Overview of Cytokinins (CK)

29 Jan 2018

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FARA SHAKEEL CYTOKININS: Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence. STRUCTURE OF CYTOKININS: NATURE OF CYTOKININS: Cytokinins are compounds with a structure resembling adenine which promote cell division and ...

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Therapeutic Proteins – Hirudin

29 Jan 2018

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Isaac Johnson Hirudin is a polypeptide that has anticoagulant properties (Rosenthal, 2008). Hirudin is important because it is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Since the presence of thrombin, a serine protease, is indicative of a blood clot having a polypeptide that specifically inhibits thrombin generation is important in a number of ways (Contributors, Thrombin, 2013). Hirudin is used to prevent the formation of blood clots in arteries, ...

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Design of Hybrid Filter With Wavelet Denoising

29 Jan 2018

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Simranjit Kaur DESIGN OF HYBRID FILTER WITH WAVELET DENOISING AND ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION FILTER FOR IMAGE DESPECKLING 1. INTRODUCTION Digital images are images which are formed of picture elements also termed as pixels. The pixels typically are arranged in a rectangular array. The dimensions of the pixel array determine its size. Its width is defined by the number of columns, and height by the number ...

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Development of Emulsion Property

29 Jan 2018

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Student’s name: Yang Jiang Abstract In recent years, emulsion has taken an important port in our life, such as cosmetic and some other cosmetic industries. The property of the emulsion has a direct impact on our daily life. This paper chose the process of produce bath gel to provide what makes the property change, how to control it and how to make ...

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Phosphonium Vermiculites Dispertion: Polymethylmethacrylate

29 Jan 2018

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Ultraphonic in situ polymerization improves the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites in polymethylmethacrylate with excellent mechanical property Bin Zhang1, Dingfeng Xu1, Shaozao Tan1,*, Langhuan Huang1, Xiang Cai2, Ting Wu2,*Abstract In order to improve the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites (OVMT) in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), the ultraphonic in situ polymerization method was introduced, and a series of OVMT-PMMA (PBTP) nanocomposites were successfully prepared. The results indicated that the assistance of ...

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Enzyme Kinetics: Lactate Dehydrogenase

29 Jan 2018

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Question: What scientific question was this part of the practical designed to address? What is the effect of heat stability on two isoforms of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1 and LDH5) after pre-incubation (heat inactivation) of the enzyme samples at different temperatures? Approach: Outline and explain the experimental approach that was used to address the question. In order to determine the effect of the heat inactivation ...

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Chemical Constituents From Lepidogrammitis Drymoglossoides

29 Jan 2018

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Li-Yuan Zhang, You-Heng Gao*, Ling-Zhi Ren , Ming-Zhu Wan, Teng-Hua Wang ABSTRACT This report is related to phytochemical investigation about a Chinese fern Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides. Based on spectroscopic analysis including UV, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR as well as their chemical and physical properties, their structures were identified to be β-ecdysterone (1), stigmasterol (2), physcion (3), emodin (4), umbelliferone (5), scoparone (6), aesculetin (7), caffeic ...

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

29 Jan 2018

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency: An Inborn Error of Metabolism Marisa Houser The body’s metabolism is responsible for all the physical and chemical processes that convert or use energy. One of these processes is breaking down and digesting food. (National Institutes of Health , 2014) Food that is not broken down properly can lead to a buildup within the body and can be toxic or interfere with ...

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One-pot Synthesis of Porous Coordination Polymers

29 Jan 2018

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Generally, the properties of crystals are strongly determined not only by their chemical composition, but also by their morphology, size and surface structure.1-3 Over the past decade, crystals with specific crystal facets have attracted great research interest because the exposed facets on the crystals finely affect the chemical and physical properties of the functional materials.4-6 For example, noble-metallic nanocrystals having high-index facets generally show much higher ...

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Taro Leaves Drying Kinetics and Monolayer Moisture Content

29 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION |1 A study on the drying kinetics and monolayer moisture content of taro leaves This research was aimed to develop dehydrated products based on Taro leaves and finding out the effect of drying parameters such as loading density and temperature on that control the drying kinetics. To determine the end point of drying studies on the sorption isotherm was conducted. From the moisture sorption isotherm ...

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Heterocycles: Types and Biosynthesis

29 Jan 2018

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Heterocycles1 are one of the major classes of organic compounds. They are cyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatom (oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur etc.). These compounds are of biological and industrial importance. Many materials that are essential to life include a heterocyclic moiety; examples of these are: amino acids, nucleic acids, pigments, vitamins, antibiotics and many more. Heterocycles are part of our everyday life and are present ...

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Analytical Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry

29 Jan 2018

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Miracles do happen and chances of happening such events are rare. Scientific discoveries have also seen such miracles. The approach and efforts required in scientific happenings are based on basic principles. The mode of application of these established principles differ from one stream to another stream of scientific disciplines. The principle of chemistry and physics are amalgamated to give rise to number of measuring devices. These ...

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Chromium and Selenium Concentration in Cancer

29 Jan 2018

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The ratio between chromium and selenium concentration among various age groups of cancer group has also been studied and it shown in table 5.48, and it has been observed that all groups of cancer patients present somewhat similar ratio of chromium and selenium concentration in their blood. Moreover, the concentration balance of chromium and selenium has conspicuously been disturbed as it illustrated in table 5.49. For ...

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Synthesis and Characterization of Tetraphenyltin

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACTS Tetraphenyltin in high yield has been prepared by the reaction of chlorobenzene, chlorotin (IV) and sodium metal in dry toluene characterized by Infra-red spectroscopy. Introduction Organic compounds that contains metal-carbon bond are called organometallic compounds. Organometallic compounds have been studied for nearly 200 years. Unique properties of these compounds have been used in many areas of life. The reactivity of organometallic compounds depends on the ...

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Colon Specific Drug Delivery

29 Jan 2018

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ABSRACT The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can takes place. Colon specific drug delivery has achieved importance for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis etc. as well as for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antidiabetic agents. A drug need ...

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C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study

29 Jan 2018

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The C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study Mohammad Reza Zardoost a,*, Behnam Dehbandib , Marjan Dehbandib   Abstract: Electronic structure properties including bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moments (µ), energies, band gaps, NMR parameters of the isotropic and anisotropic chemical shielding parameters for the sites of various atoms were calculated using density functional theory for C , Si , Ge ...

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Synthesis of Polyelectrolyte Pani Membrane

29 Jan 2018

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SYNTHESIS OF POLYELECTROLYTE PAni MEMBRANE BY PHASE INVERSION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATIONS NURUL IZZATI IZNI BT MAT YUSOFF   INTRODUCTION During the last few decades, the application of membrane based separation is the leading technology as one of the alternatives used in separating and removal of organic solvents. Moreover, it holds a significant commercial impact in several areas including water and wastewater treatment, chemical, ...

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Determining Ethanol in Fermented Glutinous Rice

29 Jan 2018

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1.0 Introduction Fermented glutinous rice is a popular dessert among Malaysian consumers. It consist of carbohydrate such as rice and it need to be fermented for a few days until the glucose have been converted into the ethanol, carbon dioxide and energy whereas it signs is when the taste is sweet flavor. Cassava also can be fermented. Both of dishes served mostly in Southeast Asia. When ...

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MEL and Analogues: Structures and Properties

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Melamine MEL is an organic compound which had been closely associated with milk adulterant scandal between the year 2007 and 2008. Having a chemical formula of C3H6N6, makes it a nitrogen rich compound, thus giving the false impression of real protein content (Y.-N. Wu, Zhao, & Li, 2009). Manufacturing companies who bought raw milk for further production usually carry out protein ...

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Enthalpy of Displacement

29 Jan 2018

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Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of displacement between zinc powder and copper sulphate Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq) Chemicals – CuSO­­­4 Solution ( concentration = 0.5 mol.dm3 ) Zinc (s) Powder Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used ...

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Quantitative Chemical Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Quantitative chemical analysis, which is commonly referred to as stoichiometry, is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical equation. The term stoichiometry is a combination of two words derived from the Greek language: stoicheion (meaning "element") and metron (meaning "measure"). Stoichiometric calculations are dependent upon the law of conservation of mass which states that all matter cannot be created nor ...

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Removal of TBP From Aqueous Phase

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT PUREX process involves the use of 30% TBP in Dodecane to extract the fissile materials. However, due to mutual solubility some amount of TBP gets transferred into the aqueous phase. This transferred TBP leads to many environmental problems. Removal of this TBP from aqueous phase is of prime concern which can be done by contacting it with an organic diluent. UNIFAC and Uniquac methods have ...

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Nanotechnology based Drug Delivery Systems

29 Jan 2018

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Richard Chen Introduction In the past century, nanotechnology has been a prominent theme for many science fiction writers. However, thanks to recent developments in chemistry and manufacturing, we are now able to bring things that were once unimaginable into fruition. The field of nanotechnology refers to the research, development and the production of materials under the size of 100 nanometers (nm). Over the past ...

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Synthesis Method of Napthoyl-thiourea Derivatives

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter explains briefly on the synthesis method of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives, experimental characterization techniques (CHNS, FTIR, UV-Vis, UV-F, 1H and 13C NMR, Single Crystal X-Ray Crystallography Analysis, XRD, TGA, SEM, CV), electrodeposition of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives on ITO substrate, electrical conductivity measurement, IV curve characteristic, performance of organic diode and theoretical calculation via Gaussion 09 software package functions. 3.1 Reagents, Chemicals and Solvent All chemicals ...

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Optically Active Polymers

26 Jan 2018

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Optically active polymers play very important role in our modern society. The speciality of optically active polymers are known with its various characteristics as occurred naturally in mimicry. The present review describes the monomers and synthesis of optically active polymers from its helicity, internal compounds nature, dendronization, copolymerization, side chromophoric groups, chiral, metal complex and stereo-specific behaviour. The various properties like nonlinear optical properties of azo-polymers, ...

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Enzymatic Route for the Production of Biofuels

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Many compounds are currently produced through reactions that use chemical catalysts or expensive experimental conditions. However, this practice is aggressive to the environment, generating effluents with high cost of treatment, and consuming too energy. Enzymatic catalysis appears thus to reduce the energy demand contributing to a reduction in by-product formation. However, the acquisition cost of enzymes is still ...

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The Reductive Carbonylation of Organic Nitro Compounds

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction: The development of environmentally more benign and efficient synthetic methods has stimulated the evolution of new strategies and technologies for the synthesis of useful products in a safe, compact, and energy efficient manner. In this respect our preliminary focus to investigate typically efficient and complementary methodology with palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of nitro arenes employing CO gas. CO represents the most important C1 building block molecule ...

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Nanoparticles Obtained by Using Different Gelation Solution

26 Jan 2018

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Size of nanoparticles obtained by using different gelation solution 3.1.1 Size of different alginate-based nanoparticles at fixed enzyme and Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate (surfactant) concentration Various alginate based nanoparticles were prepared by using different gelling solutions as given in method . The size of nanoparticles determined by DLS is given in table-1. Table-1: Showing size and intensity of nanoparticles at single concentration ...

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Developing Natural Gas Sweetening Processes

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction Natural gas contains large amounts of methane (CH4), but also all kinds of impurities such as sour gases (e.g., H2S and CO2). The acid gases in the natural gas should be removed to comply with environmental regulations and to avoid technological problems during gas transportation.1–3 For instance, dry ice or CO2 hydrate products can clog the system during liquefaction of the natural gas.2 ...

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Analysis of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Dust

26 Jan 2018

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Literature Review 2.1 REVIEW OF REPORTED STUDIES 2.1.1 Assessment of Heavy Metal in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment. Chirika S.T. & Pawan R.S.9 conducted a study in 2011 to determine the levels of heavy metals in street dust at different localities in the Metropolitan City of Kathmandu, Nepal. A total ...

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Poultry Waste as an Organic Fertilizer

26 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW The several studies have been reported that the higher amounts of metals are present in different organic wastes, such as poultry fertilizer (Lopes et al., 2011; Bolan et al. 2004) and poultry fertilizer composts (Haroun et al. 2009; Farrell and Jones 2009a; Chen et al. 2008; Cai et al. 2007; Goi et al. 2006; Ihnat and Fernandes 1996; Ayuso et al. 1996; Ciavatta et ...

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1,2,4-Oxadiazole Moiety Molecules Synthesis for Cancer

26 Jan 2018

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2.4. Synthesis of 3-(4-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives for their MTT assay using MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and degradation of DNA in EAT cells 2.4.1. INTRODUCTION In the biological and pharmacological importance, heterocycles plays a significance role. Oxadiazole molecules show biologically activity includes angiogenesis inhibitor [246] and also HIV inhibitor [247], tyrosine kinase inhibition [45], histamine H3 antagonism [48], muscarinic agonism [49], potent histamine H2 receptor antagonists [50, ...

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Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) Crystals Structure

26 Jan 2018

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Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystals are widely used as the second, third and fourth harmonic generator for Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF lasers. It belongs to the tetragonal system with the space group I-42d 1. These crystals are widely used for electro-optical applications such as Q-switching for Ti–sapphire and alexandrite lasers as well as for acousto optical applications2–4. Tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulphate (ZTS) is a semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material ...

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Benefits of Nanotechnology on Health and the Environment

26 Jan 2018

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Aleksandar Banic Abstract Nanotechnology is concerned with manipulating matter to near atomic scales between one and 100nm (nanometers-1 billionth of a meter). This technology has recently gained popularity due to its potential in altering the behaviour of individual molecules and has opened the door to new applications. Many researchers have pinpointed the potential risk of nanotechnology on the environment and on human health. This ...

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Luteolin and Kaempferol From Cassia Alata

26 Jan 2018

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LUTEOLIN AND KAEMPFEROL FROM CASSIA ALATA, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACTS ANEELA WAHAB, TAHIRA, SABIRA BEGUM, ANJUM AYUB, IFFAT MAHMOOD, TALAT MAHMOOD, AQEEL AHMAD AND NIDA FAYYAZ   Abstract Cassia alata also known as candlebush is a medicinally important plant. In the present investigation we are reporting the isolation and structure elucidation of two flavonoids kaempferol (1) and luteolin (2) isolated from methanolic extract ...

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Effects of Lab by Inquiry in Educational Settings

26 Jan 2018

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Briana Bruske   Abstract The purpose of this literature research was to distinguish the differences between verification and inquiry based laboratory experiments in educational settings, and their effect on student education. Examples of the incorporation of inquiry into course curriculum were found. The effect of inquiry on knowledge type gained by students, and classification of their laboratory reflective statements was analyzed based on results contained in ...

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Paracetamol: History, Structure and Dangers

26 Jan 2018

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What is Paracetamol? Depending on where you live in the world, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide is known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen with the molecular formula of C8H9NO2. Paracetamol or acetaminophen belongs to a group of medicines which have analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reliever) properties. For these reasons it is used for reliving a person of mild to moderate pain including headache, joint pain and toothache. ...

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Standardization of Polyherbal Formulations for Drug Analysis

26 Jan 2018

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Standardization of polyherbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles (markers or standards). As Mentat tablet (MT), a herbal formulation consist of natural multi-ingredient formula with active constituents responsible for treatment of neurological disorder and improvement of mental health, therefore it is worthwhile to take it as a model for standardization of polyherbal formulation. ...

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Lab Report: Heat Capacity Ratio For Gases

26 Jan 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Introduction: Heat capacity of gases is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one mole of the gas through one degree Celsius at constant pressure or volume. Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp), the volume will increase and heat capacity at constant volume (CV), the pressure will increase. The main physical properties of gases are compressed in the ...

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Oxidative Decolourisation of Rosaniline Hydrochloride (RAH)

26 Jan 2018

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Kinetic, thermodynamic studies for oxidation of rosaniline hydrochloride dye by persulphate in ambient temperatures Z. M. Abou-Gamra* Abstract The kinetics of the oxidative decolourisation of rosaniline hydrochloride (RAH) by sodium persulphate was studied spectrophotometrically over pH range 3.5-9.5 at 30-45 oC. The reaction was second order with respect to dye and half order to persulphate. Increasing the pH of the medium increased the rate of decolourisation ...

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Impact of Bisphenol A in Bottles on Children’s health

26 Jan 2018

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  Name of student: Le Tien Dat   INTRODUCTION The history of Bisphenol-A is a long story, and the development of this substance has gathered benefits and drawbacks. In fact, BPA brings several benefits for life’s people. It is used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. The polycarbonate plastics may be encountered in many products ...

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Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

26 Jan 2018

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Spectral analysis, thermal behavior, XRD and morphology study in synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated by Cysteamine Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of Thiolic Composite with use Oxide Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of composite thiol with use oxide multi walled carbon nanotube and sulfur Or Behnam Maazinejad, Hamidreza Sadegh, Imran Ali, Ramin Shahryari Ghoshekandi, Vahid Ali ...

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Los Procesos Químicos Del Cuerpo

26 Jan 2018

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Casandra Hernández Introducción A través de este trabajo la investigadora realizó una revisión de literatura relacionada a los procesos químicos que ocurren en el cuerpo humano. Se comienza definiendo conceptos esenciales para comprender los procesos químicos. Según Aguilar (2012) el cuerpo de los seres humanos es un sistema que está compuesto por células las cuales forman los tejidos. Mediante las células el cuerpo humano ...

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Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer

26 Jan 2018

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High Efficiency Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer: PEM Fuel Cell Applications Methanol can be easily stored and transported and converted to H2 using a reforming reactor that makes it an excellent hydrogen and energy source for fuel cell applicationsEasily storage, transporting and converting to H2 by a reforming reactor using makes it an excellent energy source for PEMFC applications [1-3] During the last decades, there ...

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Graphene Oxide With Covalently Linked Porphyrin Antennae

26 Jan 2018

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Swetanshu Tandon Paper Title: Graphene oxide with covalently linked porphyrin antennae: Synthesis,characterization and photophysical properties. Relevant spectroscopic Techniques UV-visible spectroscopy ATR-IR spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Fluorescence spectroscopy Transient absorption spectroscopy Introduction In this paper, the authors describe the synthesis, characterisation and properties of a hybrid material, GO-H2P, obtained by treating graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10, ...

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Analysis of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’

26 Jan 2018

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Extraction of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’ Using 3 Mixture Design and Gcms Name : Syazliana Syamira Binti Hashim NOVEMBER 2014 Gynura procumbens or known locally in Malaysia as ‘Sambung Nyawa’ or in chinese, it is called ‘Nan Hui Ye’ is a plant that was found in South East Asia usually inThailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.This plant belongs to the Asteraceae Family.It is a famous traditional herb ...

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Determination of Sodium Thiopental Using Gold Nanoparticles

26 Jan 2018

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Development of a new colorimetric method for the determination of sodium thiopental using gold nanoparticles Sodium thiopental (sodium pentothal) is in a group of drugs called barbiturates.this barbiturate commonly used anesthetic induction agents in man and animals because recovery is rapid and it has the advantage of having very little or no side effects[1].It is used for intensive-care patients with head injuries to control convulsions and ...

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Differential Pulse Voltammetry

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction In this era of globalization, scientist had discovered various method of analysis. One of the methods of analysis is known as electrochemical method of analysis. Electrochemical method of analysis consists of coulometry, voltammetry and potentiometry. (Harvey, 2000) Coulometry is a method of analysis either with fixed current or constant current. Coulometry is also known as amperometry. In amperometry, current passes through a polarisable electrode. The ...

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Tolnaftate Drug Profile:

26 Jan 2018

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Trade Names: Tinactin Synonym: Tolnaftato, Tolnaftatum Structure: Fig: Structure of Tolnaftate Chemical Name: 0-2- naphthyl methyl (3- methyl phenyl thiocarbamate) Description: Tolnaftate is a synthetic thiocarbamate used as an anti- fungal agent that may be sold without medical prescription in most jurisdictions. It may come as a cream, powder, spray, or liquid aerosol, and is used to treat fungal conditions such as jock itch, athlete's ...

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Diketo Analogues and Their Significance

26 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION Medicinal chemistry is the branch of science, which has remarkable value for synthesis of novel drugs with intense therapeutic activity. It concerns with discovery, development, identification and interpretation of mode of action of biologically active compounds at molecular level. The molecular biological revolution and progressive mapping of human ‘genome’ have created a new biochemical and biostructural ‘world order.’1 These developments have provided new challenges and ...

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Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN)

26 Jan 2018

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Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) coated by surfactant materials Baha Eldien Ismail Abd Allah Elzaki1,2, Zhang Yue Jun2   Abstract The ammonium nitrate (AN) particles were coated by surfactant materials, using precipitation coating method. The hygroscopicity of AN - coated and AN without coating (used as control) were tested, and the samples of AN coated by surfactant materials, and were characterized by Fourier ...

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Factors Affecting the Oxidation of Iron Alloys

26 Jan 2018

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Alexander Thompson Abstract This paper is about the prevention of the formation of Iron Oxide. For the purpose of this investigation three coatings have been electroplated to the steel electrodes. The electrodes were then placed next to a salt solution approximately the same as that of ocean water .The mass changes in the metal were then ...

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Synthesis of Closantel Experiment

26 Jan 2018

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Abstract:- The paper describes the synthesis of Closeted. It is used as an anthelmintic i.e. an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms so it is used as Anti-worm drug. The synthesis of Closantel was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied. Keywords :- ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

26 Jan 2018

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  Kaneshanathan Kumaraguru Contents (jump to) Introduction Objective Materials Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction A macromolecule is “a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetitions of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass” (Jenkins et al., 1996, p.2289). Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides, which ...

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Comparison of Home-Made and Store Bought Apple Juice

26 Jan 2018

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COVER PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT This extended investigational report was aimed to show and prove how store bought apple juice (golden circle) is unhealthier and less beneficial to the body than home-made apple juice. The apple juice samples were analysed and tested using - pH using litmus paper Determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) by iodine titration Determination of fruit acids by iodine titration ...

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Method Development for Protein Detection

26 Jan 2018

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Binding-induced and label-free colorimetric method for protein detection based on binding-induced DNA hybridization and DNAzyme-based signal amplification INTRODUCTION In diagnosing the early stage of a disease or pathological condition, proteins, especially those associated with cancers, are of great importance because they are the molecular machinery of life.[BB2013-AM-3, 1,2] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly used method for protein detection.[PD-3,1,2] Unfortunately, this antibody-based assay requires ...

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3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-Propenoic Acid Synthesis

26 Jan 2018

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Antimicrobial activity of Co (II) complex of 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid and sonochemical synthesis of nanoscale mixed –ligand EDA coordination for preparation of CoCl2.6H2O anoparticle Abstract 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid abbreviated as EDA was synthesized and characterized. Co (II) metal complex of this ligand prepared by reaction of chloride salt with EDA in dry acetonitrile. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown ...

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Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

26 Jan 2018

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Regina Marin   Gas is called the state of matter in which, under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, its molecules cross-react only weakly with each other without forming molecular bonds, taking the shape and volume of their container and tending to separate , and expand, their best for their high kinetic energy. Gases are highly compressible fluids that experience large changes in ...

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Mechanisms that Lead to Dynamic Self-organization

26 Jan 2018

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SELF-ORGANIZATION AND GROWTH OF NANOSTRUCTURED BRANCHED CRYSTAL PATTERN IN BELOUSOV-ZHABOTINSKY TYPE CHEMICAL REACTIONS ROHIT SRIVASTAVA, M.Phil.   1. Introduction The self-assembly of structural motifs and the self-organization of dynamic motifs into highly ordered one-, two-, or three-dimensional patterns with controlled structures have received much attention in recent years, because of their importance in basic research and their potential applications [1,2]. The spontaneous formation of ...

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Development of Water-soluble Metal

26 Jan 2018

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Development of Water-soluble metal working fluids and study of their wear properties Chidambaram CT, L.A.Kumaraswamidhas, Suman Dutta* Abstract Metalworking chemistry evolved from simple oils to water-based technology. The tool life was extended by reducing wear by metal working fluids. This study shows parameters affecting on Wear Scar Diameters (WSD) with different water soluble metal working fluid having different mineral oil and phosphorous EP additive ...

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Timolol Maleate 0.5% Eye Drop Preparation

26 Jan 2018

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Formulation of eye drops (TIMOLOL MALEATE 0.5% m/V EYE DROPS) By: Introduction The Timolol Maleate 0.5% M/V Eye Drops is indicated for the reduction the intraocular pressure in the (IOP) persons suffering from ocular hypertension or glaucoma they are insufficiently responsive to the topical Beta Blockers. It is shown to reduce IOP in patients that have chronic open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and in Aphakic patients with ...

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Kinetics: The Iodination of Propanone

26 Jan 2018

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Mary Adesina This individual investigation will be exploring kinetics through experimentation the reaction: This reaction is described as autocatalytic as it is produces the very species that increases the rate of reaction (hydrogen ions7). Background Reactants Iodine is chemical that takes place in the reaction. Iodine is a halogen (group 7 on the periodic table) with a simple molecular covalent structure. Halogens are ...

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Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,628 )

Research Proposal Topic Study the Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits using AAS. Introduction Generally, plants require optimum mineral nutrients from the soil other than water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Mineral is a crystalline solid of inorganic element. It has their own characteristic on physical properties such as crystalline structure, hardness, density, flammability, and color with certain chemical composition ...

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Erythromycin Stearate Tablets: Quality Assurance Assessment

25 Jan 2018

11 (4,369 )

QUALITY ASSURANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ERYTHROMYCIN STEARATE TABLETS. Aiwaguore Johnbull Obarisiagbon1*, Oladejo Peter Ogunlowo2 ABSTRACT Erythromycin drug products have been mostly imported into Nigeria from different countries of the world; with relatively no Nigeria based pharmaceutical company manufacturing same. Cases of therapeutic failures have been reported in some of our hospitals. Hence, the need arises to study some of the physicochemical parameters of some ...

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Quantification of Venlafaxine in Tablet Dosage Form

24 Jan 2018

9 (3,215 )

New chiral normal phase UFLC method for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations ABSTRACT Aim: A simple, specific, precise, sensitive and rapid normal phase-UFLC method was developed for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulation. Methodology: The method was developed on a Lux amylase 2 column (150 x 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ); the mobile phase was n-hexane and ethanol (97:3 ...

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Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in Different Environments

24 Jan 2018

3 (1,125 )

Most confinement studies have focused on the effects of freezing and melting pure liquids like water, hydrogen and helium; inert gases and organic liquids in nanoscale pores. Thus, many studies have shown that melting points and enthalpies of fusion in nanoscale crystals can differ significantly from their bulk scale counterparts. It has been shown (Christenson H.K., 2001) that melting points decrease in crystalline solids embedded within ...

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Synthesis of New Coordination Polymers or MOFs

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,213 )

1.1 Design Principles Coordination polymers also known as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) or metal-coordination networks are compounds constructed from organic ligands and metal ions connected through coordination bonds and other weak chemical bonds which can extend infinitely into one two or three dimensions [1-3]. The arrangement of the components in coordination polymers mostly exists only in solid state which results from coordination interactions and weaker forces forming ...

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Burgess and Martin Dehydrating Reagents

24 Jan 2018

8 (3,200 )

An understanding of synthetically useful dehydrating reagents for the reduction of hydroxyl groups, various functional group interconversions and other synthetically useful operations. Oday Alrifai   Dehydration of alcohols has been a synthetically useful strategy in order to attain olefins in high yields through the treatment of secondary, tertiary and homoallylic alcohols. Martin sulfurane and Burgess dehydrating reagents have been useful because of their mild ...

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Copper Recovery Methods From Metallurgical Waste

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,490 )

REVIEW OF COPPER RECOVERY METHODS FROM METALLURGICAL WASTE Apurva Patel, Prof. Nimish Shah   Abstract: Copper is one of the most used metals in recent developments and demand of this red metal is increasing with passing of each day. Production of copper is 12 million tons per year and copper reserves are expected to run for 25 years with the estimated world copper reserves ...

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PSA Composite Fibers and Membranes

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,404 )

Polysulfonamide/nano titanium dioxide (PSA/nano-TiO2) composite spinning solutions with various nano-TiO2 mass fractions were prepared using the solution blending method. The corresponding composite fibers were developed by wet-spinning technology and the composite membranes were prepared using the digital spin-coating technique. The properties of PSA/nano-TiO2 composite fibers and membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, etc. The effects of nano-TiO2 and its mass fractions ...

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Purification of 1,3-PD from Complex Fermentation Broth

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,382 )

MTZ is calculated as Eq. 6[24], where H is adsorption bed height (cm). tb is the time (min) of breakthrough point, which defined as the time when Ct/C0=0.05. te is the time (min) of saturated point, which defined as the time when Ct/C0=0.95. As showed in Table 2, increasing the 1,3-PD concentration, tb and te decreased. The dynamic adsorption of 1,3-PD to resin usually fails to ...

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Biography of Primo Levi: Vanadium

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,655 )

‘Vanadium’ – The Periodic Table (Primo Levi) Annerita Ng Primo Levi was a Jewish chemist and author born in Italy. The majority of his writings revolved around his experience surviving the Holocaust of World War II, some with a heavy subtext of chemistry. One of his books entitled ‘The Periodic Table’ is a memoir of his life collated in 21 chapters, each of which ...

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Structural Interconversion of Holin Transmembrane Domain I

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,650 )

Structural Interconversion of Holin Transmembrane Domain I is Dictated by a Single Proline: A FRET-based Analysis and its Functional Importance in Pore Formation. Muralikrishna Lella,† Soumya Kamilla,‡ Vikas Jain‡,* and Radhakrishnan Mahalakshmi†,* KEYWORDS (Word Style “BG_Keywords”). If you are submitting your paper to a journal that requires keywords, provide significant keywords to aid the reader in literature retrieval. ABSTRACT: Mycobacterial cell lysis during the ...

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Uses and Applications of Acid and Bases

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,550 )

Rami Saadat Acid and bases in our life Acid and bases are very important in our everyday activity. Almost every liquid you find is acid or bases but it is not just liquid you can find it almost everywhere. Both are used in our usual activity especially in our body. They have a variety of uses like in medicine, food, cleaning, fertilization, industry and ...

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Green Solvent for Synthesis and Catalysis

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,683 )

Adnan S/OAbdul Qayyum Title Green Solvent for synthesis and catalysis: Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Abstract This proposal describes a research project to synthesis the ionic liquids; the alternative green, non-volatile solvent to harmful volatile organic solvent and chemical industries in the future. The ionic liquids, whose properties can be predicted before their synthesis. The already known properties enable to gain ...

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Classifications of Liquid Crystals

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,773 )

1. Introduction 1. Introduction to Liquid Crystals 1.1 Historical background Liquid crystals are a unique state of matter, between solid (crystalline) and liquid (isotropic) phases some compounds form a distinct, different intermediate phase, sometimes referred to as the “fourth state of matter” or “mesophase”. These compounds display properties of both solid and liquid. Anisotropic intermolecular interactions of the molecules, or mesogens, within a liquid crystalline material ...

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Synthesis of Isatin Based Caspase Inhibitors

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,460 )

DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF ISATIN BASED CASPASE INHIBITORS FOR RUTHENIUM CAGING APPLICATIONS KASUN CHINTHAKA RATNAYAKE ABSTRACT Apoptosis is the energy dependent programmed cell death. Improper function of apoptosis could lead to diseases such as cancers, strokes, alziemer’s disease. Caspases are the enzymes involved in the later stage of this process. Peptidyl and non-peptidyl caspase inhibitors have been synthesized recently. One of these non-peptidyl compound ...

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Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,208 )

Joseph Nuernberg   Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid by Reflux and Distillation and Characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Abstract: The objective of this lab was to successfully synthesize an ester from an alcohol and acetic acid. This experiment used 4-methyl-2-pentanol with excess acetic acid to produce (1,3-dimethylbutyl) acetate as seen in Figure 1. The mixture of acetic acid with 4-methyl-2-pentanol and sulfuric acid was refluxed, extracted, ...

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Analysis of Compound 109 using 13C NMR Spectra

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,792 )

The 13C NMR spectrum of compound 109-114 is represented in Plate 40-45. Structural elucidation of 109 by 13C NMR spectrum has been described and it was confirmed from the two dimensional NMR reports of 109. Assignments for the other compounds 109-114 made by comparing with compound 109. Table 33 lists the chemical shift values of 109. A collection of signals resonated in the aliphatic region at ...

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Testing Drug Content of Famotidine Core Tablets

24 Jan 2018

16 (6,234 )

6. Formulation development and evaluation 6.1 Preparation of core tablets Core tablets of famotidine were prepared by direct compression and batch size was kept as 100 tablets. Drug , sodium chloride, polymer and MCC were co-sifted through sieve # 30 Now the blend is mixed in polybag for 10 min Citric acid was crushed using mortar and pestle and sifted through sieve # 60 And ...

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Experiment to Learn the Amount of Iron in Iron Tablets

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,527 )

GABRIELA CARUSO KANDIR 1.1 What is Topic area you are investigating in to: Prepare and standardize a potassium permanganate solution and use it to determine the amount of iron (II) in iron tablets What is your title: Analyze the actual amount of iron (II) present in a tablet of iron supplement What is your Aim: Demonstrate if iron supplements have the ...

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Ion Mobility as Explosive Detector

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,156 )

INTRODUCTION Explosives are highly reactive substances which possess large amount of energy (potential energy) that leads to the production of explosions, they are usually accomplish with lighten, heat, sound and pressure when they are suddenly released. Explosive can be classified based on their sensitivity, velocity, composition and physical forms [23]. Ion Mobility Spectrometry is an analytical technique which is widely acknowledge in the area of detection ...

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Human Hair Profiling with FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,547 )

Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique AUFA MADIHAH BT MOHAMAD ANWAR   Research Proposal Topic Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique. This research is about classifying human hair (subjects) using FTIR and Chemometrics. The subjects should be Malay, Woman and included in one of the age group required. (20-30, 31-40, 41-50, >60) ...

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Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Uses and Properties

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,546 )

CFRP: carbon fiber reinforced polymer Urvish Gajjar In the end of 1800s first time Edison used the carbon fiber in the electricity bulb. CFRP- carbon fiber reinforced polymer is a one type of the carbon fiber. Edison used the fiber into the filament of bulb but he was unsuccessful because his fiber produced by carbonization of cellulose stand such as cotton or from bamboo. ...

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Modernization in High-throughput Bioanalysis by LC–MS/MS

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,210 )

Introduction and scope Liquid chromatography coupled with MS is widely used in drug discovery and development. Mass spectrometry is a very sensitive technique and is widely regarded as having good selectivity. However, in many applications, it is necessary to isolate the target analyte from what could be a sample containing thousands of other different molecules. Typically, mass spectrometry alone is unable to meet this ...

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Morphology Control in Gold Nanoparticle Synthesis

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,534 )

Hammed A. Salami   Introduction One of the most significant current discussions in the field of nanotechnology is the development of novel nanomaterials. When materials are reduced from bulk to the nanometer-scale dimension, they begin to exhibit unusual physical and chemical properties [1, 2]. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in the elucidation of the structure-function relationship of these novel nanomaterials [3, ...

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PbS Quantum Dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,055 )

Sruti Hemachandran Menon   Abstract— PbS quantum dots have attracted more attention in quantum dot sensitized solar cells as sensitizers on photoanode because of its high efficiency, high absorption coefficient and broad range of absorption. In this paper, we synthesized PbS quantum dots on the glass substrate coated with TiO2 paste by SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) method The quantum dot size ...

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Homogenized Mushroom Tissue Based Biosensors

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,223 )

ABSTRACT Homogenized mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissue based biosensors by using plant tissue materials is a relatively new development in the biosensor technology. A simple in dip stick kind of visual ethanol biosensor that based on immobalised alcohol oxidase (AOX) homogenized from mushroom tissue onto polyaniline (PANI) film for ethanol (> 5% concentration ) detection in toiletries products. The colour going to change from green to blue ...

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Chemical Properties of Silicon and its Uses

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,482 )

Silicon and its Chemical Properties: Role in Architecture and Construction Introduction Silicon ranks seventh as the most abundant element in the universe and second most abundant element in earth with 27.7% composition of crust by mass (Exley, 1998). Silicon is a metalloid of atomic number 14 and chemical symbol Si discovered by Swedish chemist, Jöns Berzelius in 1823. Natural silicon contains three isotopes: 92.2% of Si-28, ...

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Chemical Analysis of Manuka Honey

24 Jan 2018

6 (2,313 )

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Manuka honey Manuka honey is a monofloral honey delivered from the Manuka bush Leptospermum scoparium, has long been known as a food and beverage. Study also suggested that manuka honey has ameliorative properties in wound healing, fungal infections, ophthalmic disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal tract disorders, skin ulcers and infectors (Medhi et al, 2008). Bees foraging and gather nectar from the manuka bush, create ...

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Copolymerization of Styrene and a Cyclic Peptide

24 Jan 2018

9 (3,462 )

Putting peptides into the backbone chain of polyolefins: the radical copolymerization of styrene and a cyclic peptide containing the disulfide bond Anja C. Paulya, Daniel Rentschb and Fabio di Lena*a.   Supporting Information ABSTRACT: For the first time, a vinyl monomer such as styrene has been radically copolymerized with a cyclic peptide containing the disulfide bond. A new class of bio-hybrids is obtained in which the ...

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Molecular Functions of Secondary Targets

24 Jan 2018

7 (2,508 )

Kasun Ratnayake Identifying the relationship between molecular functions of secondary targets and side effects of drugs Abstract Small molecule drugs can involve in unidentified secondary targets other than its primary target in vivo1. The specific binding interactions should be studied in order to identify the potential effects on certain drugs which are administered1. The identification of secondary targets of a drug could help to ...

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Mark Ratner's Concepts of Molecular Electronics

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,839 )

Mark Ratner and The Basis of the Future: Molecular Electronics Levent Bahadırhan KarakuÅŸ     2. Introduction Mark Ratner, He is professor of chemistry and professor of materials science and engineering at Northwestern University. He studies the theory of fundamental chemical processes related to nanoscale application. Ratner is a member of the Internatioanal Academy of Quantum Molecular Science also, His lectures subjects were “Transport in molecular Junctions”and “Nano ...

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Interactions between Pr(III) & Sm(III) Cations

24 Jan 2018

10 (3,755 )

pH-metric study of substituted3,5-diaryl isoxazolines complexes in 70% Dioxane solvent media . S.A.Thorat1,S.D.Thakur2 ABSTRACT:- The complex formation between Pr(III)&Sm(III) metal ions and 3-(2-hydroxy-3-nitro-5-methylphenyl)-5-(2-phenylethenyl)isoxazoline[HNMP2EI]L1,3-(2-hydroxy-3-bromo-4-nitro-5-methyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)isoxazoline[HBNM4MI]L2,3-(2-hydroxy-3-bromo-4-nitro-5-methyl)-5-(3-nitrophenyl)isoxazoline[HBNM3NI]L3have been studied at 0.1M Ionic Strength (26±0.1)oC in 70% Dioxane water mixture by Bjerrum method as adopted by Calvin & Wilson .It is observed that Pr(III)&Sm(III) metal ions form 1:1 & 1:2 complexes with ligand L1,L2&L3.The data obtained were used to estimate & ...

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Synthesis and Anticancer Activities of 5-halogeno Pyrimidine

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,725 )

SOLID STATE MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF N-DERIVATIVES OF 5-HALOGENO SUBSTITUTED PYRIMIDINE 2, 4 DIONE BY TAHIRA SAGHIR ABSTRACT This study will report the synthesis of some substituted 5-halogenated pyrimidine 2,4dione by conventional and solid state microwave assisted methods. Derivitization of 5-halogenated pyrimidine,2,4 dione give predominately N1and N3-subsituted compounds where R may be the alkyl ,aryl, allyl, acyl, cyclohexenyleetc. 5-halogenated pyrimidine 2,4 dione derivatives represent ...

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Number of Microorganisms and Level of Spoilage Relationship

24 Jan 2018

5 (1,718 )

1.0 Materials and Method 1.1 Chemicals 50 g of dried powder of curcumin will be extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with 500 mL of 95% ethanol. The process will be done until the solvent is colourless. The extract then will be filtered and concentrated using a rotary evaporator. The dried ethanolic extract will be stored for further usage. A stock solution of curcumin will be prepared by dissolving ...

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Nanoparticles: Applications and Impact on Science

24 Jan 2018

4 (1,469 )

Nanoparticles (NPs) functionalised with cores composed of inorganic and organic materials like noble element, magnetic metals, their alloys and oxides, and semiconductors are ehaustively studied and have huge potential for application in various areas. The spectrum of applications are endless and embraces nano-biomedicine, nanoprobes for diagnostics to treatment of diseases, nanobots for early detection of neoplastic cell, nano drug delivery systems, Nanosuspension, SPION, nanolithography for nanoelectronics ...

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Dolutegravir Drug for Virologic Suppression

24 Jan 2018

9 (3,561 )

Graphical abstract: Dolutigravir, second generation integrase inhibitor: A new hope for HIV patients Geeta Yadav Mesra, Ranchi Abstract: Undeterred efforts have been made and will be made in future to make it possible for HIV-infected individuals to achieve the goals of virologic suppression and one more result of this rigrous exercise is dolutegravir drug. It is the recent integrase inhibitor approved by the ...

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Synthesis of API’s and API’s based Derivative

24 Jan 2018

8 (3,096 )

Title of Proposed Project: Efficient synthesis of API’s and API’s based Derivative for their Structure Activity Relationship and Pharmacokinetics Profile Project Details Project Summary This project concern with the establishment of organic synthesis facilities in Department of Chemistry, UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI. The established facilities will be used for the training of BS/M.Sc./MS/M.Phil. And Ph.D. scholars in the field of Organic Synthesis. In this project ...

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How Electron Configuration Accounts for Ion Formation

24 Jan 2018

3 (1,045 )

Consider electron configuration as it applies to the periodic table and explain in detail how this accounts for the formation of ions. Elements are arranged in the periodic table (see figure 1) according to their electronic configuration, which describes the number and arrangement of electrons in an atom, helping to make sense of the chemistry of an element. The notion of Electron configuration was first highlighted ...

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