Determination of the End Point of the Acid Base Titration

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,311 )

Marwan Mohsen Mohamed Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Acids and Bases Properties of acid Strengths of Acids and Bases How to detect acid and Bases? pKa and Dissociation Equilibrium Equipment Procedure Results and conclusion Bibliography Introduction Acids and Bases Every liquid we see will probably have either basic or acidic properties. Water can be a base and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Structure, Physical Properties and Uses of Metals

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,050 )

Jason Thien FS Introduction Metals account for about two thirds of all the elements and about 24% of the mass of the planet. Metals have useful properties including strength, ductility, high melting points, thermal and electrical conductivity, and toughness. From the periodic table, it can be seen that a large number of the elements are classified as being a metal. Iron (Fe) ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,341 )

Lynnette Chan Do Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Negatively Affect Memory? Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most common antidepressants prescribed to treat moderate to severe depression. SSRIs increase serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels in the brain by blocking serotonin reuptake. Compared to other antidepressants such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), SSRIs are more selective and have fewer side effects. In addition to affecting emotional moods, SSRIs ...

Click here to read more arrow

Structure of Water and Its Dynamic Hydrogen Bond Network

18 Jan 2018

9 (3,271 )

Introduction Water is essential to life as it is main constituent of cell in living organism. All biological macromolecules are almost inactive in its structural stability and functioning in absence of water. Water-Role in Life Water is key compound for our existence on this planet due to its ubiquitous presence on the earth and in living organisms. It is involved in all ...

Click here to read more arrow

Factors Effecting Voltage of Electrochemical Cells

18 Jan 2018

13 (4,965 )

Electrochemical Cells Simon Luu Electrochemistry is the science that studies this union of chemistry and electricity. Batteries and fuel cells utilize spontaneous redox processes to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Introduction Oxidation reactions (or redox reactions) are an important part of chemical reactions. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Hazard Identification in a Combined Cycle Power Plant

18 Jan 2018

9 (3,578 )

Fire and Explosion Hazard Identification in a Combined Cycle Power Plant ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Fire and Explosion are the most prevalent accidents at chemical and process industries which can cause serious damage to properties and loss of productions. Fire and explosion hazards are considered as the first and second major hazards in chemical industries [1]. Besides that, release of toxic materials are prevalent accidents in process industries ...

Click here to read more arrow

Use of Reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC)

18 Jan 2018

10 (3,798 )

Introduction Reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) is one of the commonly used techniques in separation of a wide ranging of analyte based on differences in their structures. In RP-HPLC, the polar mobile phase and nonpolar stationary phase was practised. In this mode of HPLC, the analyte retains into stationary phase by hydrophobic interaction (Hanai, 1999; Swadesh, 2001). The surface area of nonpolar part of analyte molecules is more ...

Click here to read more arrow

Detection of Vanadium Using Immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)

18 Jan 2018

8 (3,024 )

"Naked eye detection of vanadium using immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol on functionalized HMS" Mohamad taghi Samadi1, Abas Afkhami2, Kadijeh Shamsi 1, *and Abdolmotaleb Said mohamadi1   abstract In this work, inexpensive optical sensor for the naked eye detection of vanadium by immobilizing 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol on the functionalized hexagonal mesoporous silica via N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride in aqueous mediae has been used. The effects of several factors such as pH, reaction time, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Determination of Uranium Concentration in Uranium Ore

18 Jan 2018

12 (4,745 )

Investigation of effective Parameters on determination of uranium concentration in uranium ore by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy A. AliValiOllahi*, Gh. Alahyarizadeh, S. A. Ahmadi, A. Minuchehr, A. Zolfaghari   Abstract Uranium concentration in four different sample solutions (A, B, C and D) of uranium ore was determined by X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The effect of several different parameters on the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment on Size, Shape and Structures of Aggregates

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,948 )

Introduction Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have made considerable attention because of their unique features for conversion of free, unlimited solar energy into electricity by utilizing environmental friendly, inexpensive raw materials for low production cost1,2. DSSC composed of nanostructured, mesoporous semiconductors with wide-bandgap materials, to which the dye molecules (sensitizers) are adsorbed, a counter electrode and an electrolyte. In DSSC the dye molecule absorb visible light, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiments in Quantum Mechanics

18 Jan 2018

10 (3,774 )

The theory of quantum mechanics developed when the classical theories of mechanics and electromagnetism were unable to provide explanation to the characteristics of atomic structure and electromagnetic radiation (Rae, 2008). The appearance of quantum mechanics resulted in the emergence of a principle that has the ability to describe the nuclei, proton and neutron (Rae, 2008). Quantum theory has two sides, the first is the mathematical side and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Methods for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,348 )

Ola Agoro Table of Contents (Jump to) INTRODUCTION WAYS OF MAINTAINING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 1. RENEWABLE AND CLEAN ENERGY 2. CATALYSIS 3. EFFICIENT WASTE MANAGEMENT AND RECYCLE 4. SAFER SOLVENT CONCLUSION REFERENCE INTRODUCTION Also known as green chemistry, sustainability in the chemical industry is the practise or a viewpoint of chemical researches that is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Use of Atomic Spectrometry in Pharmaceutical Analysis

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,763 )

Jie Pan Introduction Pharmaceutical analysis is a critical issue for human beings, not only to verify the effectiveness of drugs, but also for the safety issues. The toxicity of various elements has been well studied and documented for many years. There are many ways to prove effective elements or compounds in drugs. For more than 100 years, the main focus on standard for testing ...

Click here to read more arrow

ATR-FTIR Analysis for Oil Type Identification

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,313 )

Abstract Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis could greatly help in the identification of oil. By mere inspection of the IR spectra, saturated oils can be easily distinguished from coconut oils. Identification of oils can be enhance by the use of chemometrical techniques such Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Using this technique, subtle differences in the spectra can be used to classify vegetable oils. This ...

Click here to read more arrow

Formation Processes of Silicon Carbide

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,741 )

Effect of silicon carbide dispersion on the microwave absorbing properties of silicon carbide-epoxy composites in 2–40 GHz Yaw-Shun Hong, Tzu-Hao Ting, Chih-Chia Chiang, Ken-Fa Cheng   Abstract Wide-band, strong absorption with low density and thin matching thickness are essential for electromagnetic wave absorbers. In this study, silicon carbide powders were successfully synthesized by the method of preheating combustion synthesis in nitrogen atmosphere and introduced ...

Click here to read more arrow

Liquid Phase Surface Nitriding of Al-5052

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,604 )

Abstract: Liquid phase surface nitriding of Al-5052 was performed using the heat of a TIG (tungsten inert gas) torch in a gas shielding which was a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The feasibility of obtaining nitride compounds at various TIG processing parameters and nitrogen contents in the shielding gas were studied. The presence of AlN phase being formed during surface nitriding was proved by X-ray diffraction ...

Click here to read more arrow

Synthesis of CNTs From Hydrocarbons Resources by CCVD

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,152 )

1. Introduction Carbon nanotube is one of the most promising candidates of nanomaterials which own wonderful mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. With one hundred times the steel’s tensile strength, thermal conductivity better than all materials except the purest diamond, and electrical conductivity contact to the copper with ballistic transport of electrons present the ability to carry much higher currents without heat generation. Carbon nanotube can be ...

Click here to read more arrow

Expression of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (rGFP)

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,750 )

Expression and Purification of recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (rGFP) from E. coli using Ni2+-Agarose Column Chromatography. Andrea Bustamante Janakikeerthika Darmarpandi   Abstract Green Fluorescent Proteins are vital components of bioluminescence in marine animals. There unique ability to withstand and recover from harsh conditions and regain fluorescence was of great interest. The purpose of the following set of experiments was to express and purify a ...

Click here to read more arrow

Factors Affecting Reaction Rates: Experiment

18 Jan 2018

11 (4,184 )

Maria Angela R. Dulin and Felix P. Terencio Jr. ABSTRACT An area in chemistry that focuses on the speed or rate at which a chemical reaction takes place is chemical kinetics. In drug making, in pollution control and in food processing, knowledge about the rate of reaction is useful (Chang, 2010). Since chemical kinetics has a widespread application in our daily lives, it is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Nickel-mediated Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,994 )

Abstract: The Ni(II) complexes [Ni(5-C5H3 R2)(X)(NHC)] 1a–f combined with MAO was tested in methylmethacrylate (MMA) polymerization. The complex 1f, bearing the bulky 2,6-diisopropenylphenyl substituents in the NHC ligand was found to be the most effective in the polymerization of MMA with TOF up to 200 h-1 resulting in a syndiotactic, high molecular weight PMMAs which can be explained by anionic, MAO-centered polymerization mechanism. Introduction: A great ...

Click here to read more arrow

Atomistic Fabrication Technology to Enhance Accuracy

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,133 )

Importance of Atomistic Fabrication Technology to Enhance Machining Accuracy During Electrochemical Machining of Metals Ritesh Upadhyay, Arbind Kumar P.K. Srivastava   Abstract Atomistic fabrication technology fully utilizes physical and chemical phenomena with atomistic and electronic understanding. In the case of mechanical machining many defects are introduced when pushing the tool on the workpiece surface and then atoms on the workpiece surface are removed by ...

Click here to read more arrow

Solvent Effect on the Interaction of C20 and N2H2

18 Jan 2018

8 (3,022 )

Solvent effect on the interaction of C20 and N2H2: A theoretical study Reza Ghiasi*,1, Hanieh Alavi2   Abstract: In this work, the interaction of C20 and N2H2 fragment was investigated in the M062X/6-311G(d,p) level of theory in both gas and solution phases. The influence of solvent on the interaction energy, structural parameters, frontier orbital energies and hyperpolarizability of C20…N2H2 complex has been explored. The interaction energies ...

Click here to read more arrow

Determination of Adulterants in Honey Using HPLC Method

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,120 )

Determination of adulterants such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in honey using HPLC method 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Materials Standard of hydroxymethylfurfural was purchased from sigma Aldrich. All the samples and standards were diluted using distilled deionised water. Methanol, sodium hydroxide,diphenyl-1-pikryl, ascorbic acid, 2,2- hydrochloric acid and acetic acid were of analytical reagent grade and purchased from Techno PharmChem, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) Experiment

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,486 )

Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANNs) is applied for prediction of product selectivity in biological sulfide removal. An experimental setup is constructed for investigation of biological sulfide removal in a fed batch bioreactor. In this process, sulfide is biologically converted into elemental sulfur and sulfate by the bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus. In addition, thiosulfate is produced in a side reaction. The effect of various parameters (dissolved oxygen, concentration ...

Click here to read more arrow

Importance of Natural Product Synthesis

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,570 )

History of medicine dates back practically to the existence of human civilization. Historically, the majority of new drugs have been generated from natural products and from compounds derived from natural products. Natural products, including plants, animals and minerals have always been a source of therapeutic agents for many years. Natural products sometimes exhibit pharmacological or biological property that can be of therapeutic benefit in treating diseases. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Enhancement of Polymeric Materials through Nanotechnology

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,539 )

Performance Enhancement of Polymeric Materials through Nanotechnology Dr. P.C. Thapliyal   Abstract: In the last decade or so, nanotechnology has gained tremendous and widespread attention. Currently, nanotechnology is being applied in many fields to formulate materials with novel functions due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The major nanotechnology applications are identified as energy, agriculture productivity, water treatment, disease diagnosis, drug delivery system, food processing, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Structure and Chemical Composition of Silk

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,094 )

Silk: A Natural Polymer By: David Church “The Silk Road,” a trading route that can be traced back to over 3600 years ago, but still is a household recognized name. Standing the test of time proves that this product was extremely important in shaping history. According to Chinese historians, silk began with the prince of China, Hoang-ti, and his wife, Si-ling-chi. The prince wanted his wife ...

Click here to read more arrow

Classification of Wastewater

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,386 )

Wastewaters are numerous in kind and defy easy definition. It is difficult to evolve a universal classification for 'waste'. However, roughly there are three basic classification methods, which are combined to form a waste classification system (Hagerty., 1973). They are physical classification, chemical classification and thermal classification. The last one is directly related to thermal processing requirements and focuses on the information needed to select, design, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Cell-Permeable Stapled Peptides from HIV1 Gene Products

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,515 )

Cell-Permeable Stapled Peptides Based on HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Derived from HIV-1 Gene Products Introduction HIV-1 Integrase (IN), is necessary enzyme for the replication of the virus into the host cells. It catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into the genome of host cells. The mechanisms employed by the enzyme are strand transfer and 3′-end processing reactions. The enzyme is vital for the virus life cycle and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,759 )

Sensitive And Selective Detection of Pesticides in Foods Using Chemiluminescence Zhou Yan   Introduction Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect seeds and crops before and after harvesting. They have contributed significant economic benefits to society. At the same time, widespread use of pesticides has created serious problems regarding their effect on the environment and human health.[1]. Even low levels of contaminants can ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Exposure to Petroleum Products

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,096 )

Petroleum-derived products are chemicals (mostly volatile) that primarily used for internal combustion machines. These products are made up of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components; hydrocarbons consist of (aromatic, saturated and unsaturated) and non-hydrocarbons consist of (N, S, O2, vanadium and nickel)(179,180). Some individuals ought to have a bigger risk of revelation to gasoline fumes; those individuals may include gasoline trucks drivers, Petroleum refining factory workforce, filling-station staff ...

Click here to read more arrow

Antiglycation Studies of Pd(II)-Hydrazide Complexes

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,543 )

Introduction Glycation is a non-enzymatic spontaneous reaction between sugars and coexisting protein followed by a complex cascade of reactions including dehydration, redox reaction and other rearrangements [1, 2] forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs) [3]. Glycation reactions depend on the generation of reactive oxygen species by trace amounts of redox active metal ions [4] and on the degree and duration of hyperglycemia in vivo ...

Click here to read more arrow

Synthesis of Janus Nanocomposites for Drug Delivery System

18 Jan 2018

8 (2,942 )

Over the past few decades, drug delivery systems have been well developed and studied to improve the curative effect of drugs.[1–4] Drug delivery systems can ameliorate the problems of conventional administration by prolonging duration time, enhancing drug solubility, retaining drug bioactivity, reducing side effect, and so on.[5, 6] A variety of carriers such as lipids,7, 8 polymer gels,[9,10] especially nanoparticles,11, 12 have been studied in drug ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies and Technology to Determine Chicken Freshness

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,944 )

2.0 INTRODUCTION Recently, there have been various inventions of sensors to detect the freshness of food. A chemical sensor means that a tool that convert chemical information into an analytically useful signal. The device acts as an analyzer (Hulanicki et al, 1991). Smart or intelligent packaging has been the result of using such sensors into the food packaging technology. Smart packaging uses chemical or biosensor to observe ...

Click here to read more arrow

Toxic Metals in Traditional Chinese Medicine Determination

18 Jan 2018

9 (3,244 )

Determination of toxic metals in Traditional Chinese Medicine samples by atomic emission spectrometry Traditional Chinese Medicines(TCM) have gained increasing attention worldwide because of their effectiveness and small side effects[1]. The excess of toxic metals in these medicines have become one of the biggest problems that affected their export and hindered their introduction to the world[2]. In recent years, many domestic and abroad testing organizations paid great ...

Click here to read more arrow

Finishing Techniques for Leather

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,324 )

Summery These papers make a brief clarification of some of the finishing technique which is to applied to two finishing procedure and clarification for full grain aniline leather finish and a full grain pigmented leather finish the material to be used in it and whey to apply such material for such both finishing type . also an observation on the needs for the finish for the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Importance of Chemical Bonding | Essay

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,494 )

George Brown Chemical bonds are either ionic or covalent. When a metal is present the bond is ionic as an electron is given from the metal to the non-metal, so the two ions are attracted to each other. When a bond is between two non-metal’s then it is covalent meaning that in the outer electron shells of the two atoms bonded electrons share ...

Click here to read more arrow

Profiling Human Hair with FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

18 Jan 2018

8 (2,930 )

ABSTRACT Profiling of Human Hairs using FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Technique Aufa Madihah Binti Mohamad Anwar 1122204 Hair is any of the fine threadlike strands growing from the skin of humans can be found in crime scene due to interaction between victim, perpetrator and/or witness as explained in Locard’s Principle. This paper's aim is to compare, categorize and identify human hair fiber using FTIR spectrometer and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Review of Copper Recovery Methods From Metallurgical Waste

18 Jan 2018

9 (3,384 )

Apurva Patel, Prof. Nimish Shah Abstract: Copper is one of the most used metals in recent developments and demand of this red metal is increasing with passing of each day. Production of copper is 12 million tons per year and copper reserves are expected to run for 25 years with the estimated world copper reserves of 300 million tons. Recovery of copper from metallurgical waste is ...

Click here to read more arrow

Laboratory Report on Aldehydes and Ketones

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,555 )

Mark Norly L. Tundag   I. OBJECTIVES At the end of the experiment, the students are able to identify the functional group present in aldehydes and ketones, also on determining their physical and chemical properties and to perform chemical test to distinguish one from the other. II. MATERIAL and APPARATUS The experiment used a bunsen burner, vials, 100 ml beaker, test tube holder, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Synthesis of Levulinate Ester in Solvent-free System

18 Jan 2018

6 (2,092 )

MUHAMMAD YUSUF BIN YAAKUB   1.0 INTRODUCTION Fabrication of several of oxygenated fuels and chemical from biomass is not an easy task. This is because biomass needs to use catalytic processes to defunctionalized selectively (D.L.Klass, 2006). Both biological and chemical catalysts are being tailed by the global to transform biomass into biofuel and chemicals (A.Corma, 2007). There is some of the potential alternative to ...

Click here to read more arrow

Composition of Hydrocarbons

18 Jan 2018

10 (3,676 )

Samerah Mansha Chemistry – Hydrocarbons – Organic compounds are molecules comprising of both carbon and hydrogen atoms. These compounds can be found as gaseous, liquid, or solid. Organic compounds are vital in life processes as they are found in the products we use daily such as soap, cosmetics, perfumes, plastics, rubber, paper, insecticides. The source of energy we use everyday such as ...

Click here to read more arrow

Essential Trace Metals in Seaweed

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,781 )

0 Introduction Seaweeds are marine macro-algae that are one of the living renewable resources of the marine environment and well known for its potential food and therapeutic applications (Tseng, 2004). According to Awang et al. (2008), Sabah and Sarawak have a great potential for the cultivation of seaweed. The seaweeds found in Sabah such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Ulva reticulate, Gracilaria changgi, Caulerpa lentillifera and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of Soda Drinks on Health

18 Jan 2018

7 (2,480 )

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tam   INTRODUCTION Healthcare has become the primary concerns of public. There are many factors to ensure people health’s quality. Among them, food-stuff has a directly impaction on people health. At the time when food-stuff industry develops swiftly, it is really hard to distinguish between good and bad products. Especially, chemicals have been misused to add on processing products – not ...

Click here to read more arrow

Phosphorus Binders for Hyperphosphatemia Treatment

18 Jan 2018

4 (1,472 )

In the population of 385 individuals that have developed end stage renal disease in the United States, about 250,000 individuals have a condition called hyperphosphatemia (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p. 194). This condition is defined by “a serum phosphate level above 4.5 mg/dL; it may be clinically significant at levels over 5 mg/dL” (Fink & Vincent, 2011, p.195). People with kidney disease are not able to ...

Click here to read more arrow

Processes in Producing a Chemical Reaction and Hazards

18 Jan 2018

5 (1,732 )

Elephant Toothpaste Objective/aim Understand the processes involved in producing a chemical reaction Identify hazards involved with using particular chemicals Demonstrate an understanding of chemistry terms such as catalyst, oxidation, and exothermic (Harper & Nickels, 2008). Background Information The elephant toothpaste experiment is an experiment that produces great amount of steaming foam (Helmenstine, 2014). Its great amount of foam is what ...

Click here to read more arrow

Enthalpy of Combustion

16 Jan 2018

17 (6,429 )

Saran Singh Sound Aim: To determine the enthalpy change of combustion of Ethanol (C2H5OH), Propanol (C3H7OH) and Butanol (C4H9OH). Chemicals – Ethanol (C2H5OH) Propanol (C3H7OH) Butanol (C4H9OH) Data Collection – Table 1: List of apparatus and Least Count and Uncertainties of Measuring Instruments Used S. No. Instrument Unit Least Count ...

Click here to read more arrow

Paracetamol Synthesis Experiment

16 Jan 2018

9 (3,271 )

N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide, otherwise known as Paracetamol or acetaminophen depending on where you live in the world, is one of the most widely used over the counter drugs. It has the molecular formula C8H9NO2. It is an analgesic (pain reliever) and also an antipyretic (fever reliever). For these reasons it is used to relieve a person of mild to moderate pain, for example; toothache, headaches or symptoms of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia

16 Jan 2018

12 (4,432 )

Ruvanthi Kularatne Catalytic Reduction of Hydrazine to Ammonia: The Site of Reduction in Nitrogenase Abstract The conversion of N2 to NH3 is done mainly via anaerobic bacteria. The enzyme nitrogenase, which can be found in these anaerobic bacteria, is responsible for this conversion. Much research has been conducted in order to identify the structure of the enzyme, the mechanism for the conversion, and the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Chemical Tests for Biomolecules

16 Jan 2018

11 (4,061 )

  Laboratory Techniques Gopika Balasubramaniyam   INTRODUCTION Biomolecules are complex organic molecules. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus are the atoms that make up most of the biomolecules. These molecules form the basic structure of a living cell. The compounds such as amino acids, nucleotides and monosaccharide’s serve as the building blocks ...

Click here to read more arrow

Green Synthesis of o-Phenyl-benzothiazole

16 Jan 2018

8 (3,066 )

Green Condensation of o-Aminothiophenol to o-Phenyl-benzothiazole David Fairchild, Alex Irion, Dominic Russo, Luke Sanders Abstract Herein we describe a simple, efficient, and environmentally friendly synthesis of o-arylbenzothiazoles, such as o-phenyl-benzothiazole, under standard ambient temperature and pressure via reaction of o-aminothiophenols with aromatic aldehydes using glycerol as a solvent. The combined characteristics of glycerol allow it to act as both a green and biodegradable solvent, but its ...

Click here to read more arrow

Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Processes

16 Jan 2018

4 (1,250 )

Some wastewater treatment process in other hand classified into three categories which followed the nature of the treatment process that used nowadays, they are physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. Most of the full wastewater treatments systems are included several processes from these three categories. Physical methods wastewater treatment is the process that totally relay on physical phenomena only in progress of improving and treating the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems (CDDS)

16 Jan 2018

6 (2,333 )

1.1 CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (CDDS) Now a day’s on the development of Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) marked consideration has been focused. The method of drug delivery to the site of action shows a significant effect on its efficacy. It leads to the development and evolution of novel drug delivery systems that enhanced performance of potential drug molecules. Novel drug delivery systems play a key ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+

16 Jan 2018

12 (4,673 )

Experimental Investigations of Catalytic Effect of Cu2+ During Anodic Disolution of Iron in NaCl Electrolyte R.K Upadhyay1, Arbind Kumar2 and P.K Srivastava3 Abstract: Taguchi’s orthogonal array L9 has been effectively used to study the effect of process parameters such as voltage, feed rate and electrolyte concentration on material removal rate in context of two different types of electrolyte namely aqueous NaCl solution and electrolyte solution containing ...

Click here to read more arrow

Coordination Chemistry of Bidentate Ligands - Research

16 Jan 2018

10 (3,752 )

Elham Torabi Farkhani Mehrdad Pourayoubi Pavel V. Avdreev Katarina   Introduction The coordination chemistry of bidentate ligands has been studied for over thirty years [reference]. The bidentate ligands with phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl groups have been used as effective coordinating agents in the different metal chemistry, in most cases the reports were attributed to bonding between the metal cation and specific Lewis sites on the ...

Click here to read more arrow

Amines Functionalized Upconversion Nanoparticles Synthesis

16 Jan 2018

3 (990 )

Chapter 1 Introduction Introduction To cure deadly disease such as cancer, significant endeavors have been done in synthesizing nanomaterials (Xue et al., 2011). Ideal nanoparticle system will own multimodality for imaging and therapy. It will carry out as an excellent bioprobes to find disease site and as a carriers to target cells. In biomedical field, they have been demonstrated to be useful in immunoassays, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Properties of Poly(B-amino Ester)s

16 Jan 2018

9 (3,208 )

The poly(b-amino ester)s, a class of biodegradable cationic polymers, were firstly prepared by Chiellini in 198340. These polymers were based on poly(amidoamine)s developed in 1970 by Ferruti41, that contain tertiary amines in their backbones and can be synthesized by a simple Michael addition reaction of bifunctional amines and bisacrylamides. However, the interest over the use of poly(b-amino ester)s rised significantly after its use as transfection reagent at Langer Lab in 200042. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

16 Jan 2018

8 (3,118 )

Zarafath Jameel Table of Contents (Jump to) Introduction Applications of chromatography Types of Chromatography Paper chromatography Objectives Materials Methodology Results and Calculations The chromatogram The Rf calculated results Discussion Conclusion References Introduction Chromatography, Color written work. "Chroma" is a Greek roots prefix for color and "graphy" is a Greek roots postfix for composing. It is utilized ...

Click here to read more arrow

Photochemical Degradation of Pharmaceutics Experiment

16 Jan 2018

5 (1,961 )

Experimental Methodology Experimental methodology executed for accomplishment of a project is one of the most important parts of study, deciding the ultimate outcomes of the study. For the present study It aimed at metal doped MCM-41 for the removal of pharmaceutics by then degradation under UV irradiation. The present investigation was therefore designed to avoid discrepancies as much as possible, and to maximize the outcomes. The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Laboratory Report on Properties of Carboxylic acids

16 Jan 2018

10 (3,660 )

Ramona Mae S. Rajaratnam Abstract: This report presents the different properties of carboxylic acids including solubility, acidity of some carboxylic acids, difference in strength of carboxylic acids compared to phenols, action of oxidizing agent on the carboxylic group and the neutralization equivalent of carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids like acetic acid, butyric acid, oleic acid, succinic acid, stearic acid and benzoic acid were each mixed ...

Click here to read more arrow

Development of Magnesium-Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,701 )

Performance of Carbon felt cathode for Magnesium–Hydrogen peroxide fuel cells K. Naga Mahesh, Balaji Rengarajan, K.S. Dhathathreyan* Centre for Fuel Cell Technology, International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), 2nd Floor, IITM Research Park, Taramani, Chennai–600113. Abstract Carbon felt and carbon cloth are used as a cathode in Magnesium-Hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. The performance of the cathode are tested in a 30 ...

Click here to read more arrow

Lab Scale Preparation of Gypsum Wallboard

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,670 )

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH (State succinctly the problem which is to be addressed. Clearly outline the importance of the problem, the originality of the approach and the impact it may have on the field if successful. Give an overview of the broader significance as well as the immediate impact of this research.) The main purpose of this research is to create ...

Click here to read more arrow

History and Methods of Chemical Warfare

16 Jan 2018

4 (1,585 )

Cori Haws In this report I intend to investigate from the perspective of a chemist the history and development of chemical weapons systems focusing primarily on their development, and the usage throughout the 20th century to present day and the means to which they act. As a starting point it is important to clarify what is meant by a chemical weapon or CW. The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Potassium Lithium Hydrogen Phthalate Mixed Crystals

16 Jan 2018

11 (4,042 )

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SECTION 3.1 Synthesis, growth, structure and characterization of potassium lithium hydrogen phthalate mixed crystals* In the present work, we report the growth and structure of a new mixed crystal C16H16KLiO11 (PLHP), which crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and SHG-active. The grown crystals were subjected to various characterization studies which are briefly described below. Here it is established that by synthesising ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of, and Uses for Paracetamol

16 Jan 2018

4 (1,250 )

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is a widely used medicinal drug available over the counter The chemical name for Paracetamol is N-acetyl-p-aminophenol. Over-the-counter (OTC) Analgesic and antipyretic action with weak anti-inflammatory action Synergic effect with other analgesics, especially codeine and NSAIDs, resulting in better overall pain control Major ingredient in cold & flu remedies Used in combination with opioid analgesics Oral Paracetamol has an oral bioavilabity ...

Click here to read more arrow

VTE Prophylaxis after Joint Replacement

16 Jan 2018

5 (1,906 )

Clinical Management Plan Supplementary Prescribing for Nurses, Pharmacists and Allied Health Professionals Student: Jade Keaney   Name of Patient: Patient medication sensitivities/allergies: Patient identification e.g. ID number, date of birth: Current medication: Medical history: Independent Prescriber(s): Contact details: [tel/email/address] Supplementary prescriber(s): Contact details: ...

Click here to read more arrow

Preparation of Terbium Hydroxide Nanowires by Hydrothermal

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,650 )

The preparation of Terbium hydroxide nanowires by hydrothermal method The single-crystalline Tb(OH)3 with various morphologies was successfully prepared from Tb2O3 powder by adjusting the concentration of acetic acid under hydrothermal condition. The influence of the concentration of acetic acid and reaction temperature on the crystalline phase and morphologies of Tb(OH)3 products was discussed. The concentration of acetic acid plays a key role in determining the products morphology. ...

Click here to read more arrow

Comparative Study Between TBP and Dibutylalkyl Phosphonates

16 Jan 2018

6 (2,031 )

CHAPTER 7 PHOSPHONATES AS ALTERNATIVE TO TBP FOR ACTINIDES AND FISSION PRODUCTS Solvent extraction studies of U (VI), Th (IV), Eu (III) and Tc (VII) in dibutylalkyl phosphonates have been carried out in present study. Uptake of these metal ion and formation of metal-ligand bond is a direct consequence of phosphorus-carbon bond and to understand the influence of these changes in the bond was the main ...

Click here to read more arrow

Purification of Alcohol Dehydrogenase From Bovine Liver

16 Jan 2018

10 (3,819 )

Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran & Namrata Verma   Introduction: In the world of chemistry, there are millions of enzymes, but in this lab the enzyme used is bovine alcohol dehydrogenase. This enzyme occurs in various mammalian tissues, but generally found in high concentrations in the organs such as liver and kidney. According to its name Bovine alcohol dehydrogenase, which implicates that it is collectively formed from bovine (cow), ...

Click here to read more arrow

Corrosion Inhibition of Metal Using Lawsonia Inermis Extract

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,575 )

Introduction Metal and alloy are widely used in various fields of industries. It’s commonly used in big industries such as manufacturing, processing and others. But metal and alloy used tend to face the corroded state due to the exposure to different chemical and substances that can lead to the corrosion. This phenomenon has become important especially in acidic media because of the increased industrial applications of ...

Click here to read more arrow

Product Profile of a Plastic Shopping Bag (HDPE)

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,720 )

Samantha Pearson Plastic shopping bags/carry bags are used extensively in todays’ world. They are produced in many different sizes and colours, determined by its purpose and marketing campaign of the purchasing firm/industry. Carry bags are made of plastic that is flexible and relatively tough1. The plastic is identified as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), indicated by the Voluntary Plastic Container Coding System2 (used to identify ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effects of Three Body Transformed Hamiltonian

16 Jan 2018

8 (3,027 )

CHAPTER – 6 CONTRIBUTION OF THREE BODY TRANSFORMED HAMILTONIAN () THROUGH FULL CONNECTED TRIPLE EXCITATION COUPLED CLUSTER OPERATORS TO VALENCE IONIZATION POTENTIALS OF F2 AND Cl2 COMPUTED VIA EIP-VUMRCCSDτ SCHEME 6.1 Introduction In this work, the effects of three body transformed Hamiltonian through full connected triples is studied on F2 and Cl2. To see the role of [1] in terms of magnitude, two kinds ...

Click here to read more arrow

Development of Artificial Sweat - Experiment

16 Jan 2018

7 (2,538 )

3.0 Literature Review : 3.1 Biosensor The terminology for biosensor is usually used for equipment or devices used to monitor the metabolic system or element of biomocules. In addition, the particular term used, is referring to a sensor that uses a biological element, such as enzymes, antibodies, DNA, microorganisms or cell. Besides that, based on the IUPAC,it state that biosensor is an integrated equipment that have ...

Click here to read more arrow

Enzyme Kinetics Laboratory Report

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

7 (2,764 )

How the changes in substrate concentration (PNPP), changes in temperature, changes in pH and the presence of an inhibitor (phosphate ions) effects the rate of reaction of the reaction between PNPP and water catalysed by the enzyme acid phosphates which produces PNP and phosphate as its products . Using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance of the products formed through hydrolysis of substrate. Abstract: The purpose of this ...

Click here to read more arrow

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

6 (2,218 )

Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made of two or more fused aromatic rings, where PAHs with two or three rings have low molecular weight and acute toxicity whereas PAHs with high molecular weight (4 or more rings) have shown high carcinogenic potential. These compounds are often products of incomplete combustion reactions where there is a lack of oxygen, there are two types of PAH; natural and ...

Click here to read more arrow

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethanol as Fuel

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

3 (1,115 )

The top five producers and users of ethanol in 2005 were Brazil producing 4.35 billion gallons per year, The United States producing 4.3 billions gallons per year, China producing 530 million gallons per year, The European Union producing 250 millions gallons per year and India producing 80 million gallons per year. Brazil and The United States account for about 90 per cent of all ethanol production, although ...

Click here to read more arrow

Determination of Protein Concentration by Uv Absorption

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

5 (1,604 )

Highly susceptible to contamination by buffers, biological materials and salts Protein amino acid composition is extremely important, thus the choice of a standard is very difficult, especially for purified proteins Absorbance is heavily influence by pH and ionic strength of the solution. General Considerations This is often used to estimate protein concentration prior to a more sensitive method so the protein can be diluted ...

Click here to read more arrow

Phases of Liquid Crystals

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

7 (2,635 )

Introduction to Liquid Crystals A liquid crystal is a thermodynamic stable phase characterized by anisotropy of properties Without the existence of a three-dimensional crystal lattice, generally lying in the temperature Range between the solid and isotropic liquid phase, hence the term mesophase. Liquid crystal materials are unique in their properties and uses. As research into this field Continues and as new applications are developed, liquid crystals will ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiment of Calcium Carbonate Composition of Eggshells

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

5 (1,788 )

INTRODUCTION Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is found in nature giving hardness and strength to things such as seashells, rocks, and eggshells. As hard as this substance is, it will react readily with hydrochloric acid to yield carbon dioxide gas (and two other products). In this experiment students will design an experiment by reacting eggshells with 2 M HCl to compare the calcium carbonate composition of white (chicken) eggshells ...

Click here to read more arrow

Biodegradable Polymers: Processes of Degradation

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

15 (5,663 )

Introduction The ISO definition of a biodegradable polymer is “an irreversible process leading to a significant change of the structure of a material, typically characterized by a loss of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular weight, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation. Degradation is affected by environmental conditions and proceeds over a period of time comprising one or more steps” Biodegradable and compostable processes are essentially the same mechanism ...

Click here to read more arrow

Ácido Clorhídrico Y Ácido Acético en Vinagre

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

5 (1,672 )

Titulación de ácido clorhídrico y ácido acético en vinagre comercial con una base fuerte Propósito Determinar el punto de equivalencia entre las reacciones NaOH (ac) + HCl (ac) à NaCl (ac) + H2O (l) y NaOH (ac) + HCH3COO (ac) à NaCH3COO (ac) + H2O (l), observando los cambios físicos en la titulación de las soluciones, utilizando un indicador (Fenolftaleína o Anaranjado de metilo) y un pH ...

Click here to read more arrow

Spectrophotometry Techniques and Devices

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

9 (3,375 )

I. INTRODUCTION Spectrophotometry Infrared Spectrophotometry is designed to identify or determine the sample by measuring absorption of infrared radiation of wave numbers in a region of 4,000 to 400 cm-1, at various wave numbers, when it passes through the sample. This method uses the property that the infrared absorption spectrum of a substance is Characteristic of its chemical structure. Infrared spectra are shown in charts drawn by ...

Click here to read more arrow

Lab Experiment to Identify Unknown Compound

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

7 (2,625 )

Abstract. The purpose of this experiment was to identify the unknown compound. The tests that were done to determine the identity of the compound include qualitative solubility tests, quantitative solubility tests, measuring solution conductivity, anion and cation test, flame test, and formation of precipitate. It was found that the compound had no smell, was soluble in water, and not soluble in toluene and acetone. The ions dissociated ...

Click here to read more arrow

Non-conventional Sources of Energy: An Analysis

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

11 (4,297 )

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy is a primary input in any industrial operation. Energy is also a major input in sectors such as commerce, transport, telecommunication, etc besides the wide range of services required in the household & industrial sectors. (A) What Do We Mean by Alternative Energy? The alternative-energy segment of the energy industry covers a broad range of sources. These sources range from well established technologies, ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Trojan Horse Virus: An Overview

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

3 (1,085 )

Another type of malware that is not technically a virus because there is usually no auto-replication is a Trojan horse program, which seems to be something useful, as a free utility, but actually contains some kind of malware. The unhappy about a Trojan program that is running the software users willingly and still do not know what is causing problems on their systems. Rootkits are a form ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of Roasting Coffee on Caffeine Conten

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

14 (5,263 )

Introduction: Coffee has been a popular drink since 20th century, not only because of its different colors and flavors due to different degrees of roasting, but also the effect on which it can keep you to stay awake and to finish your job. It is commonly known that the reason for coffee to possess this effect is because of the caffeine inside the coffee beans. In general, ...

Click here to read more arrow

Causes of Prion Diseases

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

5 (1,859 )

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy's can be inheritable or transmissible, a common feature of the prion disease involves the change of the prion protein (PrPc) to the isoform PrPsc (Hu et al, 2007). Prion propagation involves a mechanism that changes PrPc to PrPsc in an autocatalytic way (Harris and True, 2006). PrPc is said to be the normal prion protein and PrPsc the 'scrapie' isoform which ...

Click here to read more arrow

Processes of Water Treatment

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

7 (2,788 )

Question Limit of detection Stating the water supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001, "limit of detection is calculated as three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter. Also, its means five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample". DA Armbruster et al (1994) stated that "the limit of detection may be determined statistically ...

Click here to read more arrow

Experiments of Copper (II) Sulphate

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

4 (1,361 )

Aim This experiment is to calculate the x which is water of crystallization and the chemical equation is CuSO4 (aq) · xH2O (s) and to observed colour changed when complex formation of copper (II) sulphate are formed. Introduction Molar mass is summation of all the atomic masses in a chemical equation. Transition metals are the elements which are found in the d-block in The Periodic Table. The ...

Click here to read more arrow

Properties of Enzyme Catalysts

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

12 (4,648 )

Introduction Enzymes:Enzymes are single or multiple -chain proteins that act as a biological catalysts with the ability to promote specific chemical rxn under the mild condition that prevail in most living organism. Over-view of Enzymes catalysts All reaction in the body are mediated by enzymes, which are protein catalysis that increase the rate of reaction without being changed in overall process. Among the many biologic reaction that ...

Click here to read more arrow

Aldehyde, Ketone Tests and Preparation of Derivatives

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

4 (1,540 )

Results: I. Aldehyde and ketone testes and preparation of derivatives 2,4 DINIROPHENYL HYDRAZINE Observations 2-butanone Solid orange precipitate at bottom Benzaldehyde mp of derivative:217-220°C dark yellow precipitate forms. BISULFITE ADDITION TEST Acetophenone Cloudy ,off-white solution (no reaction) 2-butanone Clear solution and no colour change(no reaction) Benzaldehyde White precipitation forming after few minutes from clear solution. It appears like white solid crystals. Trans-cinnamaldehyde Thick white yellow particles floating ...

Click here to read more arrow

A Review of the Use of Platelets

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

3 (959 )

Introduction Blood is circulated by the heart around the body and performs many physiological functions because of the many components in blood. Half of the blood consists of cells, whereas the other half is plasma fluid. Plasma contains the nutritional material, waste, and proteins which play a part in haemostasis as discussed later in the review. Erythrocytes are one of the cells in blood, they contain haemoglobin ...

Click here to read more arrow

Formulation and Characterization of Microemulsion System

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

14 (5,585 )

Abstract Formulation of a new oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion composed of Castor oil/Tween 80/Ethanol/Phosphate buffer for enhancing the loading capacity of an anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam has been accomplished. The pseudo-ternary phase diagram has been delineated at constant surfactant/cosurfactant ratio (1:2). The internal structure of so created four-component system was elucidated by means of an analysis of isotropic area magnitudes in the phase diagram. Conductivity (?), kinematic viscosity (kh) ...

Click here to read more arrow

Properties of Zeolites as Cataystics

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

12 (4,601 )

1.0 INTRODUCTION TO ZEOLITES Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates, composed of TO4 tetrahedra (T = Si, Al) with O atoms connecting neighbouring tetrahedral, that contain pores and cavities of molecular dimensions (Breck, 1974). Many occur as natural minerals, but it is the synthetic varieties which are among the most widely used sorbents, catalysts and ion-exchange materials in the world (Barrer, 1982). The channels are large enough to allow ...

Click here to read more arrow

Genetic Transformation in E Coli

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

4 (1,395 )

Genetic Transformation is the act of changing of DNA in an organism by adding new genes, which may be done in multiple ways. The addition of new genes to DNA could have an almost infinite amount of advantages, ranging from studying the cultures of bacteria that become immune to modern medicine, to making artificial animal proteins. In a CNN article written by Matt Ford, scientists are using ...

Click here to read more arrow

Measuring Partition Coefficient

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

9 (3,330 )

Abstract This Laboratory study deals with the Analytical Procedure of the Measurement of Partition Coefficient. Partition Coefficient is a very important criterion for Organic substances. It finds use in Pharmaceutical Industry, Pollution abatement systems, Agro Chemicals, and Chemical Industry. There are many methods available for determining the Partition Coefficient, especially Instrument methods like, Chromatography, Electrophoresis etc. The method adopted here is a simple, reliable and versatile one, ...

Click here to read more arrow

The Metallurgy Options for Tubing

23 Mar 2015 08 Dec 2017

3 (1,197 )

The metallurgy of tubing is a very important factor while choosing tubing for a particular environment. Generally the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless steel, Duplex stainless steel or other corrosion resistant alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and iron containing up to 2% carbon and up to 1.65% manganese and residual ...

Click here to read more arrow

Effect of an Increase in Molar Mass on Enthalpy Change

23 Feb 2017 08 Dec 2017

6 (2,026 )

An investigation to determine the effect of an increase in molar mass on the enthalpy change of combustion of fuels Method Variables: Independent Variable: Molar mass (type) of alcohol. Dependant Variable: The following variable will be observed and measured: * Mass of the alcohol used. Controlled Variable: The following variables will need to be controlled: * Mass of water, the mass of water will be measured using ...

Click here to read more arrow

Iodine: Properties, Uses and Dangers

01 Dec 2017

5 (1,696 )

Introduction: Iodine is an indispensable micronutrient required in small amounts for the normal physiological function of the human body [1]. Iodine is a critical component of the thyroid hormones, which are necessary for various metabolic and enzymatic processes. These processes include control of the body’s metabolic rate, growth and development, neuron function and development. The recommended dietary intake for adult men and non-pregnant women is 150 ...

Click here to read more arrow

Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity | Experiment

01 Dec 2017

6 (2,350 )

A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24 ± 2°C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, Devsthali Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, ...

Click here to read more arrow
Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.