Asymmetric Conflict Theory

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

8 (2,820 )

Within this assignment I will be critically evaluating the usefulness of Asymmetric conflict and also looking at the legitimacy of motivations for the use of political violence. To support this argument Northern Ireland will be used as the main case study within this assignment. Firstly I will be defining what is meant by asymmetric violence. The majority of conflicts that happen within the modern world ...

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US Constitutional Policy

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

2 (776 )

Case of Reading Weeks v. the United States The main issue in the case The main issue, in this case, was that private property was not to be interfered with unless there was a warranty and if not it was taken as illegal according to the Fourth Amendment. The security officers disallowed from interfering with evidence if it is gotten through illegal means or undertaking ...

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Ethics of Human Trafficking

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

6 (2,150 )

The problem of trafficking of humans is widespread and it is estimated that annually, approximately 14,500 and 17,500 individuals are victims of trafficking into the United States. This is a hidden population involving factories, restaurant businesses, agriculture, the commercial sex industry, agriculture, domestic workers, some adoption firms and marriage brokers. 80% of individuals who are trafficked individuals are female; therefore, those who provide health care ...

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Was Jonestown Murder or Suicide?

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

3 (1,034 )

The People's Temple Agricultural Project came to be known to the world as the Jonestown Massacre due to the incident that occurred on November 18, 1978. The peoples temple was founded by James Warren "Jim" Jones however, after obtaining members, the religious organization relocated to Guyana, South America. Jones ran the site like a prison camp. His followers received little food and weren't allowed to ...

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United States vs Antoine Jones Supreme Court Essay

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

4 (1,487 )

On November 18, 2011, charges was bought against Antoine Jones for possession of drug trafficking. The case was the Supreme Court of the United States, No. 10-1259, Citation 565 U.S 132 s. Ct. 945, 181 L. Ed 2d 911; United States, petitioner v. Antoine Jones. All 9 parties of the Supreme Court were present for the trail as well as the plaintiffs which were the ...

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Deterrence and the Criminal Justice System

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

3 (803 )

Deterrence is used on individuals who already have a history of offending, but also it prevents potential offenders from committing similar crime. Deterrence is used very often and everyone is aware of it even if they do not they are. People generally known to not commit a crime whether it's a serious or less serious one, because they know they will be consequences, which could ...

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Racism and the Criminal Justice System

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

8 (3,019 )

What are the implications of Racism and Policing for the human rights of individuals in the criminal justice system? Human rights are basic rights such as freedom, fairness, equality and diversity etc. It belongs to everyone regardless of ethnicity, gender, race or religion. Human rights are protected under the Act of Human Rights 1998 to set out values and essential rights. To make sure the ...

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Standards for Moral Conduct in Criminal Justice

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

8 (3,076 )

I have become in fascinated with the way that the criminal justice field works. There are so many different career opportunities that one can get apply to. The field of work that I feel would be best for me will be a juvenile probationer officer. I do feel that being in this line of work will benefit me as well as the juveniles that I ...

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Principles of Effective Intervention

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

5 (1,609 )

Introduction From way back in history, the process of correcting those who were believed to be wrong in a way or another was practiced. Communities are guided by certain morals, and whenever one goes against the morals, it is believed that the person might have a problem and it is only good to deal with the problem before it escalates. People are different; whereas there ...

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Marxist Concepts of Criminology Theory

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

7 (2,401 )

What can a Marxist understanding of society contribute to criminological theory? Marxist understanding of the society sets the tone by giving an economic analysis of the society that sees a class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. This struggle contains the attempts by the proletariat to free themselves from the domination of the bourgeoisie as they seek to take over the means of production. ...

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Measuring Fear of Crime Challenges

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

8 (3,198 )

A case study on the difficulty and the progress of measuring fear of crime Fear of crime has been the centre of attention of scientific inquiry for nearly half a century. Scholars in this field have argued that fear of crime is directly correlated to experiences of deviant activity (Blakin,1979; Skogan & Maxfiend, 1981). Additionally, fear of crime was also reasoned in terms of the ...

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Restorative Justice Debate

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

4 (1,461 )

Should restorative justice be defined as a process or a set of outcomes? Restorative Justice rather than relying on judges to sentence offenders, places great emphasis on the importance of reparation and gives a role to the victim of the crime and the wider community. (Newburn, T 2013:768) When it comes to the debate of how restorative justice should be defined, either as a process ...

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Legal/Ethical Obligations of Criminal Defence Attorneys

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

3 (1,113 )

Thoroughly explain the difference between the ethical obligations of a defense attorney and the ethical obligations of a prosecutor. Explain how these different roles may affect their responsibilities in a criminal trial Obligations of the Defense Attorney The role of an attorney, as defined by society, can be seen threefold; a member of a legal profession, a representative of clients, and an officer of the ...

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Ethics of Torture and Preventive Detention

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

2 (795 )

Preventive detention is a pretrial detainment without the right to bail of a person accused or suspected of a crime and assumed to pose a danger to society. This type of detention can apply to political prisoners, alleged terrorists, those seeking asylum, and does not always result in a trial. Detention involves keeping people in confined conditions, often behind razor wire and electric fencing. The ...

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Political Deviance Concept

25 Jul 2017 29 Aug 2017

3 (922 )

Political deviance is a across the board perception which is the greater part of the circumstances identified with the political deviance. The majority of the circumstances, it is rehearsed by the people who are in expert. Political deviance is executed in the position of administration or people attempting to have changes in social changes. It concentrates on implies that will ascribe to fear based oppression ...

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Did Pablo Escobar deserve the title of Robin Hood?

27 Jul 2017

5 (1,626 )

Abstract My report will be covering the honourable and wicked activities of Pablo Escobar and his influence on the West (Colombia in particular) politically, environmentally and socially. My secondary research will provide me with this information and allow me to question it, the sources will include magazines, books, internet research, interviews, documentaries, pamphlets, government files and podcasts. My methodology also includes a survey for my ...

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Fraud Investigation Role Analysis

25 Jul 2017

5 (1,770 )

Discuss how your learning from the course can be applied to your current role within your organisation and how it may benefit both you and the effective investigation of fraud. The essay would critically review the learning undertaken in the course and how it is applicable to my existing role as an officer within the counter fraud and money laundering team in a law enforcing ...

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Overview of US Criminal Justice System

25 Jul 2017

3 (1,185 )

The Ins and Outs of Corrections   As far as I can remember as a child, when I thought of the corrections system, I thought it was doing something bad and going to jail. I never gave thought to how things really work. Little did I know that the process of "corrections" is comprised of different areas that make up a system known as the ...

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Is Religious Terrorism Confined to One Religion?

25 Jul 2017

4 (1,435 )

When the term "terrorism" is mentioned to any individual, the term is most likely to be associated with Islamic terrorist groups such as ISIS or Al-Qaida. Although there is an assumption that religious terrorism is confined to one religion as that is what is being portrayed the most within academic readings and news media, however, the notion of that belief is false. Many religious terrorist ...

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Murder of Lynda Mann and Dawn Ashworth

25 Jul 2017

4 (1,501 )

No humans are exactly alike, and the DNAs are what constructs humans to be genetically unique. Using an extraordinary finding about DNA fingerprinting, a murderer of two 15-year-old in Leicestershire was successfully convicted. On November 21, 1983, Lynda Mann left her house to babysit for a lady down the road. While walking back home on a path called the Black Pad, Lynda was raped and ...

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Tackling Fraud in the Workplace

25 Jul 2017

5 (1,928 )

Subject Who to trust? Tackling Employee Fraud   Chapter 1: Introduction With globalization and the increasing use of technology, the problem of fraud and its great complexity has become an enormous concern for the businesses. The businesses not only attack by unknown distance fraudsters but it suffers from insider fraudsters too. This study will outline the internal employee fraud, its measurements and controls within the ...

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Barriers for Ex Offenders - Housing and Employment

25 Jul 2017

7 (2,451 )

Background Inmates in America often face barriers from prison to successful reentry back into the community. They are often released with a bus ticket and a minimal amount of gate money. They reenter back into the community with no health insurance, no guidance with employment, and no financial resource for housing. In 1999, approximately 33 percent of state prison releases were drug offenders, 25 percent ...

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CSI Laboratory Analysis

25 Jul 2017

3 (1,033 )

Case Study: Redcott Cottage The presence of the two glasses of gin and tonic on the drinks table in the lounge indicates the possibility of two people being inside the house at the moment of the attack. Performing the cyanoacrylate fuming method, the fingerprints on the glasses will become visible and so they could be collected and further compared to the police records in order ...

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Crime Data Comparison Paper

25 Jul 2017

3 (903 )

On a yearly base, the Federal Bureau of Investigation gathers information from organizations across the country that relates to specific crimes.  The Federal Bureau of Investigation looks at the insights and advertises the information, which is known as Uniform Crime Reports. The two metropolitan ranges that's being contrasted throughout this essay is Mobile Alabama and Atlanta Georgia. Police officers must fill completely incident reports for ...

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UCR vs NIBRS

23 Mar 2015 20 Jul 2017

9 (3,287 )

Keywords: nibrs, nibrs vs ucr, difference between ucr and nirbs Comparison of the Two Primary Crime Data Sources Used In the United States, the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) The two primary sources of crime data employed in the United States of America to routinely monitor the nature and degree of crime are the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) and the National ...

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Law and Criminality

23 Mar 2015 19 Jul 2017

7 (2,512 )

Keywords: law and criminality global perspectives Laws are rules of conduct to guide all people; they are rules that can be enforced by a legitimate authority. More laws are made and enforced as our world and society becomes increasingly complex. Laws are basically rules of basic behavior and order written down by man as an attempt to help us all live together more happily and safely. Whether ...

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Ethics and Professional Behaviour US Criminal Justice

23 Mar 2015 18 Jul 2017

11 (4,346 )

Ethics and professional behaviour are an important part of criminal justice administration. "Ethics involves making moral judgements about what is good or bad, right or wrong." Ethics help us to make right choices when we are in a dilemma which involves moral issues. The Criminal justice administration faces ethical issues very often and it is important to deal with them in a professional manner. The administration suffers ...

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Factors that Influence Police Discretion

23 Mar 2015 17 Jul 2017

5 (1,888 )

What is discretion? Name and describe the factors that may influence an individual officer's discretion in making decisions involving a criminal suspect. (6 pts) Discretion is the exercise of choice by law enforcement officers in the decision to investigate or apprehend the disposition of suspects, the carrying out of official duties, and the application of sanctions. The cops have the power to decide whether to act depending ...

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Problem Oriented Policing Pros and Cons

23 Mar 2015 14 Jul 2017

8 (2,907 )

Keywords: problem oriented policing analysis Problem Oriented Policing What, exactly, is problem oriented policing? Critically discuss its potential benefits. Policing in the UK and many other countries play an extremely vital part in helping to reduce different forms of crime. The police have a major impact on what becomes defined as a crime, which offences are prioritized, and which sections of the community are portrayed as ‘dangerous’ ...

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Criminal Profiling vs Racial Profiling

23 Mar 2015 13 Jul 2017

9 (3,405 )

Keywords: racial profiling vs criminal profiling, sociology profiling Racial profiling is a social problem that has erupted throughout the country. Many provinces, cities, social groups, and academics have studied racial profiling and how race and ethnicity may play a part in police investigations. Allegations of racial profiling have been around for years, and still is a subject that creates a lot on media hype and controversy surrounding ...

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Racial Profiling Ethics

23 Mar 2015 13 Jul 2017

4 (1,278 )

Keywords: racial profiling police, racial profiling us Racial profiling is the practice of viewing certain characteristics such as race, ethnicity, religion or national origin as indicators of criminal behavior. It is a practice that has been used by law enforcement officials when targeting specific crimes or those suspected of potentially committing crimes (Pollock, 2012). Police Officers utilize their discretion when deciding whether to stop an individual or ...

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Factors that Influence Fear of Crime

23 Mar 2015 13 Jul 2017

12 (4,531 )

Keywords: fear of crime gender, fear of crime theory Introduction Today, fear of crime has become a very prevalent and burning issue in the society. There are many people today who express their fear and anxiety over crime and, their concern for being victimized. There are certain factors that shape the level of fear of crime and being victimized of the people. It includes gender; age; any ...

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Theories of Deviance

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

6 (2,143 )

Keywords: causes of deviance, factors for deviant behaviour Deviance by most popular concept is the violation of the norms, values and ethics. The literal meaning of deviance is "The fact or state of departing from usual or accepted standards, especially in social or sexual behavior". In sociological terms deviance is described as "The act of going against social and cultural norms, including rules and laws. The study ...

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Social Media and Law Enforcement Essay

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

8 (3,015 )

Keywords: crime and social media, social media crime prevention Social media is becoming routine in everyday interactions, including being involved with crime. While there has been an increase in using it to start and partake in crime, there has also been an interest in using it to help combat and solve crimes. There are many ways social media can be used to aid the Police, one is ...

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Ex-Convicts Discrimination - Singapore

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

5 (1,627 )

Keywords: discrimination against exconvicts After leaving the physical incarceration, ex-offenders find themselves entering into the "second prison", where they have to tear down the invisible walls formed by the social stigma, the fear and distrust from the society (Youth Reloaded, 2005). Because mindset and attitudes are difficult to change, they often find difficulties in integrating back to the society. If the situation does not improve, inequality will ...

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Gender Differences in Crime

23 Mar 2015 10 Jul 2017

5 (1,764 )

Keywords: gender and crime, gender criminology theory Criminal patterns by women and by men have both similarities and differences. Women and men are more prone to committing minor substance abuse and property crimes, rather than serious ones like murder or robbery. The main gender disparity in criminal activity is that men commit offenses at a higher rate than women do, except for prostitution (Heidensohn). Gender difference is ...

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Homicide Investigation

03 Oct 2016 04 Jul 2017

5 (1,982 )

Homicide Investigation Outline the five specific steps involved in the complete medicolegal autopsy (postmortem examination) and provide the purposes for doing it. Evaluate the differences between: 1) the cause of death, 2) the manner of death, and 3) the mode of death. Science keeps on shaping the universe of equity, filling wrongdoing examinations and meaning the advancement of current innovation. While measurable science incorporates ...

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Police Use of Force Essay

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

8 (3,098 )

Keywords: use of force essay, police deadly force There have been several issues concerning the policies that underline the use of force within the field of law enforcement. Favorable opinions, negative objections, and indecisive feelings about the use of force have varied throughout the public as well as within the criminal justice system when it comes to this policy. For a number of years, it has been ...

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Ways to Prevent Human Trafficking Essay

23 Mar 2015 03 Jul 2017

8 (3,044 )

Keywords: how to prevent human trafficking essay Throughout the world today, a silent plague has been sweeping the nations. Although it may be more prevalent in third world countries, its presence also roams the streets of more progressive nations (Kelly, 2001). According to the Bureau of Public Affairs of the United States Department of State (2004), human trafficking is "modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded ...

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Models of Policing

23 Mar 2015 30 Jun 2017

6 (2,320 )

Keywords: policing models evaluation, policing models uk The first police force was created in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel; he created 17 metropolitan police divisions in London. By 1856 the rest of the country was required to establish a police force. Since then, many different models of policing have been developed and experimented with, developments in policing and crime control were fairly rapid during the 1990s, this ...

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US Criminal Justice System Analysis

23 Mar 2015 28 Jun 2017

8 (3,075 )

Keywords: us cjs, usa cjs, usa justice system The Criminal Justice System (CJS) consists of three elements, the Police, Courts and Corrections. It is no secret that the CJS has been heavily criticized over the years about its overall effectiveness, some skeptics have gone as far as to say the criminal justice system is not a system at all based on "its current operation and fragmentation, it ...

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Sociological and Psychological Theories of Crime

23 Mar 2015 27 Jun 2017

13 (4,829 )

Keywords: biological crime, psychology crime, sociology crime In this task I am going to be looking at different theories which involve criminology, once I have completed that I am going to research one sociological and one psychological theory. At the same time I am going to look at the normal factors that might influence crime. I am also going to be looking at what criminology is and ...

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Limitations of Forensic Science

23 Mar 2015 23 Jun 2017

4 (1,427 )

Keywords: forensic science limitations, forensic science strengths Over the past decades, Forensic science has evolved and has been embraced by most states as a vital constituent of modern legal practice. It is widely used in courts as a major source for the outcome of a verdict. Forensic science has attained a merit of its own although it is relatively new in the jurisprudence world. As technology and ...

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Durkheim and Marxist Theories of Punishment

23 Mar 2015 16 Jun 2017

7 (2,571 )

Compare and contrast a Durkheim and a Marxist analysis of punishment in modern society. Emile Durkheim is well known for his work on suicide related issues. However, Durkheim is not exclusive to the area of suicide, he had ample experience and expertise in other areas of sociological interest and one prominent field is crime and punishment. Why do societies punish offenders? This is a question that has ...

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Freud and Eysenck's Theories of Crime

23 Mar 2015 12 Jun 2017

8 (2,815 )

Keywords: freud theory of crime, eysenck theory of crime, feud and crime, eysenck and crime Freud Eysenck Crime Introduction By studying the work of criminologist’s Freud and Eysenck, this essay will consist of me looking at key psychological factors, I will look at the strengths and limitations of their personality theories of crime. I will put forward a wide range of explanations, by studying the work ...

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Comparing Criminal Justice Systems

23 Mar 2015 05 Jun 2017

6 (2,115 )

Keywords: us and china cjs, us criminal justice, china criminal justice The two criminal justice systems that shall be discussed in this paper are those of the United States and that of the People's Republic of China. When comparing and contrasting these two systems one should start with the premise that both are instituted in their countries in the attempt to curb the proliferation of crime, apprehend ...

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The Relationship Between Mental Illness and Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,312 )

Keywords: mental illness and criminality, mental illness and crime The relationship between mental illness and violence has long been a subject of debate and a general course of concern within the mental health profession, the public, correctional systems, and the criminal justice systems. As a result this has led to an increase in research being focused on the reasons why mentally ill people commit crimes. Debate about ...

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The Influence of Police Culture

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,294 )

Keywords: police culture essay, police culture effects In order to appropriately address the topic of discussion, firstly, it is important to understand what is meant by the concept 'police culture'. After establishing its definition, it then becomes a task to assess whether 'police culture' does indeed have a negative influence on the way the police work as an institution or whether it merely ensures that a certain ...

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Criminology Theories - Strengths And Weaknesses

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

5 (1,709 )

Keywords: strengths of positivist criminology, positivist criminology weaknesses The classical school of criminology was developed in the eighteenth century, where classical thinking emerged in response to the cruel forms of punishment that dominated at the time. It is considered that writers such as Montesquieu and Voltaire encouraged perhaps the emergence of this new 'classical' thinking, by becoming involved in campaigns for more enlightened approaches to be taken ...

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Strain Theory, Robert Merton - An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

6 (2,332 )

Keywords: strain theory essay, strain theory criminology, merton strain theory, strain theory aker In criminology, the strain theory describes social structures inside society that may support people to carry out crime. Following the work of Emile Durkheim, Strain Theories have been supported by Robert King Merton, Albert K. Cohen, Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, Robert Agnew, and Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld. Strain may be either: Structural: ...

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The Effect of Gangs in the Community

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

10 (3,739 )

Keywords: effects of gangsterism in our communities, community policing effects "How to define a gang has always been a matter of controversy. The relationship of the gang to its local community and the salience of race have been at the heart of academic and popular differences on the nature of gangs.", according to the Gang Research. In the current essay I would like to describe the effects ...

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The Age Of Criminal Responsibility

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

8 (2,879 )

Keywords: criminal responsibility age, youth offending age, young offender responsibility In recent years the attitude and mood towards young offenders is more server, due to a wide spread public perception of mounting youth crime, and the killing of toddler James Bulger by Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, who were only 10 years old at the time. Over the past years we are seeing more and more youths ...

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Introduction To Forensic Science

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,327 )

Keywords: essay on forensic science, forensic science issues, dna crime issues Over the past decades, Forensic science has evolved and has been embraced by most states as a vital constituent of modern legal practice. It is widely used in courts as a major source for the outcome of a verdict. Forensic science has attained a merit of its own although it is relatively new in the jurisprudence ...

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Mental Health Issues in Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

9 (3,554 )

Keywords: cjs mental health, uk cjs mental health Mental Health illness is a problem that the criminal justice system faces daily. "In 1992, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) and the Public Citizen's Health Research Group released a report that described alarmingly high numbers of people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses incarcerated in jails across the country" (Erickson & Erickson, 2008, ...

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Howard Becker Criminology | A Theory Analysis

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

11 (4,045 )

Keywords: becker criminology, howard becker, becker labelling theory criminology With close reference to a selection from your research/reading (minimum 3 references by or about your criminologist), critically assess the contribution made by your author to criminological knowledge. You should focus closely on how he /she developed critiqued or applied theory. INTRODUCTION Howard Becker is hailed as the founder of modern labeling theory. He also developed the term ...

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Stop And Search Controversy

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

8 (2,934 )

Keywords: police powers stop and search, stop and search racism, stop and search effects The power to stop and search has been a prominent policing tool since the Vagrancy Act of 1824. The briefing, Series 2, Edition 3 - March 2012 , it has come under regular legal, political and societal scrutiny because of its broad and discretionary use by its police officers. However has also been ...

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Self Control Theory of Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,515 )

Keywords: gottfredson and hirschi, gottfredson and hirschi general theory of crime, general theory of crime Self control theory, also known as General theory of crime is a criminological theory about the lack of an individuals self-control, which is the main factor behind criminal behavior or conformity. Self control theory places much of its emphasis on parental upbringing it suggests that individuals who were ineffectually parented before the ...

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Objectives Of Criminology

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

4 (1,375 )

Keywords: female crime theories, female criminology theories, theories of female criminality A key aspect of criminology is the study of criminals and individuals who partake in criminal activities. However, what has remained extraordinary is the lack of interest that has been placed upon studying crime in relation to social demographic profiles, especially those regarding gender within traditional criminology. It was not until the 1970's that such issues ...

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The Media Influence on Public Perceptions of Crime

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

10 (3,751 )

Keywords: media influence public, media crime stories, media public fear, media fear of crime Introduction "The public's knowledge of crime is primarily derived from its depiction in the media. The media affects the public's opinion of crime and punishment, and its perception of the police. If the media is responsible for the headlines, the conclusion is that it influences the public's attitude regarding crime incidents." (Muraskin and ...

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Rachel Nickell - The Investigation of Colin Stagg

23 Mar 2015 01 Jun 2017

7 (2,506 )

Keywords: rachell nickell, colin stagg, police powers abuse In July 1992, Rachel Nickell was attacked and murdered, her throat was cut, and she was stabbed 49 times then sexually assaulted. The sensitivity and cruelty of this case from the beginning, police faced pressure from the public and media to solve it. The investigation was carried out by Scotland Yard officers of the Metropolitan Police. After collecting evidence ...

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Prison: Impact And Effects

23 Mar 2015 30 May 2017

8 (3,019 )

Keywords: effects of prison, foucault social control, social control theory prison, new punitiveness theory Jump to: Theories of New Punitiveness | The Effect of Prison on the Family | The Effect of Prison on the Community | Conclusion Currently, the impact and effects of imprisonment, which is a means of social control, are increasingly becoming various and noticeable. This essay will first focus on the concept and the different models ...

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Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

23 Mar 2015 26 May 2017

5 (1,672 )

Keywords: sociology crime, crime and deviance sociology, crime norms and values Sociologists investigate the effects of society on criminal and deviant behaviour and seek to understand individuals and their situations. They do this by gathering and utilizing information on age, gender, social class, race and ethnicity. Crime is specifically associated with behaviors that break the formal written laws of any given society; for example, British law states ...

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Social Disorganization Theory

23 Mar 2015 24 May 2017

3 (1,019 )

Keywords: poverty criminology theory, racial heterogeneity and crime, family attachment and crime The social disorganisation theory was one of the most important criminological theories developed from the Chicago School of thought, namely research conducted by Shaw and Mckay (1942). Shaw and McKay (1942) used spatial maps to study the residential locations of juveniles referred to Chicago courts, they discovered that rates of crime were not equally dispersed. ...

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A Freedom Fighter, or Terrorist?

23 Mar 2015 22 May 2017

13 (4,967 )

The recent surge in "Terrorism" as a phenomenon has been unparallel in modern history. It now features as one of the top priorities in government agendas for most of the countries around the world. It is debatable whether it has been hyped up to some extent but unarguably has been one of the most unfortunate trends that have made considerable impact on the way of life for ...

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Causes of Stalking and Experiences

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

14 (5,532 )

Stalking is an issue that affects 1.5 million people each year. While women are commonly the general target, men can become victims of stalkers as well. Stalkers share similar traits, each of which fuel what they do. Oftentimes a stalker's motives are as easily profiled as their traits. Stalkers commonly share similar personality characteristics as well as reasons for doing what they do (Michele, 2002). Stalking has ...

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Theories Of Juvenile Delinquency

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

9 (3,491 )

Juvenile delinquency for a long time has remained a debatable topic among psychologists, criminologists, and even sociologists. Many opposing and concurring arguments have been experienced with many researchers concentrating on real cause, which can be explained using different theories ranging from the classical to contemporary ones. Agnew (2005, p. 16) states that there is need to have different and flexible theoretical views on causes of these crimes ...

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Does Punishment Deter Crime?

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

3 (1,053 )

Does punishment really deter crime? One could say no since the rate of crime is stable instead of declining. "The interaction between crime and punishment is certainly a complex one. In simple terms, one might anticipate that, if crime rates increase, there should be a corresponding increase on prison population…On the other hand, if punishment levels increase, crime control theory suggests that deterrence and incapacitation should show ...

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Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

6 (2,235 )

Since Marchese Beccaria who, as one of the first mentioned that the real purpose of punishment is "is no other than to prevent the criminal from doing further injury to society, and prevent others from committing the like offense" (Baccaria 1764), many researchers as well as general community have begun to concentrate on the notion of personal choice when explaining what pushes offenders to commit crimes. Rational ...

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Crime Control Model: Philosophy of criminal justice

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

6 (2,222 )

Crime control model refers to a philosophy of criminal justice which focuses on decreasing crime in the community through increased police and prosecutorial abilities. Crime control places emphasis on the power of the government to protect society, with less attention on individual rights. Those who take a strong stance favoring tough ways to approach crime and criminals may be characterized as supporters of crime control. The prevention ...

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Media Representation Of Violent Crimes | Race

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

7 (2,692 )

The thesis of the paper is, "the media representation of violent crimes by African Americans." It has indeed been proven that the media portrays a very negative image on violent crimes as perpetrated by black Americans and this to a large extent impacts on the law, regulations, and public perceptions on the violent crimes. For instance, a violent crime such as rape has been painted as a ...

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The Effect Of Police Misconduct

23 Mar 2015 19 May 2017

5 (1,793 )

What is police misconduct and how does it affect police and community relations? Police misconduct includes a comprehensive range, reflecting the high standards we expect of police officers. Police misconduct can apply to off-duty behavior as well as conduct on the job. Any conduct that is disgraceful, improper or unbecoming a police officer, or shows unfitness to be or continue as a police officer, or does not ...

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Theories Of Cesare Lombros

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In this report I will be exploring the theories developed by Italian criminologist, Cesare Lombroso and the ethical implications of his work. He was the founder of the Italian school of Criminology, and is also considered to be one of the pioneers of the field due to his world wide appeal and notorious studies and ideas. Cesare Lombroso was born in Verona, Italy in November 1835 and ...

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Media And Public Perceptions of crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime stories and representations are, and have always been, a popular focus of the mass media. The percentage of media content that is constituted by crime images and stories obviously will depend on the definitions of 'crime' used. A glimpse at the television guide, the movies listings in the cinema, or press headlines, will highlight both the interest the general population has in crime and criminals, and ...

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Theories of Crime | Introduction

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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There are many theories of crime which fit into four different models each explaining crime through varied approaches, in this essay I will be discussing the weakest of these theoretical explanations of crime and the strongest. The weakest theory of crime is Biological Positivism which is part of the Predestined Actor Model which is a positivist model explaining criminal behaviour based on scientific factors beyond a person's ...

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Controlling Organized Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Crime is a part of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their ...

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Age and Gender Differences on Fear of Crime

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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The current study aimed to investigate age and gender effects on fear of crime and their relationships with attitude towards prisoner and crime, life satisfaction, living arrangement and religion in a Chinese sample. 170 undergraduate and postgraduate students, with a mean age of 21.9 years, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire on fear of crime. In general, women reported significantly greater fear ...

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Impact Of Drug And Substance Abuse

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Drug and substance abuse continues to be a major problem worldwide, and in particular, Malawi. It is estimated that there are over 12 million abusers in United Stated of America and 500,000 cocaine users in South Africa (Fabiano &Maganga,2002, pp124-127). It is a common knowledge that most of the drug and substance abusers are youth and young adults, i.e. the most productive age groups. Most teenagers begin ...

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Theories of Female Victimisation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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In today's society crime is a constant. People that are well know, to people that no one has ever heard of fall victim to criminal activity on a daily basis. There has to be a reason why these things happen so often. Victim precipitation theory holds that the victim is the contributing fact of their victimization. Women, especially, can make themselves available to criminals and can effortlessly ...

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Should Cannabis Be Legalised In Australia?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Cannabis is a plant that is grown using organic fertiliser, other names includes marijuana, marihuana, hashish, hemp and ganja which is made from dried leaves and small green flowers from the cannabis plant itself, it contains narcotics and tough fibres that are used to make ropes, medicine, furniture and many others. Cannabis is known as a soft illicit drug that is commonly used. It is usually smoked ...

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Abuse and Juvenile Delinquency | Correllation

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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From 2000 to 2005, thirty-one South Carolina counties showed an increase in the number of juveniles placed in secure detention. A total of 5,330 juveniles were detained during the fiscal year 2004-2005 (Children's Law Office: Juvenile Detention in South Carolina, 2006, p. 6) Delinquency is an increasing issue in South Carolina, and there is much speculation that delinquency is increasing due to early or current experiences with ...

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The Social Construction Of Female Gangs

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Introduction In the UK, there has been very little research on female gang problem which has led to the vast amount of research from the USA being applied to the UK situation. Female gangs have been in existence throughout history although very little has been said about its members beyond their role as sexual objects. Hallsworth and Young (2008):176) following a home office report in 2008 state ...

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Why Do People Wrongfully Confess To Crimes?

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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False confession and self-incriminating admittance made to the police by innocent suspects which is clearly against their self- interest is usually a combination of factors which are associated with various circumstances and nature of the custodial interrogation, the suspects' personality factors and psychological vulnerabilities. What is more there are serious consequence that follow from confession and this also applies to the case of false confession. The study ...

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Case Study: Harold Shipman

23 Mar 2015 18 May 2017

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Shipman began practicing as a doctor in 1974, at the Abraham Ormerod Medical Practice in Todmorden. He was there until 1975 when his partners discovered that he had been obtaining drugs dishonestly for his own use. In 1976 he pleaded guilty to three offences of obtaining pethidine by deception, three offences of unlawful possession of pethidine and two further offences of forging a prescription he was sentenced ...

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Anti-Social Behaviour Orders | Analysis

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Our society gives us the right to live in a safe and secure community. But along with these rights, we have some responsibilities. We all have a responsibility towards our neighboursand we must treat them respectfully in the community. Also for the security and betterment of the society, the antisocialists should know that their behaviour will not be accepted and action will be taken against them if ...

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Prisons: Punishment and Rehabilitation

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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In order to understand the nature of imprisonment, this chapter will briefly look at the historical origins of prison, and then it will move onto justify their theoretical legitimacy: punishment/retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. These theories/ideologies will re-occur through the thesis like themes- what we refer to them as 'meta-concepts'. The final section of this chapter will examine the strategies employed by the Prison Service to reach ...

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Organized Crime: The Social Perspective

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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Regardless of which form of organized crime takes place, abundantly clear organized crime is showing no signs of slowing down or even being remotely under control. The continued growth and diversification of organized crimes continues to be a major problem for law enforcement and for law abiding citizens as a whole. Organized crime existed even before there was any real understanding of it as something distinctive. After ...

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Agencies in the Criminal Justice System

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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The common thread binding the agencies of the criminal justice system is centred upon crime and the control of crime. (Garland 2001; 5-8). It can be argued that the agencies of criminal justice including, the police, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), the courts, the prison service and the probation service all have separate and distinctive functions but operate towards a common overarching goal - crime control. (Maguire ...

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An Analysis Of Female Foeticide In India

23 Mar 2015 17 May 2017

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India is a country of incredible ironies. It is a land where people worship myriad forms of female Shakti in quest of wealth, wisdom and power. In this country it is a common sight to see thousands of couples making arduous journeys every year to shrines of goddesses in order to be blessed with a child. But strangely enough, in this country, a couple is said to ...

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Criminal Justice Organizations And Challenges Faced

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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In the world of criminal justice organizations, leaders are facing challenges that have become a part of the daily routine. Criminal justice organizations consist of corrections, courts, and the police. These organizations each have an important role in the criminal justice system that results in the leadership of each organization. This paper will explain some of these challenges of the leaders and steps that can be taken ...

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The Rates Of African American Male Incarceration

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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This paper is going to provide an understanding about how and why African American males are incarcerated at higher rates than any other race and how it is growing. It will also show racial disparities on sentencing, crimes and overall treatment. You will have a better understanding of how the family structure has been destroyed as a result of incarceration creating segregation within the African American race. ...

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliffe

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminal Profiling: Peter Sutcliff One other aspect we can all discuss which is relatively new, is the work of psychologists in helping the police in catching a killer, it is known as criminal profiling or offender profiling, which can be traced back to 1888 when ‘Thomas Bond gave a detailed description on Jack the Ripper’ (Cross) it was later used by the FBI in America. Following the ...

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Terrorism And Mass Media

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The United States of America law defines terrorism as "predominated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents" (U.S. Code Title 22, Ch.38, Para 2656f (d). Hoffman has defined a terrorist act as an act of violence vested upon a given people so as to attract the attention of the opponents and the general public which is followed by communication of a ...

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Organizational Decoupling

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The field of organizational decoupling is a field that has not been researched very much. Meyer and Rowan (1977) were some of the first authors who wrote about this subject and define organizational decoupling as separating formal structure from actual organizational practice. In short, this means that organizations say that they do one thing, but actually do something else. For instance, an organization can announce that it ...

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Socio-Cultural Theories Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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The sociological or socio-cultural model provides a macro-level analysis of criminal violence. This model examines criminal violence in terms of socially structured inequality, and social and cultural attitudes and norms regarding anti-social behaviour and inter-personal relations. Besides the two well-known theories, viz. the Structural-Functional Theory and the Theory of Sub-culture of Violence, the Learning Theory, the Exchange Theory, the Anomie Theory, and the Resource Theory also come ...

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Extra Judicial Killing in Bangladesh

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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How interesting it is that in Bangladesh the elite force named as Rapid Action Battalion [RAB] kills the arrested persons by the name of cross-fire and name them the criminals. "Extra-judicial", thus the term is used to state the killings. It is called extra judicial because of its type, which works as a process outside the judiciary system of Bangladesh. Farid Ahmed in a non periodical web ...

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Analysis Of The Concept Of Crime

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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It is postulated that the phenomenon crime does not exist, although we can study its negative consequences of it upon society through acts. Many definitions of crime have been developed, the most simplistic definition of a criminal act being; acts that break legislation outlined in law however this differs from that of a normative perspective; crimes are acts which can offend against a set of norms similar ...

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Theories of Cultural Criminology

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Criminology Cultural Crime Contemporary Issues in Criminology Cultural Criminology Critically discuss its theoretical underpinnings and evaluate whether this theoretical approach serves as a useful explanation of criminal behavior in modern Britain. Introduction Cultural criminology is the approach to the investigation of crime that its criminality and its control are based in the context of culture. This means, that institutions of crime control, and crime by it self ...

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Investigative Tools And Equipment

23 Mar 2015 16 May 2017

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Homicides are punishable criminal acts that involve the killing of an individual by another person. Homicide cases can be either intentional or unintentional. Voluntary homicides are premeditated with the intent to kill such as murders, whilst unintentional homicides occur by mistake or negligence as in cases of fatal traffic accidents. However, these are tackled using the same investigative approach which comprises in using the correct apparatus and ...

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How Important And Relevant Is Merton's Strain Theory?

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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In this essay I will analyse the importance and relevance of a structional functionalist view of deviance seen through the lens of strain theory and a symbolic interactionalist perspective through the use of labelling theory. Strain Theory attempts to explain why crime is resolute amongst the lower classes who are subjected to the least opportunities for economic achievement (O' Connor 2007). It focuses on the positions that ...

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Human Rights and Prisoner Rights

23 Mar 2015 15 May 2017

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Abdullah Bin Omar, a former prisoner in Guantanamo Bay prison was said to be one of the worst criminals regarding terrorism. Bin Omar was captured by the United States army in Pakistan after he had spent twenty three years in an unknown prison in Tunisia. The unfairness that Abdullah faced was the fact that he wasn't told nor convicted of any real or specific crime. Cliff Stafford ...

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