in the superior mediastinum, is the proximal part of the tracheobronchial tree (Anne M Gilory 2012). It is approximately 5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter; courses inferiorly anterior to esophagus and posterior to aortic arch (John T Hansen et al. 2005). The trachea extends from the lower border of the cricoid cartilage opposite C6 vertebra up to the upper border of ...

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Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Nose Defect

23 Apr 2018

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Case Report Authors: Satyabodh S Guttal, MDS,MFPT 1, Blessy Bangera, BDS,2 Adarsh Kudva, MDS,3 Basavaraj R Patil, MS, 4   Abstract Midfacial defects are enormous defects that result from cancer treatment that rarely are corrected by surgical reconstruction alone; they generally require a facial prosthesis to restore function and appearance. Surgical reconstruction may be viable for few defects, which are done with different flaps. But for the ...

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Differentiation Between Respiration and Breathing

23 Apr 2018

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Report: The differentiation between respiration and breathing and an explanation of the adaptation of the alveoli and their role in gas exchange. Introduction This report will explore the differences between respiration and breathing by defining their structures and functions and attaching a hand drawn diagram of the respiratory tract to refer to. The author will also give an explanation of how gasses are exchanged through the ...

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MGMT Methylation Status and Glioblastoma Multiforme Outcome

23 Apr 2018

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ABSTRACT Background: O6 – methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who were treated with various alkylating agents. We examined the relationship between MGMT methylation status and clinical outcome in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with BCNU wafers (Gliadel®). Methods: MGMT promoter methylation in DNA from 122 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel was determined by ...

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Mechanisms of V.cholerae Cytolysin (VCC)

23 Apr 2018

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V.cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a pore-forming toxin secreted by many pathogenic strains of the Gram-negative bacteria V.cholerae the causative pathogen of diarrheal disease cholera. VCC display potent cytotoxic activity against the erythrocytes and mammalian cells. It is also reported to possess enterotoxin activity in terms of inducing bloody fluid accumulation in the rabbit ileal loops. Based on these observations, VCC has been believed as a potential ...

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Psychotic Manifestations as Initial Presentation of Glioma

23 Apr 2018

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Psychotic manifestations as an initial presentation in a Glioma patient: Two Case Reports & Review of Literature Abstract Psychotic manifestation as an initial presentation of brain tumor is a rare manifestation of the primary disease. A 32 years old male patient presented with auditory and visual hallucinations, delusion of persecutionand profound agitation. The patient was initially suspected as a case of acute psychosis; however on imaging ...

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The Prevalence of Microorganisms in Hospital Wards

23 Apr 2018

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CONTENTS Sl. No PARTICULARS PAGE NO. 1 INTRODUCTION   2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE   3 MATERIALS AND METHODS   4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION   5 SUMMARY   ...

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Carbon Nanotubes for Nano-particle Field Extraction Thruster

19 Apr 2018

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Using carbon nanotubes as propellant for nano-particle field extraction thrusters Stefan Seuleanu Introduction Carbon nanotubes have been a research focus for more than two decades due to their unique physical properties and have been used so far in a variety of appli- cations. A possible application of carbon nanotubes is their use as propellant for an electric propulsion prototype, the nano-particle field extraction thruster ...

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Approach To Estimate The Salivary Flow Using Chromatography

19 Apr 2018

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Abstract: Aim: To develop a simple and safe method to estimate the salivary flow using chromatography paper. Materials and Method: 30 volunteers participated in the study. The salivary flow rate was estimated using chromatography filter paper and compared with the salivary flow rate per minute. The assay consisted of 3 spots containing starch and potassium iodide per spot on filter paper. Based on the color reaction ...

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Influence of Cannabis Abuse Variables on Psychotic Symptoms

19 Apr 2018

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Influence of variables of cannabis abuse on psychotic symptoms and their severity: an Indian experience Abstract: Context: Cannabis is probably the most commonly used illicit drug. While not all cannabis users present mental health problems, heavy cannabis use may increase the risk of cognitive abnormalities, psychotic illness, and mood disorders. Cannabis-induced psychosis is not easily distinguishable from schizophrenic symptomatology, although it is characterized by more bizarre ...

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Management of Amlodipine Influenced Gingival Overgrowth

19 Apr 2018

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Surgical Management of Amlodipine influenced gingival overgrowth in Hypertensive patient. Abstract: Drug-influenced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a serious concern both for the patient and the clinician. A number of local and systemic factors such as plaque, hormonal changes, drug ingestion, heredity can cause or influence gingival overgrowth. Certain anticonvulsants, immuno-suppressive drugs and a number of calcium channel blockers have been shown to produce similar gingival overgrowths ...

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Genotoxicity of Endodontic Irrigants and Medicaments

19 Apr 2018

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Abstract Genotoxicity describes a deleterious action on a cell's genetic material affecting its integrity. This includes both certain chemical compounds and certain types of radiation. Genotoxic substances are all those with affinity to interact with DNA - which is not proof of their dangerousness to humans, but does render them potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. This review will address the genotoxicity of endodontic irrigants, medicaments, and sealers. ...

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Five-Antiretroviral Drug Class Resistant HIV-1

19 Apr 2018

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Five-Antiretroviral Drug Class Resistant HIV-1 In A Treatment Naïve Patient Suppressed With Optimized Antiretroviral Selection Joseph M Volpe, Douglas J Ward, Laura Napolitano, Pham Phung, Jonathan Toma, Owen Solberg, Christos J Petropoulos, Charles M Walworth   Abstract Transmission of HIV-1 exhibiting reduced susceptibility to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors is well-documented, but is evolving for integrase inhibitors and is limited for the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide. We ...

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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Optimization Parameters

19 Apr 2018

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IGHODARO OGHOGHO UYIOSA Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): Evaluation of different optimization parameters for appropriate PCR process. Abstract PCR is a method used to produce relatively large amounts of a specific DNA sequence. The productivity of PCR method depends on different reaction conditions such as the concentration of the DNA template, concentration of magnesium ions, DNA template dilution and polymerase concentration. The aim of this ...

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Impacts on Morphology of Porous Polymethacrylate Adsorbent

19 Apr 2018

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Study of the effect of external heating and internal temperature build-up during polymerization on the morphology of porous polymethacrylate adsorbent Chan Yi Wei, Clarence M. Ongkudon, Tamar Kansil   Abstract. Modern day synthesis protocols of methacrylate monolithic polymer adsorbent are based on existing polymerization schemes without an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of pore structure and formation. This has resulted in ineffectiveness of polymer ...

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Effect of Temperature on Water Properties

19 Apr 2018

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Life is inseparable from water. This dependence of life on water can be attributed to the unique properties of water, water is directly intimately involved in all details of animal physiology but because it is so common, water is often regarded with indifference as an inert space, filter in living system. The special properties of water are so important to life stem directly from its molecular ...

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Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Report

19 Apr 2018

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Jason Taylor   Introduction Glucose is a simple sugar that provides nearly half of the body’s energy, it can’t be eaten directly thus it is obtained from eating foods that contain carbohydrates. The liver stores about 1/3 of the body’s total glucose in the form of glycogen while muscle cells store 2/3 of glucose in the same form (Whitney & Rolfe, p99). The amount ...

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EU Pharmacovigilance Legislation: An Overview

19 Apr 2018

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Susan Murphy As defined by the WHO, Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse reactions and other medicine related problems. Adverse effects are whereby medicines affect the body in an unintended and harmful way. Following on from this, the underlying objectives of EU pharmacovigilance legislation are to: prevent harm from adverse reactions in humans ...

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Chromatographic Separation of Hemoglobin from Phenol Red

19 Apr 2018

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Syed Ibrahim Chromatographic Separation of Hemoglobin from Phenol Red by Gel Filtration   Introduction From catalysis to transport, proteins take part in countless cellular processes (Nelson & Cox, 2008). However, due to their small size, proteins can be challenging to work with in the lab. To overcome this hurdle, scientists have developed many fractionation techniques including centrifugation, precipitation, dialysis, and chromatography (Alberts et al., ...

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Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics- An Overview

19 Apr 2018

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Dr Ranjith Kumar P, MDS; Dr Shajahan PA,MDS ; Dr Jyothis Mathew, MDS ABSTRACT Denture adhesives are used by an endless number of denture wearers and also by the dentists who fabricate them. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for deficiencies in clinical and technical procedures. Denture adhesives increase retention and thereby improve chewing ability, ...

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Drug –excipient Interaction of Anti-tubercular Drugs

19 Apr 2018

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Drug –excipient interaction of anti-tubercular drugs and its in-silico evaluation Abstract Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide are the first line anti tubercular drugs. Lactose is mainly used as the excipient in solid dosage forms of isoniazid and pyrazinamide. These drugs contains primary and secondary amino functional group which interacts with lactose by maillard reaction and form adduct. The maillard reaction adducts of isoniazid and pyrazinamide with lactose were ...

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Treatment of Acute Renal Colic: Rectal Diclofenac Sodium

19 Apr 2018

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Therapeutic Effects of Rectal Diclofenac Sodium and Intramuscular Pethidine Injection in The Treatment of Acute Renal Colic: A randomized Clinical Trial Mohammad Mehdi Hosseini, Abdoul-Rasoul Ebrahimi   Abstract Renal colic is a type of abdominal pain commonly caused by obstructive stones. The aims of this study were to evaluate safety and efficacy of rectal diclofenac sodium ( RD ) in acute renal colic and compare ...

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Personalised Cancer Treatment: Known Markers in Treatment

19 Apr 2018

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Personalised cancer treatment – known markers and what they mean for treatment Contents (Jump to) Known markers and what they mean for treatment Overview Drug target markers Diagnostic and prognostic markers Meta description Keywords Copyscape Known markers and what they mean for treatment Overview Personalised, targeted and hormonal treatments all depend on genetic mutations that can be identified in cancer cells to be effective. These mutations ...

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Elements for AV Informed Consent Process for Clinical Trials

19 Apr 2018

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Audio video consent Guidelines Shekhar Goyal, Indra Bhadu, Akhil Kapoor   Abstract: Clinical research guidelines require that every adult volunteer must agree to participate in a clinical trial after given the consent. As per the schedule Y, in all trials, a freely given, informed, written consent, free from any physical, psychological or economic points. After highlight the order of the Hon’ble Supreme court, CDSCO ...

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Approaches to Correction of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion

19 Apr 2018

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Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Approach in the Correction of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion Dr. Abdulaziz AlShahrani Astrac While growth modification and camouflage orthodontic treatment offers a limited solution in treating some skeletal Class III malocclusion depending on the age of the patient , Underlying skeletal severity, alignment of the teeth and the vertical facial proportions, a combination of surgical and Orthodontic therapy is the ...

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Liver Functions, Anatomy and Diseases

19 Apr 2018

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Sandra Marais Nikita Wiggil Charne Scott   Chante Wiese    Sue-May van der Westhuizen   Stephanie Willows   Contents (Jump to) Introduction The Anatomy and function of the Liver Definition and description ...

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Agricultural Climate Adaptation: Pakistan Wheat Industry

19 Apr 2018

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Agricultural Climate Adaptation plan: A Case Study of Pakistan wheat industry Lubna Naz 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Global warming as a result of climate change is projecting higher temperature and unpredicted rainfall pattern coupled with extreme events like flash floods and storm. This never seen before phenomena would be a threat to mankind in all sphere of life if no appropriate actions are taken. As elaborated in ...

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Temperature Effect on Embryonic Development in Fish Eggs

19 Apr 2018

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Abstract The captive breeding of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) was successfully carried out at the Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal, India. Induced breeding trials conducted on the fish revealed that the fish can be naturally spawned Low temperature using sGnRH analogue and dopamine antagonist (Ovaprim). Spawning was observed eighteen hrs after the injection at low temperature (16 ± 2oC). The fertilized eggs were adhesive ...

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Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) for Global Warming

19 Apr 2018

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Josh Chaplin “Can the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) be used as an analogue for anthropogenically-induced global warming?” The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global climatic occurrence in the early Paleogene period, spanning across the Paleocene and Eocene epoch overlap at 55.8 Ma (Gradstein et al 2004). Although the exact start and end points of the PETM are disputed, drilling in the North Sea ...

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Food Product Analysis: Dutch Lady Full Cream Milk

19 Apr 2018

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Wong Jun Yik   Food Product & Nutritional Label Figure 1: Tetra Packaging Figure 2 : Nutritional Label Figure 3 : Ingredient List Topic 1(a): List of Major & Minor Food Compound Ingredient list: Milks solids non-fat, Milk Fat, Calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B2, Vitamin D3 & ...

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The Kinetics of Dental Liquid in Odontogenesis

19 Apr 2018

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The kinetics of dental liquid in odontogenesis in the concept of the functional acid resistance of the enamel Abstract The phenotypical characteristics of teeth and namely the caries resistance essentially depends on the particularities of odontogenesis. They determine the structural and functional stability of the enamel to the micro flora of the oral cavity. Resistance of hard dental tissues to caries depends on the degree of ...

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Women in the Scientific Revolution

19 Apr 2018

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The scientific revolution is generally considered part of the broader intellectual revolution that began with the Italian Renaissance and the rediscovery and translation of the classical writers, particularly Aristotle, sometime during the fourteenth century. It is only in retrospect that one can understand broad movements, such as this, but one can assert with confidence that the scientific revolution resulted from a confluence of several factors, most ...

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Matricaria Chamomilla (Chamomile): A Pharmacognosy Review

19 Apr 2018

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Abstract Matricaria chamomilla is one of the most ancient and renowned medicinal plant from Asteraceae family. Chamomile is a well-heeled plant of natural stuff having pharmacognostic properties. This plant is natural source of blue oil, prepared by various methods such as hydro-distillation, chromatography techniques, etc. Earlier studies on plant compounds classified have nutritional values and more than one biological activity. Chamomile is thus used in cosmetics, ...

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Glycaemic Control for Type 2 Diabetes

19 Apr 2018

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Case study 1: Glycaemic Status A newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patient attended his outpatient appointment and reported that he had been tightly monitoring his glycaemic control. The biochemical analysis produced the following results: Value Range [Plasma Glucose] fasting sample 12 mmol/l 4-6 mmol/l Urea 10.1 mmol/l 3.3-6.8 mmol/l HbA1c 10% <6.5% Osmolality (mosm/kg) 277 mosm/kg 285-295 mosm/kg 1] Consider each of these findings and give ...

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Food Safety Contamination Types and Causes

19 Apr 2018

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Introduction Food safety refers to the guarantee that must be given to consumers that the food is safe for consumption. If this is not the case then the food is contaminated. Food can be contaminated in different ways. Some food may already contain bacteria or foreign body but on the other hand food may also be contaminated if it is not handled properly. Food contamination can ...

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Food Safety Issues Related to Street Vendors

19 Apr 2018

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Introduction Street food vending forms a very important segment of the unauthorized sector of food industry. As a result of rapidly growing economy and better employment opportunities in urban areas, urban sector attracts a large proportion of population for employment and results in settlement of this section in other areas of big cities and development of suburbs. This growth is expected to increase significantly with the ...

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Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles: Model of Chemical Cycling

19 Apr 2018

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The general model of nutrient cycling shows the main reservoirs relating to both the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Most nutrients accumulate in four reservoirs, each of which is defined by two attributes: whether it contains organic or inorganic matter and whether or not the matter is directly accessible for use by organisms. One section of organic materials is comprised of the living organisms themselves and detritus; ...

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Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Oxidative Stress Relationship

19 Apr 2018

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes a lethal twist in the structural integrity, and a roadblock in the function of brain, this eventually channel the situation to degeneration and shrinkage of brain, and override the control of brain over other parts of the body, and comes to the final closing remark of the disease- death. Studies done on the topic have corroborated that ...

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Monoclonal Antibody Production using Animal Cell Culture

19 Apr 2018

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Introduction Monoclonal antibodies, in biomedical research, are used as reagents in diagnosis and treatment of diseases like cancer and infections [1]. It has been almost century their introduction, mAbs are still produced from splenocytes fused to myeloma cells [2]. The antibodies are produced by obtaining cell lines from animals immunized with substance to be studied. To produce the cell lines, B cells obtained from immunized mice ...

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Ultrasonography Advantages and Disadvantages

19 Apr 2018

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ULTRASONOGRAPHY Ultrasonography is a sound based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualising subcutaneous body structures including muscles joints vessels and internal organs for possible pathology and lesions. Sonography was introduced in the Medical field in early 1950's with steady development. The requirement of Ultrasound has gained importance in medical field and slowly its use in dentistry is also advancing. In Ultrasonography high frequency sound waves are ...

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Methods for Short and Long Term Memory Formation

19 Apr 2018

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The purpose of the experiment was to determine which Learning Method was the most effective for short- and long-term memory formation. Method efficacy was tested via a Short-Term Memory (STM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM), glyph recall test. There were four groups, each using a different Learning Method which varied in two factors: written repetition (10X/none) and movie viewing (before/after STM test). The Learning Method was used ...

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Effect of Sucrose Holding Solution on Flower Longevity

19 Apr 2018

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Vigneshwaree Sabapathy Introduction and Objectives: The industry for cut flowers has become worldwide and its market continues to grow every year (Sheela, 2008). Cut flowers are living organs composed of foliar and floral parts that are harvested and sold for ornamental purposes (Sheela, 2008). Because they are highly perishable commodities, their post-harvest longevity is significant in determining its value. Flower longevity is the time ...

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Designing of a 4 Bit Transmission System Using Lasers

19 Apr 2018

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Title: Laser Communication System Abstract: Communication is a common need. But there are places where wired and frequency wave communication is not possible. Laser as a new form of communication can communicate over those barriers. This paper deals with designing of a 4 bit transmission system using Laser. This is faster and cheaper communication medium. Laser light has higher intensity, efficiency, as well as better visibility ...

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How Light Reacts Through Different Mediums | Experiment

19 Apr 2018

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Audry Alburquerque   Abstract: The goal of this experiment was to determine how does light react when it travels through different mediums. The student had to answer one question: “How does light react as it goes through lenses and as it traverses liquids?” And her possible hypotheses were: “If I use the Geometric Optics program to see how light reacts when passing through different ...

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Standardization of Anti-diabetic Poly Herbal Formulation

19 Apr 2018

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1. Introduction Now-a-days most of developed as well as developing countries use Ayurvedic medicines then they uses it in past. They avoid use of allopathic drugs because of high risk of adverse effects. So, for the sake of community it is important to standardize the dosage form available in market. Standardization of formulation is evidence that the formulation contains constituents which it says to be contained. ...

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Estimating Reservoir Porosity: Probabilistic Neural Network

19 Apr 2018

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Estimation of Reservoir Porosity Using Probabilistic Neural Network Keywords: Porosity Seismic Attributes Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) Highlights: Porosity is estimated from seismicattributes using Probabilistic Neural Networks. Impedance is calculated by using Probabilistic Neural Networks inversion. Multi-regression analysis is used to select input seismic attributes. Abstract Porosity is the most fundamental property of hydrocarbon reservoir. However, the porosity data that come from well log are only available ...

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Lesser Sac Cystic Lymphangioma: Gastric Outlet Obstruction

19 Apr 2018

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Cystic Lymhangioma of the Lesser Sac in adult presenting with features of Gastric Outlet Obstruction - A Case Report S Suresh Kumar Sri Aurobindo Prasad Das Vikram Kate   Running title: Lesser sac cystic lymphangioma causing gastric outlet obstruction Key Words: Abdominal cystic Lymphangioma; Omental Bursa; Outlet Obstruction Article type: Case Report Section (speciality): Surgery- Gastrointestinal Surgery Abstract: Non- Structured (Case Report) ABSTRACT: Background: ...

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Effects of Vitamin C on Chemotherapy Outcome | Claim Review

19 Apr 2018

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Media Claim on ‘Vitamin C’ gives chemotherapy a boost’ The headline ‘Vitamin C’ gives chemotherapy a boost’ suggested by a US scientist was a misleading and inaccurate statement as the study was looking specific at late stage ovarian cancer. From the study, scientists did not find high dosage of vitamin C help with cancer survival nor reducing the risk of cancer (Ma and Chapman et ...

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Investigation of Food Poisoning Outbreak

19 Apr 2018

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Christian Nehme INTRODUCTION An investigation of a food poisoning outbreak requires some knowledge into what food poisoning is and some common culprit bacteria which trigger such outbreaks. Food poisoning, also known as foodborne illness, is the name for the range of illnesses caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or drink. Food poisoning occurs in two main ways: poisoning by toxic agent or by ...

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Methods of DNA Identification

19 Apr 2018

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To isolate DNA from blood, saliva, buccal swab and betel quid by phenol-chloroform method and chelex method and compare the efficacy of both the methods. To carry out restriction digestion of the DNA samples isolated from above mentioned sources using the restriction enzyme EcoRI (G|AATTC) and identify individuals based on the pattern of restriction banding and to ascertain the applicability of the restriction digestion in forensics ...

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New Generation Sequencing Technologies: Population Genetics

19 Apr 2018

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New generation sequencing technologies: implications for the science of population genetics Kate Elizabeth Moffitt New generation sequencing technologies have the potential to rapidly accelerate population genetics research, allowing scientists to comprehensively understand complex evolutionary histories, as well as functional and ecological biodiversity (Shokralla, et al., 2012; Shendure & Hanlee, 2008). Prior to ...

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Captive Marine Animals Vs. Free Living Animals

19 Apr 2018

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Fie Lissner   The pools that holds these glorious creatures can obviously not be compared to the space and water that an Orca can cover. A lot of marine mammals that is in captivity has to live under these premises. “The Humane Society of the United States believes that these animals should not be taken from the wild simply to entertain and amuse people, ...

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Blue Archipelago Berhad (BAB) Shrimp Aquaculture

19 Apr 2018

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SPECIAL TOPIC IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SCIENCE ACADEMIC TALK REPORT OF BLUE ARCHIPELAGO BERHAD WAN MAISARAH BINTI WAN ZAMRI   INTRODUCTION A leading shrimp aquaculture company named Blue Archipelago Berhad (BAB) is a subsidiary of Khazanah Nasional Berhad, the strategic investment arm of the government of Malaysia. The establishment of this company was since 2010. The company is focused on the production of premium quality ...

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Effectiveness of Exogenous Melatonin in Insomnia

19 Apr 2018

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WOO YUN KIN   CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Research Background Sleep is not always a luxury. Insomnia is defined as a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep as long as desired (Roth T. 2007). It is estimated that up to 34% of adults in the United States and 37% in Europe have some forms of ...

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Folic Acid Biotechnological Production and Applications

17 Apr 2018

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NUR SHAHIRAH BINTI BAHARUDIN   Summary Folic acid (synthetic form) which also known as folate (naturally occurring form) is a member of the water soluble B complex vitamin. Folic acid is man-made. It can be found in many beans, grains, fortified breakfast cereals, pasta, and green vegetables. Folic acid plays big part in building DNA and aids the body to make new new cells, ...

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Theory of Inner Core Super-Rotation: An Analysis

17 Apr 2018

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Andrew Brown   Introduction This article investigates the various thought processes behind, and controversies surrounding, the theory of Inner Core super-rotation. The Inner Core of the Earth is composed predominantly of soli iron, and lies at the centre of the planet, surrounded by a liquid Outer Core (again, predominantly composed of iron). It is a region that has long been known for having a ...

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Volumetric Analysis to Find Concentration of Acid

17 Apr 2018

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A. Dilshan Jayawickrama Introduction: Volumetric Analysis is a quantitative method and which deals with the volume of a particular substance used in the analysis. However in volumetric analysis most important factor is the volume. Here the volumetric analysis is proceed with known amount of solutions. But, concentrations of both the solution has not been mentioned since it is done to find out ...

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Prudhoe Bay Oil Field: Discovery, Formation and Impacts

17 Apr 2018

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The Prudhoe Bay oil field: The largest oil discovery in the USA The Prudhoe Bay oil field is located in Alaska on the North Slope. The onshore field spans 214,000 acres. Due to the immense size, satellite fields are established within the field. These extract smaller quantities of oil and gas. In total, there are an estimated 24 billion bbls of OOIP and 40 tcf of ...

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Mechanisms of Autoimmunity in Animal Models and Humans

17 Apr 2018

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Norzawani Binti Buang Genetic and cellular mechanisms of autoimmunity in animal models and humans   Research Plan. (Do not exceed two pages, including all references, tables and figures. Do not attach separate documents) Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex genetic trait disease of unknown aetiology characterized by the production of antinuclear antibodies resulting in the formation and deposition ...

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Geological Applications of the Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen

17 Apr 2018

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Bruce Botton Hard rock, geological applications of the stable isotopes of nitrogen. Introduction. Gammon and Ebbing book of general chemistry define isotope as “an atom with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. So isotopes are just different forms of a single element.”[ Gammon, & Ebbing. (2005). (8th ed., p. 467)] There are two broader definitions of isotopes, light isotopes are ...

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Muscular Dystrophy: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

16 Apr 2018

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Muscular Dystrophy Background Information: Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a genetic disorder that causes the deterioration of skeletal muscles, the muscles that enable the human body to move. People with muscular dystrophy have missing or incorrect information within their genes, which prohibits the development of the proteins they need for healthy muscles. Due to fact that muscular dystrophy is genetic, it is not contagious or contractible from ...

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Communicating the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change

16 Apr 2018

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Marie Claire Attard Bason   For many centuries, Climate change has been one of the most complicated problems around the world. It is a very difficult phenomenon to avoid, yet it can be manageable with the help of proper initiatives. All aspects of community life, including; Agriculture, economy, transportation, energy, culture and also construction are impacted by such climatic changes. (Schneider, 2009; Bode, Monroe & ...

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HS2: Arguments For and Against the High-Speed Rail Lines

16 Apr 2018

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Georgiana Raluca Andrei   Introduction With the rapid growth of the economy and rapid expansion of technology, there is the need for a development of infrastructure. HS2 is a proposed infrastructure project to build a high speed rail line from London to Manchester and Leeds, via Birmingham, to begin operation in 2026 and be completed in 2032. It was supported by the Labour Government ...

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Effect of Calpain-calpastatin System in Meat Tenderness

16 Apr 2018

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  1.0 Introduction Meat quality is the freshness of the meat. This is the most crucial things which supplier always find and think in order to fulfill the high demand from the customer. This shows researcher play an important role in increasing the quality of meat because of the high demand from the wholesalers or consumer. The critical point of appraisal of meat quality occurs when ...

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Oral Contraceptive Use and the Risk of Meningioma

16 Apr 2018

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Abstract: Oral contraceptive use is a suspected risk factor for the development of a meningioma. This is supported by meningiomas being more common in females than males, the growth of meningiomas being affected by the menstrual cycle and the presence of estrogen, progestogen and androgen receptors on meningiomas. Some previous studies indicate an association between current use of oral contraceptives and the development of a meningioma, ...

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Enzymatic Functioning in Bromelain from Pineapple Juice

16 Apr 2018

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William Nguyen Introduction An enzyme is a biological catalyst that accelerates specific chemical reactions. It converts substrates into specific products. Most enzymes are proteins and hence have a three-dimensional structure of folded polypeptide chains. Enzymes have an optimal temperature and pH range in which they function most effectively. If changes occur that remove the enzyme out of this range it may not function effectively. ...

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Resonance Frequency Analysis Tool for Implant Stability

16 Apr 2018

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Dr. Vishwanath Pattar Dr. Anjana Bagewadi MDS “ Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) – A diagnostic tool for implant stability ” Dental implants have become a significant aspect of tooth replacement in prosthodontic treatment. High implant success rates of the order of 78-100 % have been published, with more than 15 years of observation time. Treatment success of dental implant mainly depends on the stability of the ...

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