The Effect Of Police Misconduct

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

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What is police misconduct and how does it affect police and community relations? Police misconduct includes a comprehensive range, reflecting the high standards we expect of police officers. Police misconduct can apply to off-duty behavior as well as conduct on the job. Any conduct that is disgraceful, improper or unbecoming a police officer, or shows unfitness to be or continue as a police officer, or does not ...

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Theories Of Cesare Lombros

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In this report I will be exploring the theories developed by Italian criminologist, Cesare Lombroso and the ethical implications of his work. He was the founder of the Italian school of Criminology, and is also considered to be one of the pioneers of the field due to his world wide appeal and notorious studies and ideas. Cesare Lombroso was born in Verona, Italy in November 1835 and ...

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Media And Public Perceptions of crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime stories and representations are, and have always been, a popular focus of the mass media. The percentage of media content that is constituted by crime images and stories obviously will depend on the definitions of 'crime' used. A glimpse at the television guide, the movies listings in the cinema, or press headlines, will highlight both the interest the general population has in crime and criminals, and ...

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Theories of Crime | Introduction

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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There are many theories of crime which fit into four different models each explaining crime through varied approaches, in this essay I will be discussing the weakest of these theoretical explanations of crime and the strongest. The weakest theory of crime is Biological Positivism which is part of the Predestined Actor Model which is a positivist model explaining criminal behaviour based on scientific factors beyond a person's ...

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Controlling Organized Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime is a part of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their ...

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Age and Gender Differences on Fear of Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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The current study aimed to investigate age and gender effects on fear of crime and their relationships with attitude towards prisoner and crime, life satisfaction, living arrangement and religion in a Chinese sample. 170 undergraduate and postgraduate students, with a mean age of 21.9 years, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on fear of crime. In general, women reported significantly greater fear ...

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Impact Of Drug And Substance Abuse

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Drug and substance abuse continues to be a major problem worldwide, and in particular, Malawi. It is estimated that there are over 12 million abusers in United Stated of America and 500,000 cocaine users in South Africa (Fabiano &Maganga,2002, pp124-127). It is a common knowledge that most of the drug and substance abusers are youth and young adults, i.e. the most productive age groups. Most teenagers begin ...

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Theories of Female Victimisation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In today's society crime is a constant. People that are well know, to people that no one has ever heard of fall victim to criminal activity on a daily basis. There has to be a reason why these things happen so often. Victim precipitation theory holds that the victim is the contributing fact of their victimization. Women, especially, can make themselves available to criminals and can effortlessly ...

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Should Cannabis Be Legalised In Australia?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Cannabis is a plant that is grown using organic fertiliser, other names includes marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hemp and ganja which is made from dried leaves and small green flowers from the cannabis plant itself, it contains narcotics and tough fibres that are used to make ropes, medicine, furniture and many others. Cannabis is known as a soft illicit drug that is commonly used. It is usually smoked ...

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Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency | Correllation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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From 2000 to 2005, thirty-one South Carolina counties showed an increase in the number of juveniles placed in secure detention. A total of 5,330 juveniles were detained during the fiscal year 2004-2005 (Children's Law Office: Juvenile Detention in South Carolina, 2006, p. 6) Delinquency is an increasing issue in South Carolina, and there is much speculation that delinquency is increasing due to early or current experiences with ...

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The Social Construction Of Female Gangs

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Introduction In the UK, there has been very little research on female gang problem which has led to the vast amount of research from the USA being applied to the UK situation. Female gangs have been in existence throughout history although very little has been said about its members beyond their role as sexual objects. Hallsworth and Young (2008):176) following a home office report in 2008 state ...

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Why Do People Wrongfully Confess To Crimes?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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False confession and self-incriminating admittance made to the police by innocent suspects which is clearly against their self- interest is usually a combination of factors which are associated with various circumstances and nature of the custodial interrogation, the suspects' personality factors and psychological vulnerabilities. What is more there are serious consequence that follow from confession and this also applies to the case of false confession. The study ...

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Case Study: Harold Shipman

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Shipman began practicing as a doctor in 1974, at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Practice in Todmorden. He was there until 1975 when his partners discovered that he had been obtaining drugs dishonestly for his own use. In 1976 he pleaded guilty to three offences of obtaining pethidine by deception, three offences of unlawful possession of pethidine and two further offences of forging a prescription he was sentenced ...

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Anti-Social Behaviour Orders | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Our society gives us the right to live in a safe and secure community. But along with these rights, we have some responsibilities. We all have a responsibility towards our neighboursand we must treat them respectfully in the community. Also for the security and betterment of the society, the antisocialists should know that their behaviour will not be accepted and action will be taken against them if ...

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Prisons: Punishment and Rehabilitation

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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In order to understand the nature of imprisonment, this chapter will briefly look at the historical origins of prison, and then it will move onto justify their theoretical legitimacy: punishment/retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. These theories/ideologies will re-occur through the thesis like themes- what we refer to them as 'meta-concepts'. The final section of this chapter will examine the strategies employed by the Prison Service to reach ...

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Organized Crime: The Social Perspective

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Regardless of which form of organized crime takes place, abundantly clear organized crime is showing no signs of slowing down or even being remotely under control. The continued growth and diversification of organized crimes continues to be a major problem for law enforcement and for law abiding citizens as a whole. Organized crime existed even before there was any real understanding of it as something distinctive. After ...

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Agencies in the Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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The common thread binding the agencies of the criminal justice system is centred upon crime and the control of crime. (Garland 2001; 5-8). It can be argued that the agencies of criminal justice including, the police, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), the courts, the prison service and the probation service all have separate and distinctive functions but operate towards a common overarching goal - crime control. (Maguire ...

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An Analysis Of Female Foeticide In India

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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India is a country of incredible ironies. It is a land where people worship myriad forms of female Shakti in quest of wealth, wisdom and power. In this country it is a common sight to see thousands of couples making arduous journeys every year to shrines of goddesses in order to be blessed with a child. But strangely enough, in this country, a couple is said to ...

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Criminal Justice Organizations And Challenges Faced

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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In the world of criminal justice organizations, leaders are facing challenges that have become a part of the daily routine. Criminal justice organizations consist of corrections, courts, and the police. These organizations each have an important role in the criminal justice system that results in the leadership of each organization. This paper will explain some of these challenges of the leaders and steps that can be taken ...

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The Rates Of African American Male Incarceration

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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This paper is going to provide an understanding about how and why African American males are incarcerated at higher rates than any other race and how it is growing. It will also show racial disparities on sentencing, crimes and overall treatment. You will have a better understanding of how the family structure has been destroyed as a result of incarceration creating segregation within the African American race. ...

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliffe

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliff One other aspect we can all discuss which is relatively new, is the work of psychologists in helping the police in catching a killer, it is known as criminal profiling or offender profiling, which can be traced back to 1888 when ‘Thomas Bond gave a detailed description on Jack the Ripper’ (Cross) it was later used by the FBI in America. Following the ...

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Terrorism And Mass Media

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The United States of America law defines terrorism as "predominated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents" (U.S. Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para 2656f (d). Hoffman has defined a terrorist act as an act of violence vested upon a given people so as to attract the attention of the opponents and the general public which is followed by communication of a ...

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Organizational Decoupling

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The field of organizational decoupling is a field that has not been researched very much. Meyer and Rowan (1977) were some of the first authors who wrote about this subject and define organizational decoupling as separating formal structure from actual organizational practice. In short, this means that organizations say that they do one thing, but actually do something else. For instance, an organization can announce that it ...

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Socio-Cultural Theories Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The sociological or socio-cultural model provides a macro-level analysis of criminal violence. This model examines criminal violence in terms of socially structured inequality, and social and cultural attitudes and norms regarding anti-social behaviour and inter-personal relations. Besides the two well-known theories, viz. the Structural-Functional Theory and the Theory of Sub-culture of Violence, the Learning Theory, the Exchange Theory, the Anomie Theory, and the Resource Theory also come ...

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Extra Judicial Killing in Bangladesh

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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How interesting it is that in Bangladesh the elite force named as Rapid Action Battalion [RAB] kills the arrested persons by the name of cross-fire and name them the criminals. "Extra-judicial", thus the term is used to state the killings. It is called extra judicial because of its type, which works as a process outside the judiciary system of Bangladesh. Farid Ahmed in a non periodical web ...

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Analysis Of The Concept Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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It is postulated that the phenomenon crime does not exist, although we can study its negative consequences of it upon society through acts. Many definitions of crime have been developed, the most simplistic definition of a criminal act being; acts that break legislation outlined in law however this differs from that of a normative perspective; crimes are acts which can offend against a set of norms similar ...

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Theories of Cultural Criminology

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminology Cultural Crime Contemporary Issues in Criminology Cultural Criminology Critically discuss its theoretical underpinnings and evaluate whether this theoretical approach serves as a useful explanation of criminal behavior in modern Britain. Introduction Cultural criminology is the approach to the investigation of crime that its criminality and its control are based in the context of culture. This means, that institutions of crime control, and crime by it self ...

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Investigative Tools And Equipment

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Homicides are punishable criminal acts that involve the killing of an individual by another person. Homicide cases can be either intentional or unintentional. Voluntary homicides are premeditated with the intent to kill such as murders, whilst unintentional homicides occur by mistake or negligence as in cases of fatal traffic accidents. However, these are tackled using the same investigative approach which comprises in using the correct apparatus and ...

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How Important And Relevant Is Merton's Strain Theory?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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In this essay I will analyse the importance and relevance of a structional functionalist view of deviance seen through the lens of strain theory and a symbolic interactionalist perspective through the use of labelling theory. Strain Theory attempts to explain why crime is resolute amongst the lower classes who are subjected to the least opportunities for economic achievement (O' Connor 2007). It focuses on the positions that ...

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Human Rights and Prisoner Rights

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Abdullah Bin Omar, a former prisoner in Guantanamo Bay prison was said to be one of the worst criminals regarding terrorism. Bin Omar was captured by the United States army in Pakistan after he had spent twenty three years in an unknown prison in Tunisia. The unfairness that Abdullah faced was the fact that he wasn't told nor convicted of any real or specific crime. Cliff Stafford ...

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Strengths Of Developmental Theories

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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The life course theory is one of the developmental theories that is interesting. The life course theory incorporates the idea from the social learning theory that "crime is a learned behavior" (Siegel, 2011). This occurs when the individual experiences a transition during their life course. According to the life course theory we start behaviors at a very young age that can have a significant impact on our ...

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Contemporary Issues in Criminology

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Contemporary Issues in Criminology Critically discuss its theoretical underpinnings and evaluate whether this theoretical approach serves as a useful explanation of criminal behavior in modern Britain. Introduction: The idea of cultural criminology indicates both exact viewpoints and extensive orientations that have come forward in criminology, sociology, and criminal justice over the past few years. More distinctively, cultural criminology stands for a perception performed by Ferrell & Sanders ...

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The Green River Killer

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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I killed the 48 women listed in the states second amended information. In most cases when I killed these women I did not know their names. Most of the time I killed them the first time I met them and I do not have a good memory of their faces. (Seattle - From statement of Green River killer Gary Ridgway, read in court in November 2003 by ...

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Pros And Cons Of Criminal Profiling

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Many people who hear someone say they are a criminal profiler they are inclined to think of T.V. depicted shows such as Profilers, Criminal Minds and movies like Silence of the Lambs. Unfortunately, these examples portray a glamorous classification of capturing criminals (Fulero and Wrightsman, pg.79). Criminal profiling is considered to be the process of analyzing a crime scene and using the information found to determine the ...

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Can Torture Of Terrorist Suspects Be Justified?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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In advancing into this essay, I shall discuss the history of prohibition of torture, the Utilitarian approach to torture which would include arguments and debates in favour of justification of torture by taking account of the ticking bomb hypothetical, a case study of Guantanamo Bay and the result of torturing terrorist suspects in recent times. This essay would also examine the deontology approach to torture and make ...

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Counter Terrorism Measures For Global Safety

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Terrorism has inflicted fear and panic on almost every corner of the globe. Due to the pain that it inflicts on people indiscriminately, the United Nations has taken the threat of terrorism seriously and is actively engaging all member nations to participate in counterterrorism efforts (United Nations [UN], 2008). The counterterrorism agenda is a priority one for the UN for many years now. Countering terrorism has been ...

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Women Victims Of Violence

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Throughout most of the world, more often that not, women are usually the victims of violence. In America violence against women is becoming one of the most prevalent problems. Domestic violence occurs in many homes all over the world. As a crime against women, rape is uniquely horrible in its long-term effects. Many claim that victims of violence deserve what they get. According to the book Gender ...

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literature Review of Hate Crimes

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Abstract Hate crime is a term that was born in the 1980's from journalists and policy advocates who were trying to describe crimes of bias against African Americans, Asians, and Jews. From there, the term hate crime expanded and an act was passed that required the tracking of hate crime statistics. These statistics can often be misleading due to the underreporting of hate crimes and the strict ...

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Does race affect treatment within CJS?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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For this assignment I am going to explain how differences in race can affect the treatment and experience a person can receive within the criminal justice system. I will use research, legislation, policy and statistics to help answer the question. I will look into the different Criminal Justice Systems and analyse how race affects a person's treatment, I will also backup my findings through case studies which ...

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Death Penalty For Drug Trafficking

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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I have chosen to focus on the death penalty for drug trafficking for the following reasons: Some governments will sentence those who are convicted for just the possession of drugs to the death penalty, while other countries are more lenient and do not do so. From this study, I want to know if the enforcement of the death penalty may affect drug trafficking through its deterrence effect. ...

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Intelligence Led Policing Models

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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The objective of this syndicate research work is to find out that. "Has police ordinance 2002 fulfilled its objectives? What are the missing and gaps in its conceptual framework and implementation process? Why community policing system has been left out of the ordinance? And will it contribute negatively or positively?This is basically aimed at analyzing the success or failure if the ordinance with special reference to its ...

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The Investigation Of Police Corruption

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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One cannot separate police corruption from police abuse of force. Whenever an officer uses force, that officer needs to be able to justify the use of force. Law enforcement ethics go far beyond an officer choice to accept a cup of coffee, or a free car wash. The fact remains that whenever an officer lowers the ethical, and morals standards it affects every area of police operations ...

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Black And Minority Ethnic People In Prison

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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"For every Afro-Caribbean male on campus there are two in jail." (Phillips, 2004). Sir Trevor Phillips' memorable claim is interesting on two levels. First, in how it highlights the strong evidence that Black or Minority Ethnic (BME) persons form a disproportionately high section of the prison population in England and Wales. Secondly, as an example of the polemical terms in which this question is often debated. In ...

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The Crime Scene Manager

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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According to the lecture on crime scene management SAPS 2006 the process of crime scene management is as follows. The different role players within the SAPS respond to the crime scene with due consideration personal safety, while at same time looking for potential evidence and possible suspects. The researcher wants to determine whether the role players from the components such as the visible policing, detectives and the ...

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Subcultural Theories Of Youth Offending

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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Introduction The essay will look at historical subcultural theories and explanations which play a role in explaining youth offending behaviour. It will in particular focus on deviant and radical subcultural theories including theories from Merton and Cohen and look at ways in which these theories are still prevalent amongst contemporary society and continue to be relevant. The essay will consist of an in dept critical analysis of ...

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Theories of criminology | What causes crime?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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This paper focuses on the information about the crimes. Different theories about the criminology are described. Main focus will be on the criminology and its two theories. Criminology is the study of factors about the crimes that lead to its phenomena. This crime may be of individual or social nature. It includes making laws, breaking laws and attempts to break the laws. Criminology focuses on the social, ...

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Is prostitution a victimless crime?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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Prostitution, as described by the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary (1997), is the selling of sexual favors for money or the devoting of oneself or one's talent to an unworthy cause (p. 589). In another frame of reference, prostitution has been called a "victimless crime." What exactly is a "victimless crime"? West's Encyclopedia of American defines it as: …crime where there is no apparent victim and no apparent pain or ...

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Does The Hip Hop Culture Influence Youth Gangs?

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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Gang violence and the use of violent weapons have been highlighted by the media recently. The government have initiated aims in order to curb and deal with gang violence in the United Kingdom. In order deal with this issue, influencing factors have been acknowledged. This research explores the supposed influence that the hip hop culture has on young males engaged in gangs, and their willingness to use ...

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Routine Activites Theory And Reaction To Crime

23 Mar 2015 12 May 2017

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The RAT also known as the routine activities theory was founded in 1979 by two theorists name Marcus Felson and Lawrence Cohen (Miller, Mitchell, & Richard, 2006). It was a reaction to crime rate in the US during the years of 1947-1974 states (Cohen & Marcus, 1979). This was a time where both crime rate and economic conditions were increasing which made this a very popular theory ...

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Transnational Organized Crime

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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1) Describe the role and function of the Transnational Organized Crime Convention and the Convention’s relationship to its Protocols. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime (also known as the ‘Palermo Convention’) has attached to it the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air 2000, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and the Protocol ...

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Police And The Use Of Force Shakoya

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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There have been several issues concerning the policies that underline the use of force within the field of law enforcement. Favorable opinions, negative objections, and indecisive feelings about the use of force have varied throughout the public as well as within the criminal justice system when it comes to this policy. For a number of years, it has been extremely difficult in determining the proper definition of ...

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Women And The Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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The aim of this work is to define the role factors such as gender, class, familial structure and prior victimization have in the awarding of justice to the female offender. It was found that the criminal justice system has traditionally been more lenient to the female offender based on two factors: gender and class and family structure. However, the criminal justice system finds itself in a legal ...

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Evidence Between Offending And Social Class

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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This essay will outline and critically evaluate the main evidence supporting an association between offending, victimisation and social class, using criminological theories such as Strain Theory and Labelling theory to demonstrate this. Social class in relation to offending and victimisation is an extremely broad area, taking this and the words limit into account this essay will specifically focus on offending and Victimisation of the lower classes in ...

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Crime And The Impact On Modern Society

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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The threat and fear of crime are constant concerns that impact many people in modern society. The safety of schools and communities are usually indicated by crime rates, and are justifiably major factors in choosing where to reside. Research denotes that juveniles are involved in numerous crimes each year, as perpetrators who are subjected to legal intervention for status offenses such as running away, school truancy and ...

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The White Collar Crime

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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In 1986, Kenneth Lay merged Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth to form Enron and then in the early 1990s he helped initiate the selling of electricity at market prices. By doing so, it later led to the US Congress to pass legislation deregulating the sale of natural gas. Consequently this made it possible for traders to sell energy at higher prices, allowing companies to significantly increase their ...

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Effectiveness Of Sex Offender Treatment

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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In previous years, the fear of sex offenders has led the public to believe a fallacy regarding sex offender treatments. The public often start to view anyone who commits a sexual offence to be a high risk sex offender. Society need to understand that some sex offenders are low risk offenders who are very unlikely to re-offend again. The public believe sex offenders should be sent to ...

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Organised Crime and the Criminal Justice Process

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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This essay will begin with a brief outline of the historical work of organised crime. Then the definition of organised crime will be given with examples of areas associated with organised crime. The Criminal Justice Process will then be explained and the role of the Serious Organised Crime Agency including the Assets Recovery Agency with statistics showing the economic and social impact of organised crime. Finally ...

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How hooliganism in football has changed

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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This report will look at Football hooliganism and how it has changed through the years. It will look at the early years of hooliganism and compare the hooliganism to today's hooligan firms. It will identify the way in which the hooligan has changed through the years from being easily identified, to the casual years in which the hooligan was more accustomed to the casual lifestyle of designer ...

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Ethics in Psychology and Criminal Justice

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Ethical behavior is important within any discipline whether it be automobile mechanics or brain surgeons. Two disciplines in which ethical behavior is especially important are the disciplines of criminal justice and psychology due to the vulnerable state of the individuals which are encountered on a daily basis. Straying from compliance of ethical guidelines in either of these disciplines could result in mental damage in psychology, false arrests ...

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White Collar Crime: The Influences of the Social Class

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Introduction When it comes to talk about crime, a lot of people will relate to the street crimes including burglary, robbery, and assault. However, more and more people complain that an increasing number of white-collar crimes exits in our society nowadays, such as false advertising, tax evasion, and insider stock trading. Write-collar crimes are very complicated issues which "can harm victims both directly and indirectly without the ...

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Ethical Theories and Criminology

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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Four Ethical Theories and How They Relate to Criminology This paper will cover four ethical theories and how they relate or don't relate to the field of criminology today. The four theories deal with ethically making the right decisions and what influences the actions. Every action has a reaction and the reaction is the consequences of every action. The outcome of the consequences can dictate whether or ...

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Importance Of Geographic Profiling

23 Mar 2015 11 May 2017

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This paper shall give a comprehensive discussion about the importance of geographic profiling to aid in investigative methods employed by government agents and police officers in pinpointing predatory criminals. The sophistication of the techniques in crime scene investigation have kept pace with the rapid development in the tools and technologies used in the field, and this has enabled police authorities to employ a variety of methods to ...

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Understandings And Responses To Paedophilia

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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The concept of paedophilia started to formulate as an object of scientific study in the mid - ninetieth century, as a part of the broader context of sexual deviations. It was first noticed as a phenomenon in the sex "industry" of the time that provided young children to satisfy certain appetites. Later on, child prostitution took place in post - war big cities also as a means ...

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Programs to rehabilitate young offenders

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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The intent of this dissertation is to explore the current shaping of the youth justice system and also to explore the programs that are in place to help rehabilitate young offenders who have been placed in young offender institutes. This research will discuss and examine the effectiveness of these programs put in place for young people who are in custody to help prevent them from re-offending once ...

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Race. Ethnicity And Criminal Justice History

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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UK has been a multi-culture country historically whereby people from various origins, nations, races, religions, beliefs, etc. migrated to UK in the last two centuries. Largely, these migrants have been from Africa and Asia that form the ethnic minority communities within the UK. In the past 30 years, these ethnic minorities progressed very well in the UK and have been the victims of hate and racial crimes. ...

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Restorative Justice | An analysis

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Introduction Restorative Justice is often known as the term used to describe meetings in which people affected by crime talk about their experience, the damage and harm caused, in addition to discussing how the situation can be repaired, on a direct and personal level. Government research shows that Restorative Justice is coveted by around half of victims, helping victims who choose to take part, but reducing their ...

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Psychological Theories Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 10 May 2017

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Psychology and Crime Psychology of crime tries to give an explanation how some people deviate from the social norms and choose to commit crime. It is also a tool commonly used in the investigation process that helps investigators interview suspects effectively. Definitions of Crime A crime is generally considered as an act that is against what criminal law says. Crimes that are 'mala prohibita' vary with time ...

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The Success Of Inmate Reentry Programs

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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What can correctional facilities offer to inmates to help those that are about to be released from prison keep from being rearrested. Most inmates who are released have no job, money, or a place to live. The same pressures and temptations that landed ex-offenders in prison are present in the environment that they often go back to. The key elements of successful re-entry into society after prison ...

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Traditional Classical Theory Verses Positivist Theory

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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The reason for choosing Classical versus Positivist Theory is that these two theories were the basis of argument before the Twentieth Century, and, if studied, one could understand the discrepancies of crime theories and debates when dealing with the law, psychiatrists and deterrence(Padhy, 2006).Crime theories emerge from the study of criminology(Padhy, 2006). Criminology is a sociological branch of study utilising crime statistics, psychology and law and the ...

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The Roles Of Women In Terrorism

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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The involvement of women in terrorist organisations is by no means new, but their role therein has changed markedly over recent years. Up until the late twentieth century, women in terrorist organisations were largely assigned tasks removed from the front lines of political violence - they existed only to support their male counterparts, through gathering intelligence, providing healthcare, and even maintaining safe houses for more-active terrorists. Since ...

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Investigating The Age Of Criminal Responsibility

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

9 (3,394 )

The following research attempts to explore and discuss the criminal age of responsibility in England and Wales. A questionnaire was given out to a sample population in order to gauge public opinion on and around this topic. Secondary data was gathered, such as books, journals and online resources, in order to discuss and explore different ways of dealing with juvenile offenders. Overall, the evidence indicates a strong ...

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Critical Issues in Law Enforcement

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

5 (1,923 )

There are three critical issues in law enforcement Citizens today look to law enforcement for service and protection. In order for officers to serve and protect, some issues have to be resolved. Remaining stress-free, enforcing the code of ethics and lastly, the presence of female police officers. These three critical issues can quickly weaken a department if left to manifest without any intervention. Being stress-free in law ...

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History Of Crime And Punishment

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Crime is defined as an act that the law makes punishable and is often called an offense. It is an offense against the public, as compared to a tort, which is a wrongdoing against an individual and gives rise to an action for damages. Crimes produce two kinds of injuries: Social and Personal. Social injury pertains to the State and it is repaired through the imposition of ...

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Challenges in the 21st Century Police Force

03 Oct 2016 09 May 2017

8 (2,929 )

What are the Challenges a Police Force face in a diverse Society? A diverse society is a society in which there are different kinds of people, different races such as black, white, Asian, Mexican etc. The theory of diversity includes acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique and knowing individual differences. These can be along the magnitudes of age, race, ethnicity, sexual ...

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Principles of social control theory

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

5 (1,818 )

Social Control Theories. Many criminological theories always explain why do people commit crime, or to find out what are the most influential factors motivate people commit crime and violate the social norms. Instead, social control theories have been already assumed humans are potentially committing crime. Moreover, the social control or social bond theory is emphasizing why a person do not be a criminal. In social control theorists' ...

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Performance Issues Of Private Security Guards

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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There is an ever increasing reliance on private security companies to take on the role of protecting both public and private facilities around the world. There are 852 Security Companies operating in Pakistan employing over 350,000 people and representing a business of over half a billion US dollars (Tyab, 2012). Private security business is flourishing day by day due to law and order situation in the country. ...

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Legal Defenses in Criminal Law

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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In criminal law, offenses are clearly defined. Some require a proof of the criminal act and others require proof of intent to commit the crime. "Under the law; individuals may have performed illegal acts but still not be found guilty of a criminal violation because of a legally recognized justification for the actions or because legally they were not responsible for their actions (Neubauer & Fradella, 2010, ...

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White Collar Crime And Society

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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"Theres no such thing as white-collar crime. And theres definitely no such thing as black-on-black crime. Crime is crime. Let me explain something to you. I dont care if you have a white collar or a tank top. If you rob me, Im gonna whup your ass." -Mitch Gilliam, Head of State, 2003 Many people dismiss White Collar Crime as a criminal offence, for many reasons they ...

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Do Correctional Officers Abuse Their Authority?

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Correction officers hold considerable power and authority within the corrections system. They are in charge of maintaining discipline and order within the facility at which they work. Many people view correction officers as the cause of violence within the prisons and jail. Others view correction officers as those who are professional, ethical, and hold good moral standards. I purpose a questionnaire consisting of yes, no, and no ...

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Strategies to decrease recidivism

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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Recidivism is one major problem facing various societies across the world. It involves acts committed by people which involve repeating undesirable behaviors after being trained or treated to extinguish the behavior or experiencing negative consequences due to the behavior. Recidivism is common with criminal behavior or substance abuse but for purposes of this paper, we will focus on criminal behavior. Recidivism is a behavior which is linked ...

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Conducting Forensic Assessments

23 Mar 2015 09 May 2017

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This study discusses different aspects of forensic psychology in relation to juvenile suspects by assessing an individual in the case study portrayed in the documentary "Murder on a Sunday Morning". This paper provides the brief descriptions of the following: The case study in the documentary, including a description of the individual and his forensic population.The potential role(s) of a forensic psychologist in relation to the case study.The ...

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Understanding crowd behaviour

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

5 (1,791 )

There are many vague definitions of the term 'a crowd' one of which is defined as by the Oxford Dictionary() as "a large number of people gathered together, usually without orderly arrangement" and Le Bon (2006:15) defines a crowd as "a gathering of individuals of whatever nationality, profession or sex and whatever be chances that have brought them together". The Oxford Dictionary() also defines behaviour as "a ...

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Similarities and differences of youth justice systems

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Introduction Different countries have their own different way of dealing with their young offenders. Youth offenses comprise a sensitive issue that ought to be handled with care. The youth justice system of any country is charged with the responsibility of dealing with young offenders. The paper is a review into the similarities and the differences of youth justice systems in England and Wales and Sweden in view ...

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The Importance Of Gunshot Residue As Evidence

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

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Gunshot residue is made of particles that form when gasses coming out of a gun hit a surface and instantly cool and condense. The presence or absence of gunshot residue can suggest whether a person fired the weapon or was the victim. There are many tests to show whether or not gunshot residue is present on a surface. The techniques and methods of testing have gotten much ...

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Illegal Immigrants From Mexico to US

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

9 (3,369 )

Nowadays, illegal immigration continues to be a disputable and divisive issue, not only in the United States, but throughout the whole world. The migration of Mexicans into the United States is one of the key problems throughout the history of bilateral cooperation of Mexico and the United States. In this case, the speech is goes not about a legal entry into the country, which in one or ...

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Criminology Research Methods

23 Mar 2015 08 May 2017

6 (2,059 )

Using examples from published research, critically consider that way that choice of study design might influence research findings and conclusions. A study design is a fundamental component of any piece of research, providing a structure within which to implement a suitable methodology for the collection and analysis of information and data. The choice of study design employed in criminological research will inevitably influence the findings and conclusions drawn, ...

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A summary of criminological theories

03 Oct 2016 05 May 2017

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Criminology Matrix Demographic Information Social Disorganization Theory Beginning on the 20th Century 1920-1930’s. Created by theorists Robert Park, Ernest Burgess, W.I. Thomas, Florian Znaniecki, Clifford Shaw, and Henry McKay. Social disorganization shows social change, conflict, and the lack of social consensus as the root causes of crime and deviance. Social disorganization, Chicago school of criminology, Chicago Area Project, demographics, concentric zones, delinquency areas, and cultural transmission (Schmalleger, ...

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The History Of Correctional Systems

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

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The correctional system is an umbrella term referring to a range of mandates directly executed or administered by jurisdictional justice institutions, which entails the castigation, management, supervision and rehabilitation of convicted offenders. These mandates are often accomplished through incarceration, parole and probation, while prison presents the most popular correctional agency globally. The system is alternatively recognized as a penal system because it concerns a network of institutions ...

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Sociological perspectives on deviance

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

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The term "deviance" is used by sociologists to refer to behaviour which changes, in some way, from a social norm. In this respect, it is clear that the idea of deviance refers to a violation of social norms and refers to rule breaking behaviour. Deviance refers to those actions which go against the norms, values and beliefs of ordinary culture. For example, drinking alcohol at the age ...

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The Ideas Of The Classical School

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

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In order to appropriately address the topic of discussion, its important to consider the criminological perspectives related to the debate and the principles associated with each perspective. Two schools which will be drawn upon are the Classical school, which was established towards the end of the 18th century and the Positivist school which developed towards the end of the 19th century. The Classical school was based on ...

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Should Juvenile Offenders Be Treated Like Adults?

23 Mar 2015 05 May 2017

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This paper is intended to inform readers on the history behind the juvenile justice system, the severity of the juvenile offender problem, the pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults, and views on the death penalty concerning juveniles. This paper will also provide professional views as to why juveniles should not be tried as adults. Studies have shown that trying juveniles as adults is not only ...

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Child rights based juvenile justice system in Bangladesh

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

11 (4,237 )

Juvenile delinquency is a burning issue and relatively a new phenomenon in the criminal and human rights jurisprudence. The juvenile of the world are innocent, vulnerable, and curious, full of hope, and belongs to thrill, aspirations, ambition and what not. In face the future of the juvenile should be shared and cared in the light of equality, dignity and social justice with a view to protecting and ...

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An Analysis Of Pulling Levers Policing

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

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Many jurisdictions have been experimenting with comparatively new problem-oriented policing models to halt gun and gang violence among chronic young offenders. Originating in Boston, one approach is the focused deterrence strategy, also known as pulling levers. Its intentions are to affect the demeanor and surroundings of the serious offenders that are known as being at the center of the gun and gang problems. "The strategy seeks permanent ...

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The Types Of Murder

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

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Murder is defined as 1. The action or an act of killing. a. The deliberate and unlawful killing of a human being, esp. in a premeditated manner; (Law) criminal homicide with malice aforethought (occas. more fully wilful murder); an instance of this. What makes the murder is the wilful killing of a human being by another human being. There are many people killed each year and in ...

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Moral Panic: Youth Slashing in Singapore

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

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1. Introduction Slashing cases involving Singaporean youth gang members gain immense notoriety in 2010. The visibility of such criminal acts is amplified further by the mass media. Such reports provoke the public's latent fear of being attack by youth gangs especially so when high-profile cases such as the murder of Darren Ng at Downtown East was reported to occur in the evening between 5.30pm and 5.57pm at ...

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Gender Gap In Rates Of Offending

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

8 (2,965 )

To address this statement and draw a conclusion it is necessary to look at changes in society over time, as women have a different role now than they used to. Even though early criminology has often been gender blind, criminologist such as Lombroso and Pollak tried to make a connection with male crime to explain and answer the question why women do not commit as much crime ...

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Comparative Criminal Justice: United states and China

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

5 (1,781 )

Compare and contrast two different types of criminal justice systems. The two criminal justice systems that shall be discussed in this paper are those of the United States and that of the People's Republic of China. When comparing and contrasting these two systems one should start with the premises that both are instituted in their reciprocal countries in the attempt to curb the proliferation of crime, offenders ...

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The Infuence Of Technology On Criminal Behavior

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

6 (2,203 )

“That technology influences criminal behaviour in all its aspects can hardly be disputed. If mobile phones and laptop computers are available for seizure by thieves and robbers, technology in the form of anti-theft devices for vehicles and burglar alarms for buildings have also played their part in deterring the felons.” The advancement of technology clearly alters and extends crime and criminal behaviour and has resulted in new ...

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Corporate Crimes And Corporate Governance To Combat Them

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

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Corporate crimes refer to criminal practices by individuals that have the legal authority to have a word for a corporation or company. These can include presidents, managers ,directors and chairman , sales people and agent or anyone within a company that has the authority to act on behalf of the firm Corporate crimes often seen to involve a very different set of dealings between offenders and victims, ...

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The Effectiveness Of Community Policing

23 Mar 2015 04 May 2017

6 (2,326 )

After careful analysis of several gathered qualitative studies and views from police officers, politicians, and designated community members, all of which are fluent with the method of 'community policing', one should conclude that not only the community understands what community policing is, but the community also understands how and why it was implemented, and how it can be measured by its effectiveness to show a continuing pattern; ...

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