Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Ambroxol Hydrochloride

30 Jan 2018

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SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LEVOCETRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AND AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN SYRUP DOSAGE FORM BY USING UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD S. S. Pekamwar, Madhav Shelke ABSTRACT: A simple, economical, rapid, accurate and precise UV Spectrophotometric method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Ambroxol hydrochloride in bulk and in Syrup formulation. Determination of Levocetrizine dihydrochloride (LCTZ) and Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) in bulk and in syrup ...

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Effect of Carbon Atoms Number in Alcohol on Combustion

30 Jan 2018

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Research Question How does the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain of primary alcohol affect its enthalpy change of combustion? Independent Variable The independent variable in this investigation is the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain of primary alcohol. Five different primary alcohol will be used, namely, methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol and pentan-1-ol. Dependent Variable: The dependent variable in this investigation is ...

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Synthesis of a New Potential Herbicide

30 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background of Study Since the beginning of the world, every creature in the world consumes food in order to survive. They ingest creatures in the sea, animals on the ground, or even vegetables on the land. In the olden days, the vegetables that mankind intake is without adding of synthetic chemicals or in other words it is organic. The purpose of ...

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Biochemical and Mineral Changes in Coconut Fermentation

30 Jan 2018

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Changes in biochemical and mineral composition during natural fermentation of freshly collected coconut inflorescence sap Abstract Fresh, unfermented coconut inflorescence sap is a natural, hygienic, nutritious liquid extracted from inflorescence of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.). Studies conducted to establish changes in biochemical (pH, total sugar, reducing sugar, proteins, amino acids, phenolics) and mineral (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and copper) content during natural fermentation of ...

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Physico-chemical Properties of Pectin From Jelly Fig

30 Jan 2018

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Changes in physico-chemical properties of pectin from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsangMakino) seeds during extraction and gelling Chii-Ming Jiang, Ying-Jang Lai, Bor-Hon Lee, Wei-Hsien Chang, Ming-Chang Wu, Hung-Min Chang Abstract Degree of esterification of pectin from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsangMakino) achene seeds and the pH value decreased rapidly during extraction, while apparent reduction of free calcium content in the pectin extract was observed at the ...

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Effect of Temperature on Enzyme-catalyzed Reaction

30 Jan 2018

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Yasmine Dabash Introduction Topic: The denaturing of enzymes. Purpose: To further investigate catalysts and enzymes as well as their reactions to temperature change. Problem: How does temperature affect the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction? Research Source 1: http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/tempeffects.html Information found: Like the majority of chemical reactions, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction raises as the temperature elevates. According to the source, “A ten degree ...

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Polymer Profiles: An Overview

30 Jan 2018

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4.4. POLYMER PROFILES: Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) Synonyms: Cellulose Hydroxypropyl methyl ether Functional Category: Release retardant, Coating purpose it used, film-former, suspending agent, stabilizing agent, tablet binder and viscosity increasing agent. Pharmaceutical application: Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is widely used in oral formulations. It is used in contain solution of 2-20 % w/w in tablet coating of tablets. In aqueous coating low viscosity grades of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose in aqueous ...

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Quinapril HCl (QUI) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) Literature

30 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW Reema jaiswal, Pinak patel et al., (2013) developed and reported a new simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Quinapril HCl (QUI) and Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) in their combined pharmaceutical dosage form using potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate buffer (pH 4.0 adjusted with Ortho Phosphoric acid):Acetonitrile(70:30v/v) mobile phase, and C18 column ODS(100 mm x 4.6 mm,3.0μ particle ...

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Nanocrystalline Diamond Coating around Sphere Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Mechanical Properties and Uniformity of Nanocrystalline Diamond coating around Sphere Hongyun Chen Nanocrystalline diamond coatings were deposited on spheres used for ball bearing. The nanocrystalline coatings with a grain size of 50nm were confirmed by the surface morphology and composition analysis. The hardness of the coating is 20-40GPa tested by nanoindentation, which is higher than that of tungsten carbide and silicon nitride substrates. The ...

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Chemistry of Essential Oils

29 Jan 2018

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Rhea Hughes Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Basic Chemical Structure 2.1 Hydrocarbons Monoterpenes Sesquiterpenes 2.2 Oxygenated Compounds 3. Extraction Methods 4. How essential oils are analysed 5. Discussion 6. Conclusion 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction Essential oils are used as alternative medical treatments, fragrances for perfumes and also as flavours in food and beverages (Djilani & Dicko, 2012). They are made up of fragranced ...

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CdS Quantum dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties

29 Jan 2018

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CdS Quantum dots: Synthesis and Optical Properties Characterization for Solar Cell Raimy Roy   Abstract— In this work CdS quantum dots were synthesized using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Then a study of the morphology and optical property were made for the application of solar cell. The structural characterization were made by XRD while the optical characterization where done by UV-vis-NIR ...

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Alcohol Composition Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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ALCOHOL Chemical Composition (ingredients) of 4 types of alcoholic beverages: The ingredients differ according to each beverage but there are a couple that are available in all of them, these are water and ethanol. These two ingredients are essential in every alcoholic beverage. Champagne can only be made from white Chardonnay grapes and red Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier grapes. It’s usually a blend of two ...

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DI-MS Technique for Analyzing Protein and Peptide Sequences

29 Jan 2018

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Food Industrial Application DI-MS technique has been widely applied in food industry as it is an easy and high-throughput tool for analyzing protein and peptide sequences, studying the components or structure in food, monitoring the contamination in food. FAB-MS In the study by Terzi, Boyot, Dorsselear, Luu and Trifilieff (1990), the amino acid sequence of a new 6.8 kDa proteolipid from beef heart was determined by ...

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DNA Tranlession Polymerase in Prokaryotic Cells

29 Jan 2018

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DNA Tranlession Polymerase in prokaryotic cells: History, structures and function Soheil Malekpour DNA is one of the most important part of the cell that gives cell integrity and character. This part of the cell can be exposed to different kinds of damages that may put the cell's integrity in jeopardy. The only part of the cell that has this ability to be repaired is ...

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Adsorption of Volatile Organic Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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ADSORPTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON DIFFERENT TIMBER SPECIES Marco Vasconcelos1, Nereida Cordeiro1,2*   ABSTRACT Due to the health issues associated to VOC, this work aims to study the adsorption of these compounds onto timbers, in order to improve air quality. For this task, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to characterize surface properties (surface energy, specific free energy and enthalpy of adsorption). Dispersive ...

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Natural Zeolite as a Cost-effective Opacifier

29 Jan 2018

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Ali Ghafarinazari1, 2 , Esfandiar Amiri1, Mahnaz Karbassi3, Morteza Soroor1, Talieh Rajabloo3   Abstract Zircon as an opacifier material is under the very real risk of being replaced. This is mainly because of two reasons: the anticipated shortage of high-quality grade zircon, and high costs associated with the production of zircon as an opacifier material, which is resulting in upward pressure on zircon prices. ...

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Analysis of Solubility and Forming Microemulsions

29 Jan 2018

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Chapter 5 Materials and methods to study formulation models 5.1. Materials Oils and Surfactants: Ethyl Oleate obtained from Sigma-Aldrich; FK-Sunflower Oil obtained from Fresenius Kabi; FK-MCT Oil obtained from Fresenius Kabi; Miglyol 840 obtained from Sasol; Tween 80 viscous liquid obtained from Sigma-Aldrich; Labrasol obtained from Gattefossé; Model API. Devices: Sartorius, Scale Extend, Model ED2245; IKA RET basic, magnetic stirrer; Thermo Electron Corporation, HERAEUS ...

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Givotia Moluccana Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.1. PLANT MATERIAL 4.1.1. COLLECTION OF PLANT The plant aerial parts of Givotia moluccanawas collected and Authentified by Dr. K. Madhava Chetty, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi (AP). 4.1.2. PREPARATION OF THE EXTRACT The dried leaves of G. moluccana was collected, cleaned, dried and powdered in a grinder ­­- mixer to obtain a coarse powder and then passed through 40 mesh ...

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Synthesis and Growth of HAp Crystals

29 Jan 2018

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Results and discussions Synthesis of HAp/Chitosan/Dopamine films Two types of HAp-chitosan composite films were prepared: HAp-chitosan films with and without dopamine (Figure 1). The weight ratio between HAp and chitosan in the films was fixed to 50 wt% since the HAp content in human bones is about 50-70wt% in dry weight28-30. In comparison with the 50 wt% HAp-chitosan, 70 wt% HAp-chitosan films containing dopamine were also ...

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Analysis of Cherry Flavour using GC-MS

29 Jan 2018

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Tziamourani Athanasia Analysis of cherry flavour using GC-MS and development of a recombinate Cherry is one of the most important fruits globally and a non-climacteric stone fruit, mainly grown in temperate climate countries. The most important factors that contribute to the uniqueness of cherry include skin colour, sweetness (sugar content), sourness (organic acid content), fruit firmness, fruit weight and aroma. The compounds that contribute ...

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Studies on Bioactive Tetrahydro Pyrimidine

29 Jan 2018

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Chapter- 1 General Introduction 1 Chapter 1 General Introduction 1.1 Heterocycles in drug discovery Currently pharmaceutical manufacturing is facing many problems for research and development due to high costs and changeless existence of moieties in these days. According to research of human genome we got assumption that at least 1000 genes are involved in identified and non identified disease. For that research about 20,000 human genome ...

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Proton-proton Coupling Constant

29 Jan 2018

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Easily recognized splitting patterns found in various spectra provide the chemical shifts of the different sets of hydrogen that generate the signals differ by two or more ppm. The patterns are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the proton chemical shift, and the central lines are always stronger than the outer lines. The most commonly observed patterns have been given descriptive names, such as doublet (two ...

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Hybrid Pharmacophores as Anti-inflammatory Agents

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The Synthesis of molecules that are important in the control of ageing diseases is very important in the present decades. The compounds like Diarylsulfonylurea-chalcone may act as anti-inflammatory agents that may be linked as network to several diseases. The synthetic compounds have the abilities to act as preventive compounds having therapeutic action. In the present decade, one can consider synthetic products ...

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Chromatography Lab Report

29 Jan 2018

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GC-1 (Gas Chromatography) Experiment 1, 2, 3 & 4 Experiment 1:- Determination of ethanol content of a mouthwash using an internal standard Experiment 2:- Determination of oxygenates in gasoline Experiment 3:- Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Experiment 4:- Determination of volatile compounds by headspace analysis Anil Kumar   Introduction & Theory The experiments performed in this lab were ...

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Mechanisms of Adsorption of Aormatic Nitrogen Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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MECHANISMS OF ADSORPTION OF AORMATIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS AND AROMATIC COMPOUNDS ON METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS (MOFs) by JUN DAI   Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) constitute a class of novel porous materials which have attracted significant interest due to their application in separation, storage, catalyst and sensing. Large surface area and porous cavity make MOFs excellent absorbents with huge uptake capacity. In this paper, we studied adsorption mechanisms of adsorption ...

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Carbon Nonmaterial From Non-renewable Oil Resource Synthesis

29 Jan 2018

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Synthesis and characterization of carbon nonmaterial from non-renewable oil resources by catalytic CVD Introduction Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nano materials that obtain amazing properties, which find effectiveness in wide applications such as gas storage, sensor, catalyst, drug delivery system, and solar cell (Chen et al., 2012; Schnorr & Swager, 2011). Carbon nanotube has been discovered by Iijima in 1991 (Iijima, 1991). Then Iijima found that Carbon ...

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Solubility Characteristics Between Organic Compounds

29 Jan 2018

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Objective: The objective of this experiment is to study the relative solubility of organic compounds in various solvents. Besides, understanding on the effect of polar groups on a nonpolar hydrocarbon skeleton is the aim for the test. Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to explore and understand the solubility characteristics between organic compounds and their relative solvents. The structure of organic compound indicates its solubility, ...

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Optimization of Solvent Extractions

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction In this study, the leaves of A. Malanccensis, formulated gaharu tea bags from Gaharu Tea Valley, Gopeng and Kebun Rimau, Tawau were extracted by using solvent extraction method. The optimization of solvent extractions were determined in this study as well. Chemical composition of the crude extracts were analyzed by using GC-MS and HPLC. Besides, the obtained crude extracts were evaluated for their ...

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Difficulties in Developing Petroleum Industry in Vietnam

29 Jan 2018

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by Nguyen Duc Anh Tuan Introduction Nowadays, in the developing era with fast pace, those agricultural countries, particularly Vietnam, might not only focus on improving the agriculture but also pay attention to developing the industrial area. More specifically, Vietnam has been concentrating on how to develop the gas and oil industry recently. However, the country is still facing a lot of difficulties. This essay ...

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Structures of Bacterial Tyrosinases

29 Jan 2018

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Tyrosinases oxidise phenolic hydroxyl groups of small molecules or large polymeric substrates such as proteins. Tyrosinases catalyse first the ortho-hydroxylation of the phenolic substrate and second its subsequent oxidation to quinone (Figure 1) with the concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The reaction is chromogenic as the quinones produced can undergo further non-enzymatic polymerisation to form black eu-melanins and, when reacting with thiol groups, brownish pheo-melanins ...

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Causes of Luminescence and Chemiluminescence

29 Jan 2018

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1.1. Luminescence Phenomena Luminescence is the phenomenon of emission of electromagnetic radiation in excess of thermal radiation. The radiation is usually in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, however, since the same basic processes may yield infrared or ultra violet radiation. Luminescence is observed with all phases of matter: gases, liquids and solids both organic and inorganic[1]. Luminescence is an umbrella term for those kinds ...

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Mathematics in General Chemistry

29 Jan 2018

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Prepared by Paul Okweye and Malinda Gilmore Purpose of the Experiment To acquire knowledge in the area of units of measurements and learn how to use dimensional analysis to solve word problems that will be used throughout General Chemistry. In addition, students will learn the importance of statistical analysis in General Chemistry laboratory experiments and also rules with respect to exponential notation and significant ...

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Gold: History, Properties and Nanoscale Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Since first extracted in the 5th century, Gold has been regarded as one of the most important matters in the world. When divided into smaller fragment sizes, way below 100nm it becomes even more ‘precious’. The optical, catalytical and electronic properties of Gold nanoparticles differ greatly from those of their bulk counterparts. This is mainly due to the large surface area-to-volume ratio as well as the ...

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Scopolamine (Burundanga) Properties and Uses

29 Jan 2018

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Scopolamine: The Devil’s Breath INTRODUCTION What if one day you wake up in a bathtub with your organs cut off, and you cannot remember anything. On the other hand, maybe you are on a street, showing a young woman the directions, and the next thing you know is you are in the middle of nowhere, ...

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Analysis of Gun Shot Residue using Electron Microscopy (EM)

29 Jan 2018

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Nathan Dean Thompson Review of the composition of gunshot residue (GSR) in coherence with its characteristics when analysed using electron microscopy (EM) and energy dispersive electron techniques. The key piece of evidence residing at incidents involving firearms is the gunshot residue (GSR) that is created when a gun is fired. Gunshot residue (GSR) can also be labelled as cartridge discharge residue (CDR) or firearms ...

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Overview of Cytokinins (CK)

29 Jan 2018

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FARA SHAKEEL CYTOKININS: Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence. STRUCTURE OF CYTOKININS: NATURE OF CYTOKININS: Cytokinins are compounds with a structure resembling adenine which promote cell division and ...

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Therapeutic Proteins – Hirudin

29 Jan 2018

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Isaac Johnson Hirudin is a polypeptide that has anticoagulant properties (Rosenthal, 2008). Hirudin is important because it is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Since the presence of thrombin, a serine protease, is indicative of a blood clot having a polypeptide that specifically inhibits thrombin generation is important in a number of ways (Contributors, Thrombin, 2013). Hirudin is used to prevent the formation of blood clots in arteries, ...

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Design of Hybrid Filter With Wavelet Denoising

29 Jan 2018

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Simranjit Kaur DESIGN OF HYBRID FILTER WITH WAVELET DENOISING AND ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION FILTER FOR IMAGE DESPECKLING 1. INTRODUCTION Digital images are images which are formed of picture elements also termed as pixels. The pixels typically are arranged in a rectangular array. The dimensions of the pixel array determine its size. Its width is defined by the number of columns, and height by the number ...

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Development of Emulsion Property

29 Jan 2018

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Student’s name: Yang Jiang Abstract In recent years, emulsion has taken an important port in our life, such as cosmetic and some other cosmetic industries. The property of the emulsion has a direct impact on our daily life. This paper chose the process of produce bath gel to provide what makes the property change, how to control it and how to make ...

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Phosphonium Vermiculites Dispertion: Polymethylmethacrylate

29 Jan 2018

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Ultraphonic in situ polymerization improves the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites in polymethylmethacrylate with excellent mechanical property Bin Zhang1, Dingfeng Xu1, Shaozao Tan1,*, Langhuan Huang1, Xiang Cai2, Ting Wu2,*Abstract In order to improve the dispersion of phosphonium vermiculites (OVMT) in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), the ultraphonic in situ polymerization method was introduced, and a series of OVMT-PMMA (PBTP) nanocomposites were successfully prepared. The results indicated that the assistance of ...

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Enzyme Kinetics: Lactate Dehydrogenase

29 Jan 2018

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Question: What scientific question was this part of the practical designed to address? What is the effect of heat stability on two isoforms of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1 and LDH5) after pre-incubation (heat inactivation) of the enzyme samples at different temperatures? Approach: Outline and explain the experimental approach that was used to address the question. In order to determine the effect of the heat inactivation ...

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Chemical Constituents From Lepidogrammitis Drymoglossoides

29 Jan 2018

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Li-Yuan Zhang, You-Heng Gao*, Ling-Zhi Ren , Ming-Zhu Wan, Teng-Hua Wang ABSTRACT This report is related to phytochemical investigation about a Chinese fern Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides. Based on spectroscopic analysis including UV, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR as well as their chemical and physical properties, their structures were identified to be β-ecdysterone (1), stigmasterol (2), physcion (3), emodin (4), umbelliferone (5), scoparone (6), aesculetin (7), caffeic ...

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

29 Jan 2018

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Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency: An Inborn Error of Metabolism Marisa Houser The body’s metabolism is responsible for all the physical and chemical processes that convert or use energy. One of these processes is breaking down and digesting food. (National Institutes of Health , 2014) Food that is not broken down properly can lead to a buildup within the body and can be toxic or interfere with ...

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One-pot Synthesis of Porous Coordination Polymers

29 Jan 2018

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Generally, the properties of crystals are strongly determined not only by their chemical composition, but also by their morphology, size and surface structure.1-3 Over the past decade, crystals with specific crystal facets have attracted great research interest because the exposed facets on the crystals finely affect the chemical and physical properties of the functional materials.4-6 For example, noble-metallic nanocrystals having high-index facets generally show much higher ...

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Taro Leaves Drying Kinetics and Monolayer Moisture Content

29 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION |1 A study on the drying kinetics and monolayer moisture content of taro leaves This research was aimed to develop dehydrated products based on Taro leaves and finding out the effect of drying parameters such as loading density and temperature on that control the drying kinetics. To determine the end point of drying studies on the sorption isotherm was conducted. From the moisture sorption isotherm ...

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Heterocycles: Types and Biosynthesis

29 Jan 2018

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Heterocycles1 are one of the major classes of organic compounds. They are cyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatom (oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur etc.). These compounds are of biological and industrial importance. Many materials that are essential to life include a heterocyclic moiety; examples of these are: amino acids, nucleic acids, pigments, vitamins, antibiotics and many more. Heterocycles are part of our everyday life and are present ...

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Analytical Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry

29 Jan 2018

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Miracles do happen and chances of happening such events are rare. Scientific discoveries have also seen such miracles. The approach and efforts required in scientific happenings are based on basic principles. The mode of application of these established principles differ from one stream to another stream of scientific disciplines. The principle of chemistry and physics are amalgamated to give rise to number of measuring devices. These ...

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Chromium and Selenium Concentration in Cancer

29 Jan 2018

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The ratio between chromium and selenium concentration among various age groups of cancer group has also been studied and it shown in table 5.48, and it has been observed that all groups of cancer patients present somewhat similar ratio of chromium and selenium concentration in their blood. Moreover, the concentration balance of chromium and selenium has conspicuously been disturbed as it illustrated in table 5.49. For ...

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Synthesis and Characterization of Tetraphenyltin

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACTS Tetraphenyltin in high yield has been prepared by the reaction of chlorobenzene, chlorotin (IV) and sodium metal in dry toluene characterized by Infra-red spectroscopy. Introduction Organic compounds that contains metal-carbon bond are called organometallic compounds. Organometallic compounds have been studied for nearly 200 years. Unique properties of these compounds have been used in many areas of life. The reactivity of organometallic compounds depends on the ...

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Colon Specific Drug Delivery

29 Jan 2018

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ABSRACT The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can takes place. Colon specific drug delivery has achieved importance for the delivery of drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis etc. as well as for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antidiabetic agents. A drug need ...

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C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study

29 Jan 2018

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The C, Si, Ge Doped (6,3) Chiral BNNTs: A Computational Study Mohammad Reza Zardoost a,*, Behnam Dehbandib , Marjan Dehbandib   Abstract: Electronic structure properties including bond lengths, bond angles, dipole moments (µ), energies, band gaps, NMR parameters of the isotropic and anisotropic chemical shielding parameters for the sites of various atoms were calculated using density functional theory for C , Si , Ge ...

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Synthesis of Polyelectrolyte Pani Membrane

29 Jan 2018

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SYNTHESIS OF POLYELECTROLYTE PAni MEMBRANE BY PHASE INVERSION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATIONS NURUL IZZATI IZNI BT MAT YUSOFF   INTRODUCTION During the last few decades, the application of membrane based separation is the leading technology as one of the alternatives used in separating and removal of organic solvents. Moreover, it holds a significant commercial impact in several areas including water and wastewater treatment, chemical, ...

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Determining Ethanol in Fermented Glutinous Rice

29 Jan 2018

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1.0 Introduction Fermented glutinous rice is a popular dessert among Malaysian consumers. It consist of carbohydrate such as rice and it need to be fermented for a few days until the glucose have been converted into the ethanol, carbon dioxide and energy whereas it signs is when the taste is sweet flavor. Cassava also can be fermented. Both of dishes served mostly in Southeast Asia. When ...

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MEL and Analogues: Structures and Properties

29 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Melamine MEL is an organic compound which had been closely associated with milk adulterant scandal between the year 2007 and 2008. Having a chemical formula of C3H6N6, makes it a nitrogen rich compound, thus giving the false impression of real protein content (Y.-N. Wu, Zhao, & Li, 2009). Manufacturing companies who bought raw milk for further production usually carry out protein ...

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Enthalpy of Displacement

29 Jan 2018

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Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of displacement between zinc powder and copper sulphate Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq) Chemicals – CuSO­­­4 Solution ( concentration = 0.5 mol.dm3 ) Zinc (s) Powder Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used ...

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Quantitative Chemical Analysis

29 Jan 2018

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Quantitative chemical analysis, which is commonly referred to as stoichiometry, is the quantitative relationship between the reactants and the products in a balanced chemical equation. The term stoichiometry is a combination of two words derived from the Greek language: stoicheion (meaning "element") and metron (meaning "measure"). Stoichiometric calculations are dependent upon the law of conservation of mass which states that all matter cannot be created nor ...

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Removal of TBP From Aqueous Phase

29 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT PUREX process involves the use of 30% TBP in Dodecane to extract the fissile materials. However, due to mutual solubility some amount of TBP gets transferred into the aqueous phase. This transferred TBP leads to many environmental problems. Removal of this TBP from aqueous phase is of prime concern which can be done by contacting it with an organic diluent. UNIFAC and Uniquac methods have ...

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Nanotechnology based Drug Delivery Systems

29 Jan 2018

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Richard Chen Introduction In the past century, nanotechnology has been a prominent theme for many science fiction writers. However, thanks to recent developments in chemistry and manufacturing, we are now able to bring things that were once unimaginable into fruition. The field of nanotechnology refers to the research, development and the production of materials under the size of 100 nanometers (nm). Over the past ...

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Synthesis Method of Napthoyl-thiourea Derivatives

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter explains briefly on the synthesis method of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives, experimental characterization techniques (CHNS, FTIR, UV-Vis, UV-F, 1H and 13C NMR, Single Crystal X-Ray Crystallography Analysis, XRD, TGA, SEM, CV), electrodeposition of napthoyl-thiourea derivatives on ITO substrate, electrical conductivity measurement, IV curve characteristic, performance of organic diode and theoretical calculation via Gaussion 09 software package functions. 3.1 Reagents, Chemicals and Solvent All chemicals ...

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Optically Active Polymers

26 Jan 2018

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Optically active polymers play very important role in our modern society. The speciality of optically active polymers are known with its various characteristics as occurred naturally in mimicry. The present review describes the monomers and synthesis of optically active polymers from its helicity, internal compounds nature, dendronization, copolymerization, side chromophoric groups, chiral, metal complex and stereo-specific behaviour. The various properties like nonlinear optical properties of azo-polymers, ...

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Enzymatic Route for the Production of Biofuels

26 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Many compounds are currently produced through reactions that use chemical catalysts or expensive experimental conditions. However, this practice is aggressive to the environment, generating effluents with high cost of treatment, and consuming too energy. Enzymatic catalysis appears thus to reduce the energy demand contributing to a reduction in by-product formation. However, the acquisition cost of enzymes is still ...

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The Reductive Carbonylation of Organic Nitro Compounds

26 Jan 2018

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Introduction: The development of environmentally more benign and efficient synthetic methods has stimulated the evolution of new strategies and technologies for the synthesis of useful products in a safe, compact, and energy efficient manner. In this respect our preliminary focus to investigate typically efficient and complementary methodology with palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of nitro arenes employing CO gas. CO represents the most important C1 building block molecule ...

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Nanoparticles Obtained by Using Different Gelation Solution

26 Jan 2018

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Size of nanoparticles obtained by using different gelation solution 3.1.1 Size of different alginate-based nanoparticles at fixed enzyme and Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate (surfactant) concentration Various alginate based nanoparticles were prepared by using different gelling solutions as given in method . The size of nanoparticles determined by DLS is given in table-1. Table-1: Showing size and intensity of nanoparticles at single concentration ...

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Developing Natural Gas Sweetening Processes

26 Jan 2018

9 (3,417 )

Introduction Natural gas contains large amounts of methane (CH4), but also all kinds of impurities such as sour gases (e.g., H2S and CO2). The acid gases in the natural gas should be removed to comply with environmental regulations and to avoid technological problems during gas transportation.1–3 For instance, dry ice or CO2 hydrate products can clog the system during liquefaction of the natural gas.2 ...

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Analysis of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Dust

26 Jan 2018

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Literature Review 2.1 REVIEW OF REPORTED STUDIES 2.1.1 Assessment of Heavy Metal in Street Dust in Kathmandu Metropolitan City and their Possible Impacts on the Environment. Chirika S.T. & Pawan R.S.9 conducted a study in 2011 to determine the levels of heavy metals in street dust at different localities in the Metropolitan City of Kathmandu, Nepal. A total ...

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Poultry Waste as an Organic Fertilizer

26 Jan 2018

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LITERATURE REVIEW The several studies have been reported that the higher amounts of metals are present in different organic wastes, such as poultry fertilizer (Lopes et al., 2011; Bolan et al. 2004) and poultry fertilizer composts (Haroun et al. 2009; Farrell and Jones 2009a; Chen et al. 2008; Cai et al. 2007; Goi et al. 2006; Ihnat and Fernandes 1996; Ayuso et al. 1996; Ciavatta et ...

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1,2,4-Oxadiazole Moiety Molecules Synthesis for Cancer

26 Jan 2018

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2.4. Synthesis of 3-(4-(6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives for their MTT assay using MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and degradation of DNA in EAT cells 2.4.1. INTRODUCTION In the biological and pharmacological importance, heterocycles plays a significance role. Oxadiazole molecules show biologically activity includes angiogenesis inhibitor [246] and also HIV inhibitor [247], tyrosine kinase inhibition [45], histamine H3 antagonism [48], muscarinic agonism [49], potent histamine H2 receptor antagonists [50, ...

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Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) Crystals Structure

26 Jan 2018

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Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystals are widely used as the second, third and fourth harmonic generator for Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF lasers. It belongs to the tetragonal system with the space group I-42d 1. These crystals are widely used for electro-optical applications such as Q-switching for Ti–sapphire and alexandrite lasers as well as for acousto optical applications2–4. Tris(thiourea)zinc(II) sulphate (ZTS) is a semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material ...

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Benefits of Nanotechnology on Health and the Environment

26 Jan 2018

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Aleksandar Banic Abstract Nanotechnology is concerned with manipulating matter to near atomic scales between one and 100nm (nanometers-1 billionth of a meter). This technology has recently gained popularity due to its potential in altering the behaviour of individual molecules and has opened the door to new applications. Many researchers have pinpointed the potential risk of nanotechnology on the environment and on human health. This ...

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Luteolin and Kaempferol From Cassia Alata

26 Jan 2018

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LUTEOLIN AND KAEMPFEROL FROM CASSIA ALATA, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ITS METHANOLIC EXTRACTS ANEELA WAHAB, TAHIRA, SABIRA BEGUM, ANJUM AYUB, IFFAT MAHMOOD, TALAT MAHMOOD, AQEEL AHMAD AND NIDA FAYYAZ   Abstract Cassia alata also known as candlebush is a medicinally important plant. In the present investigation we are reporting the isolation and structure elucidation of two flavonoids kaempferol (1) and luteolin (2) isolated from methanolic extract ...

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Effects of Lab by Inquiry in Educational Settings

26 Jan 2018

8 (2,942 )

Briana Bruske   Abstract The purpose of this literature research was to distinguish the differences between verification and inquiry based laboratory experiments in educational settings, and their effect on student education. Examples of the incorporation of inquiry into course curriculum were found. The effect of inquiry on knowledge type gained by students, and classification of their laboratory reflective statements was analyzed based on results contained in ...

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Paracetamol: History, Structure and Dangers

26 Jan 2018

4 (1,274 )

What is Paracetamol? Depending on where you live in the world, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide is known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen with the molecular formula of C8H9NO2. Paracetamol or acetaminophen belongs to a group of medicines which have analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reliever) properties. For these reasons it is used for reliving a person of mild to moderate pain including headache, joint pain and toothache. ...

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Standardization of Polyherbal Formulations for Drug Analysis

26 Jan 2018

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Standardization of polyherbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles (markers or standards). As Mentat tablet (MT), a herbal formulation consist of natural multi-ingredient formula with active constituents responsible for treatment of neurological disorder and improvement of mental health, therefore it is worthwhile to take it as a model for standardization of polyherbal formulation. ...

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Lab Report: Heat Capacity Ratio For Gases

26 Jan 2018

5 (1,862 )

Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran   Introduction: Heat capacity of gases is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one mole of the gas through one degree Celsius at constant pressure or volume. Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp), the volume will increase and heat capacity at constant volume (CV), the pressure will increase. The main physical properties of gases are compressed in the ...

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Oxidative Decolourisation of Rosaniline Hydrochloride (RAH)

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,635 )

Kinetic, thermodynamic studies for oxidation of rosaniline hydrochloride dye by persulphate in ambient temperatures Z. M. Abou-Gamra* Abstract The kinetics of the oxidative decolourisation of rosaniline hydrochloride (RAH) by sodium persulphate was studied spectrophotometrically over pH range 3.5-9.5 at 30-45 oC. The reaction was second order with respect to dye and half order to persulphate. Increasing the pH of the medium increased the rate of decolourisation ...

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Impact of Bisphenol A in Bottles on Children’s health

26 Jan 2018

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  Name of student: Le Tien Dat   INTRODUCTION The history of Bisphenol-A is a long story, and the development of this substance has gathered benefits and drawbacks. In fact, BPA brings several benefits for life’s people. It is used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. The polycarbonate plastics may be encountered in many products ...

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Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)

26 Jan 2018

9 (3,272 )

Spectral analysis, thermal behavior, XRD and morphology study in synthesis of carbon nanotubes decorated by Cysteamine Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of Thiolic Composite with use Oxide Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube Or A simple and efficient procedure for synthesis of composite thiol with use oxide multi walled carbon nanotube and sulfur Or Behnam Maazinejad, Hamidreza Sadegh, Imran Ali, Ramin Shahryari Ghoshekandi, Vahid Ali ...

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Los Procesos Químicos Del Cuerpo

26 Jan 2018

6 (2,230 )

Casandra Hernández Introducción A través de este trabajo la investigadora realizó una revisión de literatura relacionada a los procesos químicos que ocurren en el cuerpo humano. Se comienza definiendo conceptos esenciales para comprender los procesos químicos. Según Aguilar (2012) el cuerpo de los seres humanos es un sistema que está compuesto por células las cuales forman los tejidos. Mediante las células el cuerpo humano ...

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Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer

26 Jan 2018

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High Efficiency Inserted-Plate Coated of Methanol Steam Reformer: PEM Fuel Cell Applications Methanol can be easily stored and transported and converted to H2 using a reforming reactor that makes it an excellent hydrogen and energy source for fuel cell applicationsEasily storage, transporting and converting to H2 by a reforming reactor using makes it an excellent energy source for PEMFC applications [1-3] During the last decades, there ...

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Graphene Oxide With Covalently Linked Porphyrin Antennae

26 Jan 2018

6 (2,227 )

Swetanshu Tandon Paper Title: Graphene oxide with covalently linked porphyrin antennae: Synthesis,characterization and photophysical properties. Relevant spectroscopic Techniques UV-visible spectroscopy ATR-IR spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Fluorescence spectroscopy Transient absorption spectroscopy Introduction In this paper, the authors describe the synthesis, characterisation and properties of a hybrid material, GO-H2P, obtained by treating graphene oxide (GO) with 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10, ...

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Analysis of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’

26 Jan 2018

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Extraction of Biochemical Compounds in ‘gynura Procumbens’ Using 3 Mixture Design and Gcms Name : Syazliana Syamira Binti Hashim NOVEMBER 2014 Gynura procumbens or known locally in Malaysia as ‘Sambung Nyawa’ or in chinese, it is called ‘Nan Hui Ye’ is a plant that was found in South East Asia usually inThailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.This plant belongs to the Asteraceae Family.It is a famous traditional herb ...

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Determination of Sodium Thiopental Using Gold Nanoparticles

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,538 )

Development of a new colorimetric method for the determination of sodium thiopental using gold nanoparticles Sodium thiopental (sodium pentothal) is in a group of drugs called barbiturates.this barbiturate commonly used anesthetic induction agents in man and animals because recovery is rapid and it has the advantage of having very little or no side effects[1].It is used for intensive-care patients with head injuries to control convulsions and ...

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Differential Pulse Voltammetry

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,467 )

Introduction In this era of globalization, scientist had discovered various method of analysis. One of the methods of analysis is known as electrochemical method of analysis. Electrochemical method of analysis consists of coulometry, voltammetry and potentiometry. (Harvey, 2000) Coulometry is a method of analysis either with fixed current or constant current. Coulometry is also known as amperometry. In amperometry, current passes through a polarisable electrode. The ...

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Tolnaftate Drug Profile:

26 Jan 2018

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Trade Names: Tinactin Synonym: Tolnaftato, Tolnaftatum Structure: Fig: Structure of Tolnaftate Chemical Name: 0-2- naphthyl methyl (3- methyl phenyl thiocarbamate) Description: Tolnaftate is a synthetic thiocarbamate used as an anti- fungal agent that may be sold without medical prescription in most jurisdictions. It may come as a cream, powder, spray, or liquid aerosol, and is used to treat fungal conditions such as jock itch, athlete's ...

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Diketo Analogues and Their Significance

26 Jan 2018

5 (1,658 )

INTRODUCTION Medicinal chemistry is the branch of science, which has remarkable value for synthesis of novel drugs with intense therapeutic activity. It concerns with discovery, development, identification and interpretation of mode of action of biologically active compounds at molecular level. The molecular biological revolution and progressive mapping of human ‘genome’ have created a new biochemical and biostructural ‘world order.’1 These developments have provided new challenges and ...

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Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN)

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,634 )

Anti-hygroscopicity of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) coated by surfactant materials Baha Eldien Ismail Abd Allah Elzaki1,2, Zhang Yue Jun2   Abstract The ammonium nitrate (AN) particles were coated by surfactant materials, using precipitation coating method. The hygroscopicity of AN - coated and AN without coating (used as control) were tested, and the samples of AN coated by surfactant materials, and were characterized by Fourier ...

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Factors Affecting the Oxidation of Iron Alloys

26 Jan 2018

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Alexander Thompson Abstract This paper is about the prevention of the formation of Iron Oxide. For the purpose of this investigation three coatings have been electroplated to the steel electrodes. The electrodes were then placed next to a salt solution approximately the same as that of ocean water .The mass changes in the metal were then ...

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Synthesis of Closantel Experiment

26 Jan 2018

5 (1,726 )

Abstract:- The paper describes the synthesis of Closeted. It is used as an anthelmintic i.e. an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms so it is used as Anti-worm drug. The synthesis of Closantel was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied. Keywords :- ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

26 Jan 2018

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  Kaneshanathan Kumaraguru Contents (jump to) Introduction Objective Materials Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction A macromolecule is “a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetitions of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass” (Jenkins et al., 1996, p.2289). Carbohydrates are made of monosaccharides, which ...

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Comparison of Home-Made and Store Bought Apple Juice

26 Jan 2018

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COVER PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT This extended investigational report was aimed to show and prove how store bought apple juice (golden circle) is unhealthier and less beneficial to the body than home-made apple juice. The apple juice samples were analysed and tested using - pH using litmus paper Determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) by iodine titration Determination of fruit acids by iodine titration ...

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Method Development for Protein Detection

26 Jan 2018

6 (2,190 )

Binding-induced and label-free colorimetric method for protein detection based on binding-induced DNA hybridization and DNAzyme-based signal amplification INTRODUCTION In diagnosing the early stage of a disease or pathological condition, proteins, especially those associated with cancers, are of great importance because they are the molecular machinery of life.[BB2013-AM-3, 1,2] Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly used method for protein detection.[PD-3,1,2] Unfortunately, this antibody-based assay requires ...

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3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-Propenoic Acid Synthesis

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,630 )

Antimicrobial activity of Co (II) complex of 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid and sonochemical synthesis of nanoscale mixed –ligand EDA coordination for preparation of CoCl2.6H2O anoparticle Abstract 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid abbreviated as EDA was synthesized and characterized. Co (II) metal complex of this ligand prepared by reaction of chloride salt with EDA in dry acetonitrile. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown ...

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Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

26 Jan 2018

4 (1,352 )

Regina Marin   Gas is called the state of matter in which, under certain conditions of temperature and pressure, its molecules cross-react only weakly with each other without forming molecular bonds, taking the shape and volume of their container and tending to separate , and expand, their best for their high kinetic energy. Gases are highly compressible fluids that experience large changes in ...

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Mechanisms that Lead to Dynamic Self-organization

26 Jan 2018

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SELF-ORGANIZATION AND GROWTH OF NANOSTRUCTURED BRANCHED CRYSTAL PATTERN IN BELOUSOV-ZHABOTINSKY TYPE CHEMICAL REACTIONS ROHIT SRIVASTAVA, M.Phil.   1. Introduction The self-assembly of structural motifs and the self-organization of dynamic motifs into highly ordered one-, two-, or three-dimensional patterns with controlled structures have received much attention in recent years, because of their importance in basic research and their potential applications [1,2]. The spontaneous formation of ...

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Development of Water-soluble Metal

26 Jan 2018

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Development of Water-soluble metal working fluids and study of their wear properties Chidambaram CT, L.A.Kumaraswamidhas, Suman Dutta* Abstract Metalworking chemistry evolved from simple oils to water-based technology. The tool life was extended by reducing wear by metal working fluids. This study shows parameters affecting on Wear Scar Diameters (WSD) with different water soluble metal working fluid having different mineral oil and phosphorous EP additive ...

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Timolol Maleate 0.5% Eye Drop Preparation

26 Jan 2018

5 (1,601 )

Formulation of eye drops (TIMOLOL MALEATE 0.5% m/V EYE DROPS) By: Introduction The Timolol Maleate 0.5% M/V Eye Drops is indicated for the reduction the intraocular pressure in the (IOP) persons suffering from ocular hypertension or glaucoma they are insufficiently responsive to the topical Beta Blockers. It is shown to reduce IOP in patients that have chronic open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and in Aphakic patients with ...

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Kinetics: The Iodination of Propanone

26 Jan 2018

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Mary Adesina This individual investigation will be exploring kinetics through experimentation the reaction: This reaction is described as autocatalytic as it is produces the very species that increases the rate of reaction (hydrogen ions7). Background Reactants Iodine is chemical that takes place in the reaction. Iodine is a halogen (group 7 on the periodic table) with a simple molecular covalent structure. Halogens are ...

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Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits

26 Jan 2018

7 (2,628 )

Research Proposal Topic Study the Composition of Minerals in Soil Related with Date Fruits using AAS. Introduction Generally, plants require optimum mineral nutrients from the soil other than water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. Mineral is a crystalline solid of inorganic element. It has their own characteristic on physical properties such as crystalline structure, hardness, density, flammability, and color with certain chemical composition ...

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Erythromycin Stearate Tablets: Quality Assurance Assessment

25 Jan 2018

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QUALITY ASSURANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ERYTHROMYCIN STEARATE TABLETS. Aiwaguore Johnbull Obarisiagbon1*, Oladejo Peter Ogunlowo2 ABSTRACT Erythromycin drug products have been mostly imported into Nigeria from different countries of the world; with relatively no Nigeria based pharmaceutical company manufacturing same. Cases of therapeutic failures have been reported in some of our hospitals. Hence, the need arises to study some of the physicochemical parameters of some ...

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Quantification of Venlafaxine in Tablet Dosage Form

24 Jan 2018

9 (3,215 )

New chiral normal phase UFLC method for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations ABSTRACT Aim: A simple, specific, precise, sensitive and rapid normal phase-UFLC method was developed for determination of venlafaxine hydrochloride enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulation. Methodology: The method was developed on a Lux amylase 2 column (150 x 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ); the mobile phase was n-hexane and ethanol (97:3 ...

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