Biochemical Processes of Oil Degradation

10 Apr 2018

9 (3,594 )

1. INTRODUCTION Surfactants are surface active compound that reduce the interfacial tension between two liquids, or that between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants are organic compound that contain both hydrophobic (head part of the surfactant) and hydrophilic (tail part of the surfactant) moieties. Thus surfactant contains both water insoluble i.e. water repellent group as well as water soluble i.e. water loving group. Biosurfactants are also ...

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Preformulation Studies: Analysis of Honey

27 Mar 2018

6 (2,003 )

Experimental work: Preformulation studies: Analysis of honey: Materials: Materials selected for the analysis of honey were procured from College of Pharmacy, IPS Academy, and Indore. Samples of Honey (Dabur honey) of different batches were selected and analysed where (n=3). Parameters studied: Sensory evaluation Foreign matter Ash value pH Refractive index Moisture content Acidity Standard procedure was followed for the analysis of different samples of ...

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Pharmacological Profiles of Several Common Drugs

27 Mar 2018

4 (1,313 )

2.3 Profile of Pheniramine Maleate (31) Chemical name: (3RS)-N,N-Dimethyl-3-phenyl-3-(pyridine-2-yl)propan-1-amine(Z)-butenedioate Empirical formula: C20H24N2O4 Chemical structure: Figure 2.3:Structure of Pheniramine Maleate 2.3.1 Physical properties Molecular weight: 356.4 Appearance and colour: White or almost white crystalline powder. Solubility: Very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %)in methanol and in methylene chloride. Therapeutic category:Pheniramine maleate belongs to H1-antagonist pharmacological group on the basis of ...

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Effects of Agricultural Soil Contamination

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,445 )

1. Introduction Agricultural soils contaminated with heavy metals such as lead (Pb) is a threat to human health. Plants grown in contaminated soil can accumulate these metals in the shoots and roots. Metals accumulate in Living organism, especially the liver and kidneys, when these plants are used as fodder for livestock and domestic animals. Thereby enter the human food chain (Akan et al., 2010). Lead is ...

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States and Properties of Crystalline Material

30 Jan 2018

5 (1,741 )

The crystalline state: In general, solids might be classified in crystalline or amorphous. On the one hand, the crystalline solids comprise a regular set of molecules, atoms or ions into a rigid lattice which is characteristic of each substance. Thus, most crystals are anisotropic (the cubic system is an exception), namely, depending of the direction in which their properties are measured they can change. On the ...

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Measurement of Anti-proliferative Activity Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Human cancer cell lines A549 (Lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (Breast adenocarcinoma), DU 145 (Prostate carcinoma), DLD-1 (Colorectal adenocarcinoma), FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma of pharynx) were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), USA. These cells were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and antibiotic combinations in 5% CO2 humidified atmosphere at 37 0C. A colorimetric sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used for the measurement of anti-proliferative ...

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Cloud Point Extraction Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Bromothymol blue (also known as bromothymol sulfone phthalein, BTB) (Figure 2.1.1) is a pH indicator (yellow at pH 6.0 and blue at pH 7.6). Its chemical name is: 4,40-(1,1-dioxido-3H-2,1-benzoxathiole-3,3-diyl)bis(2-bromo-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (The Merck Index, 13th edition, 2007)[1]. pKa of BTB is 7.1. This dye is the most appropriate pH indicator dye in physiological tissue and also used in the investigation of the interaction of lipid with protein (Puschett ...

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Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,532 )

Surface Area vs. Reaction Rate How does the surface area of pure cane sugar cubes affect the rate of dissolution in water? Chandler Hultine   Abstract The purpose of this lab was to investigate how surface area affects the reaction rate of a substance in a solution. This lab was put together to find out how differentiating surface areas of pure cane sugar cubes would affect ...

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Single Molecule Magnets and Single Chain Magnets Analysis

30 Jan 2018

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The structures and magnetic properties: molecular nanomagnets phenolic oxime complexes GUAN Shengyang Table of Contents (Jump to) 1 Introduction 1.1 Research background 1.2 Introduction to nanomagnets 1.2.1 Single molecule magnet 1.2.2 Single Chain magnet (magnetic nanowires) 1.3 Structure of phenolic oxime and complexes 2 Researches 2.1 Iron complex 2.2 Manganese complexes 2.3 Complex containing cobalt and sodium ions 2.4 Complex containing lanthanide 3 Conclusion ...

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Gene Expression of Mitochondrial Enzymes from Exercise

30 Jan 2018

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Induced Change in Gene Expression of Mitochondrial Enzymes as a Result of Intense Exercise Abstract Exercise-induced changes in gene expression of mitochondrial enzymes has become a leading target for sports medicine research. Previous indirect testing of delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in rotation of motion do not provide a sufficient explanation of the induced changes to the genome (Hubal, et al., 2010). Biomarker testing has allowed ...

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Enhancement of Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting

30 Jan 2018

8 (3,161 )

Enhancement of photocatalytic overall water splitting on H1.9K0.3La0.5Bi0.1Ta2O7 by loading Pt, Rh(oxide) as co-catalysts Wei Chen, Hui Wang, Liqun Mao, Xiaoping Chen, Wenfeng Shangguan   Abstract: Pt and Rh were loaded on protonated layered pervoskite H1.9K0.3La0.5Bi0.1Ta2O7 by an in suit photodeposition method. The Rh loading facilitates the O2 evolution and the H2/O2 is close to stoichiometric ratio (≈ 2). Yet the Pt loading is unable to ...

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Interaction Between Two Anionic Dyes and Cationic Surfactant

30 Jan 2018

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The interaction of the triphenylmethane dye xylenol orange with cationic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cetylpyridinium chloride was studied by absorption spectrophotometry and principal component analysis of infrared spectra by A. Gojmerac Ivšic´ et al. [24]. Upon the addition of surfactants the yellow color of the acidic xylenol orange solution changed to purple-red. Changes in the absorption spectra of the mixture indicate strong interactions between dye and ...

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Reliability of Reflotron in Testing of Total Cholesterol

30 Jan 2018

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Reliability of Reflotron in Testing of total Cholesterol and Urea in Non- centralized Medical Setting Introduction Point-of-care testing (PoCT) has been defined as “those analytical patient-testing activities provided within the institution, but performed outside the physical facilities of the clinical laboratories (1). There has been a growing interest in point-of-care testing (PoCT) because of its advantages over standard laboratory procedures, it provides timely information to medical ...

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Chemical Bonding Essay

30 Jan 2018

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Anna Fyodorova All elements are made of atoms which combined with each other form new atoms. They come together in large or small numbers to form very similar or very different atoms and as a result of the combination it is known as a chemical bond. Atoms linked together by bonds have different properties to the original parent atoms. There are only about 100 ...

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Aspirin: History, Effects and Synthesis

30 Jan 2018

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Introduction Aspirin is a drug which is widely used today to deal with the symptoms of many minor illnesses ranging from general relief from aches and pain; muscle, tooth, headaches, and arthritis; to prevent blood clotting and reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack; lower fever and potentially prevent certain cancers. History of Discovery Aspirin has a great history of development which could be considered ...

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AC Voltammetry: Principles, Advantages and Disadvantages

30 Jan 2018

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  Name TEH YU JIE (K) NOOR HASIRA BINTI SAMSUDIN NUR NADIAH BINTI ABU BAKAR NUR NIQMAH BINTI MUSA NUR SYAHIRAH BINTI KHAIRUDDIN KHANG EE WEN INTRODUCTION Nobel Prize winning chemist Jaroslav Heyrovský ...

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Proteins Therapy for Drug Discovery

30 Jan 2018

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Proteins are most dynamic and diverse macromolecules in our body, thus numerous functionally distinct proteins hold enormous promise for the development of new therapeutics for a variety of human ailments which contain mutated or other abnormal proteins, or those in an abnormally high or low concentration. However, the clinical application of protein therapeutics is still in its infancy since the poor physicochemical stability of proteins in ...

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The Future of Global Oil Production

30 Jan 2018

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WORLD’S OIL PRODUCTION: HISTORICAL REFERENCE AND PROJECTIONS Background The level of the oil production is influenced by a wide variety of factors. Following a basic principle, the demand is the reference element against which production (i.e. supply) is always analyzed. Yet, apart from demand there are many other factors that influence, either directly or indirectly, the oil production. To quote only a few of ...

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Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption

30 Jan 2018

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“ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS (Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni) WITH SOME AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND CORRELATION TO PHYSICO – CHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS (including XRD, FTIR, Zeta potential, Particle size)” INTRODUCTION Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption Soil is one of the key components for every single terrestric biological system. It gives the supplement bearing environment for vegetation and it is important for exchange of ...

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Determination of Unknown Salt Experiment

30 Jan 2018

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Siar Azizi Cold Pack Experiment   Introduction: Cold packs or medical cold packs are made and used in a variety of different ways. Cold packs are typically used in regards of medical treatment. Many athletes used cold packs to heal from any injuries. Furthermore, cold packs are used to keep medications cool for a given period, such medications ...

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Isolation of Sarracenin from Root Barks of Strychnos Spinosa

30 Jan 2018

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On isolation of Sarracenin from Root barks of Strychnos spinosa and its Antimicrobial Properties. A known iridoid, Sarracenin, was isolated from the root bark of Strychnos spinosa. Its structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments, and comparison with reported data. This is the first time it has been isolated from this species. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella ...

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The Misuse of Benzodiazepine

30 Jan 2018

9 (3,365 )

Introduction Benzodiazepine (BZD) misuse is a serious public health problem because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening drug overdoses for a long time.(Kevin W Chen,2011).In any case,the combination of effectiveness and risks of long-term use is the reason why BZD and other Tranquilizer drugs are too dangerous to deal with in clinical practice.Despite the fact that scientists have tried very hard to ...

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Functionalization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,541 )

The functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with different drugs Duma (Voiculet), M. Prodana, I. Demetrescu Abstract—Functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by various groups (carboxyl or amino) can improve the properties of anti-tumoral drugs (cisplatin, docetaxel, zometa). Functionalization was evidenced by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Platinum ions released in simulated body fluid (SBF) were measured by inductively coupled plasma ion spectrometry (ICP-MS). Keywords—functionalization, ...

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Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Causes and Treatment Strategies

30 Jan 2018

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Pathology Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease that primarily afflicts adults. The likelihood of being diagnosed with AML increases with age; the median age of diagnosis is 65 with very few cases reported in those under the age of 40 [4]. Several risk factors have been associated with increased incidence of AML including: Li-Fraumeni disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, radiation exposure, chemotherapy, and chemicals (benzene, herbicides, etc) (See ...

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Estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium

30 Jan 2018

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Derivative Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Tramadol Hydrochloride and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Pekamwar S. S., Kalyankar T. M, Lokhande M. V. ABSTRACT Purpose: Tramadol is opioid analgesic and diclofenac is NSAID and are used in severe to moderate pain management. Combination of Tramadol and Diclofenac drugs were approved by FDA to market in India with a dose of 50 mg for TRA and ...

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Silicon Carbide: Structure, Uses and History

30 Jan 2018

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2.1 Silicon Carbide 2.1.1 Historic Overview Silicon carbide as a material that precedes our solar system, travelling through interstellar space for billions of years, generated inside the fiery nuclear hearts of carbon rich red giant stars and in the remnants of supernovae (Davis, 2011). As a synthesized material it was first discovered by the Swedish scientist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824 during his pursuit to synthesize ...

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Determining Avogadro’s Constant and Faraday’s Constant

30 Jan 2018

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List of Apparatus Name of Apparatus Quantity Uncertainty Electronic Stopwatch 1 ±0.2s Ammeter 1 ±0.01A Wires with crocodile clips 1 - D.C power source 1 ±0.01V ...

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Desulfurization Simulated Gasoil

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,725 )

Desulfurization Simulated Gasoil by Polyoxometalate/H2O2/Ionic Liquid System Arouna Dolo, Yu-Hui Luo, Wen-Wen Ma, Xin-Xin Lu, Yan Xu, Kaiwen Ma, Nah Traoré, Hong Zhang   Abstract The Keggin-type catalysts (Q)3+nPW12-nVnO40 (n= 1-3) were synthesized by ionic exchange for oil extraction/catalytic oxidation desulfurization (ECODS) of DBT, BT and 4,6-DMDBT. The samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra ...

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Biosensors Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection

30 Jan 2018

7 (2,459 )

An approach towards clinical diagnosis. 1. Introduction: The molecular oxygen is the basic source of energy for aerobic systems. Its consumption by the living systems produces the radical such as superoxide anion (O2-). This is a highly reactive toxic radical and is implicated in numerous pathologies. The toxicity of the triplet oxygen is prevented by the involvement of enzymes. A real paradox is that hydrogen peroxide ...

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Optically Active Polymers

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,569 )

Introduction Optically active polymers are related to problems of the charged and reactive polymers, since optical activity is an inherent property of both natural macromolecules as well as a great variety of polymers synthesized. Most of the naturally occurring molecules/macromolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are chiral and optically active. Chirality is essential for life. This situation can be very obviously seen ...

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Mauveine: History, Properties and Structure

30 Jan 2018

6 (2,054 )

Introduction One of the most important events of 1856 was the discovery of the first successful artificial dye, mauveine (aniline purple, mauve dye, Tyrian purple) by William Perkin. The discovery of mauveine led to rapidly growth of fashion trend and discovery of new synthetic dyes. Nowadays there are more than three million dyes (WordPress.com). Most dyes used back in the XIX century were derived ...

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C-H Bending Vibrations of Benzene Rings

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,527 )

Vibrational analysis or IR spectrum or Vibrational assignment or Analysis of vibrational spectra: C-H vibrations The C-H stretching vibration present in the hetero aromatic structure lies in the characteristic region 3100-3000cm-1, in which the bands are not affected noticeably by the nature of substituent’s. All the C-H stretching vibrations are weak in intensity. In our case the C-H stretching vibrations were observed at 3083, 3063, 3031 ...

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Interactions of TiO2 Nanoparticles With Carotenoids

30 Jan 2018

4 (1,572 )

Role of TiO2 semiconductor nanoparticles on photodegradation of carotenoids: stability of carotenoids in solution. D.D.D.H Alwis, U.G. Chandrika, P.M. Jayaweera   Abstract: Introduction Carotenoid (Car) molecules as a sensitizer in Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) with optimum photo conversion efficiency have recently been widely investigated by several researchers1-3. Car are one of the most widespread naturally occurring pigments which are of great interest due to their biological ...

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Effect of Temperature on Shelf Stability of Soybean-corn Oil

30 Jan 2018

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STUDY OF EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON SHELF STABILITY OF SOYBEAN-CORN OIL BLENDS. Atul Thakkar*, Jayshree Parikh**   Abstract Soybean oil because of certain advantages is cultivated on large scale in recent years in India particularly in M.P, U.P, and part of Maharashtra. Soybean oil meal is rich in protein and the oil has ready outlet in vanaspati manufacture with the possibility, that it may be utilized ...

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Chemical Synthesis and Analysis of Seaweed

30 Jan 2018

12 (4,666 )

Chapter 1 Literature review 2015 Introduction Marine-microalgae are normally termed as seaweed belonging to the primitive family of non-flowering plant known as thallophyta (Fig 1). The sea plant lacks the leaves, stem and roots of true plants. The body of the seaweed is called the thallus named after the thallophyta. The flattened leaf portion of the ...

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