TRAVEL MOTIVATIONS OF MAINLAND CHINESE VISIT TO HONG KONG

ABSTRACT

This dissertation is about travel motivational factors of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. The aim of the study is to investigate the factors that motivate mainland Chinese travellers to travel Hong Kong. There are two types of motivations i.e. pull and push. This dissertation considers one pull factor i.e. tourists satisfaction and three push factors i.e. destination attraction, tourism products and government policy. The data for this dissertation is collected through secondary sources. The books, reports and journals are consulted to gather data. Only those journals and books are used that were published after 1990 and maximum variation is ensured in all data.

The findings of the dissertation state that Hong Kong is a famous destination because it is has many natural and cultural attractions. It has all tourism facilities and this attracts business and leisure travellers to Hong Kong. The quality of tourism products is excellent and all products and services are priced reasonably. The government of Hong Kong is also playing a vital role in attracting tourists from mainland China. The favourable tourism policies by tourism commission, tax reduction and diminishing and quality assurance schemes are proving good for Hong Kong. These push factors are affecting the pull factor i.e. tourists’ satisfaction. Tourists become satisfied when they find Hong Kong attractive destination with quality products and services and favourable tourism polices. In future research directions, it is suggested to study these factors of Hong Kong in comparison of any other destination.

 

CHAPTER NUMBER 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1.Introduction

Introduction in the research holds are paramount position as through this the important information regarding the research topic is projected. In this chapter the researcher has postulated the background of the research so as to provide introduction to the topic. The aim, objectives and questions are also included as through these the plan of the research becomes easily identifiable.

1.2.Research background

Travel outer surface Mainland China was one time limited to public dealings. Mainland Chinese outbound sightseeing underwent a developing stage within the 1980s. It started off from “tours for visiting family in Hong Kong” in Guangdong region in 1983. During 1987, the administration gave a sanction to the urban of Dandong during Liaoning Province to function one-day visits to its adjacent city, Sinuiju, inside the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, that marked the commencement of journey in border regions in favour of Mainland Chinese people (World Tourism Organization, 2003). Journey to foreign states by Mainland Chinese formally happen in 1990, while the state assembly accepted the “provisional regulations on management of organizing Chinese citizens to travel to three countries in South-East Asia,” The government’s leisure of the system for drifting overseas reacted towards the Chinese’s wish to travel overseas. As reproduce by the elderly Chinese motto, “Travelling for one thousand Li [equivalent to approximately 311 miles] equals reading ten thousand volumes of books,” there is a native price on journey in Chinese society (Jang et. al., 2003). Voyage was conventionally observed as a means to widen one’s intelligence (Tse & Hobson, 2008). The Chinese sightseers are by scores of perceive as the hit of tourism. If merely the target can acquire its foot in the gate subsequently the utter figure of Chinese will produce enough income to maintain the wealth going. Nevertheless, even if this is accurate, very modest is acknowledged concerning the Chinese travellers. The Chinese voyage market is merely just rising. For numerous years the Chinese do not encompass the profits or a political advance which authorized abroad or outbound tour. Simply free time sightseeing is a moderately new sort of outbound visitors from China. This sort of tour which necessitates no commerce objectives or relatives in the trip country is just 10 years aged and for some nations it is still newer. An accord which provides the Schengen-area “Approved Destination Status” only approached in 2004. The yearly figure of outbound Chinese travellers is hypothetical to attain 100 million within 2020 as well as turn into the fourth major foundation of outbound tour in the earth (WTO, 2003). These data alone hearten destinations as well as businesses to attempt plus attract this enormous market. Except whom they are as well as why carry out tour? The marketplace is so novel and uncharted and so big that it is firm to find responds to these queries. If Odense City is to contend with previous cities in addition to targets in Hong Kong, the urban need to recognize what forces the Chinese sightseer to tour plus what them profits in a purpose.

China is considered to be one of the most significant marketplaces for the Hong Kong sightseeing industry. The significance of the China outbound marketplace towards Hong Kong has strained scholars’ interests into appreciative what induces Mainland Chinese towards travel abroad. It can be said that destination is differentiated on basis of geography, culture, experiences, products, services, characteristics, features, economic conditions, climate and attractions. In this dissertation uniqueness of Hong Kong as a destination is explored. This dissertation will explore what are the factors that differentiate Hong Kong from other destinations of China. The researcher will try to answer the question that whether destination attraction of Hong Kong motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong or there are some other factors except destination attraction. This dissertation will analyze how Hong Kong satisfies needs of local people, visitors, and local enterprises and maintain cost and benefit balance.

1.3.Research Aim

This dissertation aims to investigate the factors that motivate mainland Chinese travellers to travel to Hong Kong.

1.4.Research Objectives

The main objectives of this dissertation are the following points:

  • To examine the motivational forces for mainland Chinese tourists that attracts them to visit Hong Kong
  • To find out role of tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong in attracting Mainland Chinese Tourists.
  • To investigate the impact of government policy on travelers' motivation.
  • To study main factors that attracts Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Hong.

1.5.Research Questions

The management dilemma question of the research is

This study aims to answer 'what are those factors that motivate mainland Chinese travelers to visit Hong Kong?'

The investigative and other research questions are

  • What are specific factors or key motivators explained in the literature regarding the Chinese travellers to visit Hong Kong?
  • How Chinese government can improvise to attract more Hong Kong travellers?

1.6.Research Rationale

Travel motivation of tourists is about distinctive biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that shape travel choices, behaviour and experience. Travel destinations are always selected by some kind of external and internal forces of motivation. For marketers, this has become a big question that what actually motivates travellers to select a destination. Marketing of any tourism destination is not possible, until and unless marketers have a clear understanding of motivational factors to select a destination. So to know about this motivation is important for marketing of tourism organizations in Hong Kong. Motivation is the only factor that is considered important while selecting destination for travelling and vacations. He further adds that travellers’ behaviour is always influenced by more than one factor. There are many small factors that affect behaviour of tourists (Ayad & Shujun, 2012).

In Hong Kong, tourists from Mainland Chinese account for more than 70% of total tourists. Hong Kong is known as the most favourite travel destinations of Chinese. There were 15.1 million visits to Hong Kong by mainland Chinese in 2012. This rate of tourism from Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong is increasing with 19.4 percent per year (Upe, 2013).

Competitive prices at Hong Kong are considered as a major factor that motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. This is resulting in the development of retail business in particular of luxury items business and real estate market. The amount of daily spending is also increasing in Hong Kong by Mainland Chinese (Lee, 2013)

With this culture Chinese travellers have become a major segment with brilliant growth opportunities. Mainland Chinese travellers are keen to travel; they do not only travel inside borders but across the borders as well. They play a significant part in international tourism. The thrust to know the motivations of this growing segment is increasing for all marketers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that become a motivation of Chinese travellers to visit Hong Kong.

1.7.Summary

In this chapter, there are different contents that have been explained in detail. The rationale of the research is postulated out and the questions have been postulated which are accomplished throughout the whole dissertation. Moreover, the background has also been presented so as to provide a very brief picture about the research problem.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER NUMBER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

A literature is a section of a research in which the research analyses the past researches to develop the theoretical background to the problem statement of the research. In this chapter theories and models are discussed, information related to the problem statement is critically reviewed and finally the theoretical framework is develop. In this chapter, development of tourism industry and definition of tourism will be given. As the tourists' behaviour is changing with time, so reason of changing behaviour is discussed. There are different motivational factors that motivates tourists' to specific destination so different authors view about those factors is reviewed. This chapter also fulfils the objectives of the research in which thorough analysis of motivational factors, pull and push factors are explained. In addition to this the Travelers' behaviour is predicted by many factors so two models explaining travelers' behaviour is discussed.

2.2. Tourism in general and Regional Tourism

2.2.1. Tourism

Tourism can be considered as an economic activity and consumer behaviour in tourism is backed by many theories and models that predict the behaviour of individuals for tourism activities (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Tourism activities increased right after the Second World War period; From that period to till today, an increasing trend in tourism is observed and predicted for the future (Crouch & Shaw, 1992). According to Yoon and Uysal's (2005) opinion, in pervious ten years, many changes have been observed in consumption pattern on tourists. Sometimes, this growth pattern becomes uneven for some regions because of the life cycle of destination (Weiermair, 1998). There are many factors such as price of tourism products, quality of tourism services, preference for leisure, that influence final decision (Ndivo & Mayaka, 2012). The uneven structure is dedicated to changes in consumer behaviour. Traditionally, purchasing decision was based on rational economic decision making. As said by many authors that tourism is an economic activity, Yoon & Uysal (2005) further mentioned that this is not purely an activity that work according to rational economic decision making but he indentified motivational forces that do not work according to rational economic decision making process. The most important motive force is unrealized deeper needs of human beings (Crouch & Shaw, 1992). The question of many researchers that what type of need is fulfilled by tourism is answered by Crouch and Shaw (1992) by finding that tourism targets latent needs.

In terms of behaviour, tourist is the person who travels from one place to another and stays there for one night or more (Mok & Defranco, 1999). The purpose of the visit can be leisure, entertainment, interaction with other people or enjoy unique destination characteristics (Leiper, 1997). Thus, it can be concluded that tourists is one who stays at place for one night for any specific purpose. Abraham (1995) suggests that in this era of globalization tourists' behaviour is similar all over the world. On the other hand, few authors e.g. Douglas & Wind (1987) suggest that this world is still not totally globalized and tourists' behaviour differs with respect to their residential region. All tourists' have different needs and demands and there are different factors that motivate them to visit a particular destination. From views of Abraham and Douglas & Wind, it can be analyzed that there are two schools of thoughts, one state that tourism behavior is globalized and the other states that it is regionalized behavior.

According to Baloglu and Brinberg's (1997) research, many tourists plan a tour to another region because they want to get rid of daily routine. The self-actualization is the basic motivation for tourists to travel from one region to another (Huang & Hsu, 2005). These views contradict with the view of Crouch & Shaw, 1992 who mentioned that tourism targets the latent needs. Thus, here can be concluded that literature have identified three factors i.e. get rid of daily life, self actualization and few latent needs, that become a reason of tourism. Whatever the conditions are, tourists' behavior is influenced by traditional norms of daily life (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Thus, it can be said that Hsu and Lam takes tourism as a regionalized activity in which regional trends are affecting the overall behavior. In this dissertation, researcher will analyze whether the mainland Chinese travel to Hong Kong is influenced by traditional norms of daily life or not. As this dissertation is about tourism from Main land China to Hong Kong, it can be classified under regional tourism so it analyzes the regional factors as well.

2.2.2. Regional Tourism

Tour from mainland China to Hong Kong is considered as one type of tourism which is regional tourism. Regional tourism is a tool to provide alternative employment opportunities and income generation; Public and private sector increase investment in particular region because of tourism activities. Tourism act as an 'economic driver for the local economy' enhances protection activities for natural environment and improves standard of living of local people (Wray, et al., 2010). These characteristics, explained by Wray et al, of regional tourism do not seem different from international or globalized tourism. In this dissertation, while investigation role of government in tourism development researcher will also explore whether the regional tourism is economic drive for the Hong Kong economy or not.

Tourists' behaviour is changing with time, novelty in their behaviour is observed. Many authors, for example, Weiermair (1998) said that with globalized tourism has emerged with a new attitude of tourists. Now, tastes and preferences with regard to destination attractions have converged and there is no difference in global and local preferences of tourists (Wray et al., 2010). It can be said that regional tourism and international tourism contains same characteristics in terms of tourists' motivation. So, all motivational factors of international tourism can be applied to regional tourism activities of Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong.

2.3. Motivation of tourists

Tourism activities can become successful when it is backed by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of tourists (Zhang & Lam, 1999). Motivation is defined as a psychological state of mind that convinces an individual to act in a certain way to achieve a state of motivation (Kozak, 2002). Thus, these motivations either extrinsic or intrinsic convince tourists to plan a tour. For marketers and destination management organizations, it is of paramount importance to study and analyse motivation of tourists to better improve tourism practices, destination attractions, government policies and tourism products (Zhang & Lam, 1999). Therefore, they always keep on learning about motivations of tourists. A good knowledge of tourists' motivation can allow a destination to achieve competitive advantage by differentiating itself from other destinations (Beerli & Martin, 2004). Like other products, marketers of tourism products also aim to achieve competitive advantage through differentiation. So according to Zhang & Lam (1999) it can be said that motivation is a psychological state that convinces individuals to take a certain action. Tourists' motivation is about those factors that convinces travellers to plan a visit to specific destination i.e. Hong Kong (Kozak, 2002). Researchers suggest that tourists travel from resident destination to another destination because they seek for pleasure, experiences and happiness that cannot be achieved at resident destination (Yousefi & Marzuki, 2012). From views of Zhang & Lam (1999), Kozak (2000) and Yousefi & Marzuki (2012), it can be said that tourism is a result of those psychological factors or state of mind, for example pleasure, experience and happiness, which convince an individual to visit another destination.

Travel motivations have been the centre of attention for many researchers of sociology, anthropology and psychology (Cohen, 1972; Dann, 1977; Crompton, 1979; Gnoth, 1997). Maslow Hierarchy of needs explains the tourism in a very good manner. If we see the identified motivation of tourism by, Crouch & Shaw (1992), they also identified a factor from Maslow Hierarchy of needs. Motivation has different contexts i.e. environment, personal and cultural. It means that not only personal needs influence tourists’ behaviour but other factors also influence tourism activity. Motivation is the state of personal needs when an individual wants to achieve something and they find a gap between desired state and actual state. Individuals want to minimize this gap between actual and desired state and plan a tour (Veal, 2002). Travellers' motivations are those factors that influence their purchase (visit) intention in order to be satisfied. Researchers, such as Pearce (2005) and Klenosky (2002), have identified distinctive internal and external motivations for travellers. These external and internal factors are also known as pull and push dimensions of travellers' motivation. Basically there are two factors that motivate travelers i.e. Intrinsic (pull) and extrinsic (push) motives (Mohammad, et al., 2010). So motivation is a state when an individual tries to minimize gap between actual and desired state. This dissertation aims to investigate motivational factors of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. As suggested by Mohammad, et al. (2010), in this dissertation, researcher will investigate tourists' motives in terms of pull and push factors.

2.3.1 Push factors

There are socio-physiological motivational factors that shape behaviour of tourists (Mohammad, et al., 2010). Basically, these are intrinsic and personal characteristic of tourists. When intrinsic desires of an individual develop, they plan to visit a specific destination where they can relax, feel pleasure and experience adventurous activities. This is backed by Maslow hierarchy of needs that says there are five types of needs i.e. basic, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. The researcher identified and presented nine travel motives. From those nine motives, seven are pushing motives and two are pulling motives. Push factors include the escape from daily boring routine, self-assessment, self-exploration, relaxation from daily tiring routine, prestige, augmentation of close relationships and social interaction Many researchers have identified a large number of push factors. Factors that are classified as push factors such as educational needs, cultural exploration desire, natural attraction love and leisure (Awaritefe, 2004). Any of these factors can become a motivational factor to convince and individual to travel particular destination. This dissertation cannot cover all push factors. In this dissertation, main focus is on only one push factor which is tourist satisfaction. Only push factors are discussed because the push factors seem more logical motivation of tourists as compared to pull factors.

2.3.2 Pull factors

These factors shape the behaviour of an individual to select a destination for travelling. These factors are characteristics of destinations that attract tourists to visit (Awaritefe, 2004). Pull factors are tangible factors of a destination that includes natural attractions, man-made attractions, tourism facilities and accommodation facilities (Philips & House, 2009). Sirakaya et al. (1996) also mentioned that pull factors are basically about sea of land attractions, man-made attractions, structure, climate, cultural and heritage buildings, marketing activities and quality of tourism services. In combination, these all factors enhance attraction of a destination and motivate tourists to visit. This dissertation will discuss three pull factors i.e. government policy, destination attraction and tourism product quality.

According to many authors (Mok & DeFranco, 1999), tourism is an activity that is majorly affected by pull factors. This dissertation will analyze whether pull factors plays a major role in motivating a tourist to plan his tour or not. Another important point is that push factors cannot be influenced by marketers and destination management personnel while pull factors are completely in control of them. Push factors are wholly solely about personal factors and no one can influence them while pull factors are in control of others.

2.4 Travel Buying Behaviour Models

2.4.1 Model of Travel Buying Behaviour

Mathieson & Wall (1982) suggested a model for analyzing consumer buying behaviour for travel. First of all need of travel is realized by tourists, then they collect information to evaluate image to select destinations, then travel decision is made by selecting one destination between different alternatives (Pearce, 2005). In the fourth stage, preparations for travel are done and tourists experience travel. In the final stage, the tour is evaluated, for example, satisfaction or dissatisfaction from tour (Kim, 1999). This model is much similar to the typical buying behaviour of consumers in which first there is need arousal, then recognize needs, after this level of involvement is decided and then identification and evaluation of alternatives is done. After that choice is made and purchase action is completed. After this, post purchase behaviour becomes visible. Thus, we can say that the tourism buying behaviour is much similar to typical consumer behaviour that consists of three stages i.e. pre-purchase, purchase and post-purchase behaviour.

Figure 2: Model of Travel Buying Behaviour

 

Source: Mathieson & Wall (1982)

2.4.2 Integrate Model of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity Mode

According to this model, evaluation of congruity is meant to evaluate satisfaction level. In this process referent compares and evaluates objects (Huang & Hsu, 2005). Basically, the outcome of this cognitive process is motivational or emotional state (Gnoth, 1997). When consumers are dissatisfied from a particular state, they choose an alternative course to reduce their dissatisfaction. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction is conclusion of perceived value (Sirgy & Grewal, 1997).

The problem is recognized when there is a difference between perceived value and expected standards. There are four possible states of congruity i.e. Negative incongruity, negative congruity, positive congruity and positive incongruity (Veal, 2002). This congruity state represents satisfaction and dissatisfaction level. Sirgy (1981) also said that there are two images of each product which are functional image and symbolic image. Functional image is associated with physical benefits and symbolic image is associated with status, stereotype and user-specific needs. This self image is about the personal beliefs or individuals such as preference, intention, purchase behaviour and satisfaction level (Gnoth, 1997). Satisfaction and dissatisfaction is also dependent on consumers' self image and product image congruity (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Thus the combination of self image and product image decides the overall satisfaction level of tourists. Satisfaction of tourists is influenced by the evaluative difference between expected/desired value and perceived value of the destination and evaluative congruity self image and perception of destination image. Like other products, the concept of expected and perceived value is applied to the tourism. Same like other products, result of expected and perceived value decides the satisfaction level. According to this model of self congruity and travel behaviour (Figure 3), various factors that motivate tourists to visit a destination are related to self-image of visitor (Gnoth, 1997). The final decision to select a destination is also related to self concept, self congruity and destination image. As already explained that push factors play an important role in tourism, therefore, it can be said that role of self-concept and self-congruity plays important part in satisfaction of tourists. In addition to this, evaluation of destination is influenced by functional or utilitarian distribution attributes. Both, tourist perceived utilitarian destination attributes and tourist ideal utilitarian destination attributes results in functional congruity and this, in turn, affects self congruity. As few push factors are also important, similarly the impact of destination attraction is important so that is also a part of this study. 

 

Figure 3: An Integrated Model of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity in Explaining and Predicting Travel Behaviour

 

Source: Sirgy & Grewal (1997)

2.5. Destination Attraction

Traditionally, the destination is defined as 'well-defined geographical areas, such as country and island or a town' (Hsu & Lam, 2003). But now destination has become a subjective concept and consumers take it differently according to their personal choice, intentions, culture background, purpose and experience (Gnoth, 1997). Destinations are differentiated with political and geographical barriers. Destinations are mixture of products, services and experiences offered at a particular place (Veal, 2002). According to Leiper's (1997) research, tourists visit from one place to another because of particular features, characteristics and attractions at destination. Destinations are often considered as experience-provider (Ryan, 1991). Thus, it can be said that destination attraction is a combination of characteristics of destination.

Destinations are places where community members, business associates and government entities take a special interest (Veal, 2002). All destinations are different from each other. Every destination has unique characteristics for instance economic climate conditions, values and norms. Destinations can be local, regional or international. Basically, these are differentiated from other destinations in terms of clusters of attractions there (Gnoth, 1997). Each destination is unique in itself because of special natural attractions, human resource or government activities. This means that uniqueness of a destination is made up of climate, economic, geographical, values and norms of locals.  There is no specific definition of destination attraction because each destination attracts travellers in a different manner (Veal, 2002). Natural attractions, political sensitivity and local community behaviour are few factors that make a destination attraction for others. Mostly, every destination has a different perception for travellers and local stakeholders, differentiating it from others (Gnoth, 1997). Only those destinations are successful in attracting travellers that are planned, managed and developed in a careful and effective manner. For sustainable tourism practices, effective tourism management and planning according to different requirements of that destination is needed (Wray, et al. 2010). Thus, it is difficult to present a formal definition of destination attraction. On the basis of views of Veal (2002), Gnoth (1997) and Wray et al (2010), a definition can be made that destination attraction is made up of characteristics of a destination that seems unique and attractive to tourists and are planned in a formal way.

One place becomes more attractive for tourists when it has an exotic image in the mind of people. Tourists seek pleasure and want to fulfil their hedonic need therefore they select that destination that has attractive characterises. When one destination has different and unique physical and social features, that destination attracts tourists (Prideaux, et al., 2004). Kaushik, et al. (2009) identified several factors that attract tourists to a particular destination. They identified destination attraction as the most important factor to attract tourists. It can be said that attractions can be anything that fulfils hedonic need and is unique in itself.

Destinations have a great impact on local stakeholders therefore destination management is one of the complex task in managing tourism and hospitality industry (Sautter & Leisen, 1999). Marketing of destination is another challenging task because there are numerous stakeholders in the development of tourism industry and marketers have to minimize conflicts between the interests of all stakeholders (Hsu & Lam, 2003). The destination attraction is heavily dependent on conflict management of interests of all stakeholders. The attractiveness of a destination depends on effective management of interests of stakeholders.

Before visiting a destination, visitors always develop a perception of destination based on past experiences, word of mouth or advertisements (Chon, 1991). Tourists’ perception is completely built with many factors e.g. Hotels, taxi, local people, waiters (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997). A combination of local natural attractions combined with man-made attractions develops the perception of tourist towards a destination (Buhalis & Cooper, 1998). Thus, it can be said that perception plays an important role in destination attraction. Even through, destination attraction is a pull factor but it is affected with personal factors that are a push factor. Now most of the tourists are attracted towards natural and environmental resources and thus they are ready to pay premium prices for natural attractions at destinations (Pigram, 1996). As a result, local resources have become the centre of attraction for tourism marketers and suppliers and they can get maximum benefit from local assets by effectively utilizing them (Gnoth, 1997). As we are moving towards advancement, the focus is moving more towards natural resources and tourists give more preference to natural attractions as compared to man-made attractions.

2.5.1 Destination management

There are numerous strategic objectives of destination management. These objectives are meant to satisfy needs of stakeholders (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). In tourism management, interests of stakeholder conflict with other stakeholders’ interests (Howei, 2003). Everyone wants to get benefit at the expense of others (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). With effective tourism management, it has to ensure that all strategic objectives are fulfilled and interest of no one is scarified for the benefits of other stakeholders (Sautter & Leisen, 1999). Legislative and management tools can be used for sustainable tourism practices (Howei, 2003). In a developed tourism industry, all stakeholders are highly satisfied with tourism practices and destination can remain sources of attraction for tourists from all over the world (Buhalis & Fletcher, 1995). The basic strategic objectives of destination management are:

  1. Satisfy the needs of local people by ensuring long term prosperity
  2. Satisfy the needs of visitors by providing them excellent quality facilities.
  3. Satisfy local enterprises by ensuring economic benefit for them.
  4. Creating an optimum balance between tourism costs and benefit in all areas i.e. socio-cultural and environmental.

All tourism practices should be in accordance to these strategic objectives (Gnoth, 1997). Tourism practices should not neglect regional development practices and rationale of tourism activities by tourists (Buhalis, 1995). A destination can become attractive only when it is effectively managed. When destinations are not managed properly, conflicts of stake holders arise and it becomes difficult to attract tourists. Hong Kong must have been managed in an effective way.

2.6 Types of destination attractions

Choice of destination selection for every visitor differs with respect to their personal lifestyle (Howei, 2003). Every visitor has a different purpose of a visit to a destination. The following are given types of destinations in accordance to their principle attraction.

  1. Urban Destination
  2. Alpine Destination
  3. Rural Destination
  4. Third World Destination
  5. Unique-exotic-exclusive Destination

This is not mandatory for one destination to lie in one category; one destination can be part of more than one category. Hong Kong falls under three categories that are urban, alpine and unique-exotic-exclusive destination.

2.6.1 Urban destinations

According to Law's (1996) opinion, this is the most traditional type of destination. Whenever, people have to meet business associates or politicians, attend a sports match, meetings, conferences or visit religious places e.g. Mosques, temples, they plan a tour to urban destinations (Page & Getz,1994). Those destinations are classified as urban destinations that have big conference halls, accommodation facilities and good quality infrastructure (Hughes, 1995). Such destinations not only attracts business persons but to the leisure seekers as well. Hughes (1995) states that tourism service providers arrange entertainment and leisure activities for business persons and for others as well so that they can better able to reduce reasonability of destination (Gnoth, 1997). Law (1993) also mention that in such destinations, good general facilities e.g. hospitals, banks, also exist thus attract more education and health. Hong Kong is an urban destination, In next chapters characteristics that make Hong Kong an urban destination are analyzed.

2.6.2 Alpine destinations

Alpine destinations are full of lakes, mountains and sea resorts. These destinations are specifically for those pleasure seekers who want to enjoy winter activities for example Skiing (Johnston & Smith, 1994). Alpine destinations are full of natural attractions. Such destinations are the centre of attraction for naturalists (Khan, 1994). Many recreational activities are arranged to attract more tourists. Mountains and seas are used for surfing and skiing like activities (Weiermain, 1993). Alpine destinations are usually near to regional areas but few of them are in remote areas that enhance experience of tourists. In such destinations, resources must be effectively utilized for sustainable tourism (Johnston & Smith, 1994).

2.6.3 Unique-exotic-exclusive destinations

Destinations that offer unique, exotic and exclusive experience are the centre of attraction for tourists (Sofield, 1991). These destinations are considered unique and precious and marketers charge a premium price for an exotic experience (Hughes, 1995). Such destinations remain full of visitors so proper tourism management is mandatory. Accommodation and transportation facilities management is considered very important (Gnoth, 1997). Marketers of tourist institutions is niche, they do not target mass market and charge them high and make good revenue. Tourists plan their once-in-a-life-time events e.g. Honeymoon, at such destinations (Silver, 1993).

Hong Kong can be said an urban destination, unique-exotic-exclusive destination and alpine destination. This dissertation examines the main characteristics that make Hong Kong an urban, unique-exotic-exclusive and alpine destination.

2.7 Models for Destination Attraction

A destination can be attractive because of many different factors (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999). The most famous model for destination attraction is given by Porter. He acknowledged the national competitiveness as the most compelling factor (Porter, 1990). In another model namely Crouch-Ritchie Model, ‘nation-specific, industry-specific and firm-specific factors’ were acknowledged (Kim, 2000). Dwyer and Kim (2003) added demand component in model presented by Crouch-Ritchie. If these all models are combined then country specific, industry specific and firm specific factors contributes in attraction of destination.

Enright and Newton (2004) states that destination attraction is ensured with amalgam of both business-related and tourism-specific components. There are different factors i.e. natural resources, destination management practices, attractions and other supporting factors that make a destination attractive for tourists (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999). Along with these factors, important role are played by ‘qualifying factors’. These qualifying factors have ability to influence overall attraction of a destination in positive and negative way. Ritchie and Crouch (2000) also states that tourism policy plays an important role in attracting tourists to a destination. Thus, along with other factors qualifying factors also play an important role. These factors are supporting factors that enhances the role of other factors i.e. country, industry and firm specific factors.

2.8 Tourism Products and Services

According to Inskeep's (2009) opinion, tourism products are attractions, accommodation, transportation, infrastructure, and other tourist facilities and services. Details of these factors are given below:

  • Attractions: natural and cultural places, zoos, gardens, acquariums, theme parks, riding places.
  • Accommodation: hotels, restaurants, motels, guest house
  • Transportation: air, water, road, rail
  • Infrastructure: airport, seaport, roads, water supply, electricity supply, telecommunication
  • Other facilities and services: travel, shopping, restaurant, banks, medical, postal services

With tourism products, institutional elements also play an important part in attracting tourists (Hsu et al, 2010). Institutional elements are related to tourism offices and associations, tourism-related legislation, hotel and tour regulations, licensing requirement for travelling, information availability through promotional activities and visa arrangements (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Institutional elements also include distributions of tourism benefits over reducing environmental protection measures, social problems and development of cultural heritage (Inskeep, 2009).

In tourism, there are both tangible and intangible products (Howei, 2003). Tangible products are considered more important in attracting tourists. Tangible products are hotels, restaurants, and infrastructure. Intangible products include experiences at a particular destination (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). According to researcher of this study, combination of both tangible and intangible products is important. A detailed analysis of tangible and intangible products will be done in next chapters.

In destination life cycle, tangible products become mature and the time comes when their importance declines (Gnoth, 1997). When tangible products become old and unattractive, element of intangible products attracts tourists (Scherrieb, 1998). Visitors feel more satisfied when they get quality and high standard products (Kamil, 2010). When low quality products and services and provided to tourists, they become discouraged to visit that destination once again. Quality of services has a 'compelling effect on tourists' (Middleton & Hawkins, 2002). So in view of Gnoth (1997), Scherrieb (1998), Kamil (2010) and Middleton & Hawkins (2002), intangible factors are more important.

There are a number of factors that can affect perception of visitors regarding product quality (Veal, 2002). The price, promotion, branding, support services are names of a few factors that influence product quality (Howei, 2003). Scherrieb (1998), Kamil (2010) and Middleton & Hawkins (2002) is furthure elaborated by Budeanu (2007) and he related importance of intangible products with word of mouth generation. He stated that when customers find a product in accordance with their expectations, they create positive word of mouth about a particular destination and attract more visitors. In this dissertation, researcher will find how the product quality, price, promotion, branding and support services are motivating mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.

Household tours are most important expense of the year for a family, it includes lots of planning and information research and customers always prefer the destination that has reasonable prices, high quality and easy access to all necessary products and services (Swarbrooke & Horner, 2001). According to Swarbrooke & Horner (2001), the importance of intangible products is enhanced in case of household tours. In this dissertation, researcher will investigate whether the tourists' family are attracted toward Hong Kong or not.

Tourists have different lifestyle therefore their demand of products is also different from local residents (Hsu et al., 2010). Few tourists seek for cultural and educational products and few seek for novelty and business (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Thus countries introduce tourism products according to demand of tourists (Poon, 1994). Many tourist destinations have arranged tourists’ products according to demographics of tourists. Tourism products always selected according to behaviour of tourists (Jamieson, 2001). In globalization era, concern for health, safety and security is increased. So, many countries have shifted their focus to healthy tourism products (Klanarongran, 2001). To understand the tourists’ behaviour is much significant now. Tourists can be attracted only when they get products and services in accordance to desired needs (Swarbrooke & Horner, 1999). To summarize, the factors like culture, demographics, safety, health and demand are influencing tourism. It is important to customize products in accordance with these factors.  In this dissertation, Hong Kong tourism products and their attraction for tourists with respect to needs of tourists is explored.

2.8.1 Tourism Products Marketing

Kamil (2010) states that marketing and promotional strategies of a place plays an important role in attracting tourists. A destination that has quality products attracts more visitors. Actually, it creates positive word of mouth and enhances number of visitors per year (Hanqin & Lam, 1999). Traditionally, the main purpose of tourism marketing was to attract as many tourists as possible (Howei, 2003). The main focus of all promotional activities was on increasing visitation and tourism marketing was treated like commodity marketing (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). But after some time, tourism organization realized the fact that there are different needs of all tourists and there are a few limitations of all destinations (Hanqin & Lam, 1999). Now, marketers of destinations are shifting their concentration to dynamics of the market and requirements of tourists and they offer products and services only to fulfil their needs (Veal, 2002). There was a time when tourism was marketed in a strange manner i.e. it had only one P (Promotion) of the marketing mix. Very little or no attention was used to give to other components of the marketing mix. Only those tourist destinations are attractive for tourists that adopt appropriate social marketing techniques and promotional strategies (Hanqin & Lam, 1999). Thus, now tourism is beyond the typical product marketing and it includes many other factors and marketers have to consider all Ps of marketing. In Hong Kong, marketers consider the whole marketing mix to attract potential tourists that is why, Hong Kong is attractive for tourists from all over the world. This view is supported by (Ryan, 1991). This dissertation investigates the whole marketing mix of tourism products at Hong Kong.

2.9 Government Policy

Veal (2002) argues that government always play an important role in protecting natural areas and tourism at any place. Domestic, inbound and outbound tourism has benefits of the whole economy. It creates employment opportunities and generates revenue. The role of government becomes important only when government realizes the importance of their role. By effectively managing tourism and, countries can better exploit numerous socioeconomic opportunities. With effective tourism planning and coordination of government, tourism can be enhanced. With effective tourism coordination, planning, cooperation and policy of government, more tourists can be motivated to make a tour to Hong Kong (Lee, 2013). The effective management is not possible unless government deeply realizes the importance of tourism activities. Basically, all governments show interest in developing tourist industry because it can create new employment opportunities, increases GDP and improves standards of living of local people. Sustainable tourism industry does not only influence one industry but it positively influences all sectors of an economy (Hui, et al., 2007). The view of Hui et al (2007) is based on the assumption that government gives importance to this industry. There are many economies in which government does not give paramount importance to this industry. Thus, it cannot be said that all governments are showing interest. In view of Veal (2002), Lee (2013) and Hui, et al (2007) the protection and development of natural attractions is possible with planning and coordination of government. Tourists become motivated to visit a destination only when government plans and coordinated everything effectively.

In tourism, numerous stakeholders along with distinctive interests are involved (Veal, 2002). Government has to act as an entity that provide a collaborative forum to all stakeholders for minimizing conflicts in interests and produce better outcomes (Kunkel, 2008). Good governance is required to manage destination, processes, opportunities, infrastructure and other tourism facilities (Wray, et al., 2010). Tourism involves management of the interests of all parties such as government, business associates and local community (Veal, 2002). Even though, all stakeholders are required to support healthy tourism practices, the role played by the government is of utmost importance (Wray, et al., 2010). Only those destinations attract travellers have good governance and there are defined roles and responsibilities for all stakeholders, clear communication and operational processes, engagement of all stakeholders, transparent decision-making process, adaptive management, diversity, efficiency and equity of all resources (Kunkel, 2008). This can be ensured only through a good government policy for tourism (Wray, et al., 2010). It is responsibility of government to minimize conflicts of all stakeholders of tourism industry. Government does so with the help of policy that ensures healthy tourism activities (Kunkel, 2008). Thus, in accordance to views of these authors, the government has to play the lead role in development of tourism industry. This dissertation analyzes the role of government policy in governing tourism activities effectively and defining duties and responsibilities of all stakeholders.

Government always plays an important part in attracting tourists from all over the time (Kunkel, 2008). Government has to realize that nature base and man-made attractions bring socioeconomic benefits for an economy (Howei, 2003). Tourism is beneficial because it creates employment opportunities and generates foreign exchange (Kunkel, 2008). There are many economies who do not realize the importance of natural attraction and they do not get maximum benefit out of natural and man-made tourism activities (Howei, 2003). Countries that give high priority to planning and coordination of tourism are earning revenue (Wray, et al., 2010). Tourism activities are beneficial for the whole economy. If government gives importance to development of tourism, at the end benefit is to government as it can earn huge amount of revenue. This dissertation will analyze whether the government is playing its role to maintain natural and maintain natural attracts or not. Along with this, this dissertation also answers the question how beneficial it is for government to establish healthy tourism activities.

It is the duty of government to protect the environment and nature of its country. There are always particular agencies and institutions that share the responsibility of protecting nature and the environment (Inskeep, 2009). It is one of the duties of such agencies to develop policies for environment and tourism. Tourism can be promoted only by collaboration of government and the tourist industry (Kunkel, 2008). It is considered that the integrated planning process is useful for promoting tourism. The industries who are participating in developing tourism policy will be explored.

With government policies and tools, awards, certification schemes, educational schemes, and healthy tourism activities can be promoted and more sustainable tourism culture can be created (Martens & Spaargaren, 2005). According to Chafe's (2005) research, relaxed regulations, fewer taxes and fees, and appropriate use of other economic instruments for tourists are useful for influencing tourists’ perception in a positive manner. Government uses different innovative techniques to attract more tourists. As innovative techniques are as much tourists will be motivated to that destination. Along with quantity, the quality of these techniques also matter. Therefore, government must have to ensure effective government policies. This dissertation analyzes the important tools and schemes that are made for sustainable tourism management.

Tourism activities might be harmful to the local environment and local life. Many problems such as air pollution, congestion, noise and accidents might become result of tourists’ activities (Veal, 2002). Tourists’ entertainment activities also become dangerous for local life (OECD, 2002). It is up to the government to introduce such schemes, efficient mobility schemes, eco-efficient accommodation facilities, to reduce negative impacts of tourism activities (Martens & Spaargaren, 2005). As stated by many researchers that it is the government that has to develop tourism industry, OECD (2002) threw light on a new issue that it does not have to only develop tourism, it has to ensure effective tourism that does not harm any stakeholder. This dissertation examines the role of government policy in minimizing activities for environment and local life.

2.10 Sustainable Tourism Development

Tourism practices have been carried out at international level for many decades. All international practices of tourism have proved that social and environmental issues arise. No matter mass tourism or alternative tourism is being carried in any country but such activities have strong effect on ecological resources, social, cultural norms and values. These concerns lead in to the development and adoption of sustainable tourism in the decade of 90’s. In a short period of time this area acquired importance in both academia/research and in industry. (Dumbr?veanu, n.d.)

Sustainable tourism is define by Veal (2002) as it is an affirmative approach adopted to reduce strains, pulls and resistances that are produced as a result of interactions between tourists their hosts that are local people of a destination and natural environment. Howei (2013) states it as a tourism that operates in the limits of natural capacities of a tourist attraction. Local public of the host areas must possess equal right in the guidance and economic advantages of tourism. Thus both sides of tourism should be fulfilled that is economic benefit, socially liable and quality environmental friendly. Thus, an effective tourism is sustainable tourism that does not harm any stakeholder and is equally beneficial for every stakeholder.

According to Wray et al., (2010) a perfect balance in issues like environment, community and economic values results in sustainable tourism. The main purpose of such tourism is to enhance those natural resources that attract tourists (Howei, 2003). All tourism activities need to be consistent with long term local norms of community members. A destination must be enough responsive to external environment changes and changing market needs (Veal, 2002). The view of Wray et al (2010) and Veal (2002) is easy to say but quite difficult to achieve. In today’s globalized economy, has to cater fall so many factors. Only the developed economies with developed tourism industry can ensure a perfect balance, enhancement of natural resources and responsiveness.

Sustainable tourism development is achieved when a destination become viable for the tourism industry for the long-term. Once a sustainable tourism industry is developed, attractions for that destination increases and more travellers become motivated to attract tourists (Kunkel, 2008). The sustainable tourism development is quite difficult to achieve. It can be said that it is an ideal and perfect stage of tourism development. Not all countries can achieve this level. To attract tourists from all over the world, countries try to adopt this but this is not completely achieved by any economy yet. The role of Hong Kong government in maintaining sustainable tourism is explored in later chapters.

According to surveys of World Tourism Organization (2013) it has been found that tourists always prefer a quality tourist destination that is it must possess ecological friendly and sound cultural, social norms. According to (Fennell, 1999), tourism is closely related with sustainable development. Both concepts prioritize quality characteristics. Besides economic factors, environmental and socio cultural factors are also inclusive in concept of sustainable development for tourism. Sustainable tourism is a type of industry which is most responsible in terms of granting economic benefits, preserving environment other resources for the present and future use of local community and keeping safe socio cultural norms and believes.

Three main indicators of sustainable tourism development are elaborated by Hughes (2002):

  • There should be economic sustainability that is surety of proper care of resources for the sake of community and future generations.
  • Environmental sustainability should be gained in order to protect all types of flora and fauna. Also limits of environment protection should not be ignored for development.  
  • Direct or indirect involvement of residents should also be ensured for the maintenance of social, cultural norms, identity and values.

Tourism in particular sustainable tourism is being currently regulated and operated by community policies and programs and they have a sound effect on all activities related to tourism. To achieve higher level of Sustainable tourism government can practice several instruments like Environmental Management System and Certification Schemes. Environmental Management Systems includes standards for the safety of environment which firms have to follow. ISO 14001 is an environmental standard ought to be followed by all firms. Certification Schemes also play a vital role as they provide an action plan/blue print to the organizations in order to improve (Bolshakova, 2007). These schemes and certifications ensure the highest level of sustainability in tourism. On one side, these schemes and certifications ensure highest level of quality in tourism and on the other hand this involves cost and difficult to achieve targets in terms of quality of tourism products and services.

Sustainable tourism should include creating awareness among tourists regarding sustainability problems and also raising encouraging sustainable tourism approaches among tourists. Acquiring sustainable tourism is not a batch rather a continuous process. This process includes three steps; to monitor the impacts of already taken measures; in case if something is going wrong then to take preventive measures; evaluate these measures (UNEP, 2007). This is a time gaining process. To create awareness and manage tourism effectively is a long term plan and it involves time. 

2.10.1 Sustainable tourism triangle

There are three main points in sustainable tourism development; Government entities have to maintain balance in these three points (Wray, et al., 2010).

  • Balance in use of economic resources and environmental resources
  • Balance in environmental resources and community values
  • Balance between economic development and impacts of development on social values.

Figure 4: The Sustainable Tourism Triangle

 

Source: Wray, et al. (2010)

How the Hong Kong government is maintaining balance in economic and environmental resources, environmental resources and values and economic development and impact of economic development on social values is discussed in later chapters.

2.11 Tourists’ Satisfaction

Satisfaction is a temporary psychological reaction of performance of a specific product or service (Xia, et al., 2009). Satisfaction is a function of customers’ expectations and perceived value (Huang, et al., 2006). Satisfaction can be defined as a positive psychological result of any activity (Lee, et al., 2007). When a service is unable to perform according to customers’ expectations, outcome is dissatisfaction and vice versa (Song, et al., 2011). Tourists’ satisfaction is a result of travel expectations and experiences in a particular destination (Chen & Chen, 2010). Similarly, when travellers feel pleasure while comparing their expectations and perceived value, they are highly satisfied (Song, et al., 2011). When customers are highly satisfied they are more likely to visit the destination again and they refer particular destination to others as well (Huang, et al., 2006). The tourists’ satisfaction is similar to typical products and services. It is outcome of difference between expected and perceived value.

According to Marin's (2006) opinion, satisfaction of tourists with destination attributes decides overall satisfaction and they only come back to that destination when they are highly satisfied with destination attributes (Hui, et al., 2007). For development of a sustainable tourism industry, tourists’ satisfaction is of main concern for all researchers. It is the utmost desire of successful tourism organizations to satisfy tourists and they make every possible effort to satisfy tourists (Xia, et al., 2009). Satisfaction is more important for tourism because in this case re-purchase behaviour is not dependent on any other factor but only on satisfaction from tourism. Once dissatisfied, tourists do not come back again. Therefore, the importance of satisfaction is higher in this industry.

In literature, there are many models and theories that explain customer satisfaction behaviour. To assess customer satisfaction, different methods are explained. The most common models are expectancy/discon?rmation, equity, and importance-performance and perceived overall performance model (Gnoth, 1997).

According to few authors i.e. Cronin & Taylor (1992), Parasuraman, et al (1994), and Taylor & Baker (1994), quality of service attracts customers and they become satisfy. On the other hand few practitioners e.g. (Oliver, 1997) state that when customers are satisfied service provider are more likely to offer quality services. Researchers have stated that both quality and customer satisfaction are influencing factors for purchase intentions of customers (Baker & Crompton, 2000). Tourists’ satisfaction can be assessed by measuring quality, value, costs, risks and image of destination (Cronin & Taylor, 1992).

One of the primary functions of destination management organizations is to satisfy tourists from destinations (Baker & Crompton, 2000). When tourists are satisfied, the destination becomes more attractive for tourists. There are some authors i.e. Morgan & Pritchard (1998), Pearce, (1997) and Seaton (1997) that criticize that tourists’ satisfaction is a crucial goal but it is very difficult to achieve. This dissertation will investigate whether or not the destination managers of Hong Kong are successful to achieve this crucial goal.

According to Fornell et al (1996), the tourism industry of any country can be promoted by assessing satisfaction levels of tourists and set goals to satisfy them. Just to increase the number of tourists does not bring economic benefits but satisfied tourists are truly beneficial for the destination. Tourists become satisfied with the number of factors (Ryan, 1991). It means that quantity of tourists alone is not beneficial. It is the satisfaction of tourists that is important. This satisfaction ultimately increases number of tourists. Tourist satisfaction is made of several factors i.e. destination image, tourist expectation and perceived value. According to the views of Gomezelj & Mihalic (2008) these factors are called building blocks of customer satisfaction. American Customer Satisfaction Index states that customer satisfaction is a function of ‘customer satisfaction, perceived quality and perceived value’ Fornell, et al, (1996) and the result of customer satisfaction is either complain or loyalty from customers. The affect of service and product quality of tourism products at Hong Kong on customer satisfaction is analyzed in next chapters. 

2.12 Building Blocks of Tourists' Satisfaction

2.12.1 Destination Image

Tourist behaviour is directly influenced by destination image (Hsu & Lam, 2003). The destination image is about the overall perception of particular destination (Hsu et al., 2010). Along with tourist behaviour, tourist expectations and perceived value also have an effect on destination image (Xia, et al., 2009). A tourist final decision regarding the selection of a destination is affected by the pre-image of the destination. Thus, it can be said that image and perception of tourists becomes the basis of overall satisfaction level of tourists In next chapters of this dissertation, researcher will analyze how the destination image of Hong Kong attracts mainland Chinese.

Chi (2002) presented a theoretical model for tourists’ satisfaction and destination image. He said that environment, infrastructure, quality and value of a destination have a positive relationship with tourists’ satisfaction and tourists’ loyalty. Chi (2012) also states that destination image plays an important role in satisfying tourists and makes them loyal to a destination. In this dissertation, researcher will analyze how environment, infrastructure and quality of Hong Kong attract Mainland Chinese.

2.12.2 Tourists' expectation

Now, the expectations of the customers play a significant role in overall satisfaction from any service (Hsu et al., 2010). Customers anticipate the performance of product and services and set standards of performance in their mind (Hsu et al., 2010). These already set standards and expectations directly influence customer satisfaction (Xia, et al., 2009). Basically, customer satisfaction is the difference between money paid and value received with respect to already set standards (Lee, et al., 2007). From this, it is definite that tourists’ expectations are important for tourists’ satisfaction. The main issue is that it is really difficult to state that what level of expectations is desirable for satisfying tourists. Up till now, it is unclear that what level of expectations needs to build by marketers. In this dissertation, impact of tourist expectation regarding Hong Kong is analyzed.

2.12.3 Perceived Value

This is the overall evaluation of a service based on the value paid and service received (Song et al., 2011). The perceived value of any service directly influences the satisfaction level of customers. A customer is highly satisfied when there is a positive difference between value received and money paid for particular service (Chen & Chen, 2010). This dissertation will explore the perceived value of mainland Chinese tourists what they get from visiting Hong Kong.

2.12.4 Local People Behaviour

Alcaniz (2005) presented that how local people i.e. resident of a destination, behaves with tourists, has an impact on overall tourists’ satisfaction. Overall, a destination satisfies its visitors when it has a positive destination image, positive tourists’ expectations, perceived value and behaviour of local residents. The main critique on this issue is that tourist management agencies can never manage behaviour of local people. Everything can be managed but behaviour of local people is unmanageable. The role of local people behaviour in attracting mainland Chinese will be discussed in later chapters.

2.13 Consequences of Tourists' Satisfaction

Satisfied tourists become loyal tourists i.e. they suggest others to visit and revisit destination (Veal, 2002). They show higher willingness to pay premium prices for tourism services and a long term relationship with tourist can be built with this (Gnoth, 1997). Along with repurchase (re-visit), reputation of destination improves. Destination reputation improves because satisfied tourists are more likely to generate positive word of mouth. This view is supported by (Oliver, 1997).

On the opposite side, tourist dissatisfaction is predicted by their complaining behaviour. Either dissatisfied tourists complain or generate negative word of mouth (Bolton & Drew, 1991). In such condition, tourists do not return back at a particular destination and it becomes difficult to retain back tourists (Anderson & Fornell, 1994). Few authors, e.g. (Maxham & Netemeyer, 2002) states that complain behaviour management is an effective way to  satisfy customers. In this dissertation, researcher analyzes do the satisfied tourists of mainland China create positive word of mouth and recommends other to visit Hong Kong or not.

2.14 Framework

The following framework has been drawn after reviewing literature review. The below diagram shows what motivates a Mainland Chinese to visit or to tour Hong Kong. These factors which motivates are tourism product and services like the service or product offered is of good quality and is better as compared to other tourism services. The other factor is tourist satisfaction that is the clients or customers are satisfied with the overall performance of the tourism firm. Hong Kong is a very beautiful place to visit thus because of its beauty and attractive places it could lead to attraction of Mainland Chinese customers. Government policy can also be one of the factors that can lead to Hong Kong sightseeing. As government policies can give huge discount to the customers. All these factors above mentioned can lead to the motivation or encouragement to visit Hong Kong. On the basis of the above literature, following framework is developed.

Figure 1: Framework

 

Source: developed by researcher (2013)

2.15. Summary

In this chapter the details related to the research topic has been retrieved from the secondary sources and then the required data has been extracted. The researcher has utilised information in a manageable manner so as to build theoretical information regarding the research topic.

The tourism is an emerging field of study. The number of mainland Chinese who visit to Hong Kong is increasing with a great speed. It is significant to study motivational factors because without analyzing fundamental motivational factors, a destination cannot achieve competitive advantage. There are two type of motivations i.e. pull and push factors. Push factors are intrinsic and personal factors that motivate an individual to visit a specific destination. Pull factors are basically characteristics and features of a specific destination that attracts travellers. Then two models are discussed that explains the travellers behaviour i.e. model of travel buying behaviour and integrated model of self-congruity and functional congruity model.

Each destination has different characteristics e.g. climate, environment, destination management, economic conditions, political conditions. There are different types of attraction that a destination possesses. On basis of these attractions, destinations are classified into urban destinations, sea side destinations and resorts, alpine destinations, rural destinations, third world destinations and unique-exotic-exclusive destinations.

Tourism products are amalgam of both tangible and intangible products. Tourism products are attractions, accommodation, transportation, infrastructure, and other tourist facilities and services. Quality of tourism products is one of the factors that motivate tourists to visit a specific destination. Quality of tourism products is combination of price, promotion, branding, and support services.

Foundation of tourists’ satisfaction is explained by building blocks of tourists’ satisfaction. Building blocks are destination image, tourists’ expectations and perceived value. Satisfied tourists become loyal and recommend destination to other tourists. This results in increased number of visitors and improved reputation.

Good governance is required to manage destination, processes, opportunities, infrastructure and other tourism facilities. Only those destinations attract travellers have good governance and there are defined roles and responsibilities for all stakeholders, clear communication and operational processes, engagement of all stakeholders, transparent decision-making process, adaptive management, diversity, efficiency and equity of all resources.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER NUMBER 3 – METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

This dissertation is based on investigation of motivational forces in the selection of a destination i.e. Hong Kong. There are numerous motivational forces that convince Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. It studies out the impact of destination attraction, satisfaction level, tourism products and government policy on tourist behaviour to select a destination, this methodology is selected. The methodology chapter is about research approach that is used to conduct the study in an appropriate manner. Basically, research methodology is the ‘scientific investigation’ and aims to solve a problem, to discover something new, to answer a question and to present a solution for existing problems by testing it analytically (Bell, 2010). This chapter takes a start by giving an overview of adopted research process. After giving complete overview of research process, appropriate data collection technique is identified. Then sampling is discussed that includes data collection process, inclusion criteria and maximum variation in data. At the end of the chapter, summary of methodology is given.

3.2. Type of Research

Different kinds of researches are performed by analysts. According to Kumar (1999), there are three approaches in conducting research. These include research through application, objectives or type of information sought. The figure showing the Hierarchy of explanation is shown below in figure.

 

Figure 5: Types of Research

 

Source: Kumar (1999)

Pure research is for academic purposes only which has no implications practically (Brunt 1997; Clark et al. 2002), whereas applied research basically applies the existing literature to a particular problem (Johns and Lee-Ross 1998). This study applies the existing literature of Mainland Chinese’s motivations as tourists in Hong Kong therefore this is applied research.

Every research is designed in such a way that it contains a few important elements that structures the report formally. For academic reports, the analysis and interpretation of data is given a strong foundation through theory (Finn et al., 2000).

3.2.1. Type of Current research

This research is a secondary research. The data sources used in this research are books, journals, articles, websites and internet. Secondary research form is the integral part of any research because it is a fool-proof tool of authentic knowledge that has been made in the related fields already. Secondary research sources are so strong in their reliability that often they help in choosing research topics (Greenfield 1996; Bell 2001). Selecting the research has have helped in unveiling most of the information regarding the research topic.

3.3 Research Process

Research process, as shown in the following figure, starts by explaining researcher process. Then researcher identified the appropriate data collection technique to conduct study effectively. Later on construction of research design, sample, inclusion criteria and maximum variation in data is discussed.

Figure 6: Research Process

 

Source: Developed by Researcher (2013)

3.3 Data Collection Techniques

In order to study motivational forces that convinces mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong, studies conducted on motivational factors are considered. Basically there are two types of data can be collected i.e. secondary and primary data collection (Blaxter, et al., 2010). The primary data collection is the method in which the new data is collected for the research being conducted whereas in the secondary data the information from the already present sources such as articles, books, newspapers etc.

3.3.1. Secondary Data Collection and motive behind its selection

When the research was started, researcher aimed to collect the data by using the primary data collection method. Researcher decided to use questionnaire thus a questionnaire was developed to find out motivational factors for Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. The sample of study was tourist of Hong Kong from Mainland China. At that time, researcher was in Hong Kong so a questionnaire method was selected because it was easy to access mainland Chinese tourists. Later on, researcher realized that, as suggested by Bell (2010), primary data collection needs lots of time and researcher had to move from Hong Kong to U.K. Along with this, as mentioned by Blaxter et al (2010), primary data is also costly. Thus, considering time limitations, researcher moved to secondary data collection method. In future, if the researcher will conduct the same research again then he will must go for primary data collection through a questionnaire.

Data collected from past records, surveys, census or reports is known as secondary data (Bell, 2010). Mostly, it is used when time is short and researcher intends to do a detailed analysis of a topic (Clark et al., 1997). The researcher uses data that are already gathered by some other researcher. More time is spent in analysing data and time to gather data is saved (Denzin & Lincoln, 2008). Reliability and validity of secondary data are already assessed (Blaxter, et al., 2010). The secondary research initiated with a hunt of books and articles that explained fully the tourism in general, Destination attraction, Tourism Satisfaction, Tourism products, Government Policy, the motivation factors of Mainland Chinese for Hong Kong. Hereafter, the selected books and articles from renowned authors and publishers were thoroughly studied and review was made. Moreover those articles and books that made a critical analysis of the main topic were sought. For an in-depth study, the bibliographies of the texts that were available firsthand were fully screened and more of relevant knowledge and literature was obtained. When enough of resource material was gathered, discussions and analysis was made with focus on the Mainland Chinese motivations for Hong Kong.

3.4 Construction of the Research Design

In this dissertation, the only source of information is secondary data. Different journals, books and articles are consulted to support researcher’s view about main topic. This method is selected because there is already many studies that discuss motivational factors for tourists and authors of those studies have provided their personal opinion related to topic. Usually, journals and articles are considered most appropriate source for up-to-date information (Blaxter, et al., 2010) because they are published after a very short period of time and on regular basis. Indeed, books also provide consistent and reliable information but journals provide more updated information (Bell, 2010). For this dissertation, to avoid biasness relevance and usefulness of each journal, article and book was assessed thoroughly by researcher. Those books and journals were selected that presents both negative and positive views about main topic.

All selected articles from renowned journals have distinctive aims and objectives. Their aims and objectives related to motivational factors for tourists were achieved, effectively. The views of few authors about motivational factors for tourists are touched in this study. There were few articles in which authors have used their personal opinion in order to justify research aims and objectives. To be neutral in this study, such articles are studied and analyzed rationally. Books provide detailed information about certain phenomenon. For theories and models, books are considered the most viable source (Blaxter, et al., 2010). According to CQ University Australia, a comparison was made among the authenticity of sources of information such as books, articles, journals and websites. Books are very authentic sources of information which take the lead amongst all other resources. Books contain very comprehensive knowledge, historical data, reviews of expert’s on models and conceptions. This gives a solid background knowledge and in-depth detail on the topic of research. On the other hand, articles and journals are fine sources to gather information regarding topics because they are approved by experts and academics. They go through a rigorous process of checking and re-checking from all possible angles before being accepted and published. Scholarly journals justify the researches and discussions being made. As far as this research is concerned, it is highly recommendable to get information that is authentic, reliable and accurate. This research is solely secondary because the data required for the study is the massive literature in the form of books, journals, articles and websites that are already present.  The tourism motivations of Mainland Chinese for Hong Kong understudy is best analysed with the help of scholarly information resource available through books, journals and articles. As already discussed that Mainland Chinese constitute 70% of tourists in Hong Kong, therefore they are a major observation for many academia, scholars, marketers and policy makers. Therefore the best way to obtain data for analysis in this study is through books, journals, articles and internet.

So to lay the foundation about tourism and motivational factors, few books are also consulted. Internet is also used as a source to gather secondary data for this study. To ensure validity and reliability of data, only trustworthy and reliable material is taken from internet. Those websites are used as a source of data that publishes articles of well-known authors, only. Only those authors’ articles on websites were added in this study that has a background and expertise in this field. In this study, reports about Hong Kong or mainland Chinese published by third parties or government are also used. Information that has no or poor source and reference is not used in this study.

3.5. Sample

For this dissertation, journals, articles and books will be used. Only that material will be added in analysis if it is according to above explained criteria. Relevancy and reliability of material will be given utmost importance to be selected as a sample.

The resource of literature in this dissertation consist the scholarly books, journals and publications about the influences of tourist motivations in Hong Kong. Other sources include articles and websites about tourist attractions, motivational factors, cultural characteristic of Mainland Chinese, relationships among residents’ image, evaluation of the stay and post-purchase behaviour, tourism, Destination attraction, Tourism Satisfaction, Tourism products, Government Policy, Researches in Hong Kong and other research books.

The majority of books are collected from the renowned libraries. Journals were taken from highly known sources of digital libraries through academic access. It was made sure that the journals are of good impact factor. For a good research, it is needed to be kept in consideration that any information that is being quoted should be accountable for its background and logic.

Whether books, scholarly articles, websites or journals, high attention was given to the perceived authenticity of the academic content and source. Books and articles that were from before 1990’s were not included and the further details of inclusion criteria are mentioned in the following paragraphs. Only those websites have been used that gave clear and logical information. Many of the websites contained authentic knowledge and are recommended by professionals of tourism industry.

3.5.1 Inclusion Criteria

Only those articles and books will be considered as a sample of study that is written or translated in English. Only that information will be selected to be analyzed that is related to tourism, motivation of tourists, motivation of Mainland Chinese tourists and tourism at Hong Kong. Tourism is an emerging field; its trends are changing with globalization. So only that literature is included that is published after 1990s. Information published before 1990s would be used only if that provides a theoretical background to this study.

                             Table 1: Literature Inclusion / Exclusion Matrix

Issue

Reason for inclusion

Reason for exclusion

Year of Publishing (Journals/ websites)

 

 

In this dissertation, researcher looked for the articles that are published after 1990s on the topic of tourism and motivational factors for tourism. As globalization is affecting tourism industry greatly, so article published before 1990s are not considered to be analysed. However, in few cases where newer articles views were supported by old articles, original reference is given.

 

Any article that was published before 1990s is not used for this study. There are many websites that provides published reports of time period before 1990. Although, they can be considered as a source of information but to provide up-to-date motivational factors for tourists, only reports published after 1990 are analyzed.

 

Year of Publishing (Books)

In this dissertation, books are selected on basis of their published date and relevant theories, examples and explanations. Researcher tried to include only those books that were published after 1990 but for theories and models books published before 1990 are also used.

Books that were published before 1990 were given less importance to be added in this study. But where necessary, especially for strong theoretical foundation, books published before 1990 are also used.

Discussion of findings

Researcher analyzed the findings and if both negative and positive aspects were discussed then that information was used.

Those studies in which author used biased or one-sided approach in discussion and findings are disregarded for the study.

Business Area

The articles used were generally related to tourism and hospitality industry. As there are many business areas that comes under hospitability and tourism industry so examples of hotels, natural attractions, convention centres, travel agencies are used.

 

There were many other industries and business areas that can be a reason to attract tourists from mainland china. But to be precise in findings, only few sectors related to tourism and hospitality industry are used. Other business areas e.g. manufacturing and service sector examples are ignored.

 

3.5.2 Maximum Variation Technique

Books, articles, journals can provide authentic and valid information about any topic. In this study books, articles and journals are continuously collected to ensure maximum variation in data. To study relevant theories, models and ideas these sources are consulted until possible variation level is achieved in data collection process. To ensure variety in data and avoid biasness in study, already developed logical argument is used in the study.

3.6 Conclusion

In this chapter methodology adopted for this dissertation is discussed. In process of identifying suitable data collection process, secondary data collection is selected. To collect secondary data information from journals, books, articles, surveys and previous reports is used. Then the sample inclusion criteria are discussed. Later on the maximum variation technique is discussed. The main challenge that was faced while gathering data from secondary sources was to access the relevant material. There were many documents and reports that were available but those were in Chinese language and were not translated into English. The research could have done in a better way if all those reports were available in English language. To access the data was another challenge. There were many reports and journals that were accessible in China only. As the researcher was not in China, so it was not possible to access those reports. So the researcher contacted the libraries of China and asked for access and many of those reports were emailed to researcher. thus a challenge was overcome.  

 

CHAPTER NUMBER 4 - FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

4.1Introduction

In the analysis of the research the data related to the research topic is analysed. Chinese tourism industry statistics are revealed and a detailed analysis of those statistics is done in this chapter. In this chapter, data related to tourism in China, Hong Kong as a tourists’ destination, tourism products and services at Hong Kong, government policy of Hong Kong with respect to tourism and tourism satisfaction from Hong Kong is discussed. At the end of the chapter, evaluation and summary of findings is given.

4.2Tourism in China

As time is passing, China is becoming one of the biggest tourism economies. Chinese show great interest towards moving from one corner of the china to another. Tourism industry plays a major part in overall GDP of China. China has a population over 1.3 billion and its tourism market is expanding with a great speed. Overall, its domestic market of tourism is increasing by 10% each year. Increase in economic development, employment and consumption is because of expansion in the tourism industry in China. Beijing, Shanghai, Xian, Guilin, Lijiang, Hong Kong and Macau are most famous tourist destinations (China National Tourism Administration, 2010).

Figure 7: Growth of Inbound-Outbound and Domestic Tourism in China 1999-2010

Source: China National Tourism Administration (2010)

4.3. Hong Kong as a Tourists' Destination

Hong Kong has the especial geographic position in China. It is a land that is positioned at border of Mainland China. Since 1997, it is known as ‘Special Administrative Area of China’ and now it’s totally free from sovereign of British Colonists.

Hong Kong has a rich culture and it is filled with shopping malls offering cultural experience for all tourists. It invites and welcomes tourists with great enthusiasm from all over the world. It has also become a gateway for South Asian tourists providing a way from west to east. 

The Hong Kong region is classified in four sub-regions:

  1. Kowloon
  2. Hong Kong Island
  3. The New Territories
  4. The Outlying Islands

The weather of Hong Kong is satisfactory all the time. It is most pleasant in months of October and November. Hong Kong is a region that has rains, humidity, cold and hot weather. In winter temperature goes to (14o c) and in summer it goes to (28o c). Winter starts in January and ended in March. The good thing about Hong Kong is that rains can be enjoyed all over the year even in summers.

Hong Kong is a quite safe destination. Overall, the rate of pocket-picking is quite low. There are many few robbery incidents that are observed in Hong Kong. But sometimes, it’s good to be vigilant of robbers and pocket-pickers on your own.  Mostly tourists are concerned about customs of local people. In Hong Kong, customs are quite appreciating. Littering and spitting is considered illegal in Hong Kong. This keeps the environment neat and clean.

To communicate internationally and domestically is quite easy at Hong Kong. Tourists have to face no problem with respect to communication. Lots of internet cafe and mobile rent services are available at near airport.

Proportion of business travellers is relatively high in Hong Kong. In 2008, there were 19% tourists who visited Hong Kong for business and meeting purposes (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011). In 2008, there were 37% of tourists who visited Hong Kong for enjoying their holidays (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011). As Hong Kong has a diverse segment of tourists in economic downturns it does not have to suffer with decline in tourist expenditure.

According to a study conducted by Mohammad & Puad (2010) tourists’ motivation is dependent on competitive advantage and destination image. With the help of effective tourism policies, a destination can become competitive. The support services for tourism also play a significant role in satisfying tourists. The core attractions of a destination also become a motivation for tourists to visit a destination. With these factors satisfaction level of tourists improves and they create positive word of mouth and recommend other tourists to visit that destination.

4.3.1 Famous Attractions of Hong Kong

Vitoria Peak

The experience of visiting Victoria Peak starts by taking ride of ‘Peak Tram’. Peak Tram helps tourists to reach Peak Galleria and The Peak Tower. The experience of tourists becomes memorable with passable view of Hong Kong from Victoria Peak. The footpath walk to the Victoria Mountain allows tourists to enjoy the view of the whole city. Tourists find this place cooler, pleasant and attractive than any other destination. The experience of shopping and dining at Victoria Peak malls and restaurants is excellent.

Hong Hong Disney Land

The smallest and fifth Disney land of the world can be found in the Hong Kong. It had four distinctive themes i.e. Main Street USA, Fantasy Land, Adventure-land and Tomorrow-land. In the time between 2011 and 2013, it has added three more themes i.e. Toy Story Land, Grizzly Gulch and Mystic Point.  This is known as happiest place on the earth of China. The Chinese culture can be seen everywhere in Disneyland design. The incorporation of Chinese culture e.g. omission of number four in floors and feng shui layout attracts more Chinese tourists than international tourists. There are more than 100 attractions in Hong Kong Disney Land.

Western Market

This is a famous indoor market of Hong that is made with red bricks. It is quite old market that was built in 1906.  Even though, it was renovated in 1991, it is one of the popular and exclusive historical buildings of Hong Kong. This market is famous for its variety of shops and stalls. It sells exclusive products e.g. cultural fabrics. Tourists love to shop from this market as it provides experience of double-decker tram to ancient places along with wonderful shopping experience.

Police Museum

This is a unique museum that represents development of Royal Hong Kong police from 1844 to now. It exhibits the artefacts that are related to police force e.g. uniforms, firearms and photographs. There are four galleries namely orientation, triad societies and narcotics, police then and now and thematic exhibition gallery, having idiosyncratic artefacts. Tourists always find the visit to police museum very interesting.

Unique Attractions

Along with above listed destinations, Hong Kong has many other attractive places that attract tourists from Mainland China.

Table 2: Unique Attractions of Hong Kong

Destination Name

Destination attraction

Statue Square

unique architecture, without a central core design,  structural engineering of building, asymmetrical-designed pinnacle 

Wong Tai Temple

Temple of legend Wong Tai Sin who has wonderful healing power, pharmacy and many fortune tellers, Attractive premises, Good Wish Garden,

Ocean Park and Middle Kingdom

Two themed parks connected with cable car, famous for spectacular aquarium and adventurous  rides,

Aberdeen

Traditional lifestyle of boat dwellers, unique rides e.g. water taxis, cruisers. Fishing harbour allows Tourists to experience life on water. Delicious Hong Kong cuisine at Jumbo Floating Restaurant

Lantau

One of largest Island of world. Famous for walking trails and finest beaches, shopping experience, the great temple namely Po Lin Monastery, outdoor Buddha, Historical Tung Chung Fort, lots of golf clubs and yacht clubs 

Big Buddha

Tian Tan Buddha, centre of attraction for Chinese who believe on Buddhism, three unique halls i.e. Hall of the Universe, Hall of the Benevolent Merit, Hall of Remembrance

Ngong Ping Village

Walking with Buddha, Monkey’s tale theatre, Ngong Ping Teahouse, shopping experience, Tai O fish Village, Ngong Ping Cable Car and view of lantau Island from cable car.

Hong Kong Science Museum

Science and Technology Museum aims to enhance learning of visitors by involvement in science and technology concepts. The most famous exhibit of this museum is tall twin tower energy machine that produces different energies.

Hong Kong Wetland Park

It is world famous conservation, education and tourism facility. Famous for three exhibition galleries, sixty hectare wetland reserve and green tourism facility

4.3.2 Hong Kong as an Urban Destination

Hong Kong is one of the urban destinations. There are more business travellers as compared to other travellers. Hong Kong has become a destination for business men from all over the world. Efficient, formal and punctual business activities exist in Hong Kong. Business entertainment is common at lunch and dinner times. Many business meetings, conferences are arranged at Hong Kong as it has auditoriums, conference halls and hotels arranging business meetings. All general facilities including banks, hospitals are available at Hong Kong. Its airport has been awarded ‘World’s best Airport’ because it has all modern facilities there. Hotels are also located near to that airport and business travellers can easily access them. South of Hong Kong is full of modern buildings while its West is enriched with traditional and cultural attractions. It has lots of modern shopping malls as well. World’s best shopping experiences can be enjoyed there.

4.3.3 Hong Kong as an Unique-exotic-exclusive Destination

There are many places, attractions, events and experiences that make Hong Kong a unique-exotic-exclusive destination. The exclusive traditional Chinese culture experience, local people of O fishing Village and Chinese and western cuisine in restaurants remains memorable for all tourists. The Chinese cultural experience at Hong Kong cannot be found anywhere else in China.  Romero (2010) says that Hong Kong is a super dynamic and very lively destination to visit. The visit to bronze Giant Buddha Statue adds pleasure and gratification in experience of tourists. Garcia (2010) adds that the event organized at both sides of Victoria Harbour namely ‘A Symphony of Lights’ is something that can be experienced only in Hong Kong. Cartes (2010) says that visit to Hong Kong is fascinating and fantastic. The tour to Hong Kong is a life time experience full of pleasures, experiences, delights, fun and entertainment.

4.3.4 Hong Kong as an Alpine Destination

According to (Discover Hong Kong, 2013) at Hong Kong, one can experience a beautiful rural world. Hiking experience at Hong Kong is full of adventure. There are many destinations for example deserted beach, volcanic landscapes, feng shui woods, Farmland and Wetland of Nam Sang Wai, Tung Chung to Tai O, Dragon’s back, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island and Peng Chau and remote temples that make hiking wonderful. The wonderful dragon’s back is an award-wining hiking track. The lovely peak circle walk enhances the hiking experience of visitors. The trip to Fu Lam Reservoir is awesome. The cycling experience of Sha Tin to Tai Po and Tai Po to Tai Mei Tuk is also an exciting activity for tourists.

A study was conducted on Chinese tourists and that study revealed that one of the main motives to plan a tour to a certain destination is natural attraction, Hua & Yoo (2011). In another study (Kim et al., 2005) found the same thing and states that beautiful sceneries at a destination motivates Mainland Chinese to visit that destination.

4.4 Tourism Products

Hong Kong offers products and services that are desired by tourists and considers health, safety and security concerns as well. Travelling to Hong Kong is free from health risks. The quality of food and water is satisfactory and it contains no such elements that are harmful for health. All the health facilities at Hong Kong can be said ‘first class’. In case of emergency, high quality medical care is also available 24/7. Tourists’ health is safe and secure at Hong Kong.

According to Hong Kong Government (2012) Hong Kong has 217 hotels and 68753 rooms. There has been observed 5.9% increases in number of rooms in 2013 when compared to total rooms in 2012.

Hong Kong is a destination that offers excellent quality, price, promotion, and branding and support services of tourism. This is what that attracts mainland Chinese to Hong Kong.

This attracts tourists not only from other countries but from regional lands as well.

  1. Asia World Expo
  2. Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centres
  3. Hong Kong International Trade and Exhibition Centre (Kowloon Bay)

Hong Kong Dine and Wine Festival has been a centre of attraction for many tourists. It offers variety of wines and dines with exclusive promotional activities. Variety of districts participates in this festival and brings unique food for festival.

4.4.1 Price at Hong Kong

According to Edwards' (1990) opinion, shopping has become a major reason to travel and Hong Kong has the best facilities for shopping. When Hong Kong is compared with its competitors, the relative prices at Hong Kong are showing downward slope since 2000. The tourism at Hong Kong is price sensitive. Any change in prices of tourism products and services can change the demand level by Mainland Chinese. As said by Anderson (1996), price sensitivity and competition are positively related. Mainland Chinese are very price-sensitive customers and they have many options to choose a destination for tourism. Mainland Chinese select the destination that offers products at lowest prices. Hong Kong is successful in attracting Mainland Chinese by offering tourism at cheaper rates. By maintaining the lowest pricing strategies, Hong Kong is successful in attaining 57.1% of tourists from Mainland China, in 2008 (Hong Kong Tourism Board).

Hong Kong is price competitive only to a certain extent. It does not offer luxurious tourism. While comparing price competitiveness, Hong Kong is ranked 71st destination out of 135 competitive destinations of the world (Blanke & Cheise, 2011).

Hong Kong tourism industries really need to make appropriate pricing strategies to retain the current market share. Its customers are heavily price sensitive. Currently, it is offering tourism at lower prices but it will increase prices it might lose its customer based. Hong Kong government has to play an important role in maintaining a stable inflation rate at Hong Kong. Otherwise, inflation rate can also influence the number of tourists from Mainland China (Li et al., 2013).

4.4.2 Comparison of tourism products offered at Mainland China and Hong Kong

It is argued by many Hong Kong residents that most of the Mainland Chinese visits Hong Kong not for tourism. They visit Hong Kong because they can purchase products at lower prices than Mainland China. So they purchase from Hong Kong and resell in Mainland China (Global Voices, 2012). This shows that product prices at Mainland China are high as compared to Hong Kong.

4.5 Government Policy at Hong Kong

Government of Hong Kong is taking many initiatives to promote tourism and hospitality industry of Hong Kong. Government of Hong Kong is playing its role, effectively. It is quite successful in minimizing conflicts of interest of all stakeholders. It is giving paramount importance to healthy tourism activities, thus earning revenue.

4.5.1 Hotel Accommodation Tax at Hong Kong

Since 2008, government of Hong Kong has diminished the hotel accommodation tax to promote hotel industry. This has resulted in increased number of visitors (Hong Kong Government, 2012).

4.5.2 Government Investment for Tourism

Government of Hong Kong has a special fund that is dedicated to support Hong Kong as a destination of business tourism. To raise and strengthen its meetings, incentive travels; conventions and exhibitions profile government is investing heavy funds. This activity is increasing number of business visitors at Hong Kong. In first half of 2013, 720000 visitors came to Hong Kong to attend meetings, conventions and exhibitions (Hong Kong Government, 2012).

Recently, in 2012, government completed the redevelopment plan and established the ocean park. This is a marine-theme park and it contains more than eighty wonderful attractions. This park has been recognized as the best park in the world. In future, government of Hong Kong is planning to promote tourism by investing in Ocean Hotel and Themed zone. Government is putting all efforts to make Hong Kong a regional cruise hub. It developed the first Kai Tak cruise terminal in 2013 and second is under construction. These terminals aim to provide a path to largest ships.

Government of Hong Kong has invested in enhancement projects to enhance tourism activities at Hong Kong. Few completed enhancement projects are:

  1. Renovation of Lel Yue Mun
  2. Geographical Expansion of Central and Western District
  3. The Peak and Signage Improvement Program
  4. Stanley and Sal Kung Waterfront Improvement Program
  5. Pro-men-made beautification projects at Talm Sha Taul
  6. Beautification of Bridges
  7. Aberdeen Tourism Project

Hong Kong government is also participating in joint ventures with private investors to improve tourism activities.

With the efforts of government of Hong Kong, it has become the first duty-free port for wines. It is globally known as a famous city for gourmets and connoisseurs (Hong Kong Government, 2012).

4.5.3 Tourism Commission

This is a separate entity that works in coordination with government to develop policies for development of tourism at Hong Kong. This aims to promote Hong Kong as the premier international destination for business and leisure tourism. Government of Hong Kong is helping Tourism Commission in every possible way.  

Tourism commission launched a show at Victoria Harbour with brand name of “A symphony of lights”. This has magnified the charm of Victoria Harbour for all tourists. This wonderful nightly shows has been awarded “Largest Permanent Light and Sound Show” by Guinness World Records.

4.5.4 Sustainable Tourism at Hong Kong

Hong Kong’s government has shifted its focus to sustainable tourism development programs. It has stated many developmental projects that make tourism industry of Hong Kong viable and responsive to environmental changes. Hong Kong government is quite successful in maintaining balance between economic resources, environmental resources, community values, economic development and its impact on social values (Hong Kong Government, 2012).

Hong Kong is an ecologically rich and diverse destination. To protect this Hong Kong government is promoting green tourism for nature conservation and sustainable tourism development. For fulfilling its aim of green tourism, government has taken an initiative and started a program namely “Great Outdoors Hong Kong”. Under this program government promotes tourism activities at outdoors that are full of nature, scenery and greenery for example Hong Kong Global Geopark of China. Government offers tour to natural destinations at free of cost.

4.5.5 Cultural and Traditional Assets at Hong Kong

Government is not just focusing on building new tourism facilities while it is taking good care of traditional assets of Hong Kong. Hong Kong tourism board has started an exclusive program namely Kaleidoscope. This involves practice of cultural and traditional activities of Chinese culture for example cake making, architecture walk. Government facilitates tourists with a help guide “Hong Kong Walks”. This guide tells tourists about unique cultural heritage. This board also promotes traditional Chinese festivals and customs. It has started many practices like Hong Kong arts festival, exhibitions and museums to promote culture and attract more tourists (Hong Kong Government, 2012).

4.5.6 Tourism Service Quality

Hong Kong government is playing an important role in maintaining and improving standard of tourism services offered to tourists. There is a policy namely Travel Agents Ordinance that is introduced to regulate travel agents actions. Through this ordinance government keeps a check on travel service providers and convinces them to offer quality services to clients. Now it has become compulsory for all tourist guides to get training (for example Continuous Professional Development Programme) and pass an examination before starting to work as a tourist guide. Travel Industry Council helps Hong Kong Tourism Board to maintain a standard code of conduct of tourist guides (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011).

4.5.7 Hong Kong Government Schemes

Hong Kong Tourism Government has started a Quality Tourism Scheme. In this scheme, government ensures that all tourism services providers for example restaurants, hotels, salons, retailers provide quality services to tourists. Another scheme namely Hong Kong Young Ambassadors is working with the help of The Tourism Commission. According to this program, young people are encourages to help tourists and show high level of courtesy.  The Individual Visit Scheme is introduced to attract individual tourists from Mainland China. This scheme has resulted in increase of individual visitors from Mainland China to Hong Kong.

4.6 Tourist' Satisfaction

Hong Kong marketers are quite successful in satisfying tourists coming from all over the world. As suggested by Anderson (1994), increasing satisfaction of customers reduces the price elasticity of demand so when Hong Kong has more satisfied tourists they visit Hong Kong ignoring the changes in prices. With the help of quality assurance programs in tourism and hospitality industry, satisfaction of Hong Kong tourists is increasing (Li et al., 2013). With quality services tourists are not only satisfied while they are ready to tolerate price increases. The chances of revisiting Hong Kong are increased with satisfied tourists because it become habit of tourists to visit the same place from where they are satisfied (Divisekera, 2003).

It can be said that satisfaction of mainland Chinese is affected by service and product quality offered at Hong Kong. Hong Kong has become popular in mainland Chinese because most of the tourists’ become satisfied when they visit there. Hong Kong has a particular destination image in mind of tourists. That perception of tourists regarding Hong Kong attracts tourists from Mainland China to Hong Kong (Voss et al., 1998). Similarly, the favourable government policy are also satisfying mainland Chinese (Song, et al., 2012).

Hong Kong’s local people behaviour is always welcoming. This attracts mainland Chinese tourists. People of Hong Kong meet everyone with a smile on their face. The welcome and courteous behaviour of local people enhances the satisfaction level (Garcia, 2010).

4.6.1 The Hong Kong Tourist Satisfaction Index

According to this model, satisfaction is analyzed with the gap between tourists’ expectations and perceived performance. When the difference become negative, it means tourists are unsatisfied. In a study conducted by (Song, et al., 2012), differences between expectations and perceived performance of tourists at Hong Kong were observed. According to that study the tourists’ perceived value exceeded their expectations level. The perceived value exceeded with 0.31 for destination attractions, 0.23 for restaurants and 0.22 for hotels and retail shops.

Another study was conducted to find out the satisfaction index of mainland Chinese tourists who visit Hong Kong. Overall, all mainland Chinese tourists are satisfied with Hong Kong tourism. The aggregate index of mainland Chinese tourists’ satisfaction is 74.04 out of 100. The highest satisfaction level is observed for Hong Kong hotel and retail sector (Song et al., 2011).

According to a study, a group of 670 people visited Hong Kong for a week. This group of 670 people experienced sampan ride and other fun rides, shopping at specialty markets and exclusive events. They visited Chinese garden, temples, aquariums and exotic restaurants. Even though, there expectations were high still the tour to Hong Kong proved above their expectations (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2010).

4.7 Evaluation

Chinese are becoming more interested towards tourism activities. From past few years, there has been observed an increase in number of tourists to Hong Kong. Hong Kong is one the famous tourists destinations among the world. There are four reasons that attract Mainland Chinese towards Hong Kong i.e. destination attraction, tourism products, tourists’ satisfaction and government policy. Hong Kong is quite attractive as tourists’ destination because it has perfect climate, safety measures, clean environment, easy access to all communication means and all other facilities. The attractions of Victoria harbour, Disney land, western market and police museum are astonishing. It has all those facilities that are demanded by business tourists. From banking, shopping malls, hospitals to conventions, it has everything making Hong Kong a perfect destination for business persons. The attractions of Hong Kong do not only attract business tourists while many tourists come to Hong Kong to enjoy holidays as well. The quality of tourism products and services at Hong Kong is good. The hotels, restaurants, destination management organizations, tourism agencies and other tourism products and services providers are highly committed to provide good quality goods. The prices of high quality goods are always quite reasonable at Hong Kong. This is another reason that attracts Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong. Even though, it has many attractions but the product and price factor is playing major role in attracting tourists to Hong Kong. The government is playing significant role in managing overall destination attraction and product quality. It has implemented many policies and schemes to improve tourism quality. Through tax diminishing policies, heavy investment in tourism industry and sustainable tourism management, it has become successful to make Hong Kong a competitive destination. By keeping a stable level of inflation is another important factor. It can be concluded that its government is managing destination attraction and tourism products quality and prices. If government will stop doing so, Hong Kong’s attraction can be decreased. From this study it can be said that tourists’ satisfaction is result of destination attraction, tourism products and services and government policy. If a destination does not possess these things, there are very less chances that tourists will become satisfied with that destination.

4.8 Summary

In this chapter, data from reports, journals and books is described, analyzed and evaluated. According to findings, Hong Kong is a destination that has many attractions for tourists. These attractions are for both business and leisure travellers. Hong Kong offers quality products at reasonable cost. Its government is playing a vital role by investing in tourism industry and introducing favourable policies for tourists and tourism service providers. As a result of these attractions, quality products, low prices and favourable policies, tourists become satisfied and they recommend this destination to others and re-visit Hong Kong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER NUMBER 5 - CONCLUSION

5.1. Introduction

In the conclusion chapter of the research, the summary of the findings is given. In addition to this the most important and significant part for other researchers is the future research directions. In this dissertation same plan has been followed. Also, the research objectives and research questions have been matched up so as to present where these important points have been accomplished throughout the whole research.

5.2. Summary of Findings

Tourism activities gained a boom after world war era. Since post world war era till now, there have been observed many changes in tourists’ behaviour. Changing consumer behaviour is considered a determinant of changing tourists’ behaviour. Tourists visit one destination because of entertainment, study, leisure, social, business etc. There are many factors that motivate mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. As identified in this dissertation destination attraction, tourism products and service, tourists’ satisfaction and government policy are the main factors that motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.

A destination can become attractive because of its natural sceneries, cultural attractions, climate, and smooth political and economic environment. Hong Kong, as an urban, alpine and unique-exotic-exclusive destination, has many attractions. These attractions are playing an important role in attracting tourist from not only Hong Kong but from all over the world. The mainland Chinese are inclined to visit Hong Kong because Hong Kong offers the very strong Chinese culture. The affiliation of Chinese with their religious temples and cultural heritage attracts them to visit Hong Kong. Hong Kong, as an urban destination, is more attractive for business tourists. From natural attractions and cultural heritage to exclusive shopping destinations, Hong Kong is the complete package for tourists. It can be concluded that as hypothesized Hong Kong is an attractive destination and this attraction motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.

The tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong are of extreme good quality and standard. The prices of products offered are quite reasonable. Hong Kong does not fall under destinations that can be classified as ‘luxurious’ destinations but it is a ‘necessity good’ destination. The findings of this dissertation say that product quality and low price has a major influence in motivating mainland Chinese to tour Hong Kong. Thus, as expected the Hong Kong has good quality of tourism products and reasonable prices and this attracts tourists from mainland China to Hong Kong.

Tourists’ satisfaction is another motive for visiting specific destination. When tourists’ become satisfied from one destination, their loyalty to that destination increases and they visit that again. The satisfaction does affect motivation of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. But satisfaction is the result of high quality tourism products and services, overall destination attraction and favourable tourism policies. When a destination possesses these three things tourists become satisfied. Their satisfaction level motivates them to visit the destination again and recommend the destination to others. Thus we can conclude that satisfaction affects motivation in an indirect way. The relationship between satisfaction and motivation of tourists is mediated by tourism products, destination attraction and government policy.

Government policy plays an important role in attracting tourists. Destinations with friendly government policy attract more tourists. Successful tourism planning, Integration of tourism and other development policies, Flexibility in tourism policy are required for sustainable tourism development in any destination. The government of Hong Kong is playing an important role in making Hong Kong a competitive destination. The favourable and flexible tourism policies, schemes, development plans, quality assurance programs, constructions of new man-made attractions and protection of natural attractions through sustainable tourism management by tourism commission and Hong Kong tourism board have made Hong Kong a wonderful destination to visit.

5.3. Matching the Research Objectives with Whole research

This research has aim to examine the motivational forces for mainland Chinese tourists that attracts them to visit Hong Kong. This aim is fulfilled with the help of objectives.

  • This objective has been accomplished in the literature review of the research where the motivations are listed in a separate heading. This aim is fulfilled with the help of objectives.
  • To examine the motivational forces for mainland Chinese tourists that attracts them to visit Hong Kong
  • To find out role of tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong in attracting Mainland Chinese Tourists.
  • To investigate the impact of government policy on travelers' motivation.

To study main factors that attracts Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Hong

  • To find out role of tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong in attracting Mainland Chinese Tourists – this objective has been accomplished in the analysis and findings of the research where more information and secondary data is presented.
  • To investigate the impact of government policy on travelers' motivation – in the analysis of the research the governmental policy has been discussed in detail in a separate heading. The results showed that government of Hong Kong is playing a very significant role in attracting tourists. It has introduced many schemes and programmes and those programmes have proved very effective in attracting tourists from Mainland China.
  • To study main factors that attracts mainland Chinese was another objective of this research. In this study, researcher found out that the attractions of Hong Kong, effective role of government of Hong Kong and quality of tourism products and services is resulting in tourists’ satisfaction. Thus, the main factors that attracts mainland Chinese are destination attractions, government policy, products and services and tourists’ satisfaction.

5.4. Matching the Research Questions with Whole research

The research questions of the dissertation are presented in the following points with their accomplishment.

  • What are those factors that motivate mainland Chinese travelers to visit Hong Kong?' this question has been answered both in the literature and analysis of the research.
  • What are specific factors or key motivators explained in the literature regarding the Chinese travellers to visit Hong Kong? The motivators have been discussed many times in the previous researches. In this research too, the motivators have been defined and identified both in the literature and analysis of the research.
  • How Chinese government can improvise to attract more Hong Kong travellers? The governmental policy is revealed in the fourth chapter of the research.

5.5 Implications of study

This study is conducted to explore the motivational forces that motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. The literature stated that destination attraction, tourism products and services, satisfaction of tourists and government policy are motivational forces that attract tourists. The expectations of research are met to a certain extent. The positive and direct relationship between destination attraction, tourism products and services, satisfaction of tourists and government policy and motivation of tourists to visit Hong Kong was expected. The results showed that there is direct and positive relationship between destination attractions, tourism products and government policy with motivation of tourists. On the other hand, the satisfaction has positive but indirect relationship with motivation of tourists. The relationship between satisfaction and motivation of tourists is mediated by destination attractions, tourism products and government policy. Overall, the findings of study match with existing literature about motivational forces for tourists. The aim of the study was to investigate motivational factors for mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. The aim of research is fulfilled as the researcher successfully examines the motivational forces for mainland Chinese tourists that attract them to visit Hong Kong, found out role of tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong in attracting mainland Chinese tourists, investigated the impact of government policy on travellers’ motivation and studied main factors that attracts Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.

5.6 Limitations

There are many limitations of this dissertation. This dissertation is completely based on secondary data. In this dissertation, the data is collected only through journals, books and reports. The tourists from Mainland China are not approached. This dissertation is a qualitative study and it is another limitation of this dissertation. This dissertation considers only four motivational factors for tourists and other factors are ignored.

5.7 Directions for Future Research

This dissertation is based on secondary data and research with same variables needs to be conducted by using primary data. As the researcher wanted to conduct this research with the primary data but things unfolded and he used secondary sources to conduct this research. In future, it is recommended to conduct this study with the help of primary data. The perception of mainland Chinese can better present their motivation to visit Hong Kong. The research need to be conducted by using perception of Mainland Chinese tourists regarding destination attraction, tourism products and government policy. For future research, it is suggested to conduct a quantitative study by using primary research method. It is suggested to conduct a research on same variables by comparing Hong Kong with its competitors e.g. Singapore, Macau or any other.

5.8. Summary

In this chapter the researcher has tried to portray the important points related to the findings of research. Likewise introduction, the conclusion part of the research identifies the summary of the findings. In addition to this some of the recommendations of implications for future researchers is also part of this chapter.

5.9.Recommendations

This study is conducted to find out those factors that motivate Mainland Chinese tourists to visit Hong Kong. The findings of this study have practical implications as well. On the basis of findings of this study, following recommendations are given.

  • Natural and man-made attractions attract tourists from all over the world. So the first thing that is needed to develop tourism industry is to develop natural and man-made attractions. So, countries must have to develop unique attractions in a destination if they want to attract tourists.
  • As findings of the study stated that the quality of tourism products and services is also significant. Therefore, destination management organizations, government, and tourism agencies should give utmost importance to quality of products and services.
  • Countries should utmost importance to development of sustainable tourism. The government of country has to play the lead role in development of this industry. They have to introduce such policies that are effective for attracting tourists from all over the world. Hong Kong has become able to attract tourists from many countries. The lead role is played by government of Hong Kong. So, all those countries that aim to attract tourists, have to introduce different techniques, promotional schemes and innovative policies to develop this industry.
  • The satisfaction of tourists comes when above-mentioned points are achieved. So to satisfy tourists, importance should be given to all above-mentioned points.

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  • APPENDIX

List of Figures

Figure 1

 

 

 

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Figure 3

 

 

Figure 4

 

 

 

Figure 5

 

 

Figure 6

 

 

Figure 7

 


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