Product Profile of a Plastic Shopping Bag (HDPE)

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,720 )

Samantha Pearson Plastic shopping bags/carry bags are used extensively in todays’ world. They are produced in many different sizes and colours, determined by its purpose and marketing campaign of the purchasing firm/industry. Carry bags are made of plastic that is flexible and relatively tough1. The plastic is identified as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), indicated by the Voluntary Plastic Container Coding System2 (used to identify ...

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Effects of Three Body Transformed Hamiltonian

16 Jan 2018

8 (3,027 )

CHAPTER – 6 CONTRIBUTION OF THREE BODY TRANSFORMED HAMILTONIAN () THROUGH FULL CONNECTED TRIPLE EXCITATION COUPLED CLUSTER OPERATORS TO VALENCE IONIZATION POTENTIALS OF F2 AND Cl2 COMPUTED VIA EIP-VUMRCCSDτ SCHEME 6.1 Introduction In this work, the effects of three body transformed Hamiltonian through full connected triples is studied on F2 and Cl2. To see the role of [1] in terms of magnitude, two kinds ...

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Development of Artificial Sweat - Experiment

16 Jan 2018

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3.0 Literature Review : 3.1 Biosensor The terminology for biosensor is usually used for equipment or devices used to monitor the metabolic system or element of biomocules. In addition, the particular term used, is referring to a sensor that uses a biological element, such as enzymes, antibodies, DNA, microorganisms or cell. Besides that, based on the IUPAC,it state that biosensor is an integrated equipment that have ...

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Enzyme Kinetics Laboratory Report

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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How the changes in substrate concentration (PNPP), changes in temperature, changes in pH and the presence of an inhibitor (phosphate ions) effects the rate of reaction of the reaction between PNPP and water catalysed by the enzyme acid phosphates which produces PNP and phosphate as its products . Using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance of the products formed through hydrolysis of substrate. Abstract: The purpose of this ...

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made of two or more fused aromatic rings, where PAHs with two or three rings have low molecular weight and acute toxicity whereas PAHs with high molecular weight (4 or more rings) have shown high carcinogenic potential. These compounds are often products of incomplete combustion reactions where there is a lack of oxygen, there are two types of PAH; natural and ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethanol as Fuel

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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The top five producers and users of ethanol in 2005 were Brazil producing 4.35 billion gallons per year, The United States producing 4.3 billions gallons per year, China producing 530 million gallons per year, The European Union producing 250 millions gallons per year and India producing 80 million gallons per year. Brazil and The United States account for about 90 per cent of all ethanol production, although ...

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Determination of Protein Concentration by Uv Absorption

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Highly susceptible to contamination by buffers, biological materials and salts Protein amino acid composition is extremely important, thus the choice of a standard is very difficult, especially for purified proteins Absorbance is heavily influence by pH and ionic strength of the solution. General Considerations This is often used to estimate protein concentration prior to a more sensitive method so the protein can be diluted ...

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Phases of Liquid Crystals

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction to Liquid Crystals A liquid crystal is a thermodynamic stable phase characterized by anisotropy of properties Without the existence of a three-dimensional crystal lattice, generally lying in the temperature Range between the solid and isotropic liquid phase, hence the term mesophase. Liquid crystal materials are unique in their properties and uses. As research into this field Continues and as new applications are developed, liquid crystals will ...

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Experiment of Calcium Carbonate Composition of Eggshells

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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INTRODUCTION Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is found in nature giving hardness and strength to things such as seashells, rocks, and eggshells. As hard as this substance is, it will react readily with hydrochloric acid to yield carbon dioxide gas (and two other products). In this experiment students will design an experiment by reacting eggshells with 2 M HCl to compare the calcium carbonate composition of white (chicken) eggshells ...

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Biodegradable Polymers: Processes of Degradation

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction The ISO definition of a biodegradable polymer is “an irreversible process leading to a significant change of the structure of a material, typically characterized by a loss of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular weight, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation. Degradation is affected by environmental conditions and proceeds over a period of time comprising one or more steps” Biodegradable and compostable processes are essentially the same mechanism ...

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Ácido Clorhídrico Y Ácido Acético en Vinagre

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Titulación de ácido clorhídrico y ácido acético en vinagre comercial con una base fuerte Propósito Determinar el punto de equivalencia entre las reacciones NaOH (ac) + HCl (ac) à NaCl (ac) + H2O (l) y NaOH (ac) + HCH3COO (ac) à NaCH3COO (ac) + H2O (l), observando los cambios físicos en la titulación de las soluciones, utilizando un indicador (Fenolftaleína o Anaranjado de metilo) y un pH ...

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Spectrophotometry Techniques and Devices

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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I. INTRODUCTION Spectrophotometry Infrared Spectrophotometry is designed to identify or determine the sample by measuring absorption of infrared radiation of wave numbers in a region of 4,000 to 400 cm-1, at various wave numbers, when it passes through the sample. This method uses the property that the infrared absorption spectrum of a substance is Characteristic of its chemical structure. Infrared spectra are shown in charts drawn by ...

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Lab Experiment to Identify Unknown Compound

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the unknown compound. The tests that were done to determine the identity of the compound include qualitative solubility tests, quantitative solubility tests, measuring solution conductivity, anion and cation test, flame test, and formation of precipitate. It was found that the compound had no smell, was soluble in water, and not soluble in toluene and acetone. The ions dissociated ...

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Non-conventional Sources of Energy: An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy is a primary input in any industrial operation. Energy is also a major input in sectors such as commerce, transport, telecommunication, etc besides the wide range of services required in the household & industrial sectors. (A) What Do We Mean by Alternative Energy? The alternative-energy segment of the energy industry covers a broad range of sources. These sources range from well established technologies, ...

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The Trojan Horse Virus: An Overview

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Another type of malware that is not technically a virus because there is usually no auto-replication is a Trojan horse program, which seems to be something useful, as a free utility, but actually contains some kind of malware. The unhappy about a Trojan program that is running the software users willingly and still do not know what is causing problems on their systems. Rootkits are a form ...

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Effect of Roasting Coffee on Caffeine Conten

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction: Coffee has been a popular drink since 20th century, not only because of its different colors and flavors due to different degrees of roasting, but also the effect on which it can keep you to stay awake and to finish your job. It is commonly known that the reason for coffee to possess this effect is because of the caffeine inside the coffee beans. In general, ...

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Causes of Prion Diseases

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy's can be inheritable or transmissible, a common feature of the prion disease involves the change of the prion protein (PrPc) to the isoform PrPsc (Hu et al, 2007). Prion propagation involves a mechanism that changes PrPc to PrPsc in an autocatalytic way (Harris and True, 2006). PrPc is said to be the normal prion protein and PrPsc the 'scrapie' isoform which ...

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Processes of Water Treatment

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, "limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample". DA Armbruster et al (1994) stated that "the limit of detection may be determined statistically ...

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Experiments of Copper (II) Sulphate

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Aim This experiment is to calculate the x which is water of crystallization and the chemical equation is CuSO4 (aq) · xH2O (s) and to observed colour changed when complex formation of copper (II) sulphate are formed. Introduction Molar mass is summation of all the atomic masses in a chemical equation. Transition metals are the elements which are found in the d-block in The Periodic Table. The ...

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Properties of Enzyme Catalysts

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Enzymes:Enzymes are single or multiple -chain proteins that act as a biological catalysts with the ability to promote specific chemical rxn under the mild condition that prevail in most living organism. Over-view of Enzymes catalysts All reaction in the body are mediated by enzymes, which are protein catalysis that increase the rate of reaction without being changed in overall process. Among the many biologic reaction that ...

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Aldehyde, Ketone Tests and Preparation of Derivatives

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Results: I. Aldehyde and ketone testes and preparation of derivatives 2,4 DINIROPHENYL HYDRAZINE Observations 2-butanone Solid orange precipitate at bottom Benzaldehyde mp of derivative:217-220°C dark yellow precipitate forms. BISULFITE ADDITION TEST Acetophenone Cloudy ,off-white solution (no reaction) 2-butanone Clear solution and no colour change(no reaction) Benzaldehyde White precipitation forming after few minutes from clear solution. It appears like white solid crystals. Trans-cinnamaldehyde Thick white yellow particles floating ...

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A Review of the Use of Platelets

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Blood is circulated by the heart around the body and performs many physiological functions because of the many components in blood. Half of the blood consists of cells, whereas the other half is plasma fluid. Plasma contains the nutritional material, waste, and proteins which play a part in haemostasis as discussed later in the review. Erythrocytes are one of the cells in blood, they contain haemoglobin ...

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Formulation and Characterization of Microemulsion System

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract Formulation of a new oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion composed of Castor oil/Tween 80/Ethanol/Phosphate buffer for enhancing the loading capacity of an anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam has been accomplished. The pseudo-ternary phase diagram has been delineated at constant surfactant/cosurfactant ratio (1:2). The internal structure of so created four-component system was elucidated by means of an analysis of isotropic area magnitudes in the phase diagram. Conductivity (?), kinematic viscosity (kh) ...

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Properties of Zeolites as Cataystics

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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1.0 INTRODUCTION TO ZEOLITES Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates, composed of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) with O atoms connecting neighbouring tetrahedral, that contain pores and cavities of molecular dimensions (Breck, 1974). Many occur as natural minerals, but it is the synthetic varieties which are among the most widely used sorbents, catalysts and ion-exchange materials in the world (Barrer, 1982). The channels are large enough to allow ...

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Genetic Transformation in E Coli

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Genetic Transformation is the act of changing of DNA in an organism by adding new genes, which may be done in multiple ways. The addition of new genes to DNA could have an almost infinite amount of advantages, ranging from studying the cultures of bacteria that become immune to modern medicine, to making artificial animal proteins. In a CNN article written by Matt Ford, scientists are using ...

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Measuring Partition Coefficient

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract This Laboratory study deals with the Analytical Procedure of the Measurement of Partition Coefficient. Partition Coefficient is a very important criterion for Organic substances. It finds use in Pharmaceutical Industry, Pollution abatement systems, Agro Chemicals, and Chemical Industry. There are many methods available for determining the Partition Coefficient, especially Instrument methods like, Chromatography, Electrophoresis etc. The method adopted here is a simple, reliable and versatile one, ...

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The Metallurgy Options for Tubing

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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The metallurgy of tubing is a very important factor while choosing tubing for a particular environment. Generally the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2% carbon and up to 1.65% manganese and residual ...

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Effect of an Increase in Molar Mass on Enthalpy Change

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

6 (2,026 )

An investigation to determine the effect of an increase in molar mass on the enthalpy change of combustion of fuels Method Variables: Independent Variable: Molar mass (type) of alcohol. Dependant Variable: The following variable will be observed and measured: * Mass of the alcohol used. Controlled Variable: The following variables will need to be controlled: * Mass of water, the mass of water will be measured using ...

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Iodine: Properties, Uses and Dangers

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction: Iodine is an indispensable micronutrient required in small amounts for the normal physiological function of the human body [1]. Iodine is a critical component of the thyroid hormones, which are necessary for various metabolic and enzymatic processes. These processes include control of the body’s metabolic rate, growth and development, neuron function and development. The recommended dietary intake for adult men and non-pregnant women is 150 ...

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Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity | Experiment

01 Dec 2017

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A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24 ± 2°C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, Devsthali Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, ...

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Radioactive Isotopes Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Pranav Nagrecha Introduction: - Radioactive isotopes are kind of isotopes, which have an unstable nuclide and react in assorted ways, they are derived from isotopes that also hold an unstable nucleus but they do not react as radioisotopes do[i]. These factors are categorized by the extra energy which is present in them and which would be used to react and produce some other particle. ...

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CHF3 Decomposition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

01 Dec 2017

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Decomposition of CHF3 by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Duc Ba Nguyen and Won Gyu Lee*   Abstract Oxidation of CHF3 was investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor was immersed in an electrical insulating oil. The feed gases was mixed of CHF3, O2 and N2 with O2/N2 ratio of 21/79 volume/volume. The results obtained that 98.98% of CHF3 in the feed gases were destruction under: ...

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Experiment for Identification of Paracetamol

01 Dec 2017

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PATRICK ANTWI MANU IDENTIFICATION OF PARACETAMOL THROUGH THE USE OF PHARMACOPIEA TEST ABSTRACT Paracetamol is widely used (NHS Choice, 2012) for the relief of minor pain, toothache, headaches, symptoms of cold and reduces of patient’s temperature (control fever symptoms). It is classified as a mild analgesic agent. The following procedures were used during the experiment of identification of paracetamol. TLC method is important for ...

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Investigating the Energy Released of Ethanol and 1-pentanol

01 Dec 2017

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1.0 Introduction Combustion reactions are always exothermic, due to the substances (fuels) releasing energy through combustion (temperature increases), which the change in enthalpy () is negative value. All fuels of this experiment are alcohols – ethanol, 1-pentanol and two mixtures of them with different ratios (90%:10% ; 80%:20%), which are the most common organic compounds. Alcohols contain the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) (Diagram 1) bonded to ...

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Hydrolysis of Phosphomonoesters Study

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction Site-directed mutagenesis was the primary basis of this portion of the laboratory directed toward determining the active site of the enzyme catalysis for hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters. The criteria was to turn the original sequence with Arginine 166 into Glutamine 166 through a point mutation. The primer location is located in the 401511 sequence of the phoA gene of alkaline phosphatase in E. Coli. The primer ...

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Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Ph.D. Thesis: Abhijit Nath Introduction Introduction The wealth of information in atoms and molecules can be achieved from quantum mechanical studies of their structural as well as various physical and chemical properties. Based on quantum mechanics [1-7], large number of approximation methods has been developed over the years for the complete solutions of atomic and molecular systems. Now-a-days, the availability of the computer hardware ...

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Methods for Water Treatment

01 Dec 2017

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1.12.2 Effect of chlorination of water Chlorine is toxic not only for microorganisms, but for human being also. For humans, chlorine is an irritation to the nasal passages eye, and respiratory system. Chlorine gas must be cautiously handled because it may cause severe health problem. Although, chlorine gas is also the low rate form of chlorine for water treatment, It makes use choice in spite of ...

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Chemometric Technique to Determine Rice Types

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Rice (Oryza Sativa) is a type of cereal food in which most people consumes. As acereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia [1]. Rice is perhaps the most remarkable of cultivated crops, for although possessing the roots of a dry land plant, it flourishes in ...

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Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling

01 Dec 2017

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The membrane fouling problem is still the main obstacle that faces the application of membrane technology at the industrial and environmental application. So, the main motivation for this work is to develop an enhanced performance of commercial desalination membranes with polyamide barrier layer. In this study, we will use Layer-by-Layer (LbL) modification with tailored macromolecular surface modifiers in order to coat the membranes so that stable ...

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Molecular Modelling: Explained

01 Dec 2017

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Molecular modelling is one of the fastest growing fields in science, but what is it and what does it mean? “Molecular modelling encompasses all theoretical methods and computational techniques used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules. The techniques are used in the fields of computational chemistry, drug design, computational biology and materials science for studying molecular systems ranging from small chemical systems to large ...

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Chemicals in Food Production and Preservation

01 Dec 2017

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USING CHEMICALS IN FOODS Contents Introduction.......................2 Definition........................2 Situation.........................3 Problems.........................4 Solutions.........................6 Evaluations.......................7 Conclusions.......................8 Bibliography......................8 Introduction In the past, almost all households bought foods from a farm nearby or grew foods in their garden and ate these foods. They were called locavores, which indicated people who ate only locally grown ...

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Recognition Properties for Pyrrole

01 Dec 2017

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Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer and its recognition properties for pyrrole X.W. Wu, J. Wang, H.X. Wang [1], Q.M. Zhou, L.H. Liu. wang, Y.P. Wu, H.W. Yang, G.L. Zhao, S.X. Tuo   Abstract: The molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) of pyrrole was synthesized by a precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker agent in acetonitrile. MIP of pyrrole ...

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Discovery of a Novel Oral Antithrombotic Drug Apixaban

01 Dec 2017

6 (2,329 )

Shuangyu Ma Background Thrombosis, which is generally defined as the formation of blood clot inside blood vessels, is a major health issue in western world. Thrombosis associated disease, such as ischemic stroke and high blood pressure, remain to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality each year in developed countries [1]. To make things worse, thrombosis is also known as a chronic disease ...

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Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid - Toulene -Water System Introduction: Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid with molecular formula, C7H6O2. It appeared as colorless crystalline solid and has a fade, pleasant odor. Benzoic acid is easily available in nature and are used as a precursor to plasticizers, and sodium benzoate. Also, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as yeast, ...

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Process of Matrix Acidizing

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Preface: Well stimulation techniques are applied regularly to improve productivity and maximize recovery from oil and gas wells. One of these techniques is matrix acidizing which is probably the most extensively performed job due to its low cost as compared to hydraulic fracturing, and it’s appropriateness to both production improvement and to restore original permeability in damaged wells. Acidizing ...

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Organic Synthesis of Polymers | Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Polymeric reagents offer a variety of unique benefits. Intra-molecular reactions, such as the cyclization of peptides or Dieckmann cyclizations, can be applied by attaching the reactive molecules at distant points along a polymer chain. In contrast, if the reactive molecules are secured in close approprinquity on a polymeric support then intermolecular reactions take place as illustrated for a ketone synthesis. Besides such proximity effects, mutual effects ...

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Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery

01 Dec 2017

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A Preliminary Study and Principal Component Analysis for the Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery Using NIR Spectroscopy Selvaratnam Balaranjan, Kugamoorthy Velauthamurty, Ganeshalingam Sashikesh Abstract. Palmyrah jaggery is used as a popular traditional sweetener in Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. It is a nutrient rich crude sugar which is also used in the traditional medicine. The authenticity of the product in markets is questionable since there ...

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Computational Design and Management in Pharmaceuticals

01 Dec 2017

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Computational design and management in pharmaceuticals Liu Sui   Abstract: Throughout the years since the computer was first developed, the computer has become required and indispensable in modern society. Significant scientific usage of computers has spread throughout all the sciences, including pharmaceutical science. In pharmaceuticals, usage has become an essential tool for the whole drug development process, from initiation of lead searching to finding ...

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Uncontrolled Proliferation of Cells: Lung Cancer

01 Dec 2017

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Exhibit the uncontrolled proliferation of cells and constant progress of malignant cells in the body. 1.6.2.1. Lung Cancer: The normal lungs tissues are composed by normal cells and they are intending to determine the right size, appropriate shape and the normal function of the lungs. In a cancerous cell, the genetic material DNA is altered by the encoding of the genes which are responsible for the ...

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Flumequine and Balofloxacin

01 Dec 2017

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Made by Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass Nagdat Majd Mahouk LAB GROUP: F2 Lab Instructors: T.A/ Spring 2015 Table of Contents: Introduction on (Flumequine) pg. 3 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 4 Discussion on (Flumequine) pg. 5, 6, 7 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 8, 9, 10 Conclusion pg. 11 Reference pg. 12 Flumequine: The first of ...

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Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41

01 Dec 2017

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Results and Discussions The present study included the synthesis of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and its modification by impregnation of different metals on the mesoporous to enhance the photocatalytic activity of metals i.e Cu/MCM-41, Fe/MCM-41, CeO2/MCM-41. FTIR analysis of catalyst MCM-41 has the ability to impregnate numerous metals on its surface. MCM-41 was modified with metal salts in order to dope the metals on the surface of ...

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High Fracture Toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 Composites

01 Dec 2017

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High fracture toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 composites prepared via spark plasma sintering Lina Qiaoa, b, Yucheng Zhaoa, Mingzhi Wanga, , Yana Yea, Junxing Zhanga, Qin Zoua, Qian Yanga, Hua Dengc, Ying Xingc   Abstract Al2O3–TiN0.3 composites with different TiN0.3 contents were spark plasma sintered at 1300–1600 °C for 10 min. Phase identification was characterized through X-ray diffraction. Microstructures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. ...

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DBD-NTP Reactor Test for Degradation of Methylene Blue

01 Dec 2017

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Abstract: Electrical discharges generated at water-gas interface in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor were utilized for the degradation and mineralization of a model aqueous organic pollutant methylene blue. NTP based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have presented a great potential to remove contaminants from wastewater. The degradation of pollutions will greatly depend on the active species generated in NTP process. It was observed that both degradation efficiency ...

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Rituximab Discovery Process

01 Dec 2017

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Description of the Target Disease Rituximab (Rituxan) is a distinct monoclonal antibody for curing of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma(NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This drug is also used in conjunction with methotrexate to cure symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. This form of cancer begins from the lymphatic system and extends all over the body. In this disease, tumor grows from lymphocytes-a variety of white blood cell. The lymphatic system ...

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Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrimidine-5-carboxylic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Antimicrobial activity of synthesized, novel hydroxamic acid of pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions Bhawani Shankar, Rashmi Tomar, Madhu Godhara, Vijay Kumar Sharma ABSTRACT Four metal complexes of new hydroxamic acid, 2,4,6-trioxo-1,3-di-p-tolyl-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid hydroxamide (3) with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions have been synthesized. The hydroxamic acid and its metal complexes were characterized by simple analytical techniques ...

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Drug Discovery Processes

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction Chemistry is not merely a science of making observations in order to better understand nature. Chemistry, as the science of matter and its transformation, plays a central role in bridging between physics, material sciences and life sciences. Our science is creative and productive, generating substances and materials of very high value from almost nothing. In view of its significance, chemical synthesis demands the highest level ...

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Optical Sensing of Molecular Oxygen

30 Nov 2017

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Optical sensing of molecular oxygen is gaining approval in many areas, such as biological research,1 clinical and medical applications,2 process control in the chemical industry3 and in food4 and pharmaceutical5 packaging, to name just a few. The best sensor should be stable, robust, easy-to-use and not prone to electrical interferences.6, 7 Quenched-luminescence oxygen sensing has attracted a great deal of attention and scientific endeavor in recent ...

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Properties of Dopamine in Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction In recent years, natural adhesion has attracted increasing attention in the material engineering field. This can be mainly attributed to the marine mussel as it has a strong ability to attach to various surfaces in an aqueous environment where they reside. These surfaces vary from natural to synthetic, and inorganic to organic.[49-51] Previous studies on the mussel adhesive protein have ...

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Performance Study of Multiphase Catalytic Monolith Reactor

30 Nov 2017

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Performance study of multiphase catalytic monolith reactor and its comparison with the performance of trickle bed reactor (TBR) Xiaofeng Wang   Introduction Multiphase reactors are found in diverse applications such as in manufacture of petroleum-based fuels and products, in production of commodity and specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbicides and pesticides, in production of materials and in pollution abatement [1]. A key motivation for ...

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Otto Hahn: Biography

30 Nov 2017

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Otto Hahn By Eli Biedenbender Otto Hahn was a brilliant german chemist, who was regarded as “the father of nuclear chemistry” for his work in radiochemistry and radioactivity. He also was a great political activist fully against future testing or use of the nuclear weapons. Otto was the son of a prosperous glazier and entrepreneur Glasbau Hahn and his wife Charlotte Hahn. Otto was born ...

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Interaction of Dye-surfactants and Dye-amino Acids

30 Nov 2017

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Review of the literature shows that the study of interaction of dye-surfactants and dye-amino acids provide useful important information about physiological systems because of its widespread applications and relatively complex behaviour. These investigations are important from point of view of technology of dyeing processes as well as for chemical researches, such as biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and photosensitization. Most of the work on amino acids and biomolecules ...

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Rhenium Oxide (ReO3) and Highly Applied Pressure

30 Nov 2017

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Describe the symmetry characteristics of the ReO3 polymorphs and their relationship to applied pressure. Rhenium Oxide also known as ReO3 has been researched and looked into detail widely with the use of highly applied pressure. ReO3 is described as a non distorted structure at surrounding pressure levels. Accurate and precise measurements of the pressure-volume relationship crafted by Batloff showed that the transistion pressure was ...

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Mixed Solvent in CO2 Capture Technology

30 Nov 2017

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Research Proposal Development of mixed solvent in CO2 capture technology with chemical absorption Xingye Fan Objectives: This project mainly aims at developing mixed solvent in chemical absorption to achieve goals of increasing mass transfer rate, CO2 loading capacity, and reduce processing cost. 1.1 Short term objectives: During the first five years, this project tends to test different mixed solvents to compare their ...

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Novel Peptide/RNA Sequence Targeting Malaria Parasite

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,061 )

James Lee Cho   Identification of Novel Peptide/RNA sequence targeting Malaria Parasite Proteins for Control of Malaria Abstract Malaria is considered to be one of great threat of human health historically. Many trials of curing malaria disease with anti-malaria drugs have been executed however still not successful because of an ability of rapid malaria parasite resistance development by the genetic mutations or variations in ...

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Physicochemical Profile of Synthesized Ferulate Esters

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,692 )

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SYNTHESIZED FERULATE ESTERS INTRODUCTION Today, there are ongoing attempts to use ferulic acid derivatives in several different areas of food (Manore et al. 2011), cosmetic (Di Domenico et al., 2009) and pharmaceutical (Shanthakumar et al., 2012; Suzuki et al., 2007) products due to their effective antioxidant properties by trapping and stabilizing radical species (Ergun et al., 2011). Transesterification with lipophilic molecules allows a ...

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Desorption Ionization Methods Essay

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,713 )

Pharmaceutical science Desorption ionization methods owning a powerful capability in pharmaceutical field in which the ionization sources provided by the respective mass spectrometers was able to minimize the damage causing any variations in molecular structures of the samples (Monagas, Quintanilla-López, Gómez-Cordovés, Bartolomé, & Lebrón-Aguilar, 2010). The prevention can be done by using ideal matrix mixed with the analytes, owning properties of strong absorption, good mixing and ...

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Trace Elements in the Human Body

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,015 )

CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 1.Introduction 1.1 Trace Elements in Biological System: In recent years scientists from a variety of disciplines have directed their attention in an aggressive manner to a long neglected area of biochemical research i.e. the role of trace elements for the etiology of disease. Most of the elements present in the periodic table are considered to be trace elements. They are defined as various ...

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Determining Macronutrients in Milk Powder

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,587 )

Stefan Dodunski & Mustafa   Intro: Proximate analysis, or Weende analysis, is the investigation of different macronutrients in food based on the scheme devised in 1860 by Henneberg and Stohmann in Germany. This analysis was originally devised to duplicate the digestion of animals where the extraction of fat was placed in an acid solution to replicate the acid in the stomach and further by ...

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Thiamine Functions and Structure

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,959 )

Marno Terblanche Clinical Chemistry II BAssignment Overview About five million individuals in America suffer from heart failure, with an additional 550,000 new diagnosis made each year. The life expectancy of people living with this condition has gradually increased due to the availability of useful and established treatment opportunities. The percentage of mortality in the States continues to be high even though things like “omega-3 ...

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Solvent Extraction of Eu(III) from Nitrate Media

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,488 )

Non fluorinated ionic liquid was used as a solvent of by bis (2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamic acid (DEHDGA) to investigate the extraction of Europium (III) various parameters: extractant concentration, pH, concentration of the salting-out agent and concentration of the europium(III) ion in the aqueous feed. The efficiency of extraction was enhanced by increasing the pH of the feed solution (aqueous) upto its maxium range pH 5, that subsequently decrease ...

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Solar Cell and Solar Energy Materials

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,014 )

Introduction: One of the biggest challenges to mankind is highly depended on the decreasing fusil fuels such as oil, coal, natural gas. Fusil fuels are nonrenewable energy resource which usually takes million of years to form. As a result, their reserves are depleted much faster than it forms. Furthermore, the combustion of these fuels causes environmental degradation through air pollution and global warming. Combustion ...

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Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Food Analysis

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,766 )

The food is a highly complex nature which consisted organic and inorganic components. It is undeniable that Gas Chromatography (GC) has many usage and application. It is also noted that gas chromatography has a wide range of applications especially in the food aspect analysis which includes composition of food, components of aroma and flavor, food additives, natural products etc. The aim of this section is to ...

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Properties of Graphene Essay

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,527 )

Recently, graphene has much attention for researchers due to its interesting properties and advantanges to industries moreover in nanomaterials. Graphene is a polymer structure made of fused six membered sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. Graphene is pure carbon in the form of very thin, nearly transparent sheet, basically one atom thick. Graphene is the building block of graphite. Graphene sheets are composed of carbon atoms linked in ...

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Isolation of β-Amyrin from Plant Parts of M. barteri

30 Nov 2017

10 (3,825 )

ISOLATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE TRITERPENE Β-AMYRIN FROM THE AERIAL PLANT PARTS OF MAESOBOTRYABARTERI(BAILL). Abstract Maesobotrya barteri(Baill), belonging to the family EUPHORBIACEAE, is a medicinal plant growing widely in tropical Africa. The Aerial plant parts of Maesobotrya barteri (Bail) were collected fresh from Orokam, Ogbadibo local Government of Benue State, Nigeria in July, 2013. Taxonomical identification was done by Mallam Musa Abdullahi at the Herbarium unit ...

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Methods Used in the Bio-Medical Industry

30 Nov 2017

8 (2,951 )

Three methods used in the Bio-Medical Industry Mr. Luke Chang Yen Zhi In this essay we will be exploring three methods by which materials are either separated, analysed, or both and their relevance and application in the biomedical industry. We will be looking at Electrophoresis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Gas Liquid ...

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Risk of Lung Cancer Among Chromium Workers

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,369 )

2. Literature Review: For the pursuance of our study, we conducted an extensive literature review in order to gather related information so that it may be helpful for us to understand the various aspects of this subject. Moreover, this was done in hopes that it would provide us the evidences about the views and findings of other scientists who are divulging assiduously in this field of ...

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Characterizing Novel Methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex

30 Nov 2017

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene via Boron-ate Complex Habib Hussain[*], Syeda Rubina Gilani, Zulfiqar Ali, Imdad Hussain, Hajira Rehman  Abstract: Novel (E)-1-(hexa-3,5-dien-1-yl)-4-methoxybenzene was synthesized through boron-ate complex. 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl diisopropylcarbamate was reacted with allylboronic acid pinacol ester in the presence of N,N,N,N-tetramethylethyllenediamine (TMEDA) to give secondary boronic ester which was further reacted with (vinylsulfonyl)benzene by using Grubbs Hoveyda II. Resulting product (E)-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)hex-5-en-3-yl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane was then ...

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Preformulation Testing for Chemical Properties of Drug

30 Nov 2017

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PREFORMULATION STUDIES Preformulation testing involved investigation of physical and chemical properties of a drug substance alone and when combined with excipients. It was the first step in the rational development of dosage forms. These studies are categorised as under: 1. API characterization 2. Drug-Excipient Compatibility study API Characterization Organoleptic Evaluation These are preliminary characteristics of any substance which is useful in identification of specific ...

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Concentration Levels of Essential Metals

30 Nov 2017

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Comparative Distribution of Selected Essential Metals in Drinking Water by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Method Tanzeel ur Rehman and Misbah Zahid ABSTRACT This study reports the concentration levels of selected essential metals; Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe and Zn in the drinking water collected from different areas of Islamabad. The levels of these metals present in the drinking ground water were compared with standards reported ...

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Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Organic Nomenclature Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.) defines nomenclature as “the devising or choosing of names for things, especially in a science or other discipline”{Dictionaries, #[email protected]@author-year}. I believe the easiest way to understand the rules associated with the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is with examples and so the majority of this essay will be dealing with examples and their explanations. Simek (1999) introduces the systematic naming of ...

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Chemical Composition of Oil from Eremostachys Macrophylla

30 Nov 2017

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Chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. from Northeast of Iran Akhlaghi H Abstract The essential oil obtained by hydrodisstillation of the aerial parts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., grown wild in Iran, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The colorless oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus for three hours, from aerial parts in ...

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Components in Milk and Isolation of Milk Protein (Casein)

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,842 )

Contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objective 1.3 Materials used 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Result 1.6 Discussion 1.7 Conclution Referance 1.1Introduction Milk is a complex biological fluid with high amount of proteins, lipid and minerals. Milk plays a major role in a healthy, balanced diet throughout lifetime. Milk having Proteins, Vitamins, carbohydrates and other minerals.Caseins, lactalbumins, and lactoglobulins are some proteins in milk. Milk from domesticated ruminants, primarily cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo, are major ...

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Stoichiometry Calculations Essay

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,482 )

Regina Marin Chapter 12: Stoichiometry SECTION 1 – WHAT IS STOICHIOMETRY? Mole-Mass Relationships in chemical reactions The balance equations is the main basis of stoichiometry, and that is the first thing to do when you want to measure a chemical process. The information provided by the chemical equation is interpreted according to the needs. And the mole is associated with the molecular weight, the ...

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Chemistry of All-carbon Materials: Structure and Properties

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,312 )

All-carbon materials have received lots of attention in the past. Carbyne, a new allotrope of carbon, is still in controversy towards its synthesis and property. Combining with the Goroff group’s research, this project is to prepare the polymer PIDA (polydiiododiacetylene) as a polyrotaxane complex, encapsulated in a column of macrocyclic hosts. The polyrotaxane structure will prevent aggregation of the PIDA strands, allowing for the complete dehalogenation ...

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Aluminium and the Lanthanoids

30 Nov 2017

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Unexpected Halide Transfer: Complex Reorganisation Between Aluminium and the Lanthanoids. Glen B. Deacon, David J. Evans and Peter C. Junk.* This submission was created using the RSC Communication Template (DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) (LINE INCLUDED FOR SPACING ONLY - DO NOT DELETE THIS TEXT) [Pr(MeCN)9][AlCl4]3.MeCN undergoes reorganisation upon the addition of an ether. In the case of recrystallisation from tetrahydrofuran, the ionic nature ...

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Constant Pressure Calorimeter for Heat Capacity

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,775 )

Kanwarpal Brar Purpose: To calibrate a constant pressure calorimeter and use it to determine the heats of the reaction and dissolution of different reactants and to use these heats of the reactions to find the enthalpy of a reaction by hess’s law. Analysis/ calculations: Determine the heat capacity of the coffee cup, Ccal in j*degC for all three trials and calculate the average ...

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Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,018 )

Experiment #1: Synthesis of Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol Johanna Bernadette C. Halili Mr. John Ephraim Torres June 21, 2014 ABSTRACT The synthesis of cyclohexene from cyclohexanol is an example of elimination reaction. Cyclohexanol, a secondary unsaturated alcohol, undergoes dehydration reaction to form a good leaving group which is H20 because the OH group of an alcohol is a very ...

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Penicillin's Structure and Function

30 Nov 2017

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Rachael Sim Hwee Ling A Molecule that Shapes the World – C16H18N2O4S The discovery of penicillin has revolutionized the world of medicine and saved millions of lives. Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi [1]. Antibiotics are specific substances derived from living organisms that can inhibit the life processes of other organisms [2]. Penicillin is effective against a range of bacteria such as ...

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Silver-graphene Oxide Composite for Optical Sensor

30 Nov 2017

26 (10,018 )

KHOSRO ZANGENEH KAMALI ORIGINAL LITERARY WORK DECLARATION FORM ABSTRACT In this work, a [email protected] oxide ([email protected]) nanocomposite-based optical sensor was developed for the detection of biomolecules such as dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and uric acid (UA). An aqueous solution of [email protected] was prepared using a simple chemical reduction method, and it showed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 402 nm. The ...

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Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,079 )

Contents Part 1: A Review of the Structure and Function of the M6P/IGF2R and its Role in Trafficking M6P Labelled Proteins and Wider Set of Enzymes to the Lysosome. Abstract Overview of The Mannose-6-Phosphate / Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 Receptor (CI-MPR ) The Structure of the Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptors The Itinerary of the MPR Trafficking The Cytoplasmic tail of the CI-MPR Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth ...

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Isomerism in Molybdenum Carbonyl Phosphine Complexes

30 Nov 2017

16 (6,258 )

Part A - Preparation and Identification of the Isomers of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] Introduction Molybdenum carbonyl phosphine complexes with the general formula, [Mo(CO)4L2] where (L=PR3; R=Me, Ph etc) have an octahedral geometry. This means the complexes are able to display either cis or trans stereochemistry. Interconversion between the two isomeric forms is enabled through thermal Mo-P bond cleavage. Only the thermodynamically stable isomer of [Mo(CO)4(PPh3)2] is formed by ...

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Development of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,758 )

In order to optimize the extraction conditions, the effect of different solvents and variation of time were investigated. It was found that pure methanol was more efficient solvent for extraction among the tested different concentrations of methanol and ethanol. In addition, the efficiency of extraction by ultrasonicator (Bandelin SONOREX, Berlin) were measured in different time intervals i.e., 20, 30, 40, and 50 min at room temperature. ...

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Synthesising Benzocaine via Reflux with a Condenser

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,040 )

Synthesis and characterisation of benzocaine experiment practical report Aim: The experiment was to synthesise benzocaine via reflux with a condenser and was characterised by examining at the infra-red spectrum and chemical shifts of NMR. Introduction: Benzocaine belongs to a collection of medication identified as local anaesthetics and generally consumed as a topical pain reliever. Its mechanism of action is to prevent nerve conduction when applied locally ...

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Standardized Ion Chromatograpy (IC) for Salivary Analysis

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,287 )

According to Darvell et. al. (2004), the research is about analysis of human saliva by using ion chromatography(IC). The aim of this research is to construct out a standardized IC protocol for future salivary analysis. The samples has go through several procedures such as centrifugation to remove particulates, filtration on supernatant, and the residual droplet was removed by a paper tissue without touching it to the ...

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Protective Role of Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Against CCL4

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,346 )

DISCUSSION CCl4, Paracetamol and Anti-tubercular drugs cause ROS mediated cellular damage especially in liver, the site of metabolism of these drugs. During the regular physiological functioning the cells/tissues/organs use oxygen and various nutrients to generate energy. The free radicals are also generated in this process as the reaction intermediates. These free radicals may be very useful because they may promote beneficial oxidative processes. However the higher ...

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Fire Triangle Science Essay

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,224 )

Chemistry of Fire Unit 36 - Forensic Fire Investigation 2/3/2015 Windows User Contents: Fire Tetrahedron………………………………………………………………………Page 2 Primary Sources of Ignition………………………………………………….....Page 3 Secondary Sources of Ignition…………………………………….................Page 4 Methods of Extinction………………………………………………………………Page 5 Heat Transfer………………………………………………………………………..…Page 6 Different Types of Fire.......................................................................Page7&8 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………Page 9 Reference List…………………………………………………………………………Page 10 Fire Tetrahedron Here is a diagram of the fire tetrahedron. This diagram shows the three elements that have to be present in order ...

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Frequency Response of Electrode Materials in EIS Measurement

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,639 )

Furthermore, complementary information about the frequency response of electrode materials is provided by EIS measurements and one can estimate the capacitance changes with the operating frequency.64-65 It is well know that the complex form of capacitance is dependent on frequency, which is defined as follow:66-67 (6) where C'(ω) is the real part of the complex capacitance and C"(ω) is the imaginary part of the complex ...

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Physicochemical Study of Palm Ester for Cosmetic Application

30 Nov 2017

9 (3,422 )

2.0 Introduction Palm oil is extracted from the fruit of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. Besides, Malaysia is one of the leading exporters and producers of palm oil in the world (Keng et al., 2005 Palm oil has been widely applied in various industrial sectors due to the uniqueness of its composition (Keng et al., 2009). It consists of triglycerides; the combination of glycerol and different ...

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Investigation of Oral Contraceptives

30 Nov 2017

6 (2,079 )

Oral Contraceptives Made by NAME: Ahmed Abdelgaber NAME: Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass NAME: Baraa Emad Hussien NAME: Nagdat Magd Mahouk NAME: Sherif Maher Dahshan LAB GROUP: C2 Lab Instructors: A.L/ Ahmed Refaat Spring 2015 Oral Contraception: Contraception can be defined ...

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Effectiveness of Soap and Shampoo in Hard Water

30 Nov 2017

4 (1,349 )

Literature Review According to Soap and Detergent Association of Canada [SDAP] (n.d.), soap is an effective cleansing agent, but its effectiveness reduced when used in hard water which has contaminations like calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese. These mineral salts will react with soap to form insoluble salt known as scum or soap film. For detergent, it is effective to cleanse in hard water and soft water ...

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