Biochemical Processes of Oil Degradation

10 Apr 2018

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1. INTRODUCTION Surfactants are surface active compound that reduce the interfacial tension between two liquids, or that between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants are organic compound that contain both hydrophobic (head part of the surfactant) and hydrophilic (tail part of the surfactant) moieties. Thus surfactant contains both water insoluble i.e. water repellent group as well as water soluble i.e. water loving group. Biosurfactants are also ...

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Preformulation Studies: Analysis of Honey

27 Mar 2018

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Experimental work: Preformulation studies: Analysis of honey: Materials: Materials selected for the analysis of honey were procured from College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, and Indore. Samples of Honey (Dabur honey) of different batches were selected and analysed where (n=3). Parameters studied: Sensory evaluation Foreign matter Ash value pH Refractive index Moisture content Acidity Standard procedure was followed for the analysis of different samples of ...

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Pharmacological Profiles of Several Common Drugs

27 Mar 2018

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2.3 Profile of Pheniramine Maleate (31) Chemical name: (3RS)-N,N-Dimethyl-3-phenyl-3-(pyridine-2-yl)propan-1-amine(Z)-butenedioate Empirical formula: C20H24N2O4 Chemical structure: Figure 2.3:Structure of Pheniramine Maleate 2.3.1 Physical properties Molecular weight: 356.4 Appearance and colour: White or almost white crystalline powder. Solubility: Very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %)in methanol and in methylene chloride. Therapeutic category:Pheniramine maleate belongs to H1-antagonist pharmacological group on the basis of ...

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Effects of Agricultural Soil Contamination

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,445 )

1. Introduction Agricultural soils contaminated with heavy metals such as lead (Pb) is a threat to human health. Plants grown in contaminated soil can accumulate these metals in the shoots and roots. Metals accumulate in Living organism, especially the liver and kidneys, when these plants are used as fodder for livestock and domestic animals. Thereby enter the human food chain (Akan et al., 2010). Lead is ...

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States and Properties of Crystalline Material

30 Jan 2018

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The crystalline state: In general, solids might be classified in crystalline or amorphous. On the one hand, the crystalline solids comprise a regular set of molecules, atoms or ions into a rigid lattice which is characteristic of each substance. Thus, most crystals are anisotropic (the cubic system is an exception), namely, depending of the direction in which their properties are measured they can change. On the ...

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Measurement of Anti-proliferative Activity Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Human cancer cell lines A549 (Lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast adenocarcinoma), DU 145 (Prostate carcinoma), DLD-1 (Colorectal adenocarcinoma), FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), USA. These cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotic combinations in 5% CO2 humidified atmosphere at 37 0C. A colorimetric sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used for the measurement of anti-proliferative ...

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Cloud Point Extraction Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Bromothymol blue (also known as bromothymol sulfone phthalein, BTB) (Figure 2.1.1) is a pH indicator (yellow at pH 6.0 and blue at pH 7.6). Its chemical name is: 4,40-(1,1-dioxido-3H-2,1-benzoxathiole-3,3-diyl)bis(2-bromo-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (The Merck Index, 13th edition, 2007)[1]. pKa of BTB is 7.1. This dye is the most appropriate pH indicator dye in physiological tissue and also used in the investigation of the interaction of lipid with protein (Puschett ...

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Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate

30 Jan 2018

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Surface Area vs. Reaction Rate How does the surface area of pure cane sugar cubes affect the rate of dissolution in water? Chandler Hultine   Abstract The purpose of this lab was to investigate how surface area affects the reaction rate of a substance in a solution. This lab was put together to find out how differentiating surface areas of pure cane sugar cubes would affect ...

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Single Molecule Magnets and Single Chain Magnets Analysis

30 Jan 2018

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The structures and magnetic properties: molecular nanomagnets phenolic oxime complexes GUAN Shengyang Table of Contents (Jump to) 1 Introduction 1.1 Research background 1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets 1.2.1 Single molecule magnet 1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires) 1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and complexes 2 Researches 2.1 Iron complex 2.2 Manganese complexes 2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions 2.4 Complex containing lanthanide 3 Conclusion ...

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Gene Expression of Mitochondrial Enzymes from Exercise

30 Jan 2018

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Induced Change in Gene Expression of Mitochondrial Enzymes as a Result of Intense Exercise Abstract Exercise-induced changes in gene expression of mitochondrial enzymes has become a leading target for sports medicine research. Previous indirect testing of delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in rotation of motion do not provide a sufficient explanation of the induced changes to the genome (Hubal, et al., 2010). Biomarker testing has allowed ...

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Enhancement of Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting

30 Jan 2018

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Enhancement of photocatalytic overall water splitting on H1.9K0.3La0.5Bi0.1Ta2O7 by loading Pt, Rh(oxide) as co-catalysts Wei Chen, Hui Wang, Liqun Mao, Xiaoping Chen, Wenfeng Shangguan   Abstract: Pt and Rh were loaded on protonated layered pervoskite H1.9K0.3La0.5Bi0.1Ta2O7 by an in suit photodeposition method. The Rh loading facilitates the O2 evolution and the H2/O2 is close to stoichiometric ratio (≈ 2). Yet the Pt loading is unable to ...

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Interaction Between Two Anionic Dyes and Cationic Surfactant

30 Jan 2018

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The interaction of the triphenylmethane dye xylenol orange with cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetylpyridinium chloride was studied by absorption spectrophotometry and principal component analysis of infrared spectra by A. Gojmerac Ivšic´ et al. [24]. Upon the addition of surfactants the yellow color of the acidic xylenol orange solution changed to purple-red. Changes in the absorption spectra of the mixture indicate strong interactions between dye and ...

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Reliability of Reflotron in Testing of Total Cholesterol

30 Jan 2018

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Reliability of Reflotron in Testing of total Cholesterol and Urea in Non- centralized Medical Setting Introduction Point-of-care testing (PoCT) has been defined as “those analytical patient-testing activities provided within the institution, but performed outside the physical facilities of the clinical laboratories (1). There has been a growing interest in point-of-care testing (PoCT) because of its advantages over standard laboratory procedures, it provides timely information to medical ...

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Chemical Bonding Essay

30 Jan 2018

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Anna Fyodorova All elements are made of atoms which combined with each other form new atoms. They come together in large or small numbers to form very similar or very different atoms and as a result of the combination it is known as a chemical bond. Atoms linked together by bonds have different properties to the original parent atoms. There are only about 100 ...

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Aspirin: History, Effects and Synthesis

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction Aspirin is a drug which is widely used today to deal with the symptoms of many minor illnesses ranging from general relief from aches and pain; muscle, tooth, headaches, and arthritis; to prevent blood clotting and reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack; lower fever and potentially prevent certain cancers. History of Discovery Aspirin has a great history of development which could be considered ...

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AC Voltammetry: Principles, Advantages and Disadvantages

30 Jan 2018

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  Name TEH YU JIE (K) NOOR HASIRA BINTI SAMSUDIN NUR NADIAH BINTI ABU BAKAR NUR NIQMAH BINTI MUSA NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI KHAIRUDDIN KHANG EE WEN INTRODUCTION Nobel Prize winning chemist Jaroslav Heyrovský ...

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Proteins Therapy for Drug Discovery

30 Jan 2018

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Proteins are most dynamic and diverse macromolecules in our body, thus numerous functionally distinct proteins hold enormous promise for the development of new therapeutics for a variety of human ailments which contain mutated or other abnormal proteins, or those in an abnormally high or low concentration. However, the clinical application of protein therapeutics is still in its infancy since the poor physicochemical stability of proteins in ...

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The Future of Global Oil Production

30 Jan 2018

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WORLD’S OIL PRODUCTION: HISTORICAL REFERENCE AND PROJECTIONS Background The level of the oil production is influenced by a wide variety of factors. Following a basic principle, the demand is the reference element against which production (i.e. supply) is always analyzed. Yet, apart from demand there are many other factors that influence, either directly or indirectly, the oil production. To quote only a few of ...

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Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption

30 Jan 2018

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“ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS (Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni) WITH SOME AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND CORRELATION TO PHYSICO – CHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS (including XRD, FTIR, Zeta potential, Particle size)” INTRODUCTION Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption Soil is one of the key components for every single terrestric biological system. It gives the supplement bearing environment for vegetation and it is important for exchange of ...

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Determination of Unknown Salt Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Siar Azizi Cold Pack Experiment   Introduction: Cold packs or medical cold packs are made and used in a variety of different ways. Cold packs are typically used in regards of medical treatment. Many athletes used cold packs to heal from any injuries. Furthermore, cold packs are used to keep medications cool for a given period, such medications ...

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Isolation of Sarracenin from Root Barks of Strychnos Spinosa

30 Jan 2018

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On isolation of Sarracenin from Root barks of Strychnos spinosa and its Antimicrobial Properties. A known iridoid, Sarracenin, was isolated from the root bark of Strychnos spinosa. Its structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments, and comparison with reported data. This is the first time it has been isolated from this species. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella ...

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The Misuse of Benzodiazepine

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction Benzodiazepine (BZD) misuse is a serious public health problem because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening drug overdoses for a long time.(Kevin W Chen,2011).In any case,the combination of effectiveness and risks of long-term use is the reason why BZD and other Tranquilizer drugs are too dangerous to deal with in clinical practice.Despite the fact that scientists have tried very hard to ...

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Functionalization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

30 Jan 2018

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The functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with different drugs Duma (Voiculet), M. Prodana, I. Demetrescu Abstract—Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by various groups (carboxyl or amino) can improve the properties of anti-tumoral drugs (cisplatin, docetaxel, zometa). Functionalization was evidenced by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Platinum ions released in simulated body fluid (SBF) were measured by inductively coupled plasma ion spectrometry (ICP-MS). Keywords—functionalization, ...

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Causes and Treatment Strategies

30 Jan 2018

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Pathology Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease that primarily afflicts adults. The likelihood of being diagnosed with AML increases with age; the median age of diagnosis is 65 with very few cases reported in those under the age of 40 [4]. Several risk factors have been associated with increased incidence of AML including: Li-Fraumeni disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, radiation exposure, chemotherapy, and chemicals (benzene, herbicides, etc) (See ...

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Estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium

30 Jan 2018

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Derivative Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Pekamwar S. S., Kalyankar T. M, Lokhande M. V. ABSTRACT Purpose: Tramadol is opioid analgesic and diclofenac is NSAID and are used in severe to moderate pain management. Combination of Tramadol and Diclofenac drugs were approved by FDA to market in India with a dose of 50 mg for TRA and ...

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Silicon Carbide: Structure, Uses and History

30 Jan 2018

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2.1 Silicon Carbide 2.1.1 Historic Overview Silicon carbide as a material that precedes our solar system, travelling through interstellar space for billions of years, generated inside the fiery nuclear hearts of carbon rich red giant stars and in the remnants of supernovae (Davis, 2011). As a synthesized material it was first discovered by the Swedish scientist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824 during his pursuit to synthesize ...

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Determining Avogadro’s Constant and Faraday’s Constant

30 Jan 2018

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List of Apparatus Name of Apparatus Quantity Uncertainty Electronic Stopwatch 1 ±0.2s Ammeter 1 ±0.01A Wires with crocodile clips 1 - D.C power source 1 ±0.01V ...

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Desulfurization Simulated Gasoil

30 Jan 2018

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Desulfurization Simulated Gasoil by Polyoxometalate/H2O2/Ionic Liquid System Arouna Dolo, Yu-Hui Luo, Wen-Wen Ma, Xin-Xin Lu, Yan Xu, Kaiwen Ma, Nah Traoré, Hong Zhang   Abstract The Keggin-type catalysts (Q)3+nPW12-nVnO40 (n= 1-3) were synthesized by ionic exchange for oil extraction/catalytic oxidation desulfurization (ECODS) of DBT, BT and 4,6-DMDBT. The samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra ...

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Biosensors Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection

30 Jan 2018

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An approach towards clinical diagnosis. 1. Introduction: The molecular oxygen is the basic source of energy for aerobic systems. Its consumption by the living systems produces the radical such as superoxide anion (O2-). This is a highly reactive toxic radical and is implicated in numerous pathologies. The toxicity of the triplet oxygen is prevented by the involvement of enzymes. A real paradox is that hydrogen peroxide ...

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Optically Active Polymers

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction Optically active polymers are related to problems of the charged and reactive polymers, since optical activity is an inherent property of both natural macromolecules as well as a great variety of polymers synthesized. Most of the naturally occurring molecules/macromolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are chiral and optically active. Chirality is essential for life. This situation can be very obviously seen ...

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Mauveine: History, Properties and Structure

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction One of the most important events of 1856 was the discovery of the first successful artificial dye, mauveine (aniline purple, mauve dye, Tyrian purple) by William Perkin. The discovery of mauveine led to rapidly growth of fashion trend and discovery of new synthetic dyes. Nowadays there are more than three million dyes (WordPress.com). Most dyes used back in the XIX century were derived ...

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C-H Bending Vibrations of Benzene Rings

30 Jan 2018

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Vibrational analysis or IR spectrum or Vibrational assignment or Analysis of vibrational spectra: C-H vibrations The C-H stretching vibration present in the hetero aromatic structure lies in the characteristic region 3100-3000cm-1, in which the bands are not affected noticeably by the nature of substituent’s. All the C-H stretching vibrations are weak in intensity. In our case the C-H stretching vibrations were observed at 3083, 3063, 3031 ...

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Interactions of TiO2 Nanoparticles With Carotenoids

30 Jan 2018

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Role of TiO2 semiconductor nanoparticles on photodegradation of carotenoids: stability of carotenoids in solution. D.D.D.H Alwis, U.G. Chandrika, P.M. Jayaweera   Abstract: Introduction Carotenoid (Car) molecules as a sensitizer in Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with optimum photo conversion efficiency have recently been widely investigated by several researchers1-3. Car are one of the most widespread naturally occurring pigments which are of great interest due to their biological ...

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Effect of Temperature on Shelf Stability of Soybean-corn Oil

30 Jan 2018

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STUDY OF EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON SHELF STABILITY OF SOYBEAN-CORN OIL BLENDS. Atul Thakkar*, Jayshree Parikh**   Abstract Soybean oil because of certain advantages is cultivated on large scale in recent years in India particularly in M.P, U.P, and part of Maharashtra. Soybean oil meal is rich in protein and the oil has ready outlet in vanaspati manufacture with the possibility, that it may be utilized ...

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Chemical Synthesis and Analysis of Seaweed

30 Jan 2018

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Chapter 1 Literature review 2015 Introduction Marine-microalgae are normally termed as seaweed belonging to the primitive family of non-flowering plant known as thallophyta (Fig 1). The sea plant lacks the leaves, stem and roots of true plants. The body of the seaweed is called the thallus named after the thallophyta. The flattened leaf portion of the ...

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Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Ambroxol Hydrochloride

30 Jan 2018

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SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AND AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN SYRUP DOSAGE FORM BY USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD S. S. Pekamwar, Madhav Shelke ABSTRACT: A simple, economical, rapid, accurate and precise UV Spectrophotometric method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk and in Syrup formulation. Determination of Levocetrizine dihydrochloride (LCTZ) and Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) in bulk and in syrup ...

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Effect of Carbon Atoms Number in Alcohol on Combustion

30 Jan 2018

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Research Question How does the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain of primary alcohol affect its enthalpy change of combustion? Independent Variable The independent variable in this investigation is the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain of primary alcohol. Five different primary alcohol will be used, namely, methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol. Dependent Variable: The dependent variable in this investigation is ...

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Synthesis of a New Potential Herbicide

30 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of Study Since the beginning of the world, every creature in the world consumes food in order to survive. They ingest creatures in the sea, animals on the ground, or even vegetables on the land. In the olden days, the vegetables that mankind intake is without adding of synthetic chemicals or in other words it is organic. The purpose of ...

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Biochemical and Mineral Changes in Coconut Fermentation

30 Jan 2018

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Changes in biochemical and mineral composition during natural fermentation of freshly collected coconut inflorescence sap Abstract Fresh, unfermented coconut inflorescence sap is a natural, hygienic, nutritious liquid extracted from inflorescence of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.). Studies conducted to establish changes in biochemical (pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, proteins, amino acids, phenolics) and mineral (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and copper) content during natural fermentation of ...

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Physico-chemical Properties of Pectin From Jelly Fig

30 Jan 2018

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Changes in physico-chemical properties of pectin from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsangMakino) seeds during extraction and gelling Chii-Ming Jiang, Ying-Jang Lai, Bor-Hon Lee, Wei-Hsien Chang, Ming-Chang Wu, Hung-Min Chang Abstract Degree of esterification of pectin from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsangMakino) achene seeds and the pH value decreased rapidly during extraction, while apparent reduction of free calcium content in the pectin extract was observed at the ...

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Effect of Temperature on Enzyme-catalyzed Reaction

30 Jan 2018

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Yasmine Dabash Introduction Topic: The denaturing of enzymes. Purpose: To further investigate catalysts and enzymes as well as their reactions to temperature change. Problem: How does temperature affect the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction? Research Source 1: http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/tempeffects.html Information found: Like the majority of chemical reactions, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction raises as the temperature elevates. According to the source, “A ten degree ...

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Polymer Profiles: An Overview

30 Jan 2018

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4.4. POLYMER PROFILES: Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) Synonyms: Cellulose Hydroxypropyl methyl ether Functional Category: Release retardant, Coating purpose it used, film-former, suspending agent, stabilizing agent, tablet binder and viscosity increasing agent. Pharmaceutical application: Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is widely used in oral formulations. It is used in contain solution of 2-20 % w/w in tablet coating of tablets. In aqueous coating low viscosity grades of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose in aqueous ...

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Quinapril HCl (QUI) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) Literature

30 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Reema jaiswal, Pinak patel et al., (2013) developed and reported a new simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Quinapril HCl (QUI) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) in their combined pharmaceutical dosage form using potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate buffer (pH 4.0 adjusted with Ortho Phosphoric acid):Acetonitrile(70:30v/v) mobile phase, and C18 column ODS(100 mm x 4.6 mm,3.0μ particle ...

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Nanocrystalline Diamond Coating around Sphere Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Mechanical Properties and Uniformity of Nanocrystalline Diamond coating around Sphere Hongyun Chen Nanocrystalline diamond coatings were deposited on spheres used for ball bearing. The nanocrystalline coatings with a grain size of 50nm were confirmed by the surface morphology and composition analysis. The hardness of the coating is 20-40GPa tested by nanoindentation, which is higher than that of tungsten carbide and silicon nitride substrates. The ...

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Chemistry of Essential Oils

29 Jan 2018

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Rhea Hughes Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Basic Chemical Structure 2.1 Hydrocarbons Monoterpenes Sesquiterpenes 2.2 Oxygenated Compounds 3. Extraction Methods 4. How essential oils are analysed 5. Discussion 6. Conclusion 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction Essential oils are used as alternative medical treatments, fragrances for perfumes and also as flavours in food and beverages (Djilani & Dicko, 2012). They are made up of fragranced ...

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CdS Quantum dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties

29 Jan 2018

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CdS Quantum dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties Characterization for Solar Cell Raimy Roy   Abstract— In this work CdS quantum dots were synthesized using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Then a study of the morphology and optical property were made for the application of solar cell. The structural characterization were made by XRD while the optical characterization where done by UV-vis-NIR ...

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Alcohol Composition Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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ALCOHOL Chemical Composition (ingredients) of 4 types of alcoholic beverages: The ingredients differ according to each beverage but there are a couple that are available in all of them, these are water and ethanol. These two ingredients are essential in every alcoholic beverage. Champagne can only be made from white Chardonnay grapes and red Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier grapes. It’s usually a blend of two ...

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DI-MS Technique for Analyzing Protein and Peptide Sequences

29 Jan 2018

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Food Industrial Application DI-MS technique has been widely applied in food industry as it is an easy and high-throughput tool for analyzing protein and peptide sequences, studying the components or structure in food, monitoring the contamination in food. FAB-MS In the study by Terzi, Boyot, Dorsselear, Luu and Trifilieff (1990), the amino acid sequence of a new 6.8 kDa proteolipid from beef heart was determined by ...

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DNA Tranlession Polymerase in Prokaryotic Cells

29 Jan 2018

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DNA Tranlession Polymerase in prokaryotic cells: History, structures and function Soheil Malekpour DNA is one of the most important part of the cell that gives cell integrity and character. This part of the cell can be exposed to different kinds of damages that may put the cell's integrity in jeopardy. The only part of the cell that has this ability to be repaired is ...

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Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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ADSORPTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON DIFFERENT TIMBER SPECIES Marco Vasconcelos1, Nereida Cordeiro1,2*   ABSTRACT Due to the health issues associated to VOC, this work aims to study the adsorption of these compounds onto timbers, in order to improve air quality. For this task, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to characterize surface properties (surface energy, specific free energy and enthalpy of adsorption). Dispersive ...

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Natural Zeolite as a Cost-effective Opacifier

29 Jan 2018

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Ali Ghafarinazari1, 2 , Esfandiar Amiri1, Mahnaz Karbassi3, Morteza Soroor1, Talieh Rajabloo3   Abstract Zircon as an opacifier material is under the very real risk of being replaced. This is mainly because of two reasons: the anticipated shortage of high-quality grade zircon, and high costs associated with the production of zircon as an opacifier material, which is resulting in upward pressure on zircon prices. ...

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Analysis of Solubility and Forming Microemulsions

29 Jan 2018

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Chapter 5 Materials and methods to study formulation models 5.1. Materials Oils and Surfactants: Ethyl Oleate obtained from Sigma-Aldrich; FK-Sunflower Oil obtained from Fresenius Kabi; FK-MCT Oil obtained from Fresenius Kabi; Miglyol 840 obtained from Sasol; Tween 80 viscous liquid obtained from Sigma-Aldrich; Labrasol obtained from Gattefossé; Model API. Devices: Sartorius, Scale Extend, Model ED2245; IKA RET basic, magnetic stirrer; Thermo Electron Corporation, HERAEUS ...

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Givotia Moluccana Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.1. PLANT MATERIAL 4.1.1. COLLECTION OF PLANT The plant aerial parts of Givotia moluccanawas collected and Authentified by Dr. K. Madhava Chetty, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi (AP). 4.1.2. PREPARATION OF THE EXTRACT The dried leaves of G. moluccana was collected, cleaned, dried and powdered in a grinder ­­- mixer to obtain a coarse powder and then passed through 40 mesh ...

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Synthesis and Growth of HAp Crystals

29 Jan 2018

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Results and discussions Synthesis of HAp/Chitosan/Dopamine films Two types of HAp-chitosan composite films were prepared: HAp-chitosan films with and without dopamine (Figure 1). The weight ratio between HAp and chitosan in the films was fixed to 50 wt% since the HAp content in human bones is about 50-70wt% in dry weight28-30. In comparison with the 50 wt% HAp-chitosan, 70 wt% HAp-chitosan films containing dopamine were also ...

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Analysis of Cherry Flavour using GC-MS

29 Jan 2018

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Tziamourani Athanasia Analysis of cherry flavour using GC-MS and development of a recombinate Cherry is one of the most important fruits globally and a non-climacteric stone fruit, mainly grown in temperate climate countries. The most important factors that contribute to the uniqueness of cherry include skin colour, sweetness (sugar content), sourness (organic acid content), fruit firmness, fruit weight and aroma. The compounds that contribute ...

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Studies on Bioactive Tetrahydro Pyrimidine

29 Jan 2018

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Chapter- 1 General Introduction 1 Chapter 1 General Introduction 1.1 Heterocycles in drug discovery Currently pharmaceutical manufacturing is facing many problems for research and development due to high costs and changeless existence of moieties in these days. According to research of human genome we got assumption that at least 1000 genes are involved in identified and non identified disease. For that research about 20,000 human genome ...

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Proton-proton Coupling Constant

29 Jan 2018

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Easily recognized splitting patterns found in various spectra provide the chemical shifts of the different sets of hydrogen that generate the signals differ by two or more ppm. The patterns are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the proton chemical shift, and the central lines are always stronger than the outer lines. The most commonly observed patterns have been given descriptive names, such as doublet (two ...

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Hybrid Pharmacophores as Anti-inflammatory Agents

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The Synthesis of molecules that are important in the control of ageing diseases is very important in the present decades. The compounds like Diarylsulfonylurea-chalcone may act as anti-inflammatory agents that may be linked as network to several diseases. The synthetic compounds have the abilities to act as preventive compounds having therapeutic action. In the present decade, one can consider synthetic products ...

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Chromatography Lab Report

29 Jan 2018

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GC-1 (Gas Chromatography) Experiment 1, 2, 3 & 4 Experiment 1:- Determination of ethanol content of a mouthwash using an internal standard Experiment 2:- Determination of oxygenates in gasoline Experiment 3:- Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Experiment 4:- Determination of volatile compounds by headspace analysis Anil Kumar   Introduction & Theory The experiments performed in this lab were ...

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Mechanisms of Adsorption of Aormatic Nitrogen Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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MECHANISMS OF ADSORPTION OF AORMATIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS AND AROMATIC COMPOUNDS ON METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS (MOFs) by JUN DAI   Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) constitute a class of novel porous materials which have attracted significant interest due to their application in separation, storage, catalyst and sensing. Large surface area and porous cavity make MOFs excellent absorbents with huge uptake capacity. In this paper, we studied adsorption mechanisms of adsorption ...

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Carbon Nonmaterial From Non-renewable Oil Resource Synthesis

29 Jan 2018

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Synthesis and characterization of carbon nonmaterial from non-renewable oil resources by catalytic CVD Introduction Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nano materials that obtain amazing properties, which find effectiveness in wide applications such as gas storage, sensor, catalyst, drug delivery system, and solar cell (Chen et al., 2012; Schnorr & Swager, 2011). Carbon nanotube has been discovered by Iijima in 1991 (Iijima, 1991). Then Iijima found that Carbon ...

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Solubility Characteristics Between Organic Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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Objective: The objective of this experiment is to study the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. Besides, understanding on the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon skeleton is the aim for the test. Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to explore and understand the solubility characteristics between organic compounds and their relative solvents. The structure of organic compound indicates its solubility, ...

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Optimization of Solvent Extractions

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction In this study, the leaves of A. Malanccensis, formulated gaharu tea bags from Gaharu Tea Valley, Gopeng and Kebun Rimau, Tawau were extracted by using solvent extraction method. The optimization of solvent extractions were determined in this study as well. Chemical composition of the crude extracts were analyzed by using GC-MS and HPLC. Besides, the obtained crude extracts were evaluated for their ...

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Difficulties in Developing Petroleum Industry in Vietnam

29 Jan 2018

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by Nguyen Duc Anh Tuan Introduction Nowadays, in the developing era with fast pace, those agricultural countries, particularly Vietnam, might not only focus on improving the agriculture but also pay attention to developing the industrial area. More specifically, Vietnam has been concentrating on how to develop the gas and oil industry recently. However, the country is still facing a lot of difficulties. This essay ...

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Structures of Bacterial Tyrosinases

29 Jan 2018

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Tyrosinases oxidise phenolic hydroxyl groups of small molecules or large polymeric substrates such as proteins. Tyrosinases catalyse first the ortho-hydroxylation of the phenolic substrate and second its subsequent oxidation to quinone (Figure 1) with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The reaction is chromogenic as the quinones produced can undergo further non-enzymatic polymerisation to form black eu-melanins and, when reacting with thiol groups, brownish pheo-melanins ...

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Causes of Luminescence and Chemiluminescence

29 Jan 2018

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1.1. Luminescence Phenomena Luminescence is the phenomenon of emission of electromagnetic radiation in excess of thermal radiation. The radiation is usually in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, however, since the same basic processes may yield infrared or ultra violet radiation. Luminescence is observed with all phases of matter: gases, liquids and solids both organic and inorganic[1]. Luminescence is an umbrella term for those kinds ...

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Mathematics in General Chemistry

29 Jan 2018

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Prepared by Paul Okweye and Malinda Gilmore Purpose of the Experiment To acquire knowledge in the area of units of measurements and learn how to use dimensional analysis to solve word problems that will be used throughout General Chemistry. In addition, students will learn the importance of statistical analysis in General Chemistry laboratory experiments and also rules with respect to exponential notation and significant ...

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Gold: History, Properties and Nanoscale Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Since first extracted in the 5th century, Gold has been regarded as one of the most important matters in the world. When divided into smaller fragment sizes, way below 100nm it becomes even more ‘precious’. The optical, catalytical and electronic properties of Gold nanoparticles differ greatly from those of their bulk counterparts. This is mainly due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio as well as the ...

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Scopolamine (Burundanga) Properties and Uses

29 Jan 2018

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Scopolamine: The Devil’s Breath INTRODUCTION What if one day you wake up in a bathtub with your organs cut off, and you cannot remember anything. On the other hand, maybe you are on a street, showing a young woman the directions, and the next thing you know is you are in the middle of nowhere, ...

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Analysis of Gun Shot Residue using Electron Microscopy (EM)

29 Jan 2018

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Nathan Dean Thompson Review of the composition of gunshot residue (GSR) in coherence with its characteristics when analysed using electron microscopy (EM) and energy dispersive electron techniques. The key piece of evidence residing at incidents involving firearms is the gunshot residue (GSR) that is created when a gun is fired. Gunshot residue (GSR) can also be labelled as cartridge discharge residue (CDR) or firearms ...

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Overview of Cytokinins (CK)

29 Jan 2018

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FARA SHAKEEL CYTOKININS: Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence. STRUCTURE OF CYTOKININS: NATURE OF CYTOKININS: Cytokinins are compounds with a structure resembling adenine which promote cell division and ...

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Therapeutic Proteins – Hirudin

29 Jan 2018

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Isaac Johnson Hirudin is a polypeptide that has anticoagulant properties (Rosenthal, 2008). Hirudin is important because it is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Since the presence of thrombin, a serine protease, is indicative of a blood clot having a polypeptide that specifically inhibits thrombin generation is important in a number of ways (Contributors, Thrombin, 2013). Hirudin is used to prevent the formation of blood clots in arteries, ...

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Design of Hybrid Filter With Wavelet Denoising

29 Jan 2018

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Simranjit Kaur DESIGN OF HYBRID FILTER WITH WAVELET DENOISING AND ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION FILTER FOR IMAGE DESPECKLING 1. INTRODUCTION Digital images are images which are formed of picture elements also termed as pixels. The pixels typically are arranged in a rectangular array. The dimensions of the pixel array determine its size. Its width is defined by the number of columns, and height by the number ...

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Development of Emulsion Property

29 Jan 2018

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Student’s name: Yang Jiang Abstract In recent years, emulsion has taken an important port in our life, such as cosmetic and some other cosmetic industries. The property of the emulsion has a direct impact on our daily life. This paper chose the process of produce bath gel to provide what makes the property change, how to control it and how to make ...

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Phosphonium Vermiculites Dispertion: Polymethylmethacrylate

29 Jan 2018

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Ultraphonic in situ polymerization improves the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites in polymethylmethacrylate with excellent mechanical property Bin Zhang1, Dingfeng Xu1, Shaozao Tan1,*, Langhuan Huang1, Xiang Cai2, Ting Wu2,*Abstract In order to improve the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites (OVMT) in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), the ultraphonic in situ polymerization method was introduced, and a series of OVMT-PMMA (PBTP) nanocomposites were successfully prepared. The results indicated that the assistance of ...

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Enzyme Kinetics: Lactate Dehydrogenase

29 Jan 2018

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Question: What scientific question was this part of the practical designed to address? What is the effect of heat stability on two isoforms of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1 and LDH5) after pre-incubation (heat inactivation) of the enzyme samples at different temperatures? Approach: Outline and explain the experimental approach that was used to address the question. In order to determine the effect of the heat inactivation ...

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Chemical Constituents From Lepidogrammitis Drymoglossoides

29 Jan 2018

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Li-Yuan Zhang, You-Heng Gao*, Ling-Zhi Ren , Ming-Zhu Wan, Teng-Hua Wang ABSTRACT This report is related to phytochemical investigation about a Chinese fern Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides. Based on spectroscopic analysis including UV, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR as well as their chemical and physical properties, their structures were identified to be β-ecdysterone (1), stigmasterol (2), physcion (3), emodin (4), umbelliferone (5), scoparone (6), aesculetin (7), caffeic ...

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

29 Jan 2018

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency: An Inborn Error of Metabolism Marisa Houser The body’s metabolism is responsible for all the physical and chemical processes that convert or use energy. One of these processes is breaking down and digesting food. (National Institutes of Health , 2014) Food that is not broken down properly can lead to a buildup within the body and can be toxic or interfere with ...

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One-pot Synthesis of Porous Coordination Polymers

29 Jan 2018

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Generally, the properties of crystals are strongly determined not only by their chemical composition, but also by their morphology, size and surface structure.1-3 Over the past decade, crystals with specific crystal facets have attracted great research interest because the exposed facets on the crystals finely affect the chemical and physical properties of the functional materials.4-6 For example, noble-metallic nanocrystals having high-index facets generally show much higher ...

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Taro Leaves Drying Kinetics and Monolayer Moisture Content

29 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION |1 A study on the drying kinetics and monolayer moisture content of taro leaves This research was aimed to develop dehydrated products based on Taro leaves and finding out the effect of drying parameters such as loading density and temperature on that control the drying kinetics. To determine the end point of drying studies on the sorption isotherm was conducted. From the moisture sorption isotherm ...

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Heterocycles: Types and Biosynthesis

29 Jan 2018

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Heterocycles1 are one of the major classes of organic compounds. They are cyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatom (oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur etc.). These compounds are of biological and industrial importance. Many materials that are essential to life include a heterocyclic moiety; examples of these are: amino acids, nucleic acids, pigments, vitamins, antibiotics and many more. Heterocycles are part of our everyday life and are present ...

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Analytical Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry

29 Jan 2018

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Miracles do happen and chances of happening such events are rare. Scientific discoveries have also seen such miracles. The approach and efforts required in scientific happenings are based on basic principles. The mode of application of these established principles differ from one stream to another stream of scientific disciplines. The principle of chemistry and physics are amalgamated to give rise to number of measuring devices. These ...

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Chromium and Selenium Concentration in Cancer

29 Jan 2018

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The ratio between chromium and selenium concentration among various age groups of cancer group has also been studied and it shown in table 5.48, and it has been observed that all groups of cancer patients present somewhat similar ratio of chromium and selenium concentration in their blood. Moreover, the concentration balance of chromium and selenium has conspicuously been disturbed as it illustrated in table 5.49. For ...

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Synthesis and Characterization of Tetraphenyltin

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACTS Tetraphenyltin in high yield has been prepared by the reaction of chlorobenzene, chlorotin (IV) and sodium metal in dry toluene characterized by Infra-red spectroscopy. Introduction Organic compounds that contains metal-carbon bond are called organometallic compounds. Organometallic compounds have been studied for nearly 200 years. Unique properties of these compounds have been used in many areas of life. The reactivity of organometallic compounds depends on the ...

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Colon Specific Drug Delivery

29 Jan 2018

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ABSRACT The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can takes place. Colon specific drug delivery has achieved importance for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis etc. as well as for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antidiabetic agents. A drug need ...

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C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study

29 Jan 2018

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The C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study Mohammad Reza Zardoost a,*, Behnam Dehbandib , Marjan Dehbandib   Abstract: Electronic structure properties including bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moments (µ), energies, band gaps, NMR parameters of the isotropic and anisotropic chemical shielding parameters for the sites of various atoms were calculated using density functional theory for C , Si , Ge ...

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Synthesis of Polyelectrolyte Pani Membrane

29 Jan 2018

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SYNTHESIS OF POLYELECTROLYTE PAni MEMBRANE BY PHASE INVERSION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATIONS NURUL IZZATI IZNI BT MAT YUSOFF   INTRODUCTION During the last few decades, the application of membrane based separation is the leading technology as one of the alternatives used in separating and removal of organic solvents. Moreover, it holds a significant commercial impact in several areas including water and wastewater treatment, chemical, ...

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Determining Ethanol in Fermented Glutinous Rice

29 Jan 2018

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1.0 Introduction Fermented glutinous rice is a popular dessert among Malaysian consumers. It consist of carbohydrate such as rice and it need to be fermented for a few days until the glucose have been converted into the ethanol, carbon dioxide and energy whereas it signs is when the taste is sweet flavor. Cassava also can be fermented. Both of dishes served mostly in Southeast Asia. When ...

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MEL and Analogues: Structures and Properties

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Melamine MEL is an organic compound which had been closely associated with milk adulterant scandal between the year 2007 and 2008. Having a chemical formula of C3H6N6, makes it a nitrogen rich compound, thus giving the false impression of real protein content (Y.-N. Wu, Zhao, & Li, 2009). Manufacturing companies who bought raw milk for further production usually carry out protein ...

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Enthalpy of Displacement

29 Jan 2018

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Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of displacement between zinc powder and copper sulphate Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq) Chemicals – CuSO­­­4 Solution ( concentration = 0.5 mol.dm3 ) Zinc (s) Powder Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used ...

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Quantitative Chemical Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Quantitative chemical analysis, which is commonly referred to as stoichiometry, is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical equation. The term stoichiometry is a combination of two words derived from the Greek language: stoicheion (meaning "element") and metron (meaning "measure"). Stoichiometric calculations are dependent upon the law of conservation of mass which states that all matter cannot be created nor ...

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Removal of TBP From Aqueous Phase

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT PUREX process involves the use of 30% TBP in Dodecane to extract the fissile materials. However, due to mutual solubility some amount of TBP gets transferred into the aqueous phase. This transferred TBP leads to many environmental problems. Removal of this TBP from aqueous phase is of prime concern which can be done by contacting it with an organic diluent. UNIFAC and Uniquac methods have ...

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Nanotechnology based Drug Delivery Systems

29 Jan 2018

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Richard Chen Introduction In the past century, nanotechnology has been a prominent theme for many science fiction writers. However, thanks to recent developments in chemistry and manufacturing, we are now able to bring things that were once unimaginable into fruition. The field of nanotechnology refers to the research, development and the production of materials under the size of 100 nanometers (nm). Over the past ...

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Synthesis Method of Napthoyl-thiourea Derivatives

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter explains briefly on the synthesis method of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives, experimental characterization techniques (CHNS, FTIR, UV-Vis, UV-F, 1H and 13C NMR, Single Crystal X-Ray Crystallography Analysis, XRD, TGA, SEM, CV), electrodeposition of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives on ITO substrate, electrical conductivity measurement, IV curve characteristic, performance of organic diode and theoretical calculation via Gaussion 09 software package functions. 3.1 Reagents, Chemicals and Solvent All chemicals ...

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Optically Active Polymers

26 Jan 2018

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Optically active polymers play very important role in our modern society. The speciality of optically active polymers are known with its various characteristics as occurred naturally in mimicry. The present review describes the monomers and synthesis of optically active polymers from its helicity, internal compounds nature, dendronization, copolymerization, side chromophoric groups, chiral, metal complex and stereo-specific behaviour. The various properties like nonlinear optical properties of azo-polymers, ...

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Enzymatic Route for the Production of Biofuels

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Many compounds are currently produced through reactions that use chemical catalysts or expensive experimental conditions. However, this practice is aggressive to the environment, generating effluents with high cost of treatment, and consuming too energy. Enzymatic catalysis appears thus to reduce the energy demand contributing to a reduction in by-product formation. However, the acquisition cost of enzymes is still ...

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The Reductive Carbonylation of Organic Nitro Compounds

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction: The development of environmentally more benign and efficient synthetic methods has stimulated the evolution of new strategies and technologies for the synthesis of useful products in a safe, compact, and energy efficient manner. In this respect our preliminary focus to investigate typically efficient and complementary methodology with palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of nitro arenes employing CO gas. CO represents the most important C1 building block molecule ...

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Nanoparticles Obtained by Using Different Gelation Solution

26 Jan 2018

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Size of nanoparticles obtained by using different gelation solution 3.1.1 Size of different alginate-based nanoparticles at fixed enzyme and Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate (surfactant) concentration Various alginate based nanoparticles were prepared by using different gelling solutions as given in method . The size of nanoparticles determined by DLS is given in table-1. Table-1: Showing size and intensity of nanoparticles at single concentration ...

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Developing Natural Gas Sweetening Processes

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction Natural gas contains large amounts of methane (CH4), but also all kinds of impurities such as sour gases (e.g., H2S and CO2). The acid gases in the natural gas should be removed to comply with environmental regulations and to avoid technological problems during gas transportation.1–3 For instance, dry ice or CO2 hydrate products can clog the system during liquefaction of the natural gas.2 ...

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Analysis of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Dust

26 Jan 2018

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Literature Review 2.1 REVIEW OF REPORTED STUDIES 2.1.1 Assessment of Heavy Metal in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment. Chirika S.T. & Pawan R.S.9 conducted a study in 2011 to determine the levels of heavy metals in street dust at different localities in the Metropolitan City of Kathmandu, Nepal. A total ...

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