Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Essay

01 Dec 2017

4 (1,231 )

Ph.D. Thesis: Abhijit Nath Introduction Introduction The wealth of information in atoms and molecules can be achieved from quantum mechanical studies of their structural as well as various physical and chemical properties. Based on quantum mechanics [1-7], large number of approximation methods has been developed over the years for the complete solutions of atomic and molecular systems. Now-a-days, the availability of the computer hardware ...

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Methods for Water Treatment

01 Dec 2017

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1.12.2 Effect of chlorination of water Chlorine is toxic not only for microorganisms, but for human being also. For humans, chlorine is an irritation to the nasal passages eye, and respiratory system. Chlorine gas must be cautiously handled because it may cause severe health problem. Although, chlorine gas is also the low rate form of chlorine for water treatment, It makes use choice in spite of ...

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Chemometric Technique to Determine Rice Types

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Rice (Oryza Sativa) is a type of cereal food in which most people consumes. As acereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia [1]. Rice is perhaps the most remarkable of cultivated crops, for although possessing the roots of a dry land plant, it flourishes in ...

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Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling

01 Dec 2017

5 (1,852 )

The membrane fouling problem is still the main obstacle that faces the application of membrane technology at the industrial and environmental application. So, the main motivation for this work is to develop an enhanced performance of commercial desalination membranes with polyamide barrier layer. In this study, we will use Layer-by-Layer (LbL) modification with tailored macromolecular surface modifiers in order to coat the membranes so that stable ...

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Molecular Modelling: Explained

01 Dec 2017

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Molecular modelling is one of the fastest growing fields in science, but what is it and what does it mean? “Molecular modelling encompasses all theoretical methods and computational techniques used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules. The techniques are used in the fields of computational chemistry, drug design, computational biology and materials science for studying molecular systems ranging from small chemical systems to large ...

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Chemicals in Food Production and Preservation

01 Dec 2017

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USING CHEMICALS IN FOODS Contents Introduction.......................2 Definition........................2 Situation.........................3 Problems.........................4 Solutions.........................6 Evaluations.......................7 Conclusions.......................8 Bibliography......................8 Introduction In the past, almost all households bought foods from a farm nearby or grew foods in their garden and ate these foods. They were called locavores, which indicated people who ate only locally grown ...

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Recognition Properties for Pyrrole

01 Dec 2017

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Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer and its recognition properties for pyrrole X.W. Wu, J. Wang, H.X. Wang [1], Q.M. Zhou, L.H. Liu. wang, Y.P. Wu, H.W. Yang, G.L. Zhao, S.X. Tuo   Abstract: The molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) of pyrrole was synthesized by a precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker agent in acetonitrile. MIP of pyrrole ...

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Discovery of a Novel Oral Antithrombotic Drug Apixaban

01 Dec 2017

6 (2,329 )

Shuangyu Ma Background Thrombosis, which is generally defined as the formation of blood clot inside blood vessels, is a major health issue in western world. Thrombosis associated disease, such as ischemic stroke and high blood pressure, remain to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality each year in developed countries [1]. To make things worse, thrombosis is also known as a chronic disease ...

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Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid - Toulene -Water System Introduction: Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid with molecular formula, C7H6O2. It appeared as colorless crystalline solid and has a fade, pleasant odor. Benzoic acid is easily available in nature and are used as a precursor to plasticizers, and sodium benzoate. Also, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as yeast, ...

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Process of Matrix Acidizing

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Preface: Well stimulation techniques are applied regularly to improve productivity and maximize recovery from oil and gas wells. One of these techniques is matrix acidizing which is probably the most extensively performed job due to its low cost as compared to hydraulic fracturing, and it’s appropriateness to both production improvement and to restore original permeability in damaged wells. Acidizing ...

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Organic Synthesis of Polymers | Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Polymeric reagents offer a variety of unique benefits. Intra-molecular reactions, such as the cyclization of peptides or Dieckmann cyclizations, can be applied by attaching the reactive molecules at distant points along a polymer chain. In contrast, if the reactive molecules are secured in close approprinquity on a polymeric support then intermolecular reactions take place as illustrated for a ketone synthesis. Besides such proximity effects, mutual effects ...

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Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery

01 Dec 2017

7 (2,609 )

A Preliminary Study and Principal Component Analysis for the Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery Using NIR Spectroscopy Selvaratnam Balaranjan, Kugamoorthy Velauthamurty, Ganeshalingam Sashikesh Abstract. Palmyrah jaggery is used as a popular traditional sweetener in Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. It is a nutrient rich crude sugar which is also used in the traditional medicine. The authenticity of the product in markets is questionable since there ...

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Computational Design and Management in Pharmaceuticals

01 Dec 2017

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Computational design and management in pharmaceuticals Liu Sui   Abstract: Throughout the years since the computer was first developed, the computer has become required and indispensable in modern society. Significant scientific usage of computers has spread throughout all the sciences, including pharmaceutical science. In pharmaceuticals, usage has become an essential tool for the whole drug development process, from initiation of lead searching to finding ...

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Uncontrolled Proliferation of Cells: Lung Cancer

01 Dec 2017

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Exhibit the uncontrolled proliferation of cells and constant progress of malignant cells in the body. 1.6.2.1. Lung Cancer: The normal lungs tissues are composed by normal cells and they are intending to determine the right size, appropriate shape and the normal function of the lungs. In a cancerous cell, the genetic material DNA is altered by the encoding of the genes which are responsible for the ...

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Flumequine and Balofloxacin

01 Dec 2017

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Made by Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass Nagdat Majd Mahouk LAB GROUP: F2 Lab Instructors: T.A/ Spring 2015 Table of Contents: Introduction on (Flumequine) pg. 3 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 4 Discussion on (Flumequine) pg. 5, 6, 7 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 8, 9, 10 Conclusion pg. 11 Reference pg. 12 Flumequine: The first of ...

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Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41

01 Dec 2017

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Results and Discussions The present study included the synthesis of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and its modification by impregnation of different metals on the mesoporous to enhance the photocatalytic activity of metals i.e Cu/MCM-41, Fe/MCM-41, CeO2/MCM-41. FTIR analysis of catalyst MCM-41 has the ability to impregnate numerous metals on its surface. MCM-41 was modified with metal salts in order to dope the metals on the surface of ...

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High Fracture Toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 Composites

01 Dec 2017

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High fracture toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 composites prepared via spark plasma sintering Lina Qiaoa, b, Yucheng Zhaoa, Mingzhi Wanga, , Yana Yea, Junxing Zhanga, Qin Zoua, Qian Yanga, Hua Dengc, Ying Xingc   Abstract Al2O3–TiN0.3 composites with different TiN0.3 contents were spark plasma sintered at 1300–1600 °C for 10 min. Phase identification was characterized through X-ray diffraction. Microstructures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. ...

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DBD-NTP Reactor Test for Degradation of Methylene Blue

01 Dec 2017

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Abstract: Electrical discharges generated at water-gas interface in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor were utilized for the degradation and mineralization of a model aqueous organic pollutant methylene blue. NTP based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have presented a great potential to remove contaminants from wastewater. The degradation of pollutions will greatly depend on the active species generated in NTP process. It was observed that both degradation efficiency ...

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Rituximab Discovery Process

01 Dec 2017

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Description of the Target Disease Rituximab (Rituxan) is a distinct monoclonal antibody for curing of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma(NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This drug is also used in conjunction with methotrexate to cure symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. This form of cancer begins from the lymphatic system and extends all over the body. In this disease, tumor grows from lymphocytes-a variety of white blood cell. The lymphatic system ...

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Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrimidine-5-carboxylic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Antimicrobial activity of synthesized, novel hydroxamic acid of pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions Bhawani Shankar, Rashmi Tomar, Madhu Godhara, Vijay Kumar Sharma ABSTRACT Four metal complexes of new hydroxamic acid, 2,4,6-trioxo-1,3-di-p-tolyl-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid hydroxamide (3) with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions have been synthesized. The hydroxamic acid and its metal complexes were characterized by simple analytical techniques ...

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Drug Discovery Processes

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction Chemistry is not merely a science of making observations in order to better understand nature. Chemistry, as the science of matter and its transformation, plays a central role in bridging between physics, material sciences and life sciences. Our science is creative and productive, generating substances and materials of very high value from almost nothing. In view of its significance, chemical synthesis demands the highest level ...

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Optical Sensing of Molecular Oxygen

30 Nov 2017

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Optical sensing of molecular oxygen is gaining approval in many areas, such as biological research,1 clinical and medical applications,2 process control in the chemical industry3 and in food4 and pharmaceutical5 packaging, to name just a few. The best sensor should be stable, robust, easy-to-use and not prone to electrical interferences.6, 7 Quenched-luminescence oxygen sensing has attracted a great deal of attention and scientific endeavor in recent ...

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Properties of Dopamine in Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction In recent years, natural adhesion has attracted increasing attention in the material engineering field. This can be mainly attributed to the marine mussel as it has a strong ability to attach to various surfaces in an aqueous environment where they reside. These surfaces vary from natural to synthetic, and inorganic to organic.[49-51] Previous studies on the mussel adhesive protein have ...

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Performance Study of Multiphase Catalytic Monolith Reactor

30 Nov 2017

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Performance study of multiphase catalytic monolith reactor and its comparison with the performance of trickle bed reactor (TBR) Xiaofeng Wang   Introduction Multiphase reactors are found in diverse applications such as in manufacture of petroleum-based fuels and products, in production of commodity and specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbicides and pesticides, in production of materials and in pollution abatement [1]. A key motivation for ...

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Otto Hahn: Biography

30 Nov 2017

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Otto Hahn By Eli Biedenbender Otto Hahn was a brilliant german chemist, who was regarded as “the father of nuclear chemistry” for his work in radiochemistry and radioactivity. He also was a great political activist fully against future testing or use of the nuclear weapons. Otto was the son of a prosperous glazier and entrepreneur Glasbau Hahn and his wife Charlotte Hahn. Otto was born ...

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Interaction of Dye-surfactants and Dye-amino Acids

30 Nov 2017

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Review of the literature shows that the study of interaction of dye-surfactants and dye-amino acids provide useful important information about physiological systems because of its widespread applications and relatively complex behaviour. These investigations are important from point of view of technology of dyeing processes as well as for chemical researches, such as biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and photosensitization. Most of the work on amino acids and biomolecules ...

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Rhenium Oxide (ReO3) and Highly Applied Pressure

30 Nov 2017

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Describe the symmetry characteristics of the ReO3 polymorphs and their relationship to applied pressure. Rhenium Oxide also known as ReO3 has been researched and looked into detail widely with the use of highly applied pressure. ReO3 is described as a non distorted structure at surrounding pressure levels. Accurate and precise measurements of the pressure-volume relationship crafted by Batloff showed that the transistion pressure was ...

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Mixed Solvent in CO2 Capture Technology

30 Nov 2017

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Research Proposal Development of mixed solvent in CO2 capture technology with chemical absorption Xingye Fan Objectives: This project mainly aims at developing mixed solvent in chemical absorption to achieve goals of increasing mass transfer rate, CO2 loading capacity, and reduce processing cost. 1.1 Short term objectives: During the first five years, this project tends to test different mixed solvents to compare their ...

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Novel Peptide/RNA Sequence Targeting Malaria Parasite

30 Nov 2017

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James Lee Cho   Identification of Novel Peptide/RNA sequence targeting Malaria Parasite Proteins for Control of Malaria Abstract Malaria is considered to be one of great threat of human health historically. Many trials of curing malaria disease with anti-malaria drugs have been executed however still not successful because of an ability of rapid malaria parasite resistance development by the genetic mutations or variations in ...

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Physicochemical Profile of Synthesized Ferulate Esters

30 Nov 2017

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SYNTHESIZED FERULATE ESTERS INTRODUCTION Today, there are ongoing attempts to use ferulic acid derivatives in several different areas of food (Manore et al. 2011), cosmetic (Di Domenico et al., 2009) and pharmaceutical (Shanthakumar et al., 2012; Suzuki et al., 2007) products due to their effective antioxidant properties by trapping and stabilizing radical species (Ergun et al., 2011). Transesterification with lipophilic molecules allows a ...

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Desorption Ionization Methods Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Pharmaceutical science Desorption ionization methods owning a powerful capability in pharmaceutical field in which the ionization sources provided by the respective mass spectrometers was able to minimize the damage causing any variations in molecular structures of the samples (Monagas, Quintanilla-López, Gómez-Cordovés, Bartolomé, & Lebrón-Aguilar, 2010). The prevention can be done by using ideal matrix mixed with the analytes, owning properties of strong absorption, good mixing and ...

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Trace Elements in the Human Body

30 Nov 2017

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CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 1.Introduction 1.1 Trace Elements in Biological System: In recent years scientists from a variety of disciplines have directed their attention in an aggressive manner to a long neglected area of biochemical research i.e. the role of trace elements for the etiology of disease. Most of the elements present in the periodic table are considered to be trace elements. They are defined as various ...

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Determining Macronutrients in Milk Powder

30 Nov 2017

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Stefan Dodunski & Mustafa   Intro: Proximate analysis, or Weende analysis, is the investigation of different macronutrients in food based on the scheme devised in 1860 by Henneberg and Stohmann in Germany. This analysis was originally devised to duplicate the digestion of animals where the extraction of fat was placed in an acid solution to replicate the acid in the stomach and further by ...

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Thiamine Functions and Structure

30 Nov 2017

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Marno Terblanche Clinical Chemistry II BAssignment Overview About five million individuals in America suffer from heart failure, with an additional 550,000 new diagnosis made each year. The life expectancy of people living with this condition has gradually increased due to the availability of useful and established treatment opportunities. The percentage of mortality in the States continues to be high even though things like “omega-3 ...

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Solvent Extraction of Eu(III) from Nitrate Media

30 Nov 2017

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Non fluorinated ionic liquid was used as a solvent of by bis (2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamic acid (DEHDGA) to investigate the extraction of Europium (III) various parameters: extractant concentration, pH, concentration of the salting-out agent and concentration of the europium(III) ion in the aqueous feed. The efficiency of extraction was enhanced by increasing the pH of the feed solution (aqueous) upto its maxium range pH 5, that subsequently decrease ...

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Solar Cell and Solar Energy Materials

30 Nov 2017

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Introduction: One of the biggest challenges to mankind is highly depended on the decreasing fusil fuels such as oil, coal, natural gas. Fusil fuels are nonrenewable energy resource which usually takes million of years to form. As a result, their reserves are depleted much faster than it forms. Furthermore, the combustion of these fuels causes environmental degradation through air pollution and global warming. Combustion ...

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Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Food Analysis

30 Nov 2017

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The food is a highly complex nature which consisted organic and inorganic components. It is undeniable that Gas Chromatography (GC) has many usage and application. It is also noted that gas chromatography has a wide range of applications especially in the food aspect analysis which includes composition of food, components of aroma and flavor, food additives, natural products etc. The aim of this section is to ...

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Properties of Graphene Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Recently, graphene has much attention for researchers due to its interesting properties and advantanges to industries moreover in nanomaterials. Graphene is a polymer structure made of fused six membered sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. Graphene is pure carbon in the form of very thin, nearly transparent sheet, basically one atom thick. Graphene is the building block of graphite. Graphene sheets are composed of carbon atoms linked in ...

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Isolation of β-Amyrin from Plant Parts of M. barteri

30 Nov 2017

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ISOLATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRITERPENE Β-AMYRIN FROM THE AERIAL PLANT PARTS OF MAESOBOTRYABARTERI(BAILL). Abstract Maesobotrya barteri(Baill), belonging to the family EUPHORBIACEAE, is a medicinal plant growing widely in tropical Africa. The Aerial plant parts of Maesobotrya barteri (Bail) were collected fresh from Orokam, Ogbadibo local Government of Benue State, Nigeria in July, 2013. Taxonomical identification was done by Mallam Musa Abdullahi at the Herbarium unit ...

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Methods Used in the Bio-Medical Industry

30 Nov 2017

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Three methods used in the Bio-Medical Industry Mr. Luke Chang Yen Zhi In this essay we will be exploring three methods by which materials are either separated, analysed, or both and their relevance and application in the biomedical industry. We will be looking at Electrophoresis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Gas Liquid ...

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Risk of Lung Cancer Among Chromium Workers

30 Nov 2017

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2. Literature Review: For the pursuance of our study, we conducted an extensive literature review in order to gather related information so that it may be helpful for us to understand the various aspects of this subject. Moreover, this was done in hopes that it would provide us the evidences about the views and findings of other scientists who are divulging assiduously in this field of ...

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Characterizing Novel Methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex

30 Nov 2017

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex Habib Hussain[*], Syeda Rubina Gilani, Zulfiqar Ali, Imdad Hussain, Hajira Rehman  Abstract: Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene was synthesized through boron-ate complex. 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl diisopropylcarbamate was reacted with allylboronic acid pinacol ester in the presence of N,N,N,N-tetramethylethyllenediamine (TMEDA) to give secondary boronic ester which was further reacted with (vinylsulfonyl)benzene by using Grubbs Hoveyda II. Resulting product (E)-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)hex-5-en-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane was then ...

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Preformulation Testing for Chemical Properties of Drug

30 Nov 2017

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PREFORMULATION STUDIES Preformulation testing involved investigation of physical and chemical properties of a drug substance alone and when combined with excipients. It was the first step in the rational development of dosage forms. These studies are categorised as under: 1. API characterization 2. Drug-Excipient Compatibility study API Characterization Organoleptic Evaluation These are preliminary characteristics of any substance which is useful in identification of specific ...

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Concentration Levels of Essential Metals

30 Nov 2017

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Comparative Distribution of Selected Essential Metals in Drinking Water by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method Tanzeel ur Rehman and Misbah Zahid ABSTRACT This study reports the concentration levels of selected essential metals; Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and Zn in the drinking water collected from different areas of Islamabad. The levels of these metals present in the drinking ground water were compared with standards reported ...

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Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Organic Nomenclature Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.) defines nomenclature as “the devising or choosing of names for things, especially in a science or other discipline”{Dictionaries, #[email protected]@author-year}. I believe the easiest way to understand the rules associated with the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is with examples and so the majority of this essay will be dealing with examples and their explanations. Simek (1999) introduces the systematic naming of ...

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Chemical Composition of Oil from Eremostachys Macrophylla

30 Nov 2017

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Chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. from Northeast of Iran Akhlaghi H Abstract The essential oil obtained by hydrodisstillation of the aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., grown wild in Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The colorless oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus for three hours, from aerial parts in ...

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Components in Milk and Isolation of Milk Protein (Casein)

30 Nov 2017

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Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objective 1.3 Materials used 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Result 1.6 Discussion 1.7 Conclution Referance 1.1Introduction Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. Milk plays a major role in a healthy, balanced diet throughout lifetime. Milk having Proteins, Vitamins, carbohydrates and other minerals.Caseins, lactalbumins, and lactoglobulins are some proteins in milk. Milk from domesticated ruminants, primarily cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo, are major ...

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Stoichiometry Calculations Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Regina Marin Chapter 12: Stoichiometry SECTION 1 – WHAT IS STOICHIOMETRY? Mole-Mass Relationships in chemical reactions The balance equations is the main basis of stoichiometry, and that is the first thing to do when you want to measure a chemical process. The information provided by the chemical equation is interpreted according to the needs. And the mole is associated with the molecular weight, the ...

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Chemistry of All-carbon Materials: Structure and Properties

30 Nov 2017

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All-carbon materials have received lots of attention in the past. Carbyne, a new allotrope of carbon, is still in controversy towards its synthesis and property. Combining with the Goroff group’s research, this project is to prepare the polymer PIDA (polydiiododiacetylene) as a polyrotaxane complex, encapsulated in a column of macrocyclic hosts. The polyrotaxane structure will prevent aggregation of the PIDA strands, allowing for the complete dehalogenation ...

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Aluminium and the Lanthanoids

30 Nov 2017

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Complex Reorganisation Between Aluminium and the Lanthanoids. Glen B. Deacon, David J. Evans and Peter C. Junk.* This submission was created using the RSC Communication Template (DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) (LINE INCLUDED FOR SPACING ONLY - DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) [Pr(MeCN)9][AlCl4]3.MeCN undergoes reorganisation upon the addition of an ether. In the case of recrystallisation from tetrahydrofuran, the ionic nature ...

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Constant Pressure Calorimeter for Heat Capacity

30 Nov 2017

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Kanwarpal Brar Purpose: To calibrate a constant pressure calorimeter and use it to determine the heats of the reaction and dissolution of different reactants and to use these heats of the reactions to find the enthalpy of a reaction by hess’s law. Analysis/ calculations: Determine the heat capacity of the coffee cup, Ccal in j*degC for all three trials and calculate the average ...

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Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol

30 Nov 2017

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Experiment #1: Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol Johanna Bernadette C. Halili Mr. John Ephraim Torres June 21, 2014 ABSTRACT The synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol is an example of elimination reaction. Cyclohexanol, a secondary unsaturated alcohol, undergoes dehydration reaction to form a good leaving group which is H20 because the OH group of an alcohol is a very ...

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Penicillin's Structure and Function

30 Nov 2017

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Rachael Sim Hwee Ling A Molecule that Shapes the World – C16H18N2O4S The discovery of penicillin has revolutionized the world of medicine and saved millions of lives. Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi [1]. Antibiotics are specific substances derived from living organisms that can inhibit the life processes of other organisms [2]. Penicillin is effective against a range of bacteria such as ...

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Silver-graphene Oxide Composite for Optical Sensor

30 Nov 2017

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KHOSRO ZANGENEH KAMALI ORIGINAL LITERARY WORK DECLARATION FORM ABSTRACT In this work, a [email protected] oxide ([email protected]) nanocomposite-based optical sensor was developed for the detection of biomolecules such as dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). An aqueous solution of [email protected] was prepared using a simple chemical reduction method, and it showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 402 nm. The ...

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Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R

30 Nov 2017

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Contents Part 1: A Review of the Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R and its Role in Trafficking M6P Labelled Proteins and Wider Set of Enzymes to the Lysosome. Abstract Overview of The Mannose-6-Phosphate / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Receptor (CI-MPR ) The Structure of the Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptors The Itinerary of the MPR Trafficking The Cytoplasmic tail of the CI-MPR Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth ...

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Isomerism in Molybdenum Carbonyl Phosphine Complexes

30 Nov 2017

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Part A - Preparation and Identification of the Isomers of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] Introduction Molybdenum carbonyl phosphine complexes with the general formula, [Mo(CO)4L2] where (L=PR3; R=Me, Ph etc) have an octahedral geometry. This means the complexes are able to display either cis or trans stereochemistry. Interconversion between the two isomeric forms is enabled through thermal Mo-P bond cleavage. Only the thermodynamically stable isomer of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] is formed by ...

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Development of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method

30 Nov 2017

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In order to optimize the extraction conditions, the effect of different solvents and variation of time were investigated. It was found that pure methanol was more efficient solvent for extraction among the tested different concentrations of methanol and ethanol. In addition, the efficiency of extraction by ultrasonicator (Bandelin SONOREX, Berlin) were measured in different time intervals i.e., 20, 30, 40, and 50 min at room temperature. ...

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Synthesising Benzocaine via Reflux with a Condenser

30 Nov 2017

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Synthesis and characterisation of benzocaine experiment practical report Aim: The experiment was to synthesise benzocaine via reflux with a condenser and was characterised by examining at the infra-red spectrum and chemical shifts of NMR. Introduction: Benzocaine belongs to a collection of medication identified as local anaesthetics and generally consumed as a topical pain reliever. Its mechanism of action is to prevent nerve conduction when applied locally ...

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Standardized Ion Chromatograpy (IC) for Salivary Analysis

30 Nov 2017

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According to Darvell et. al. (2004), the research is about analysis of human saliva by using ion chromatography(IC). The aim of this research is to construct out a standardized IC protocol for future salivary analysis. The samples has go through several procedures such as centrifugation to remove particulates, filtration on supernatant, and the residual droplet was removed by a paper tissue without touching it to the ...

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Protective Role of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Against CCL4

30 Nov 2017

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DISCUSSION CCl4, Paracetamol and Anti-tubercular drugs cause ROS mediated cellular damage especially in liver, the site of metabolism of these drugs. During the regular physiological functioning the cells/tissues/organs use oxygen and various nutrients to generate energy. The free radicals are also generated in this process as the reaction intermediates. These free radicals may be very useful because they may promote beneficial oxidative processes. However the higher ...

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Fire Triangle Science Essay

30 Nov 2017

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Chemistry of Fire Unit 36 - Forensic Fire Investigation 2/3/2015 Windows User Contents: Fire Tetrahedron………………………………………………………………………Page 2 Primary Sources of Ignition………………………………………………….....Page 3 Secondary Sources of Ignition…………………………………….................Page 4 Methods of Extinction………………………………………………………………Page 5 Heat Transfer………………………………………………………………………..…Page 6 Different Types of Fire.......................................................................Page7&8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………Page 9 Reference List…………………………………………………………………………Page 10 Fire Tetrahedron Here is a diagram of the fire tetrahedron. This diagram shows the three elements that have to be present in order ...

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Frequency Response of Electrode Materials in EIS Measurement

30 Nov 2017

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Furthermore, complementary information about the frequency response of electrode materials is provided by EIS measurements and one can estimate the capacitance changes with the operating frequency.64-65 It is well know that the complex form of capacitance is dependent on frequency, which is defined as follow:66-67 (6) where C'(ω) is the real part of the complex capacitance and C"(ω) is the imaginary part of the complex ...

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Physicochemical Study of Palm Ester for Cosmetic Application

30 Nov 2017

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2.0 Introduction Palm oil is extracted from the fruit of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. Besides, Malaysia is one of the leading exporters and producers of palm oil in the world (Keng et al., 2005 Palm oil has been widely applied in various industrial sectors due to the uniqueness of its composition (Keng et al., 2009). It consists of triglycerides; the combination of glycerol and different ...

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Investigation of Oral Contraceptives

30 Nov 2017

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Oral Contraceptives Made by NAME: Ahmed Abdelgaber NAME: Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass NAME: Baraa Emad Hussien NAME: Nagdat Magd Mahouk NAME: Sherif Maher Dahshan LAB GROUP: C2 Lab Instructors: A.L/ Ahmed Refaat Spring 2015 Oral Contraception: Contraception can be defined ...

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Effectiveness of Soap and Shampoo in Hard Water

30 Nov 2017

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Literature Review According to Soap and Detergent Association of Canada [SDAP] (n.d.), soap is an effective cleansing agent, but its effectiveness reduced when used in hard water which has contaminations like calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. These mineral salts will react with soap to form insoluble salt known as scum or soap film. For detergent, it is effective to cleanse in hard water and soft water ...

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Investigation of Flame Retardant Chemicals

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,268 )

1.0 Introduction Cotton has been used for textile fibre for a long time. It is cool and comfortable to wear. The air spaces within the fibres allow the fibre to absorb liquids. Cotton can be chemically treated to make it fire-resistant by soaking it into chemicals mixed with water. A fibre is a strand composed of polymer chains twisted around each other. All fabrics will burn ...

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Investigating Alykl Hydoxylation in P450-can Using EVB

30 Nov 2017

9 (3,349 )

Shen Ye Abstract Cytochrome P450s are a superfamily of haemoproteins1-3 which catalyse the oxidation of organic molecules4. One P450 enzyme studied for its hydroxylation mechanism is P450cam (CYP101) from the Pseudomonas putida bacteria, whose crystal structure (1DZ9) was solved by Schlichting et al.5. The active form of P450cam contains an oxyferryl species known as compound I(CPDI), where the iron has a formal oxidation state of Fe(V) ...

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,355 )

Modern biomedicine advances have impelled the demand of sensitive, accurate and fast analytical techniques for biodetection and biodiagnosis. Many tools ranging from fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry or immunoassays have been used to resolve analytical problems related with health. Although these techniques are well established, several drawbacks still limit their fully applicability, e.g. prior sample preparation, time consumption or relatively low detection limits[1]. Recent developments in laser ...

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Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study

30 Nov 2017

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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy An EIS study was carried out at different dc potentials in order to study the mechanism of ORR in O2 saturated alkaline solutions on prepared GDEs. The Nyquist plots of GDEs under different polarization potentials are shown in Fig. 5. The impedance diagrams show two different behaviors which depend on the applied dc potentials. In the other words, the shape of plots changed ...

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Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Research

28 Nov 2017

9 (3,466 )

A) Effects of Ozone on the Lower Atmosphere The lower atmosphere (Troposphere) includes 75% by mass of the atmosphere (concentrated). Natural sources of Ozone in the troposphere includes lightning. Approximately 10% of all atmospheric ozone is present in the troposphere. If ozone levels reach 20ppm, they are very poisonous to humans, animals and plants. It oxidises organic tissue which disrupts the normal biochemical reactions ...

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Assessment of Plants for Anti Asthmatic Drugs

28 Nov 2017

10 (3,697 )

Introduction Asthma is a respiratory inflammatory disease characterized by narrowing of bronchial airway. There are changes in level of cytokines, eosinophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and other inflammatory cell products. As high level of IgE binds to mast cell receptors, it interacts with antigen, resulting in inflammatory reactions, like the release of mediators (prostaglandins, histamines, and leukotrienes). Hence, bronchoconstriction is triggered. Asthma affects 300 million people across ...

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Assessment of Cadmium levels in Chocolate

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,159 )

Research Proposal Assessment of Cadmium levels in chocolate commercialized in Lebanon Josiane Haddad   1- Background and significance Cadmium (Cd) as an element is a soft silver-white transition metal. It is not usually present in the environment as a pure metal, but is most often present in the form of oxides, sulfides, and carbonates. It does not have a taste or odor. Cadmium sulfate ...

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Properties of Iron: An Introduction

28 Nov 2017

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LIYI WEN Iron Physical properties Iron is a silvery-white or light gray metallic. It is ductile and malleable. Toughness is the ability to be involved in the thread. Scalability is the ability to be hammered into thin sheets. It is naturally present in only three of a magnetic element. The other two are nickel and cobalt Iron having high tensile strength. Stretching device, which can be ...

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Surface Modification of Titania Experiment

28 Nov 2017

4 (1,335 )

1.4 Surface Modification of Titania and its requirement: The chief active fields of research in non-homogeneous photocatalysis with semiconductor particles is development of a system that is capable of using the visible sunlight to degrade inorganic & organic contaminants. The total photocatalytic activity of a particular S/C system for the discussed purpose is measured by various factors.The major factors include semiconductor stability, photocatalytic efficiency, process, response of ...

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Putative S-Adenosyl Methionine Dependent Iron–Sulfur

28 Nov 2017

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Identification and Characterization of a Putative S-Adenosyl Methionine dependent Iron–Sulfur containing protein from Methanococcus Jannaschii Qi Liu Research Proposal Dr. MishtuDey Dr. M. Lei Geng Dr. Leonard R. MacGillivray Dr. Amnon Kohen Dr. Daniel Quinn Introduction Biological methane formation is a microbial process that is catalyzed by microbes called methanogens, which belong to the third kingdom of life, the Archaea. Methane is formed at ...

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Synthesis of IBT Scaffolds Experiment

28 Nov 2017

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Chapter III: Section A Present work PRESENT WORK Over the years, multi component reactions (MCRs) or three component coupling reactions have gained much attention in synthetic as well as medicinal chemistry to generate structural diversity for drug discovery programs.31 MCR is a process in which at least three simple building blocks are combined together in one pot to provide diversity oriented product with minimum ...

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Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity in Animals

28 Nov 2017

5 (1,686 )

A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) and wistar rats (150-200 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24 ± 2°C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, ...

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Mixed-Ligands Complexes of L-Amino Acid and Ascorbic Acid

28 Nov 2017

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Electrochemical Studies of Mixed-Ligands Complexes of L-Amino acid and Ascorbic acid by Voltammetric Technique Meena* and O.D. Gupta   ABSTRACT Studies of Pb(II) with amino acid L-Serine and Ascorbic acid have been carried out polarographically at pH =7.30±0.01, µ=1.0M KNO3 at 25°C.Pb(II) formed 1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 complexes with L-Serine and used as primary ligands and L- Ascorbic acid used as secondary ligand.. The values of ...

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Determination of Alcohol Content Using Gas Chromatography

28 Nov 2017

9 (3,336 )

1.0 TITLE Determination of alcohol content in Tapai by using gas chromatography technique 2.0 INTRODUCTION Alcohol is an organic compound which contain hydroxyl functional group (-OH) that bonded to saturated carbon (C) atom. For centuries, alcohol has been used for many purposes for examples as fuels, to make drinks, as a solvent and as an industrial feedstock. Alcohol can give us many benefits if we use it in ...

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Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,603 )

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Chemical kinetics Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry that deals with the rates or velocity, at which a chemical reaction occurs and also the factors affecting the rates. The word “kinetic” means the movement or change; here it refers to the velocity of a reaction, which is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time. Kinetic ...

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Development of Hard Water Sensor using Fluorescence

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,463 )

Ph.D. Thesis: Dibyendu Dey Development of hard water sensor using fluorescence resonance energy transfer 7.1. Introduction “Hard water” has high mineral content in compare to “soft water”. Generally the hard water is not harmful to one’s health, but can cause serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness should be monitored to avoid breakdowns of the costly equipments that handle water. The hardness of ...

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Chemical composition of Ambrette Essential Oil

28 Nov 2017

9 (3,369 )

Chemical composition of the essential oil of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.) from subtropical region of north India Ram S. Verma*, Rajendra C. Padalia, Amit Chauhan ABSTRACT Abelmoschus moschatus (Family: Malvaceae), popularly known as ambrette or muskdana, is an important aromatic and medicinal plant of India. The plant is widely cultivated in tropical countries for their musk-scented seeds useful in perfumery and medicine. In this study, hydrodistilled ...

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Influence of Al3+ Addition on Activated Sludge

28 Nov 2017

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Influence of Al3+ addition on the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge: Comparison of single and multiple dosing patterns Mariam Touati Abstract In this research, single and multiple dosing of Al3+ were used to study the flocculation and sedimentation of activated sludge (AS). It was found that in the single Al3+ dosing condition; sludge flocculation is improved but sedimentation is declined. Adding the same ...

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Different Methods of Chromatography - Analysis

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,966 )

General Introduction Health is of prime importance to a human beings and wants to get cured in the least possible time whenever they falls ill. This desire and necessity has resulted in the use of a large number of synthetic organic compounds as medicines despite the fact that usually side effects are associated with the use of these drugs. In recent times, practice of ...

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Water Decontamination Methods - Advantages and Disadvantages

28 Nov 2017

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Outline Abstract In Malaysia, for the past many years, drinking water treatment was only limited to water disinfection by using chlorine; however it had been concluded that its use in potable water treatment can be harmful to human health.(Subedi, et al., 2012) Following the development in drinking water treatment, conventional methods in three different technologies are available to have more purified water. They are ...

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Bromination of (E)-Stilbene

28 Nov 2017

4 (1,498 )

Kaisha Butz   Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize the second intermediate (meso-stilbene dibromide) in the E-Stilbene reaction by Bromination. It was hypothesized that if the reaction was heated at 120°C for five minutes the reaction between E-stilbene and the pyridium bromide perbromide would occur, and meso-stilbene would be created. After the reaction occurred the results were analyzed by IR and ...

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Development of Alcohol Sensor for Pharmaceutical Products

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,861 )

1.0 Title Development of alcohol sensor for detection of alcohol content in pharmaceutical products 2.0 Introduction Over the years, alcohol is being used widely in various number of industries. Alcohol poisoning and inflammation may happen whenever the alcohol concentration exceeds the toxic level for the living creatures. Nowadays, alcohol abuse is one of the worldwide social problems and has become a public sanitation issue. Hence, the preventative pathways ...

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Production of PR-protein 1 in Mangroves Leaves | Experiment

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,318 )

1. Abstract One important trait of a plant is its ability to form natural barriers that keep harmful microorganisms away. For instance, mangrove leaves may produce a hormone called salicylic acid to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. Such a hormone may induce an antimicrobial substance known as Pathogenesis Related (PR) proteins. A lot of Pathogenesis related protein researches have been done with tobacco and tomatoes ...

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2D Colloidal Nanocrystal for Optoelectronic and Solar Cell

28 Nov 2017

4 (1,295 )

Novel 2D colloidal nanocrystal for optoelectronic and solar cell applications Recently, 2D material has attracted tremendous attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Particularly, the discovery of graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice has ignited the research on this class of 2D materials due to extraordinary mechanical, electric and optical properties not observed in their bulk counterparts. Considering graphene ...

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Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles (Au RLNPs)

28 Nov 2017

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Improvement of Stability and Catalytic Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles by Silica Coating High Catalytic Performance of Raspberry-Like Gold Nanoparticles (Au RLNPs) and Enhancement of Stability by Silica Coating Kiouk Seo, Hien Mai Duy and Hyojong Yoo*   Abstract. The raspberry-like gold nanoparticles (Au RLNPs) synthesized through the reduction of HAuCl4 by the use of NaOH and Brij35 surfactant show high catalytic activities in ...

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Organopalladium Reagents and Intermediates

28 Nov 2017

17 (6,782 )

João T. V. Matos Table of contents Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.1. The characteristic features for the use of palladium in organometallic chemistry 2.1.1. Oxidation States of Palladium 2.2. Preparation of organopalladium reagents and intermediates 2.2.1. π-Ally Palladium Complexes 2.2.2. Cyclic aryl palladium complexes 2.2.3. Palladium Olefin and Diene Complexes 2.2.4. Palladium-TV-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes 2.3. Methods for structural ...

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Superoxide Dismutase: Oxidative Stress

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,181 )

SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE: OXIDATIVE STRESS Sebastian, Jay Francine A. and Feliciano, Angel P. III   INTRODUCTION Superoxide Dismutase or SOD is an enzyme that has a metal-containing antioxidant. It reduces any harmful free radicals of Oxygen or O2 forming during a normal metabolic cell state that it will form oxygen or O2 and Hydrogen peroxide. Its name originated from dismutation which means simultaneous oxidation and reduction, with ...

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Analysis of of Quercetin in Camellia Sinensis Extracts

28 Nov 2017

8 (3,146 )

ABSTRACT A precise and feasible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the novel analysis of of Quercetin in aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Camellia sinensis extracts with internal standard has been developed. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenax-C18 column (250 × 4.6mm, 5μm). reversed-phase column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% orthophosphoric acid in water at 60:40 ratio as the mobile phase; ...

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Nanospheres of Ag–coated Fe3O4 Synthesis

28 Nov 2017

9 (3,533 )

Nanospheres of Ag–coated Fe3O4 were successfully synthesized and characterized. Photocatalytic properties of [email protected] composites have been investigated using steady state studies and laser pulse excitations. Accumulation of the electrons in the Ag shell was detected from the shift in the surface plasmon band from 430 to 405 nm, which was discharged when an electron acceptor such as O2, Thionine (TH), or C60 was introduced into the ...

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Porous Multishell Hollow Cu2O Microspheres Experiment

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,931 )

Preparation of Porous MultishellHollow Cu2O Microspheres and their catalytic activity in photodegradation of Rhodamine-B Lingling Sun, Deyan Han*, Ruirui Hao,Guohong Wang*   Abstract In this study, Porous Multishell Hollow Cu2O Microspheres were fabricated by One-Pot solvothermal method of copper(II) with glutamic acid under 160℃. The as-prepared monodisperse Cu2O hollow microspheres were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), fourier transform ...

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Investigation of Single Chain Sugar-based Glycolipid

28 Nov 2017

7 (2,741 )

Review on Investigation of Single Chain Sugar-based Glycolipid Self-Assembly in Lyotropic Phase Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy M.Faisal Khyasudeen*   KEYWORDS (Word Style “BG_Keywords”). If you are submitting your paper to a journal that requires keywords, provide significant keywords to aid the reader in literature retrieval. ABSTRACT: Glycolipid in lyotropic phase has been widely study due to its nature similar to those in biological membrane. This ...

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Gravimetric Analysis of a Chloride Salt

28 Nov 2017

6 (2,373 )

Rania Williams Nour Wehbe   Purpose To discover the amount of chloride in a strange salt, in order to demonstrate regular methods used in gravimetric analysis Theory This equation describes the reaction between silver ion and chloride which results in the product silver chloride. Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) → AgCl (s) Silver nitrate is used to precipitate chloride because it gives ...

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Uses of Herbal Medicine: An Overview

28 Nov 2017

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1 Folk medicine According to WHO- ‘Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.’ (Qi, 2014) Generally traditional medicines, alternative medicine, indigenous medicine, complementary medicine, or ...

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Fluoroquinolones for Infectious Diseases Treatment

28 Nov 2017

10 (3,617 )

1.10 Pharmaceuticals 1.10.2 Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are extensively used for treatment of various infectious diseases. [[1]]. Because of their extensive Gram negative treatment, quinolone antibiotics were initially used for the treatment urinary tract related diseases. Higher drug concentrations promote their effectiveness in the treatment of urinary infections. lomefloxacin, levofloxacin ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gatifloxacin have higher renal clearance to analyze the activity of the kidney and urine ...

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Shellac for Film Formation and its Modification

28 Nov 2017

8 (2,936 )

Shellac for film formation and its modification for enhancement of properties Abstract With the growing environmental concerns associated with synthetic polymers, the need for biopolymers has strongly emerged which can have applications ranging from packaging to electrical applications. Shellac, which is a naturally occurring product resin obtained from insects (female lac bug), is one such component which can be used for production of biopolymeric film. However, ...

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