Finishing Techniques for Leather

18 Jan 2018

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Summery These papers make a brief clarification of some of the finishing technique which is to applied to two finishing procedure and clarification for full grain aniline leather finish and a full grain pigmented leather finish the material to be used in it and whey to apply such material for such both finishing type . also an observation on the needs for the finish for the ...

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Importance of Chemical Bonding | Essay

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,494 )

George Brown Chemical bonds are either ionic or covalent. When a metal is present the bond is ionic as an electron is given from the metal to the non-metal, so the two ions are attracted to each other. When a bond is between two non-metal’s then it is covalent meaning that in the outer electron shells of the two atoms bonded electrons share ...

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Profiling Human Hair with FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

18 Jan 2018

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ABSTRACT Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique Aufa Madihah Binti Mohamad Anwar 1122204 Hair is any of the fine threadlike strands growing from the skin of humans can be found in crime scene due to interaction between victim, perpetrator and/or witness as explained in Locard’s Principle. This paper's aim is to compare, categorize and identify human hair fiber using FTIR spectrometer and ...

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Review of Copper Recovery Methods From Metallurgical Waste

18 Jan 2018

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Apurva Patel, Prof. Nimish Shah Abstract: Copper is one of the most used metals in recent developments and demand of this red metal is increasing with passing of each day. Production of copper is 12 million tons per year and copper reserves are expected to run for 25 years with the estimated world copper reserves of 300 million tons. Recovery of copper from metallurgical waste is ...

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Laboratory Report on Aldehydes and Ketones

18 Jan 2018

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Mark Norly L. Tundag   I. OBJECTIVES At the end of the experiment, the students are able to identify the functional group present in aldehydes and ketones, also on determining their physical and chemical properties and to perform chemical test to distinguish one from the other. II. MATERIAL and APPARATUS The experiment used a bunsen burner, vials, 100 ml beaker, test tube holder, ...

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Synthesis of Levulinate Ester in Solvent-free System

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,092 )

MUHAMMAD YUSUF BIN YAAKUB   1.0 INTRODUCTION Fabrication of several of oxygenated fuels and chemical from biomass is not an easy task. This is because biomass needs to use catalytic processes to defunctionalized selectively (D.L.Klass, 2006). Both biological and chemical catalysts are being tailed by the global to transform biomass into biofuel and chemicals (A.Corma, 2007). There is some of the potential alternative to ...

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Composition of Hydrocarbons

18 Jan 2018

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Samerah Mansha Chemistry – Hydrocarbons – Organic compounds are molecules comprising of both carbon and hydrogen atoms. These compounds can be found as gaseous, liquid, or solid. Organic compounds are vital in life processes as they are found in the products we use daily such as soap, cosmetics, perfumes, plastics, rubber, paper, insecticides. The source of energy we use everyday such as ...

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Essential Trace Metals in Seaweed

18 Jan 2018

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0 Introduction Seaweeds are marine macro-algae that are one of the living renewable resources of the marine environment and well known for its potential food and therapeutic applications (Tseng, 2004). According to Awang et al. (2008), Sabah and Sarawak have a great potential for the cultivation of seaweed. The seaweeds found in Sabah such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Ulva reticulate, Gracilaria changgi, Caulerpa lentillifera and ...

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Effects of Soda Drinks on Health

18 Jan 2018

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Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tam   INTRODUCTION Healthcare has become the primary concerns of public. There are many factors to ensure people health’s quality. Among them, food-stuff has a directly impaction on people health. At the time when food-stuff industry develops swiftly, it is really hard to distinguish between good and bad products. Especially, chemicals have been misused to add on processing products – not ...

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Phosphorus Binders for Hyperphosphatemia Treatment

18 Jan 2018

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In the population of 385 individuals that have developed end stage renal disease in the United States, about 250,000 individuals have a condition called hyperphosphatemia (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p. 194). This condition is defined by “a serum phosphate level above 4.5 mg/dL; it may be clinically significant at levels over 5 mg/dL” (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p.195). People with kidney disease are not able to ...

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Processes in Producing a Chemical Reaction and Hazards

18 Jan 2018

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Elephant Toothpaste Objective/aim Understand the processes involved in producing a chemical reaction Identify hazards involved with using particular chemicals Demonstrate an understanding of chemistry terms such as catalyst, oxidation, and exothermic (Harper & Nickels, 2008). Background Information The elephant toothpaste experiment is an experiment that produces great amount of steaming foam (Helmenstine, 2014). Its great amount of foam is what ...

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Enthalpy of Combustion

16 Jan 2018

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Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of combustion of Ethanol (C2H5OH), Propanol (C3H7OH) and Butanol (C4H9OH). Chemicals – Ethanol (C2H5OH) Propanol (C3H7OH) Butanol (C4H9OH) Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used S. No. Instrument Unit Least Count ...

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Paracetamol Synthesis Experiment

16 Jan 2018

9 (3,271 )

N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide, otherwise known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen depending on where you live in the world, is one of the most widely used over the counter drugs. It has the molecular formula C8H9NO2. It is an analgesic (pain reliever) and also an antipyretic (fever reliever). For these reasons it is used to relieve a person of mild to moderate pain, for example; toothache, headaches or symptoms of ...

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Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia

16 Jan 2018

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Ruvanthi Kularatne Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia: The Site of Reduction in Nitrogenase Abstract The conversion of N2 to NH3 is done mainly via anaerobic bacteria. The enzyme nitrogenase, which can be found in these anaerobic bacteria, is responsible for this conversion. Much research has been conducted in order to identify the structure of the enzyme, the mechanism for the conversion, and the ...

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Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

16 Jan 2018

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  Laboratory Techniques Gopika Balasubramaniyam   INTRODUCTION Biomolecules are complex organic molecules. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus are the atoms that make up most of the biomolecules. These molecules form the basic structure of a living cell. The compounds such as amino acids, nucleotides and monosaccharide’s serve as the building blocks ...

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Green Synthesis of o-Phenyl-benzothiazole

16 Jan 2018

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Green Condensation of o-Aminothiophenol to o-Phenyl-benzothiazole David Fairchild, Alex Irion, Dominic Russo, Luke Sanders Abstract Herein we describe a simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly synthesis of o-arylbenzothiazoles, such as o-phenyl-benzothiazole, under standard ambient temperature and pressure via reaction of o-aminothiophenols with aromatic aldehydes using glycerol as a solvent. The combined characteristics of glycerol allow it to act as both a green and biodegradable solvent, but its ...

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Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Processes

16 Jan 2018

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Some wastewater treatment process in other hand classified into three categories which followed the nature of the treatment process that used nowadays, they are physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. Most of the full wastewater treatments systems are included several processes from these three categories. Physical methods wastewater treatment is the process that totally relay on physical phenomena only in progress of improving and treating the ...

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Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems (CDDS)

16 Jan 2018

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1.1 CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (CDDS) Now a day’s on the development of Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) marked consideration has been focused. The method of drug delivery to the site of action shows a significant effect on its efficacy. It leads to the development and evolution of novel drug delivery systems that enhanced performance of potential drug molecules. Novel drug delivery systems play a key ...

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Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+

16 Jan 2018

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Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+ During Anodic Disolution of Iron in NaCl Electrolyte R.K Upadhyay1, Arbind Kumar2 and P.K Srivastava3 Abstract: Taguchi’s orthogonal array L9 has been effectively used to study the effect of process parameters such as voltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentration on material removal rate in context of two different types of electrolyte namely aqueous NaCl solution and electrolyte solution containing ...

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Coordination Chemistry of Bidentate Ligands - Research

16 Jan 2018

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Elham Torabi Farkhani Mehrdad Pourayoubi Pavel V. Avdreev Katarina   Introduction The coordination chemistry of bidentate ligands has been studied for over thirty years [reference]. The bidentate ligands with phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl groups have been used as effective coordinating agents in the different metal chemistry, in most cases the reports were attributed to bonding between the metal cation and specific Lewis sites on the ...

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Amines Functionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles Synthesis

16 Jan 2018

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Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction To cure deadly disease such as cancer, significant endeavors have been done in synthesizing nanomaterials (Xue et al., 2011). Ideal nanoparticle system will own multimodality for imaging and therapy. It will carry out as an excellent bioprobes to find disease site and as a carriers to target cells. In biomedical field, they have been demonstrated to be useful in immunoassays, ...

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Properties of Poly(B-amino Ester)s

16 Jan 2018

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The poly(b-amino ester)s, a class of biodegradable cationic polymers, were firstly prepared by Chiellini in 198340. These polymers were based on poly(amidoamine)s developed in 1970 by Ferruti41, that contain tertiary amines in their backbones and can be synthesized by a simple Michael addition reaction of bifunctional amines and bisacrylamides. However, the interest over the use of poly(b-amino ester)s rised significantly after its use as transfection reagent at Langer Lab in 200042. ...

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Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

16 Jan 2018

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Zarafath Jameel Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Applications of chromatography Types of Chromatography Paper chromatography Objectives Materials Methodology Results and Calculations The chromatogram The Rf calculated results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction Chromatography, Color written work. "Chroma" is a Greek roots prefix for color and "graphy" is a Greek roots postfix for composing. It is utilized ...

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Photochemical Degradation of Pharmaceutics Experiment

16 Jan 2018

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Experimental Methodology Experimental methodology executed for accomplishment of a project is one of the most important parts of study, deciding the ultimate outcomes of the study. For the present study It aimed at metal doped MCM-41 for the removal of pharmaceutics by then degradation under UV irradiation. The present investigation was therefore designed to avoid discrepancies as much as possible, and to maximize the outcomes. The ...

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Laboratory Report on Properties of Carboxylic acids

16 Jan 2018

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Ramona Mae S. Rajaratnam Abstract: This report presents the different properties of carboxylic acids including solubility, acidity of some carboxylic acids, difference in strength of carboxylic acids compared to phenols, action of oxidizing agent on the carboxylic group and the neutralization equivalent of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids like acetic acid, butyric acid, oleic acid, succinic acid, stearic acid and benzoic acid were each mixed ...

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Development of Magnesium-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell

16 Jan 2018

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Performance of Carbon felt cathode for Magnesium–Hydrogen peroxide fuel cells K. Naga Mahesh, Balaji Rengarajan, K.S. Dhathathreyan* Centre for Fuel Cell Technology, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), 2nd Floor, IITM Research Park, Taramani, Chennai–600113. Abstract Carbon felt and carbon cloth are used as a cathode in Magnesium-Hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. The performance of the cathode are tested in a 30 ...

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Lab Scale Preparation of Gypsum Wallboard

16 Jan 2018

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH (State succinctly the problem which is to be addressed. Clearly outline the importance of the problem, the originality of the approach and the impact it may have on the field if successful. Give an overview of the broader significance as well as the immediate impact of this research.) The main purpose of this research is to create ...

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History and Methods of Chemical Warfare

16 Jan 2018

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Cori Haws In this report I intend to investigate from the perspective of a chemist the history and development of chemical weapons systems focusing primarily on their development, and the usage throughout the 20th century to present day and the means to which they act. As a starting point it is important to clarify what is meant by a chemical weapon or CW. The ...

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Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Phthalate Mixed Crystals

16 Jan 2018

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SECTION 3.1 Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of potassium lithium hydrogen phthalate mixed crystals* In the present work, we report the growth and structure of a new mixed crystal C16H16KLiO11 (PLHP), which crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and SHG-active. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization studies which are briefly described below. Here it is established that by synthesising ...

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Effects of, and Uses for Paracetamol

16 Jan 2018

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Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used medicinal drug available over the counter The chemical name for Paracetamol is N-acetyl-p-aminophenol. Over-the-counter (OTC) Analgesic and antipyretic action with weak anti-inflammatory action Synergic effect with other analgesics, especially codeine and NSAIDs, resulting in better overall pain control Major ingredient in cold & flu remedies Used in combination with opioid analgesics Oral Paracetamol has an oral bioavilabity ...

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VTE Prophylaxis after Joint Replacement

16 Jan 2018

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Clinical Management Plan Supplementary Prescribing for Nurses, Pharmacists and Allied Health Professionals Student: Jade Keaney   Name of Patient: Patient medication sensitivities/allergies: Patient identification e.g. ID number, date of birth: Current medication: Medical history: Independent Prescriber(s): Contact details: [tel/email/address] Supplementary prescriber(s): Contact details: ...

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Preparation of Terbium Hydroxide Nanowires by Hydrothermal

16 Jan 2018

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The preparation of Terbium hydroxide nanowires by hydrothermal method The single-crystalline Tb(OH)3 with various morphologies was successfully prepared from Tb2O3 powder by adjusting the concentration of acetic acid under hydrothermal condition. The influence of the concentration of acetic acid and reaction temperature on the crystalline phase and morphologies of Tb(OH)3 products was discussed. The concentration of acetic acid plays a key role in determining the products morphology. ...

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Comparative Study Between TBP and Dibutylalkyl Phosphonates

16 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 7 PHOSPHONATES AS ALTERNATIVE TO TBP FOR ACTINIDES AND FISSION PRODUCTS Solvent extraction studies of U (VI), Th (IV), Eu (III) and Tc (VII) in dibutylalkyl phosphonates have been carried out in present study. Uptake of these metal ion and formation of metal-ligand bond is a direct consequence of phosphorus-carbon bond and to understand the influence of these changes in the bond was the main ...

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Purification of Alcohol Dehydrogenase From Bovine Liver

16 Jan 2018

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran & Namrata Verma   Introduction: In the world of chemistry, there are millions of enzymes, but in this lab the enzyme used is bovine alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme occurs in various mammalian tissues, but generally found in high concentrations in the organs such as liver and kidney. According to its name Bovine alcohol dehydrogenase, which implicates that it is collectively formed from bovine (cow), ...

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Corrosion Inhibition of Metal Using Lawsonia Inermis Extract

16 Jan 2018

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Introduction Metal and alloy are widely used in various fields of industries. It’s commonly used in big industries such as manufacturing, processing and others. But metal and alloy used tend to face the corroded state due to the exposure to different chemical and substances that can lead to the corrosion. This phenomenon has become important especially in acidic media because of the increased industrial applications of ...

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Product Profile of a Plastic Shopping Bag (HDPE)

16 Jan 2018

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Samantha Pearson Plastic shopping bags/carry bags are used extensively in todays’ world. They are produced in many different sizes and colours, determined by its purpose and marketing campaign of the purchasing firm/industry. Carry bags are made of plastic that is flexible and relatively tough1. The plastic is identified as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), indicated by the Voluntary Plastic Container Coding System2 (used to identify ...

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Effects of Three Body Transformed Hamiltonian

16 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER – 6 CONTRIBUTION OF THREE BODY TRANSFORMED HAMILTONIAN () THROUGH FULL CONNECTED TRIPLE EXCITATION COUPLED CLUSTER OPERATORS TO VALENCE IONIZATION POTENTIALS OF F2 AND Cl2 COMPUTED VIA EIP-VUMRCCSDτ SCHEME 6.1 Introduction In this work, the effects of three body transformed Hamiltonian through full connected triples is studied on F2 and Cl2. To see the role of [1] in terms of magnitude, two kinds ...

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Development of Artificial Sweat - Experiment

16 Jan 2018

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3.0 Literature Review : 3.1 Biosensor The terminology for biosensor is usually used for equipment or devices used to monitor the metabolic system or element of biomocules. In addition, the particular term used, is referring to a sensor that uses a biological element, such as enzymes, antibodies, DNA, microorganisms or cell. Besides that, based on the IUPAC,it state that biosensor is an integrated equipment that have ...

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Enzyme Kinetics Laboratory Report

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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How the changes in substrate concentration (PNPP), changes in temperature, changes in pH and the presence of an inhibitor (phosphate ions) effects the rate of reaction of the reaction between PNPP and water catalysed by the enzyme acid phosphates which produces PNP and phosphate as its products . Using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance of the products formed through hydrolysis of substrate. Abstract: The purpose of this ...

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made of two or more fused aromatic rings, where PAHs with two or three rings have low molecular weight and acute toxicity whereas PAHs with high molecular weight (4 or more rings) have shown high carcinogenic potential. These compounds are often products of incomplete combustion reactions where there is a lack of oxygen, there are two types of PAH; natural and ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethanol as Fuel

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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The top five producers and users of ethanol in 2005 were Brazil producing 4.35 billion gallons per year, The United States producing 4.3 billions gallons per year, China producing 530 million gallons per year, The European Union producing 250 millions gallons per year and India producing 80 million gallons per year. Brazil and The United States account for about 90 per cent of all ethanol production, although ...

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Determination of Protein Concentration by Uv Absorption

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Highly susceptible to contamination by buffers, biological materials and salts Protein amino acid composition is extremely important, thus the choice of a standard is very difficult, especially for purified proteins Absorbance is heavily influence by pH and ionic strength of the solution. General Considerations This is often used to estimate protein concentration prior to a more sensitive method so the protein can be diluted ...

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Phases of Liquid Crystals

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction to Liquid Crystals A liquid crystal is a thermodynamic stable phase characterized by anisotropy of properties Without the existence of a three-dimensional crystal lattice, generally lying in the temperature Range between the solid and isotropic liquid phase, hence the term mesophase. Liquid crystal materials are unique in their properties and uses. As research into this field Continues and as new applications are developed, liquid crystals will ...

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Experiment of Calcium Carbonate Composition of Eggshells

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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INTRODUCTION Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is found in nature giving hardness and strength to things such as seashells, rocks, and eggshells. As hard as this substance is, it will react readily with hydrochloric acid to yield carbon dioxide gas (and two other products). In this experiment students will design an experiment by reacting eggshells with 2 M HCl to compare the calcium carbonate composition of white (chicken) eggshells ...

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Biodegradable Polymers: Processes of Degradation

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction The ISO definition of a biodegradable polymer is “an irreversible process leading to a significant change of the structure of a material, typically characterized by a loss of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular weight, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation. Degradation is affected by environmental conditions and proceeds over a period of time comprising one or more steps” Biodegradable and compostable processes are essentially the same mechanism ...

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Ácido Clorhídrico Y Ácido Acético en Vinagre

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Titulación de ácido clorhídrico y ácido acético en vinagre comercial con una base fuerte Propósito Determinar el punto de equivalencia entre las reacciones NaOH (ac) + HCl (ac) à NaCl (ac) + H2O (l) y NaOH (ac) + HCH3COO (ac) à NaCH3COO (ac) + H2O (l), observando los cambios físicos en la titulación de las soluciones, utilizando un indicador (Fenolftaleína o Anaranjado de metilo) y un pH ...

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Spectrophotometry Techniques and Devices

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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I. INTRODUCTION Spectrophotometry Infrared Spectrophotometry is designed to identify or determine the sample by measuring absorption of infrared radiation of wave numbers in a region of 4,000 to 400 cm-1, at various wave numbers, when it passes through the sample. This method uses the property that the infrared absorption spectrum of a substance is Characteristic of its chemical structure. Infrared spectra are shown in charts drawn by ...

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Lab Experiment to Identify Unknown Compound

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the unknown compound. The tests that were done to determine the identity of the compound include qualitative solubility tests, quantitative solubility tests, measuring solution conductivity, anion and cation test, flame test, and formation of precipitate. It was found that the compound had no smell, was soluble in water, and not soluble in toluene and acetone. The ions dissociated ...

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Non-conventional Sources of Energy: An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy is a primary input in any industrial operation. Energy is also a major input in sectors such as commerce, transport, telecommunication, etc besides the wide range of services required in the household & industrial sectors. (A) What Do We Mean by Alternative Energy? The alternative-energy segment of the energy industry covers a broad range of sources. These sources range from well established technologies, ...

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The Trojan Horse Virus: An Overview

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Another type of malware that is not technically a virus because there is usually no auto-replication is a Trojan horse program, which seems to be something useful, as a free utility, but actually contains some kind of malware. The unhappy about a Trojan program that is running the software users willingly and still do not know what is causing problems on their systems. Rootkits are a form ...

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Effect of Roasting Coffee on Caffeine Conten

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction: Coffee has been a popular drink since 20th century, not only because of its different colors and flavors due to different degrees of roasting, but also the effect on which it can keep you to stay awake and to finish your job. It is commonly known that the reason for coffee to possess this effect is because of the caffeine inside the coffee beans. In general, ...

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Causes of Prion Diseases

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy's can be inheritable or transmissible, a common feature of the prion disease involves the change of the prion protein (PrPc) to the isoform PrPsc (Hu et al, 2007). Prion propagation involves a mechanism that changes PrPc to PrPsc in an autocatalytic way (Harris and True, 2006). PrPc is said to be the normal prion protein and PrPsc the 'scrapie' isoform which ...

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Processes of Water Treatment

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, "limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample". DA Armbruster et al (1994) stated that "the limit of detection may be determined statistically ...

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Experiments of Copper (II) Sulphate

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Aim This experiment is to calculate the x which is water of crystallization and the chemical equation is CuSO4 (aq) · xH2O (s) and to observed colour changed when complex formation of copper (II) sulphate are formed. Introduction Molar mass is summation of all the atomic masses in a chemical equation. Transition metals are the elements which are found in the d-block in The Periodic Table. The ...

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Properties of Enzyme Catalysts

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Enzymes:Enzymes are single or multiple -chain proteins that act as a biological catalysts with the ability to promote specific chemical rxn under the mild condition that prevail in most living organism. Over-view of Enzymes catalysts All reaction in the body are mediated by enzymes, which are protein catalysis that increase the rate of reaction without being changed in overall process. Among the many biologic reaction that ...

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Aldehyde, Ketone Tests and Preparation of Derivatives

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Results: I. Aldehyde and ketone testes and preparation of derivatives 2,4 DINIROPHENYL HYDRAZINE Observations 2-butanone Solid orange precipitate at bottom Benzaldehyde mp of derivative:217-220°C dark yellow precipitate forms. BISULFITE ADDITION TEST Acetophenone Cloudy ,off-white solution (no reaction) 2-butanone Clear solution and no colour change(no reaction) Benzaldehyde White precipitation forming after few minutes from clear solution. It appears like white solid crystals. Trans-cinnamaldehyde Thick white yellow particles floating ...

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A Review of the Use of Platelets

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Introduction Blood is circulated by the heart around the body and performs many physiological functions because of the many components in blood. Half of the blood consists of cells, whereas the other half is plasma fluid. Plasma contains the nutritional material, waste, and proteins which play a part in haemostasis as discussed later in the review. Erythrocytes are one of the cells in blood, they contain haemoglobin ...

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Formulation and Characterization of Microemulsion System

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract Formulation of a new oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion composed of Castor oil/Tween 80/Ethanol/Phosphate buffer for enhancing the loading capacity of an anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam has been accomplished. The pseudo-ternary phase diagram has been delineated at constant surfactant/cosurfactant ratio (1:2). The internal structure of so created four-component system was elucidated by means of an analysis of isotropic area magnitudes in the phase diagram. Conductivity (?), kinematic viscosity (kh) ...

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Properties of Zeolites as Cataystics

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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1.0 INTRODUCTION TO ZEOLITES Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates, composed of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) with O atoms connecting neighbouring tetrahedral, that contain pores and cavities of molecular dimensions (Breck, 1974). Many occur as natural minerals, but it is the synthetic varieties which are among the most widely used sorbents, catalysts and ion-exchange materials in the world (Barrer, 1982). The channels are large enough to allow ...

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Genetic Transformation in E Coli

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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Genetic Transformation is the act of changing of DNA in an organism by adding new genes, which may be done in multiple ways. The addition of new genes to DNA could have an almost infinite amount of advantages, ranging from studying the cultures of bacteria that become immune to modern medicine, to making artificial animal proteins. In a CNN article written by Matt Ford, scientists are using ...

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Measuring Partition Coefficient

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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Abstract This Laboratory study deals with the Analytical Procedure of the Measurement of Partition Coefficient. Partition Coefficient is a very important criterion for Organic substances. It finds use in Pharmaceutical Industry, Pollution abatement systems, Agro Chemicals, and Chemical Industry. There are many methods available for determining the Partition Coefficient, especially Instrument methods like, Chromatography, Electrophoresis etc. The method adopted here is a simple, reliable and versatile one, ...

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The Metallurgy Options for Tubing

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

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The metallurgy of tubing is a very important factor while choosing tubing for a particular environment. Generally the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2% carbon and up to 1.65% manganese and residual ...

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Effect of an Increase in Molar Mass on Enthalpy Change

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

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An investigation to determine the effect of an increase in molar mass on the enthalpy change of combustion of fuels Method Variables: Independent Variable: Molar mass (type) of alcohol. Dependant Variable: The following variable will be observed and measured: * Mass of the alcohol used. Controlled Variable: The following variables will need to be controlled: * Mass of water, the mass of water will be measured using ...

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Iodine: Properties, Uses and Dangers

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction: Iodine is an indispensable micronutrient required in small amounts for the normal physiological function of the human body [1]. Iodine is a critical component of the thyroid hormones, which are necessary for various metabolic and enzymatic processes. These processes include control of the body’s metabolic rate, growth and development, neuron function and development. The recommended dietary intake for adult men and non-pregnant women is 150 ...

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Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity | Experiment

01 Dec 2017

6 (2,350 )

A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24 ± 2°C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, Devsthali Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, ...

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Radioactive Isotopes Essay

01 Dec 2017

5 (1,993 )

Pranav Nagrecha Introduction: - Radioactive isotopes are kind of isotopes, which have an unstable nuclide and react in assorted ways, they are derived from isotopes that also hold an unstable nucleus but they do not react as radioisotopes do[i]. These factors are categorized by the extra energy which is present in them and which would be used to react and produce some other particle. ...

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CHF3 Decomposition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

01 Dec 2017

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Decomposition of CHF3 by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Duc Ba Nguyen and Won Gyu Lee*   Abstract Oxidation of CHF3 was investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor was immersed in an electrical insulating oil. The feed gases was mixed of CHF3, O2 and N2 with O2/N2 ratio of 21/79 volume/volume. The results obtained that 98.98% of CHF3 in the feed gases were destruction under: ...

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Experiment for Identification of Paracetamol

01 Dec 2017

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PATRICK ANTWI MANU IDENTIFICATION OF PARACETAMOL THROUGH THE USE OF PHARMACOPIEA TEST ABSTRACT Paracetamol is widely used (NHS Choice, 2012) for the relief of minor pain, toothache, headaches, symptoms of cold and reduces of patient’s temperature (control fever symptoms). It is classified as a mild analgesic agent. The following procedures were used during the experiment of identification of paracetamol. TLC method is important for ...

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Investigating the Energy Released of Ethanol and 1-pentanol

01 Dec 2017

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1.0 Introduction Combustion reactions are always exothermic, due to the substances (fuels) releasing energy through combustion (temperature increases), which the change in enthalpy () is negative value. All fuels of this experiment are alcohols – ethanol, 1-pentanol and two mixtures of them with different ratios (90%:10% ; 80%:20%), which are the most common organic compounds. Alcohols contain the hydroxyl functional group (-OH) (Diagram 1) bonded to ...

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Hydrolysis of Phosphomonoesters Study

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction Site-directed mutagenesis was the primary basis of this portion of the laboratory directed toward determining the active site of the enzyme catalysis for hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters. The criteria was to turn the original sequence with Arginine 166 into Glutamine 166 through a point mutation. The primer location is located in the 401511 sequence of the phoA gene of alkaline phosphatase in E. Coli. The primer ...

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Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Ph.D. Thesis: Abhijit Nath Introduction Introduction The wealth of information in atoms and molecules can be achieved from quantum mechanical studies of their structural as well as various physical and chemical properties. Based on quantum mechanics [1-7], large number of approximation methods has been developed over the years for the complete solutions of atomic and molecular systems. Now-a-days, the availability of the computer hardware ...

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Methods for Water Treatment

01 Dec 2017

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1.12.2 Effect of chlorination of water Chlorine is toxic not only for microorganisms, but for human being also. For humans, chlorine is an irritation to the nasal passages eye, and respiratory system. Chlorine gas must be cautiously handled because it may cause severe health problem. Although, chlorine gas is also the low rate form of chlorine for water treatment, It makes use choice in spite of ...

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Chemometric Technique to Determine Rice Types

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study Rice (Oryza Sativa) is a type of cereal food in which most people consumes. As acereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia [1]. Rice is perhaps the most remarkable of cultivated crops, for although possessing the roots of a dry land plant, it flourishes in ...

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Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling

01 Dec 2017

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The membrane fouling problem is still the main obstacle that faces the application of membrane technology at the industrial and environmental application. So, the main motivation for this work is to develop an enhanced performance of commercial desalination membranes with polyamide barrier layer. In this study, we will use Layer-by-Layer (LbL) modification with tailored macromolecular surface modifiers in order to coat the membranes so that stable ...

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Molecular Modelling: Explained

01 Dec 2017

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Molecular modelling is one of the fastest growing fields in science, but what is it and what does it mean? “Molecular modelling encompasses all theoretical methods and computational techniques used to model or mimic the behaviour of molecules. The techniques are used in the fields of computational chemistry, drug design, computational biology and materials science for studying molecular systems ranging from small chemical systems to large ...

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Chemicals in Food Production and Preservation

01 Dec 2017

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USING CHEMICALS IN FOODS Contents Introduction.......................2 Definition........................2 Situation.........................3 Problems.........................4 Solutions.........................6 Evaluations.......................7 Conclusions.......................8 Bibliography......................8 Introduction In the past, almost all households bought foods from a farm nearby or grew foods in their garden and ate these foods. They were called locavores, which indicated people who ate only locally grown ...

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Recognition Properties for Pyrrole

01 Dec 2017

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Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer and its recognition properties for pyrrole X.W. Wu, J. Wang, H.X. Wang [1], Q.M. Zhou, L.H. Liu. wang, Y.P. Wu, H.W. Yang, G.L. Zhao, S.X. Tuo   Abstract: The molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) of pyrrole was synthesized by a precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker agent in acetonitrile. MIP of pyrrole ...

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Discovery of a Novel Oral Antithrombotic Drug Apixaban

01 Dec 2017

6 (2,329 )

Shuangyu Ma Background Thrombosis, which is generally defined as the formation of blood clot inside blood vessels, is a major health issue in western world. Thrombosis associated disease, such as ischemic stroke and high blood pressure, remain to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality each year in developed countries [1]. To make things worse, thrombosis is also known as a chronic disease ...

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Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran Simultaneous Equilibria in the Benzoic Acid - Toulene -Water System Introduction: Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid with molecular formula, C7H6O2. It appeared as colorless crystalline solid and has a fade, pleasant odor. Benzoic acid is easily available in nature and are used as a precursor to plasticizers, and sodium benzoate. Also, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as yeast, ...

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Process of Matrix Acidizing

01 Dec 2017

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Preface: Well stimulation techniques are applied regularly to improve productivity and maximize recovery from oil and gas wells. One of these techniques is matrix acidizing which is probably the most extensively performed job due to its low cost as compared to hydraulic fracturing, and it’s appropriateness to both production improvement and to restore original permeability in damaged wells. Acidizing ...

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Organic Synthesis of Polymers | Essay

01 Dec 2017

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Polymeric reagents offer a variety of unique benefits. Intra-molecular reactions, such as the cyclization of peptides or Dieckmann cyclizations, can be applied by attaching the reactive molecules at distant points along a polymer chain. In contrast, if the reactive molecules are secured in close approprinquity on a polymeric support then intermolecular reactions take place as illustrated for a ketone synthesis. Besides such proximity effects, mutual effects ...

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Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery

01 Dec 2017

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A Preliminary Study and Principal Component Analysis for the Authentication of Palmyrah Palm Jaggery Using NIR Spectroscopy Selvaratnam Balaranjan, Kugamoorthy Velauthamurty, Ganeshalingam Sashikesh Abstract. Palmyrah jaggery is used as a popular traditional sweetener in Jaffna peninsula, Sri Lanka. It is a nutrient rich crude sugar which is also used in the traditional medicine. The authenticity of the product in markets is questionable since there ...

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Computational Design and Management in Pharmaceuticals

01 Dec 2017

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Computational design and management in pharmaceuticals Liu Sui   Abstract: Throughout the years since the computer was first developed, the computer has become required and indispensable in modern society. Significant scientific usage of computers has spread throughout all the sciences, including pharmaceutical science. In pharmaceuticals, usage has become an essential tool for the whole drug development process, from initiation of lead searching to finding ...

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Uncontrolled Proliferation of Cells: Lung Cancer

01 Dec 2017

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Exhibit the uncontrolled proliferation of cells and constant progress of malignant cells in the body. 1.6.2.1. Lung Cancer: The normal lungs tissues are composed by normal cells and they are intending to determine the right size, appropriate shape and the normal function of the lungs. In a cancerous cell, the genetic material DNA is altered by the encoding of the genes which are responsible for the ...

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Flumequine and Balofloxacin

01 Dec 2017

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Made by Ahmed Mohamed Yousef Hablass Nagdat Majd Mahouk LAB GROUP: F2 Lab Instructors: T.A/ Spring 2015 Table of Contents: Introduction on (Flumequine) pg. 3 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 4 Discussion on (Flumequine) pg. 5, 6, 7 and (Balofloxacin) pg. 8, 9, 10 Conclusion pg. 11 Reference pg. 12 Flumequine: The first of ...

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Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41

01 Dec 2017

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Results and Discussions The present study included the synthesis of mesoporous silica MCM-41 and its modification by impregnation of different metals on the mesoporous to enhance the photocatalytic activity of metals i.e Cu/MCM-41, Fe/MCM-41, CeO2/MCM-41. FTIR analysis of catalyst MCM-41 has the ability to impregnate numerous metals on its surface. MCM-41 was modified with metal salts in order to dope the metals on the surface of ...

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High Fracture Toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 Composites

01 Dec 2017

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High fracture toughness of Al2O3-TiN0.3 composites prepared via spark plasma sintering Lina Qiaoa, b, Yucheng Zhaoa, Mingzhi Wanga, , Yana Yea, Junxing Zhanga, Qin Zoua, Qian Yanga, Hua Dengc, Ying Xingc   Abstract Al2O3–TiN0.3 composites with different TiN0.3 contents were spark plasma sintered at 1300–1600 °C for 10 min. Phase identification was characterized through X-ray diffraction. Microstructures were observed using a scanning electron microscope. ...

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DBD-NTP Reactor Test for Degradation of Methylene Blue

01 Dec 2017

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Abstract: Electrical discharges generated at water-gas interface in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor were utilized for the degradation and mineralization of a model aqueous organic pollutant methylene blue. NTP based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have presented a great potential to remove contaminants from wastewater. The degradation of pollutions will greatly depend on the active species generated in NTP process. It was observed that both degradation efficiency ...

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Rituximab Discovery Process

01 Dec 2017

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Description of the Target Disease Rituximab (Rituxan) is a distinct monoclonal antibody for curing of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma(NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This drug is also used in conjunction with methotrexate to cure symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. This form of cancer begins from the lymphatic system and extends all over the body. In this disease, tumor grows from lymphocytes-a variety of white blood cell. The lymphatic system ...

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Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrimidine-5-carboxylic Acid

01 Dec 2017

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Antimicrobial activity of synthesized, novel hydroxamic acid of pyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid and its complexes with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions Bhawani Shankar, Rashmi Tomar, Madhu Godhara, Vijay Kumar Sharma ABSTRACT Four metal complexes of new hydroxamic acid, 2,4,6-trioxo-1,3-di-p-tolyl-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid hydroxamide (3) with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) metal ions have been synthesized. The hydroxamic acid and its metal complexes were characterized by simple analytical techniques ...

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Drug Discovery Processes

01 Dec 2017

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Introduction Chemistry is not merely a science of making observations in order to better understand nature. Chemistry, as the science of matter and its transformation, plays a central role in bridging between physics, material sciences and life sciences. Our science is creative and productive, generating substances and materials of very high value from almost nothing. In view of its significance, chemical synthesis demands the highest level ...

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Optical Sensing of Molecular Oxygen

30 Nov 2017

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Optical sensing of molecular oxygen is gaining approval in many areas, such as biological research,1 clinical and medical applications,2 process control in the chemical industry3 and in food4 and pharmaceutical5 packaging, to name just a few. The best sensor should be stable, robust, easy-to-use and not prone to electrical interferences.6, 7 Quenched-luminescence oxygen sensing has attracted a great deal of attention and scientific endeavor in recent ...

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Properties of Dopamine in Chemistry

30 Nov 2017

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Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction In recent years, natural adhesion has attracted increasing attention in the material engineering field. This can be mainly attributed to the marine mussel as it has a strong ability to attach to various surfaces in an aqueous environment where they reside. These surfaces vary from natural to synthetic, and inorganic to organic.[49-51] Previous studies on the mussel adhesive protein have ...

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Performance Study of Multiphase Catalytic Monolith Reactor

30 Nov 2017

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Performance study of multiphase catalytic monolith reactor and its comparison with the performance of trickle bed reactor (TBR) Xiaofeng Wang   Introduction Multiphase reactors are found in diverse applications such as in manufacture of petroleum-based fuels and products, in production of commodity and specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, herbicides and pesticides, in production of materials and in pollution abatement [1]. A key motivation for ...

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Otto Hahn: Biography

30 Nov 2017

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Otto Hahn By Eli Biedenbender Otto Hahn was a brilliant german chemist, who was regarded as “the father of nuclear chemistry” for his work in radiochemistry and radioactivity. He also was a great political activist fully against future testing or use of the nuclear weapons. Otto was the son of a prosperous glazier and entrepreneur Glasbau Hahn and his wife Charlotte Hahn. Otto was born ...

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Interaction of Dye-surfactants and Dye-amino Acids

30 Nov 2017

5 (1,717 )

Review of the literature shows that the study of interaction of dye-surfactants and dye-amino acids provide useful important information about physiological systems because of its widespread applications and relatively complex behaviour. These investigations are important from point of view of technology of dyeing processes as well as for chemical researches, such as biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and photosensitization. Most of the work on amino acids and biomolecules ...

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Rhenium Oxide (ReO3) and Highly Applied Pressure

30 Nov 2017

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Describe the symmetry characteristics of the ReO3 polymorphs and their relationship to applied pressure. Rhenium Oxide also known as ReO3 has been researched and looked into detail widely with the use of highly applied pressure. ReO3 is described as a non distorted structure at surrounding pressure levels. Accurate and precise measurements of the pressure-volume relationship crafted by Batloff showed that the transistion pressure was ...

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Mixed Solvent in CO2 Capture Technology

30 Nov 2017

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Research Proposal Development of mixed solvent in CO2 capture technology with chemical absorption Xingye Fan Objectives: This project mainly aims at developing mixed solvent in chemical absorption to achieve goals of increasing mass transfer rate, CO2 loading capacity, and reduce processing cost. 1.1 Short term objectives: During the first five years, this project tends to test different mixed solvents to compare their ...

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Novel Peptide/RNA Sequence Targeting Malaria Parasite

30 Nov 2017

8 (3,061 )

James Lee Cho   Identification of Novel Peptide/RNA sequence targeting Malaria Parasite Proteins for Control of Malaria Abstract Malaria is considered to be one of great threat of human health historically. Many trials of curing malaria disease with anti-malaria drugs have been executed however still not successful because of an ability of rapid malaria parasite resistance development by the genetic mutations or variations in ...

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Physicochemical Profile of Synthesized Ferulate Esters

30 Nov 2017

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PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SYNTHESIZED FERULATE ESTERS INTRODUCTION Today, there are ongoing attempts to use ferulic acid derivatives in several different areas of food (Manore et al. 2011), cosmetic (Di Domenico et al., 2009) and pharmaceutical (Shanthakumar et al., 2012; Suzuki et al., 2007) products due to their effective antioxidant properties by trapping and stabilizing radical species (Ergun et al., 2011). Transesterification with lipophilic molecules allows a ...

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