Engineering Project Management In The Application Of Deming Cycle

This study is conducted for analyzing the application of Deming Cycle in engineering project management. The research is conducted using mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative research techniques are used. The study has used a case study of YongKang Imp Exp Co. Ltd in order to evaluate the use of Deming cycle in engineering project management. In case of quantitative research technique, the data has been collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 employees of the company. In addition to this interviews were conducted with 10 managers of YongKang Imp Exp Co Ltd. They were asked various questions related to the use of Deming cycle in project management. The study has revealed that there is a significant impact of Deming cycle on engineering project management. With the help of Deming cycle management can enhance effectiveness of engineering project. In order to ensure success of the project with increased effectiveness, the companies have to follow steps identified in PDCA cycle. With the help of proper planning and scheduling the management of engineering projects is done successfully. In the end of this research limitations and direction for future research has also been given.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1.Background

In this twenty-first century, companies have to face a lot of competition due to increased globalization, advancements in technology, customers’ demands, change in business world and liberalisation of trade. The high level of liberalisation results in unleashing of competitive market forces and companies have to bring various kinds of changes in order to survive in this business world (Sokovic et al, 2010). Due to rapid growth in construction industry of China, the demand for decoration materials has also been increased to great extent. Companies are in strong need of focusing towards adaptation of technology and designs that are energy saving. The living standards of people are increased and rate of consumption of energy has also been increased. There is a great concern of people towards energy utilization and protection of environment. In order to get long term success and growth, companies have to adapt, respond and align their strategies with requirements of business world (Delen and Dalal, 2008). In order to sustain as highly progressive and productive, companies use different kinds of tools and techniques in order to ensure high level of competitiveness. In recent days, management of organizations focus considerably on taking logical decisions with formulating innovative and creative strategies (Sage and Rouse, 2009). Organizations use various kinds of tools and techniques with special focus on improving quality of projects. For effectively managing a project, companies mostly use Deming Cycle through which they become capable of ensuring high quality of project. In order to implement Deming Cycle technique for managing quality of project, management has to ensure appropriate planning to use this methodology for the purpose of engineering project management. Particularly, in engineering project management, there is a strong need of ensuring high quality, as there is an involvement of various crucial and tough processes. Deming Cycle is considered to be most preferable technique that can be used by management of organizations for improving quality of engineering projects. For the purpose of successful implementation of approaches and tools, there is a strong requirement of understanding those tools and technique. Deming cycle is an effective tool used by management of organizations and it is applied in case of project management as it ensures high quality (Zeng et al, 2015).

A cycle was proposed by Deming that is termed as PDCA cycle that involves various steps. These steps have to be followed by team of an engineering project in order to improve quality. This is a technique that is applied by companies to ensure continuous improvement in an engineering project. PDCA helps in bringing continuous improvement through solving various kinds of problems. PDCA cycle involves various steps that are Plan, Do, Check and Act. PDCA cycle is used as a varied model and while following this management successfully complete one step and then moves towards further step. While adopting PDCA cycle, companies have to go through various stages, before successfully achieving outcomes (Wang et al, 2014).  There are significant advantages of PDCA cycle in engineering project management and management has to learn about ways of implementing PDCA cycle in an appropriate way. Different studies were conducted to examine the use of Deming cycle in order to manage quality in companies but very few studies were conducted on the use of Deming cycle in engineering project management.  This research is conducted on an enterprise of China that is involved in building exterior decoration in which Deming cycle is used for controlling quality of project. The typical focus of this research is on analysis of Engineering Project Management in application of Deming Cycle.

 

1.2.Problem Statement

In Engineering Project Management, there is a strong need of focusing towards quality of projects. The management of companies has to focus on some approaches and techniques through which quality of projects can be improved. In increased competitive business world, companies have to focus considerably on quality management. There is high level of effectiveness required in applying PDCA cycle in engineering project management (Son et al, 2013). While adopting this approach, companies continuously look for better approaches to be used for bringing improvement in quality. The PDCA cycle plays a significant role in doing as well as managing a project.

1.3.Research Aim

The main purpose of this research is to access influence of PDCA cycle on engineering project management. The research is focused on engineering project management that how management brings changes in project’s quality through the use of Deming cycle. Deming cycle does not result in increase in cost but as a result of Deming cycle, companies reduce their overall cost. The engineering companies have to make necessary planning for managing overall budget of projects.

1.4.Research Objectives

The research is conducted for achieving following objectives;

  • To identify the importance of Deming Cycle for effective management of project.
  • To evaluate the use of Deming Cycle in Engineering Project Management.
  • To understand Engineering Project Management in the Application of Deming Cycle.
  • To analyze the use of Deming Cycle for managing engineering projects in a building exterior decoration enterprise, China.

1.5.Key Questions and Hypotheses

This study has been conducted for getting answers to following questions;

  • What is the significance of Deming Cycle in effective management of project?
  • How companies use Deming Cycle for Engineering Project Management?
  • What is the influence of Deming Cycle in management of engineering projects in building exterior decoration enterprise of China?

1.6.Scope of Study

  • The present study is conducted on the YONGKANG OCEAN IMP. & EXP. CO., LTD operating in China and the data is collected from Project Managers of both companies related to use of Deming Cycle for managing engineering project.
  • There is a significant role of management and technical capability of manager in project management. The manager is responsible for leading the company in an effective way for successful completion of project cycle. He is the one who has the responsibility of understanding the plan and getting necessary feedback. So, present study has focused on collection of data from project manager of building exterior decoration company. The present study is mainly focused on process design and external decoration materials management.
  • In order to ensure high generalizability, large company is selected as a case study.

1.7.Structure of Dissertation

The research is divided in to five chapters;

Firs chapter is ‘Introduction’ in which background of research topic is studied. This chapter also involves research aim, objectives and questions. In this chapter, problem statement is also discussed and in the end scope of study is given.

The next chapter of this dissertation is ‘Literature Review’. In this chapter, previous studies done by different other researchers are analysed. This helped the research in identifying research gap and understanding different thoughts and findings about research topic.

Third chapter of this research is ‘Methodology’. In this chapter, all methods, approaches and techniques are described that are used in order to conduct a study.

Next chapter of this research is ‘Analysis and Findings’. In this chapter, researcher analysed the data collected from respondents and other sources through the use of software. This chapter helped the researcher in drawing valid conclusions.

In the end, the last chapter is ‘Conclusion and Recommendations’. In this chapter, results and outcomes of study are given. After writing the conclusion, limitations of present study and recommendations are given for future study.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0. Introduction

This chapter deals with analysis of previous studies conducted on the use of Deming cycle for engineering project management. In this chapter, first of all the concept of project is critically analysed. After that detailed analysis of project management is done. In the end of this chapter Deming cycle is critically analysed in order to evaluate the use of Deming cycle for engineering project management.

2.1. Project

The Project Management Institute (PMI) explains the project through two features. All of the projects are undertaken for creating outcome, service or product that is unique. These ideas develop such type of surrounding that mandates different approach of management that is utilized by operation manager. The working of operation manager is linked with improvement of current process for more time periods. Different skills are required by project manager for both definition and execution of projects. Due to the fact, that projects are temporary, they own an explained initialization and end. Project managers need to manage the initiatives of operations and then close out operations of project (Martinsuo et al, 2013).

Different skills and knowledge is required for establishment of priorities, organization of work and process for development of teams. Due to the fact that members of project identify that it is not permanent. They give direct report to project manager. The careers or reputations of project are not much influenced by failure or success. The job responsibilities affect the failure or success in the other way. The second feature of project is the delivery of unique service or product, or outcome that also alters the management aspect of work. Time should be taken by project manager for interpreting the deliverables of project, for developing the strategy and for developing the deliverables in given time, and then for execution of plan (Reiss, 2013).

Project is defined by many authors in various ways stressing its various factors. Outlining those definitions provided, project can be defined as: A temporary effort initiated following particular cycle of Starting, Planning, Definition, Execution and Closing for creating a distinct service, product, or emerges from human coordination and novel organisation, financial and material resources. Project management significantly deals with administering change and people and coordinating resources. Usually, managing a project comprise of: Recognising needs, creating achievable and clear objectives, evaluating the challenging requirements for scope, quality, cost and time; Incorporating plans, strategies, and specifications to various expectations and concerns of different stakeholders (Meredith and Mantel Jr, 2011).

According to Ikea (2009) project is defined by Project Management Institute as a temporary effort initiated to create a unique result, product or service. This exhibits that there is only one time when the project is done. If there is the case that it turns out to be repetitive, its halts to be a project; it turns out to be operation then. There are specific budget, and starting and ending dates for a project, an obviously defined range of work to be executed, also definite performance needs which are required to be fulfilled. A project is cost and time controlled functions to understand set of distinct deliverables up to requirements and standards of quality. Project can be defined as well as a unique mechanism comprising of group of controlled and coordinated actions with start and finish time and date, initiated to gain an objective in compliance with particular requirements, including time, resources, and cost constraints. Risk is involved in the project, which depicts that there are factors of reservations which require to be administered by project manager along with his team to complete the project. Resources constraints are also faced by project. This depicts that, there is the existence of confined resource always which needs maximum management endeavour to gain competence in outcomes.

A significant role is played by projects in business strategy of a firm. Concerning purposes of project, they can be recognised to wrap any sectors in business extents like development, problem solving, correction, campaign etc. Projects are evaluated also as gradually elaborated. Concerning this, increasingly points to the scheduling in steps, enduring progressively by increments, and is explained when projects are carried out with details and care, and developed comprehensively. Thus, projects are taken into account as growing and detail-oriented (Lipke et al, 2009).                           

2.2. Phases of project

By definition, there is a start and an end of project. There are also some of the defined stages in between project closeout and project kickoff. A stage depicts a combination of same operations that have less defined start and end. There is a sequence of stages, where the prior phase is complete before start of next stage. There are no clear end dates of stages and some of the operations in early stage continue in the next stages. This is contrast with the milestone dates and start and ending dates of projects, which do own clear dates with assumptions that the project will be done on these dates (Hill, 2013).

Initiation

The stage of initiation of project depicts the operations that are linked with the startup of project. Operations performed in the starting stage involves the acquirement of infrastructure of project management, identification of infrastructure, development of the resources required for the development of plan, identification of project team and kick off meetings. In projects, when there is no well-defined scope for work, the project team makes investment of resources and time for development of clear work scope. In projects, when there is no proper alignment of stakeholders, the project team increases the time and resources developing the alignment of stakeholders (Flyvbjerg, 2013). The operations that are performed in the startup stage of project are different for different projects. They involve all of the operations that are important for the startup plan of project. The startup stage initiates with assigning the project manager and it gets to end when project team owns much information for starting the development detailed budget and schedule. Unlike milestones of project, some of the operations linked with initialization of project can be detailed without making delay in the end of project. For instance, it is beneficial for project to have alignment of stakeholders from the start, but most of the time it is hard to get stakeholders committed in investing the resources and time. Sometimes it is after the working of stakeholders, that the project manager can support the alignment procedures of stakeholder (Ahlemann et al, 2013).

The experience, skills and knowledge required for the project is different for different stages. During the starting stages, the leadership requires the experience of building roadmap of project, the ability of building a team and good conceptual skills. During the closeout of project, the leadership gives more of the attention and motivation to details. On large projects, like projects of two or more than two years, it can be seen that leadership of project provides different skills that are suitable for the final stages of project (Garel, 2013).

The Project Management Institute determines that there are four major stages of project as features of life cycle of project. These four stages of life cycle are startup, planning, implementation and closeout of project. The startup phase which has been labeled by PMI deals with the initialization of project, it involves all of the required operations for the startup of project. These operations involve the acquirement of project implementation resources like equipment for communication, computers, and office space; development of conceptual budgets and schedules and holds on the kickoff meeting of project (Teller et al, 2012).

Planning

According to Demeulemeester  et al (2013) the stage of planning is labeled as ‘preparing and organizing’ by PMI. It involves the creation of detailed budget and schedules. The planning also involves the development of control plans, propcurement and detailed staffing. The stress over planning stage is basically for the interpretation like how the execution of project will be done. It involves the plan for the acquirement of resources which are needed for the execution of project. Although, in the planning stage, much of the planning is done, the adjustment of planning activity is done for responding to new opportunities and challenges. Planning operations take place in the whole project.

Execution

The stage of execution is labeled as ‘doing the work’ by PMI. It involves the major operations which are required for the accomplishment of project work. On project of construction, it involves the construction and design operations. On project related to information technology, it involves the creation of software code. On training project, it involves the delivery and development of training (Muller et al, 2013). 

Closeout

The stage of closeout deals with the closing of project. It depicts the final phase of project. Staff of project provides the project. The documentation of project is acquired. The completion of punch list or final few products is done. The client of project takes control over the item of project, and the office is closed down. The skills and resources which are required for the implementation of every stage of project are based on the profile of project. Generally, a project having more complexed profile needs more resources and skills during the stage of initiation. Projects having profile which depicts issues along with alignment needs expert resources for the development of plan. Legal problems need resources for the development of plan that look over the problems in the project. A project having low rate of complexity tends to invest more of the resources while execution of the project. This project seems to be more effective.

2.2. Project Management

Project management is termed as the discipline of starting, planning, controlling, executing and ending the team work for achievement of objectives and for fulfilling the particular criteria of success. A project is endeavour which is designed for developing unique product, outcome or service with explained initiative and end (generally time-constrained, and constrained through deliverables or funding) undertaken for meeting unique objectives and goals, typically for bringing added value or beneficial change (Burke, 2013). The nature of projects is in contrast with business, which are semi-permanent functional operations, permanent and repetitive activities for the production of services and products. The management of two systems is different, and needs the progress of management techniques and technical skills (Kerzner, 2013).

According to Leach (2014) the major challenge of project management is to acquire the objectives of projects in the given constraints. This information is defined in a project manual or user, which is developed at the start of the procedure of development. The main constraints are budget, quality, time and scope. The more ambitious and secondary challenge is to optimize the implementation of important inputs and then performing their integration for meeting defined goals.

Meredith and Mantel Jr (2011) stated that controlling, scheduling and planning every activity of the project are involved in project management in order to gain its objectives. It can be said in other words that it is the incorporation of techniques, tools, knowledge and skills to the activities of project to meet the requirements of project. Project management is achieved through integration and incorporation of processes of project management which includes introducing, planning, performing, monitoring, managing and closing.   

Project management is the implementation of technique, tools, skills and knowledge for the activities of project which are used for fulfilling the project needs. This definition depicts a compromise that is concluded through intense discussions done in the Project Management Institute (PMI) in year 1980 (Heagney, 2012). The major task done by PMI in this time period was the progress of project management being a profession. Discussion has been made like whether project management is professional with conduct code. The certifications of project management and Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) that extract from such efforts helps in promoting the development and interpretation of project. Design of some of the organizations is made for the execution of projects. Entities with construction organizations and engine ring needs to build the facilities or for hiring software. The major procedures of work present in the companies are designed in order to facilitate the execution and acquisition of projects (Chia, 2013).

Functional departments like procurement create; scheduling, estimating and core competencies are designed for facilitating projects. The ability of such companies for successful management of projects becomes competitive benefit in the organization. Projects are also used by companies for designing services or products. Major operations outside the work of functional units, department of organization or major operations cross boundaries of function transforms into a project (a task being done for creating a service or product that is unique). Because of the reason that economic pressure enhances the speed in which changes should be made in companies, leaders are making charts for the projects to enable the company to adapt to the changes more quickly (Schumann et al, 2014).

The implementation of approach of project management enhances the success because of the reason, that companies charter a project for supporting organizational change. Chartering of project is done for increasing the introduction and development of products or facilitating the divesture or merger of organizational units (Binder, 2016). 

2.3. PDCA Cycle

Different authors and references have described projects in different ways causing more stress on different approaches. Through summarization of the given descriptions, this study identifies the project as: An endeavor (which has some beginning and end time) undertaken the provided specific cycle of Initiation, Definition, Planning, ad Close to develop some new type of item, service through novel company, human resources, material resources and financial resources (Goetsch and Davis, 2014).

PDCA is dependent on “Shewhart cycle,” and was made known through Dr. W. Edwards

Deming; considered by much to be the father of quality control. While delivering the lectures in Japan in the year 1950, Deming stated that participants of Japan reduced the steps of cycle to the traditional plan which is used by now. It is quite interesting that Deming mainly preferred plan, perform, study and act because of the reason that translation of Japanese into English has connotations much more linked with the intent of Shewhart. For meaningful and smooth process of quality improvement, it is important to spend proper time in each of the stage of PDCA cycle.

The factors here consist of deliberate procedure which is dependent over the scientific method.

Another important function which is performed by PDCA is the separation of every step, as in case when it is not separated well, risk can become confounded. It helps in ensuring that improvement efforts are made in a way that will increase the degree of success. Before initializing the process of PDCA, it is most significant to assemble the participating team and then to create a communication plan related to the efforts (Pitsis et al, 2014).

 

Dr W. Edwards Deming made PDCA as a popular plan, who is determined by many being the father of quality control; although; he always proposed it being the ‘Shewhart cycle’. Later in career of Deming, the modification of PDCA was done for planning, doing, studying and acting. The idea of PDCA is dependent over scientific procedure, as developed through working of Francis Bacon. The writing of scientific method can be done as evaluation, experiment, hypothesis or plan, check and do. Shewhart explained manufactured in control, as three step procedure of inspection, production and specification. It was also related to the method of evaluation, experiment and hypothesis. Shewart stated that satisfaction should assist in changing the needs (for product) through showing that how to close the range of tolerance and how to improve the quality of products. Shewart let the analyst to take some action dependent on the outcomes of evaluation. In accordance with Deming, during the lectures taken in Japan in 1950s, the participants of Japan reduced the phases to the traditional plan which is used now; do, check and act. Demming preferred the plan; do, study and act, because of the reason that study own connotations in English (Gershon and Rajashekharaiah, 2013).

According to Dudin et al (2015) different iteration of the cycle of PDCA is repeated again and again until the solution of issue is achieved. A basic law of PDCA and scientific method is iteration – after the confirmation of hypothesis, execution of cycle helps in increasing the knowledge. Repetition of cycle let the goal to be achieved easily, generally a perfect output and operation.

 

PDCA and some other type of scientific issues are also termed as system for development of critical thinking. At Toyota, it is termed as ‘development of people before development of cars’. According to Toyota and such other organizations, problem-solving and engaged workforce utilizing PDCA is better capable of increasing the competition with the help of rigorous issue solving and innovations. This also develops a culture of issue solvers through PDCA and developing environment of critical thinkers. 

Deming led stress over iteration towards improved and advanced system, therefore PDCA need to integration again and again in spiral of enhancing system knowledge that should converge on the objective, each cycle close than the past one. One can envision the open coil spring, with loop as one of the cycle. PDCA depicts an increment in the system knowledge under research. This approach is dependent on the belief that skills and knowledge are limited, but they are improving. Particularly, at the initialization of project, there can be less knowledge about key information. The scientific method of PDCA gives response for justifying the hypotheses and for enhancing the knowledge. Rather than entering paralysis of analysis, it is better to be right than being wrong. Through improved knowledge, we may select to alter or refine the objective. Through PDCA approach, people can be brought closer towards their objectives (Botín and Vergara, 2015).

Rate of change can be called as improvement rate; it is the major factor in today’s world. PDCA permits for jumps in the performance which are mostly desired in the Western approach, and also in the Kaizen (small improvements being made frequently). PDCA approach is linked with project involving number of people in United Kingdom, and therefore managers like seeing large improvements of breakthrough for justification of expended efforts. However, the PDCA and scientific methods can be applied to all types of projects and improvement operations (Taylor et al, 2014). In implementation of quality tools, quality management system is important. The laws of quality management are initial point for the management of organization.  A quality management system is dependent on the integrity of support and production resources of certain organization. It enables a defect-less procedure flow in fulfilling market and standards quality needs. Integration of quality management system is the component of development procedure of organization. Owning a quality management system is prerequisite for the successful implementation on regular basis. The management needs to depict commitment regarding improvement and development of quality management system. With the help of quality management system, the leadership of organization integrates the quality policy. Along with it, a quality management system needs to be documented well. While being in function, the quality management system gives useful information acquired through different procedures and audits. If an organization targets the customer, the organization needs to choose the effective ways for the acquisition of data and market survey. Through all this, it can be confirmed that services or products of organization fulfil the expectations and demands of customers. The collected information is invaluable for the process of decision making. Continuous improvement is the fifth law of QMS  (ISO 9001:2000) and it cannot be identified without quality tools which are given with the help of four group operations of PDCA cycle or Deming’s quality cycle (Yan-min et al, 2015).

Matsuo and Nakahara (2013) stated that the PDCA cycle is the main part of the management procedure and its design is used being the dynamic model, because of the reason that one cycle depicts one total stage of improvement. The PDCA cycle is utilized in order to coordinate efforts of improvement. It led stress and depicts that programs of improvement should initiate with careful planning, and it should result into effective action, and should move on for careful planning. There is no end to the quality cycle of Deming. It is a technique which is used in order to acquire improvements in breakthrough in cost, delivery, morale, quality and safety. The major objective of PDCA cycle application is to improve the procedure. When process improvement is initiated with proper planning, it concludes in preventive and corrective actions which are supported by quality assurance tools. It in turns results into improvement of process.

Sokovic et al (2010) conducted a research on PDCA Cycle Application for the Performance Management and identified that there is some positive link in between planning phase and implementation phase. Along with it, they identified that the completion and implementation phase are dependent on one another. In the end, they identified that there is a major role of phase of implementation between completion and planning phase of project.

A project involves defined scope, it has a limited resource, consists of number of people having different skills and the ones given in the life cycle (Anisimova, 2013). Various techniques and tools are utilized in the project for monitoring, coordinating, directing and planning various approaches of business and new ways in which these techniques and tools are used which assists in developing the service or product right on time, with required quality and less cost. This also makes sure that customers get satisfied. Generally, project management is mainly used in various companies. There is no such industry, where project management is not practiced. Through project management, objectives become clearer and issues are identified. The usage of Deming Cycle helps in the isolating operations and in monitoring results. Along with it, engineering project management enhances responsibility as being the work isolation can be done and responsibilities assignment can be done very easily through this. With the help of Deming Cycle, full concentration is provided on some significant and particular tasks (Tan et al, 2011).

In central process, the standard or outcome point is compared with the actual outcomes. After the comparison of outcomes, the analysis of difference is done in order to find out corrective measurements. The basic description of monitor is followed in dynamic and repeated feature of improvement and is given by PCDA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act). This is also called as Deming Cycle (Taylor et al, 2014).

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Source: (Da Dalt et al, 2010)

According to Schwalbe (2015) the usage of PDCA cycle has been found to be much effective as it consists of the right first time aspect. When the organization adopt the cycle of PDCA, then it implies that they are looking for new ways of improvement. This not only acts as a tool, but it is an overall procedure of improvement. The most important characteristics of PDCA is in ‘act’ phase, when the project is finished and after that there is again another cycle which is initiated in order to make more improvement.

A quality management system is dependent on the integrity of support and production resources of any particular organization. It let the faultless flow of process in market quality needs, standards and in fulfilling linked contracts. To implement a quality management system is a major part of process of company’s growth. Owning a quality management system at right place is a prerequisite for the prosperous application (Goodpasture, 2010). The management needs to depict commitment towards improvement and development of quality management system. With the help of quality management system, the leadership of the organization does the implementation of the quality policy. Along with it, there should be well-documentation of quality management. While in operation, the quality management system gives some beneficial information which is acquired through analysis of processes and audits. If the target of organization is customer, the organization needs to choose the efficient way for the market survey and data acquisition for the confirmation that the services or products of organization fulfill the expectations and demands of customers. The collected information is of no value in the process of decision making dependent on facts. Analysis and data collection is also important for defining chances for more processes and for the improvement of product quality. Continuous improvement is basically the fifth law of QMS (ISO 9001:2000) and it cannot be determined without quality tools which are depicted with the help of four activities group of Deming quality cycle or PDCA cycle (Fewings, 2013). The PDCA cycle is the main part of procedure management and its design is made in order to be used as being the dynamic model because of the reason that one cycle depicts one full improvement step. The PDCA cycle is used in order to coordinate efforts of improvement. It lead stress and depicts that improvement programs should be initiated with proper planning, it should conclude as an effective action, and then it should move towards careful planning like being in a continuous cycle. The Deming’s cycle has no end. It is a technique which is used in order to acquire the breakthrough improvements in objectives of critical business, delivery costs, morale, quality, and safety (Montgomery, 2010).

The accomplishment of one cycle continues with the start of the next one. A PDCA-cycle involves four steps consecutively which are as follows:

  • Plan- analysis of what should be improved through taking into account the major areas that have some opportunities for alteration. Decision like what should be altered.
  • Do- to implement the alterations being decided on the phase of planning.
  • Check- measurement and control of products and processes according to alterations which have been made in the past phases and according to needs, goals and policy on products. Reports on outcomes.
  • Act- reaction or adoption to the alteration or executing the PDCA-cycle again and again. Keeping the improvement in an on-going process.

The basic objective of PDCA-cycle application is the process improvement. When process improvement initiates with the planning, it causes preventive and corrective actions which get support through suitable tools of quality assurance which results into improvement of process.

Salah et al (2010) defined the PDCA Cycle is the continual improvement of model which was termed as the Deming Cycle after it was being introduced by Dr. W. Edwards to the Japanese, who referred it as being Shewhart Cycle. For CI it acts as a problem-solving approach. As Singapore technologies Automobile, described that PDCA Cycle is significant and beneficial concept in BIT. It let us to refer to the issue in a systematic way, where the collected data support the decision and solve the issues. The PDCA cycle helps the team not to go to the results directly but to find out the major reasons of issues. The PDCA Cycle can be used for the management and checking of project progress. Through following the steps, the team gets even better chance for the completion of project right on time (Heagney, 2012).

In accordance with Zeng et al (2015) the PDCA Cycle is used in different companies which work with methodologies of Lean. While PDCA Cycle is basically used for the processes of work, it can be increased for using on level from projects to organization and in between different organizations. DMAIC is the other related problem solving approach for PDCA Cycle: define, measure, analyze, improve and control process. While the basic usage of PDCA Cycle is in projects of Lean Production and companies, DMAIC is utilized in Lean Six Sigma projects and Six Sigma projects. The major difference in between these is this that the DMAIC can act as more efficient when the target is to decrease and control the processes variations.

The usage of Percent Plan Complete value while engineering work develops the base of information for launching programs for improvement in the organization of shipbuilding. This allows the usage of PDCA cycle for achievement of 100% completion of the operations at the end of phase of planning. At one place, the department of engineering, the PPC let the discipline owners and leaders to know about the work, which need more attention for avoiding process delays. These processes are described during the planning phase. They need attention in order to avoid the errors in the process of decision-making in the evaluation procedure. Along with it, the use of PPC allows the identification of improved operations. It features the performance of system at the level of activities and makes the departmental and organizational work that makes participation in the construction and planning transparent (Sobek II and Smalley, 2011). This let the building the general interpretation of the direction for making improvement in the activities, selection and implementation of practical actions. As an answer to some major issues of planning phase of operations, experts of lean planning look over the development of reserves of ready works. Ready tasks are termed as the tasks which are in ready state, like they can be executed now and they do not make any disturbance in the planning order. That is why; the reserves which are ready for the execution makes sure the flow alignments of engineering works and they prevent resources from being idle and give more options for tackling uncertainty.

In accordance with the use of PDCA cycle, there is more stress on planning for elimination of source of less information, wrong sequencing and errors, which are the basic reason of uncertainty. Lean-planning is basically the fact-linked approach where people go on the site where there is issue and make opinions on their own. Those who do some work have to make plan for avoiding distortion of information and for identifying the needs for sound operations. That is why; the work leaders need to run the week plans (Ajelabi and Tang, 2010). The major focus is to decrease the time frame which is needed to process different operations and continuous improvement of the process with the help of PDCA approach for keeping solution spaces open. This allows coping up with the certainty level through development of flexibility. That is why; the major benefit of lean planning is that it proves to be the effective way of communicating information in the dynamic surroundings. Most of the lean thinking is based on human system needing more involvement of employee because of the reason that they are the ones who will make decisions. This condition causes a risk of error in the process of decision making linked with the human behavior (Riley et al, 2010).

 

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.0. Introduction

Methodology is a chapter that helps in describing the process and method utilized for the purpose of data collection. In current study researcher has used research onion presented by Saunders et al (2009). In this research onion, a whole research process is presented. In this chapter a detailed discussion about methods, sampling, philosophy, and data collection and so on is given. In addition to this, pros and cons of various methods are given for the purpose of justification of selecting one method. There is a presence of some imperfections that are also discussed in this chapter.

In addition to this, before formulation of research methodology, it is vital for researcher to choose a sample size from which data can be collected. The selection of sample size is considered to be an important aspect in case of devising of research methodology because sample size is the basic source of data collection. In order to achieve this aim, both questionnaires and interviews are used to collect data. For the purpose of data collection, researcher had to ensure that proper permission has been taken from the organisation from where sample is to be taken. In order to get permission from the organisation, a formal letter was taken from the university that helped the researcher in collecting data from members of organisation.

In any kind of research, methodology is considered to be vital. The validity of research depends on the methodology that is used by the researcher (Heely and Perry, 2000). If researcher does not do effective planning and management of methodology then this results in poor validity and reliability of results (Kothari, 2004). If research is not conducted with rigorous methodology then generalizability of research becomes low (Kumar and Phrommathed, 2005). In this study, different attempts have been made by researcher for maintaining standards and quality of research and ethical considerations have also been fulfilled. The researcher has ensured that no misleading results can be given as an outcome of the research.

3.1. Choice of research methodology

In order to conduct a research study, two types of methods can be used. These research methods are quantitative and qualitative research method. There are various pros and cons of each method. In this section, a description about both methods and justification for selecting one method is given.

3.1.1. Qualitative Research Method

One of the research methods that can be used for conducting a research is qualitative research method. This method helps in translating and interpreting the true meaning of terms related to various processes (Bryman, 2004). In order to do in-depth analysis, it is best to use qualitative research method (Gummenson, 2000). Observations, interviews, case studies and discussions with target groups are some of processes used for the purpose of data collection. The collection of data is done through with the help of different techniques like debriefing, content analysis and observations (Cooper and Schindler, 2007).  

In order to generate more content of information, this qualitative research method is considered to be helpful (Smith, 2008). In order to develop knowledge about the research issue, a lot of information can be gained through this technique. However, there are some disadvantages of this method like one of the biggest disadvantages of this method is biasness. The researcher has to face personal biasness while using this method. It is quite difficult for a person to get control over the biasness. The personal biasness in a research results in misleading outcomes. This limitation of qualitative research method does not make it feasible to use. In addition to this, the generalizability and reliability of research are also low in this method. Due to this reason, it is argued by some researchers that this research method produces some questionable results (Cresswell, 2007).

3.1.2. Quantitative Research Method

Another research method is quantitative research method that includes quantification of elements present in a research. In order to quantify various concepts, elements and events various tools and techniques are used by the research. This method involves primarily the quantification of data. Even the qualitative data is quantified through various scales. While using quantitative research method, surveys, questionnaires are used for the purpose of accumulating data. In order to analyse the data accumulated through quantitative research method, descriptive, regression, correlation and reliability tests are used. With the help of reliability statistics, the reliability and consistency of research instrument is tested. In addition to this, regression and correlation analysis help in testing the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Moreover, researcher uses descriptive statistics to summarize the total sample used in the study (Cresswell and Miller, 2000). One the major advantage of using quantitative research method is having control of researcher over biasness. As, it involves the use of questionnaire, so, there are no chances of having biasness. This feature of quantitative research method makes the research reliable and the generalizability of research is also increased. However, with the help of this research method, limited content can be generated (Miles and Huberman, 1994).

3.1.3. Research Method Adopted

In current study, on the basis of research issue and pros and cons of both methods, mixed method has been used that involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative research method (Patton, 2002). With the help of mixed method approach, the researcher became capable of exploring the research issue through quantitative as well as qualitative method. Through this method, the reliability and accuracy of results can be increased. In addition to this, mixed method helps in reducing the personal biasness and getting wider perspective about the research issue. This method has been used to gain more information from the company relevant to engineering project management in the application of Deming Cycle. The current study has used integration of quantitative (positivism) and qualitative (interpretivism) method through which the method is transformed in to mixed approach. This mixed research method also involves utilization of two different philosophies that are positivism and interpretivism.

The mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research methods is considered to be very appealing and reliable for the study. With the help of qualitative research method, the researcher can collect maximum information. So, through the use of qualitative research method, wide range of data related to engineering project management can be accumulated from building exterior decoration enterprise. In this study, engineering project management and Deming Cycle are major issues to be studied. For identifying detailed and exact results of study, it was more significant to use mixed research method. In contrast to qualitative research method, researcher controlled the biasness of research through quantitative research method and reliability and generalizability of results are ensured.

Mixed research method is used frequently in different studies. This makes easier for researcher to collect and analyse data.  Moreover, through mixed approach, outcomes of study can easily be contrasted and compared and due to this data analysis is made more crucial. The quantitative data is collected from employees of Yongkang Ocean Imp & Exp Co. Ltd whereas qualitative data is collected from managers of the same company.

 3.2. Research Philosophy

It provides support in providing enquiry and knowledge that strengthen mixed procedures including quantitative and qualitative. A lot of discussion has been founded in the research regarding pragmatism. In few discussions, it is termed as methods blend on other it’s termed as 3rd substitute method in which there is the requirement of both qualitative and quantitative method to provide suitable findings (Tashakkori & Creswell, 2007), now and then it is termed as new convention which involves that there is a need for utilization of mixed procedures in social studies in order to gain required results, eventually it is termed as a method in which there is involvement of common sense. These four approaches assist in the recognition of pragmatism. In order to gain efficient results, a solo philosophy does not provide assistance. There must be the involvement of Interpretivism with positivism. This is the reason that this philosophy is likely to be more engaging with contrast to other philosophies. Nevertheless, time and the constraint may not allow a study to commense on such philosophy.      

3.2.1. Positivism

Positivism is the second type of philosophy which has been involved most commonly in business researches in recent times because philosophy is connected more with posture of scientists. The studies which involve positivism operate with more social certainty which can clearly be seen. With regard to Remenyi et al. (1998), by involving positivism a law can incorporated which is generalisable, to the population (Remenyi, et al., 1998). There has been involvement of theories in the past by researchers in order to generate data and producing hypothesis. In order to test hypotheses, the data collected with the help of either qualitative or quantitative method, is involved (Blaikie, 2000). The report of evident matters has been involved in positivism. The facts have been reported with regard to their occurrence in this philosophy (Easterby-Smith, et al., 2008). In addition to this, positivism is required to follow greater structure methodology which is suitable for reproductions. Positivism is not suitable for investigative studies. Moreover, quantitative method of research is involved in positivism which involves numerical facts and figures, and information to be interpreted (Blaikie, 1993).

3.2.2. Realism

The type of philosophy which relies on social events and inquiries is known as Realism. Realism defines that the occurrence of various objects is not dependent on human mind. The fact is quite dissimilar in contrast with the assumptions. This philosophy is against Idealism. The approach of realism is similar to positivism as it recognizes the investigation of matters. The researchers who involve realism in their research follow an examination for production of knowledge. The data is collected using realism and interpretation is done depending on the nature of data (Saunders et al., 2009).        

3.2.3. Interpretivism

The type of philosophy which is involved for interpreting variations in human being with the variation of their role in the society is known as interpretivism (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003). In this type of philosophy, humans are treated as objects. It is required for interpretivism that while studying human behavior, the same objective must not be followed which was followed on objects and events during research. Interpretivism is closely connected with theatre allegory which involves the understanding of roles which are being played by humans (Eriksson & Kovalainen, 2008). The studies which stress on the human behaviors follow this philosophy (Saunders et al., 2009). The involvement of this philosophy is with qualitative researches in which there is conduction of observational interviews and researches (Saunders, et al., 2007). 3.2.4. Research Philosophy Adopted  

This research has used the combination of interpretivism and positivism research philosophy. The combination of both philosophies is also known as the pragmatism (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003). The rationale for relying on this research philosophy is that it allows to use the appropriate method for each research question. Pragmatism research philosophy does not bound the researcher to rely on one philosophy and it permits the researcher to select those methods which are considered feasible. Therefore, this research has used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The positivism aspect of this philosophy has helped the researcher to cover wide range of issues regarding the project management using the Deming cycle. Moreover, such studies are quite economical and fast. It allows collecting the large data in the minimum time (Remenyi et al., 1998). Furthermore, the interpretivism aspect of this philosophy allows to look at the change of processes over time. It helps in understanding the meanings behind the research issues in a better manner. Most importantly, this philosophy allows to adjust new ideas and issues as per their emergence. Moreover, it also contributes heavily in the process of theory development (Ramamurthy, 2011). In short, the rationale for selecting the pragmatism philosophy is to minimize the weaknesses of both positivism and interpretivism and exploit the advantages associated with both philosophies. Therefore, pragmatism is selected for analyzing how project management can apply the Deming cycle.

3.3. Development of research instrument

Questionnaire has been used like a research instrument for the collection of data from participants. The questionnaire involves some close ended questions regarding the variables which are under research. At first, there is a demographic section; the demographic section involves all of the questions related to the demography of participants. After this many of the variables were found regarding the practices of health and safety management and after this, some of the items exist related to the welfare and wellbeing of employees. In accordance with the past researches and the information gathered through them, a structure questionnaire had been developed. For ensuring the quantification of research, five point likert scale has been used in questionnaire. According to Babbie (2015), because of fewer points of the scale, data interpretation can be done in an easy way. The questionnaire has been validated with the help of conformity and factor analysis with supervisor. Before distributing the questionnaire, the reliability of questionnaire is tested with the help of alpha test of Cronbach. The questionnaire has also been designed through internet and for some of the participants it was transferred with the help of email.

3.4. Piloting

Before the overall analysis and collection of data, a test was conducted known as pilot test. In pilot test, the data was collected from 10 managers and 50 employees with the help of questionnaire. The distribution of questionnaire was done. At first, questionnaires were distributed only to 10 of the employees and interviews were conducted with 3 of managers for acknowledging that if respondents will easily interpret it. Along with it, for acknowledging the hypothesis of research and direction of links, correlation and regression analysis has also been done.

3.5. Data Collection

Two of the methods can assist in the collection of data. These two methods are termed as primary data collection method and secondary data collection method (Marczyk et al, 2005). In this research, both of the data; primary and secondary have been collected for deriving results that are valid. The collection of primary data has been done through questionnaire. The collection of primary data was done from 50 employees and 10 managers. Questionnaires helped in the collection of primary data. The primary data is termed as data that is gathered for first time, like such data has not existence in the past (Peffers et al, 2007). For collection of primary data, questionnaires were used. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 employees of Yongkang Ocean ImpExp Co. Ltd. To collect the data was not an easy task for researcher, as participants usually look over the privacy problem and they mostly face a fear that organization may penalize them to share information related to the organization. The collection of data was done in accordance with the will of employees. No employee was forced to fill up the questionnaire. All of the participants were provided with details related to the topic of research. Along with it, the respondents got surety that the data will be confidential and there will be no identification of individuals. Before distributing questionnaires, cover letter was given to the respondents for the objective of research. Such cover letters involve the addressing of apprehension of participants. All of the participants were given much time period for filling up the questionnaire. The confidence was given to all of the participants for making them to feel ease and comfort during the filling of questionnaire. The basic purpose behind choosing employees is that through multi-actor view, the reliability and validity of the research can be increased (Merriam, 2002). Along with it, this procedure of primary data through questionnaire involves more practicality. Through questionnaires, researcher was enabled to collect a large amount of data and it helps in accomplishing the objective of research. In addition to questionnaires, interviews were also conducted. The researcher conducted interviews from 10 managers of the company to get their insights about engineering project management in the application of Deming Cycle.

Along with the primary data, secondary data collection method can also be used. The resources through which secondary data can be collected are internet sources, newspapers, articles and books. These resources have been used in the current research for developing the theoretical base of the research. This data was used to write the literature view in which analysis of various researches and studies regarding the influences of health and safety management practices is done. This data helped in acquiring the interpretation related to the research problem. Through secondary data, the base of research was designed and researcher was acknowledged of producing a path that should be followed during the conduction of research.

3.6. Choice of a Sampling

The major objective quantitative and empirical issues is to analyze the meaning of particular procedure with the help of objectives of respondents, therefore it is significant to select that sample which help in acquiring the maximum learning (Merriam, 2002). In current research, case study of Yongkang Ocean ImpExp Co. Ltd has been used for collecting the data. 10 of the managers and 50 of the employees were selected depending upon the non-profitability sampling termed as objective sampling. The rationale behind selection of such technique of sampling is that it gives detailed interpretation, and insight and it assists in identifying approaches in more detail. Through this sampling technique, the researcher has acquired the potential to acquire more of the information (Merriam, 1998). Along with it, it also permits the selection of such cases which involves more of the information and are enough able to answer research questions in more satisfactory way (Patton, 1990). 50 employees and 10 managers were chosen as sample in this research. For performing an effective analysis, 50 employees and 10 managers are enough (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).

3.7. Validity

The validity testing of questionnaire is done through researcher composing the same. The questionnaire is responsible to test face validity, content validity and construct validity. The professionals of health and safety management get contact through researcher for the rationale of face validity and content. For the field of construct research, the contacts are made with the school of research of quality management. After admitting the response from professionals and schools, changing is done in the questionnaire before providing sample for the collection of data. It is important for the questionnaire to look over the reliability congruent with the validity (Merriam, 2002).

3.8. Reliability

Reliability is linked with the data steadiness. Assistance is given through reliable data in illustrating inference with uncertainty. There should not be any effect of collected data over quality of research. Facts should not get any solidification through data. After the questionnaire gets ratified through professionals and schools, testing of questionnaire is done for reliability. For consistent instrument, reliability of results is a very important approach. The perspective may not get accomplished through research if data is not reliable. The study can become void in this case (Saunders et al, 2007). The instrument is checked for its reliability through researcher with the help of processes. These processes consist of some congruent methods, product total analysis, inter-term consistency, consistency analysis and test retest method. The involvement of different processes is ensured that instrument is more reliable. The data should be reliable for ensuring the reliability of acquired results in addition with research (Saunders et al, 2009).

3.9. Ethical considerations

According to recommendation of Alvesson and Deetz (2000), this research effectively fulfils all the ethical requirements of conducting the business research while analysing the engineering project management in the application of Deming Cycle. The sample of this research study is employees and managers of Yongkang Ocean Imp Exp Co Ltd. Therefore, these were communicated about the research aim and objectives before their participation. It was clearly told to them what the purpose of this research is and why it is conducted and how their given data will be used in this research. As Bryman and Bell (2007) told the ethical standards state that it is important to communicate the research participants about the research aim and objectives. Therefore, this research study clearly communicated the aim and objectives before their participation are ensured. As per suggestion of Blaxter,  Hughes and Tight (2010), No one was being forced to either become part or interview or the questionnaire. An information sheet was being circulated to all of the interviewees. Moreover, the consent form was being signed by all the participants before their participation. In this consent form, it was being written that they are free to withdraw from this research at any time. There was no coercion on the participants to become part of the study (Collins, 2010). As per suggestion of Cooper and Schindler (2007), the confidentiality agreement also existed among the researcher and the participants. The information of participants will never be revealed to any party without their consent. The identity of the participants could not be revealed in any manner. Moreover, as Creswell (2009) recommended, there will be no fabrication of data in any manner. While reporting and analyzing the research findings, the researcher has kept its biasness at the lowest possible level. Especially while analyzing the qualitative data, the preconceived ideas and notions of the researcher were avoided. The secondary data which is used in the literature review is effectively cited and referenced to ensure that the actual author is acknowledged for his/her work.

3.10. Data analysis

The quantitative analysis has used the quantitative analysis techniques. The data is analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The IBM version is used for the analysis. The questionnaire data was put into the SPSS data sheet. The data is analyzed using various statistical techniques including the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Moreover, the results and findings are presented through charts, graphs and tables.

The qualitative analysis is analyzed using the qualitative analysis techniques. As per suggestion of Altheide (1996), the data is analyzed using thematic analysis technique. The interviews were transcribed, first. The transcriptions were read again and again to explore the new themes. This has helped to develop the themes related to the research and objectives (Angen, 2000).

3.11. Limitation

This research is completed in a very limited time. Due to time constraint, it was not possible to conduct the in-depth analysis. Limited data is collected for this research. The sample size for questionnaire could not be increased further, due to the time limitation. Moreover, interviewees’ response was not good. Therefore, the research conduct not conducts more interviews for exploring the research issue further. This research is not a funded research project, therefore, it also faced the limitation of budget. To access the sample of the research study was not easy. The willingness of few participants to participate was low, therefore, they did not provide detailed answers for the interview questions. However, still, the researcher has collected the data to the satisfactory level. 

3.12. Summary

The current study has been conducted with the help of mixed research method. Through this method, both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted. In case of quantitative research method, questionnaires are used for collecting data from 50 employees of building exterior decoration enterprise of China and in case of qualitative research method; interviews are conducted with 10 managers of company. The data collected from respondents were analysed using SPSS 20 and content analysis technique. The whole research is conducted in compliance with all ethical standards and norms.

 

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.0. Introduction

This chapter deals with analysis of data collected from respondents. In this chapter the analysis is done using different tools and techniques. First of all, demographic analysis is done and after that reliability of instrument used in research is tested. After that, responses for each question are analysed using tables and figures. In the end of this chapter, interview conducted with managers is analysed. In the end, findings of current study are compared and contrasts with previous studies and researches.

4.1. Demographic Analysis

 

Gender

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

24

48.0

48.0

48.0

Female

26

52.0

52.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

The data was collected from 50 employees of YongKang Ocean Imp Exp Co. Ltd. In order to analyse demographics of respondents, their gender was analysed. The responses of employees show that among 50 employees, there were 48 percent males and 52 percent females. Both males and females were involved in this research. The analysis shows that there were more females in the study as compared to males.

 

 

 

 

Age

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Less than 25 years

5

10.0

10.0

10.0

26-35 years

12

24.0

24.0

34.0

36-45 years

11

22.0

22.0

56.0

46-55 years

10

20.0

20.0

76.0

More than 55 years

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

Age is considered to be a very important demographic variable that has an impact on responses of individuals. Among 50 employees 22 percent employees were belong to age group of 36-45 years, 24 percent were of 26-35 years age and 24 percent of employees were belong to age group of more than 55 years.

4.2. Reliability Analysis

 

Case Processing Summary

 

N

%

Cases

Valid

50

100.0

Excludeda

0

.0

Total

50

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

 

 

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.853

16

 

In order to test the reliability of questionnaire used in the research, Cronbach’s alpha is used. The value of Cronbach’s alpha for this research instrument is 0.853 that is greater than 0.6, so it means questionnaire is reliable.

Item Statistics

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

The management used the industry standards to complete the project.

3.86

.756

50

The project experienced a high number of project development changes.

3.54

.838

50

For managing the project, average team size was used

3.58

1.180

50

The owner level of involvement was appropriate.

3.60

1.278

50

The project team members were familiar with the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it to manage their work.

3.88

.746

50

The procurement strategy and plan were communicated to the project team during Engineering.

4.00

.700

50

A formal startup execution plan including operations and maintenance philosophy was incorporated in Engineering.

3.92

.804

50

The project objective and priorities were clearly defined.

3.70

.735

50

Project management team members were clear about their roles and how to work with others on the project.

3.44

.861

50

The equipment procurement and vendor schedules were a significant challenge for this project during Engineering.

3.92

.877

50

Comprehensive constructability suggestions (e.g., preassembly*, prefabrication*, modularisation*, and offsite fabrication*) were evaluated and incorporated into the Engineering of the project.

3.72

.809

50

People on this project worked effectively as a team

3.88

.746

50

The key stakeholders (owner, design, vendors and suppliers) were fully aligned during Detailed Design / Engineering.

4.00

.700

50

Key project team members understood the owner's goals and objectives of this project.

3.92

.804

50

All of the necessary, relevant project team members were involved in an effective risk identification and management process for Engineering.

3.54

.838

50

Engineering deliverables were released in a timely manner as a result of a good Engineering work sequence on this project.

3.58

1.180

50

 

 

Item-Total Statistics

 

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

The management used the industry standards to complete the project.

56.22

57.522

.372

.850

The project experienced a high number of project development changes.

56.54

54.539

.575

.840

For managing the project, average team size was used

56.50

54.214

.389

.852

The owner level of involvement was appropriate.

56.48

57.887

.146

.871

The project team members were familiar with the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it to manage their work.

56.20

54.041

.708

.835

The procurement strategy and plan were communicated to the project team during Engineering.

56.08

54.810

.681

.837

A formal startup execution plan including operations and maintenance philosophy was incorporated in Engineering.

56.16

52.749

.768

.831

The project objective and priorities were clearly defined.

56.38

55.383

.588

.840

Project management team members were clear about their roles and how to work with others on the project.

56.64

59.051

.194

.858

The equipment procurement and vendor schedules were a significant challenge for this project during Engineering.

56.16

55.974

.428

.847

Comprehensive constructability suggestions (e.g., preassembly*, prefabrication*, modularisation*, and offsite fabrication*) were evaluated and incorporated into the Engineering of the project.

56.36

59.011

.217

.857

People on this project worked effectively as a team

56.20

54.041

.708

.835

The key stakeholders (owner, design, vendors and suppliers) were fully aligned during Detailed Design / Engineering.

56.08

54.810

.681

.837

Key project team members understood the owner's goals and objectives of this project.

56.16

52.749

.768

.831

All of the necessary, relevant project team members were involved in an effective risk identification and management process for Engineering.

56.54

54.539

.575

.840

Engineering deliverables were released in a timely manner as a result of a good Engineering work sequence on this project.

56.50

54.214

.389

.852

 

In addition to the analysis of overall reliability of questionnaire, the reliability of each item has also been tested. The above table shows that value of Cronbach’s alpha for each question is greater than 0.6. So, all items are consistent with each other.

 

4.3. Item-wise Analysis

 

The management used the industry standards to complete the project.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

6

12.0

12.0

20.0

Agree

33

66.0

66.0

86.0

Strongly Agree

7

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked for if the management has used the standards of industry for completing the project. According to the questionnaire filled up by the employees, it has been seen that 7 percent of the employees strongly agreed with the statement that industry standards have been used by management for completing the project. 33 percent of the employees agreed that industry standards are used up by the Yongkang Ocean Imp Exp Co. Ltd. On contrary to this; in accordance with 4 percent of employees the industry standards are not used by the management for completing the project. 6 percent of the employees neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be stated that industry standards have been used for the completion of project.

 

The project experienced a high number of project development changes.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

12.0

Neutral

13

26.0

26.0

38.0

Agree

28

56.0

 

56.0

94.0

Strongly Agree

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

Through the questionnaire, the employees have been asked that if the project has experienced a large number of changes of project development. In acordance with the results of questionnaire; it has been seen that 1 percent of people strongly disageeed with the statement that there were large number of project development atlerations in the project. 5 percent of the people strongly disagreed. 28 percent of the people agreeed with the statement that there were many development changes in the project. 3 percent of the people out of 100 percent were quite sure that there were much project development changes in the project. On the other hand; 13 percent of the people neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed that there were many project development changes in project. In accordance with the results of quesitonnaire; it can be concluded that not much of the project development changes have been done while conducting the project.

 

For managing the project, average team size was used

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

10.0

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

18.0

Neutral

7

14.0

14.0

32.0

Agree

25

50.0

50.0

82.0

Strongly Agree

9

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked for if the average team size was used in order to manage the project. 5 percent of the employees of Yongkang Ocean Imp Exp Co. Strongly disagreed that average team size was not used in the organisation. 4 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement that team size was not used in the company. On the other hand; according to 25 percent of employees out of 50 percent, team size was used in the organisation. According to 9 percent of employees team size was not used in the company. 7 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. According to these employees, team size is used for the management of project but not at much larger ratio. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that average team size was used in the management of project.

The owner level of involvement was appropriate.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

10.0

Disagree

6

12.0

12.0

22.0

Neutral

6

12.0

12.0

34.0

Agree

20

40.0

40.0

74.0

Strongly Agree

13

26.0

26.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

Employees were asked about hte owner level of involvmeent, like if it is appropriate or not. 20 percent of the employees agreed with the statemement that owner level of involvement was appropriate for the project. 13 percent of the employees were much happy that owner level of involvlement was appropraite. On the other hand; 6 percent of the employees did not said that owner level of involvement was not appropriate. 5 percent out of 50 employees stated that owner level of involvement was not appropriate at all. In accordance with the results of questionnaire it can be stated that owner level of involvnement was not much appropriate in the Yongkang Ocean Imp Exp Co. Ltd. 

The project team members were familiar with the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it to manage their work.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Neutral

14

28.0

28.0

30.0

Agree

25

50.0

50.0

80.0

Strongly Agree

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked about that if project team members were known with the project execution plan (PEP) and they utilised it for the management of work. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it has been seen that 10 percent of employees stated that project team members were known about the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it for the management of work. 25 percent of the employees out of 50 percent agreed that project team members knew about the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it for the management of work. Very less number of employees like only 1 percent of employees disagreed that project team members are familiar with the project execution plan (PEP) and according to them PEP is not used by them for the management of work. On the other hand; 14 percent of employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed, according to them PEP is not well familiar by project team members and they do not use it for the management of work. In accordance with the results; it can be concluded that half of the employees agree that project team members are familiar with the PEP and it is used by the employees for the management of work.

 

The procurement strategy and plan were communicated to the project team during Engineering.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Neutral

12

24.0

24.0

24.0

Agree

26

52.0

52.0

76.0

Strongly Agree

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked for if plan and procuremnt strategy were communicated to the project team durign Engineering. 12 percent of the employees neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement that plan and procurement strategy were given to the project team during Engineering. 26 percent of the employees out of 50 percent agreeed that plan and procurement strategy were delivered to the project team while conducting engineering. 12 percent of the employees were quie sure that plan and procurement strategy is delivered to the project team during Engineering. It concludes that plan and procurement strategy are communicated to the project team during Engineering.

 

A formal startup execution plan including operations and maintenance philosophy was incorporated in Engineering.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

6

12.0

12.0

20.0

Agree

30

60.0

60.0

80.0

Strongly Agree

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

Employees were asked for if formal startup execution plan involving maintenance and operations philosophy is incorported in Engineering. In acccrodance with the results of questionnaire; it has been stated that 4 percent of the employees disagreed that formal setup execution plan involving maintenance and operations philosophy were used in the engineering. 6 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed, according to them formal execution plan involving maintenance and operations philosophy is not used in the Engineering. 10 percent of the employees out of 50 percent were sure that formal startup execution plan is used in Engineering. 30 percent of the employees stated that formal startup execution plan involving maintenacne and operations philosophy was used in the Engineering. In accordance with the results of quesitonnaires; it can be concluded that formal startup execution plan is not much used in the engineering.

 

The project objective and priorities were clearly defined.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

11

22.0

22.0

30.0

Agree

31

62.0

62.0

92.0

Strongly Agree

4

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked for if priorities and project objectives were clearly explained. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it has been seen that 4 percent of the employees disagreed that priorities and project objective was clear. 11 percent of the employees neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed. 31 percent of the employees out of 50 percent agreed that priorities and project objective was clearly defined. 4 percent of the employees strongly agreed with the statement that objective of project and priorities were clear. According to the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that priorities and objectives of project were not much clear.

 

Project management team members were clear about their roles and how to work with others on the project.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

2

4.0

4.0

4.0

Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

14.0

Neutral

13

26.0

26.0

40.0

Agree

29

58.0

58.0

98.0

Strongly Agree

1

2.0

2.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked for if the projet team members knew about their roles and that how to work with other employees on project. 2 percent of the employees strongly agreed that project team members were known about their roles and how to do team work in the project. 5 percent of the employees disagreed that project team members were not clearlt known of their roles and that how to do teamwork. 13 percent of the employees neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed that proejct team members were known of their roles and that how to do teamwork. 29 percent of the employees agreed that project team members were known of their roles and they knew how to do teamwork for the project. 1 percent of the employees strongly agreed that they were given details of their role in the project and they knew that how to do team work. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that project team members knew about their role and were familiar with the terms of doing teamwork.

 

The equipment procurement and vendor schedules were a significant challenge for this project during Engineering.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Disagree

2

4.0

4.0

6.0

Neutral

9

18.0

18.0

24.0

Agree

26

52.0

52.0

76.0

Strongly Agree

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked for if equipment procurement and vendor schedules were important challenge for the project during Engineering. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that 1 percent of the employees did not agree that vendor schedules and equipment procurement were major challenge for project. 2 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement. 9 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. 26 percent of the employees stated that vendor schedules and equipment procurement were major challenge for the project during engineering. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be stated that vendor schedules and equipment procurement were the major challenge for this project.

 

Comprehensive constructability suggestions (e.g., preassembly*, prefabrication*, modularisation*, and offsite fabrication*) were evaluated and incorporated into the Engineering of the project.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Disagree

2

4.0

4.0

6.0

Neutral

13

26.0

26.0

32.0

Agree

28

56.0

56.0

88.0

Strongly Agree

6

12.0

12.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked for if the comprehensive constructability recommendations were incorporated and evaluated into the Engineering project. According to 1 percent of employees there were no recommendations of comprehensive constructabiltiy in the project. 2 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement that the incorporation and evaluation of comprehensive constructabiltiy recommendations is done into the Engineerings project. 13 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. 28 percent of the employees out of 50 percent agreed that evaluation and incorporation of comprehensive suggestions is done in projects of engineering. According to 6 percent of employees comprehensive constructabiltiy recommendations were evaluated and incorporated into the project. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that mcuh of the constructabiltiy suggestions have been incorporated into the project of engineering.

 

 

 

 

People on this project worked effectively as a team

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Neutral

14

28.0

28.0

30.0

Agree

25

50.0

50.0

80.0

Strongly Agree

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

Employees were asked for if the employees who were asked in the project, worked effectively. Only 1 percent of the employees disagreed that they did not work in effective way. 14 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. 25 percent of employees out of 50 stated that people who were involved in the project worked too much effectively. 10 percent of the employees were quite sure that working of people was effective in this project. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be stated that people worked effectively in the project. More of the improvements are required for the effective working of people in the project.

 

The key stakeholders (owner, design, vendors and suppliers) were fully aligned during Detailed Design / Engineering.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Neutral

12

24.0

24.0

24.0

Agree

26

52.0

52.0

76.0

Strongly Agree

12

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked for if the key stakeholders were aligned during Engineering. 26 percent of the employees out of 50 percent stated that key stakeholders were aligned during Detailed Design. 12 percent of the employees strongly agreed that major stakeholders (suppliers, vendors, design and owner) were aligned during Detailed Design. 12 percent of the employees neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed. In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that the alignment of stakeholders was done using Engineering.

 

 

 

Key project team members understood the owner's goals and objectives of this project.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

6

12.0

12.0

20.0

Agree

30

60.0

60.0

80.0

Strongly Agree

10

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

In accordance with the results of questionnaire; it has been seen that 30 percent of the employees stated that team members understood the objectives and goals of this project. 4 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement that project team members interpreted the objectives and goals of project. 10 percent of the employees were ensured that goals and objectives of the project are understood by the team members. 6 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed that they did not understand the objectives and goals of project. According to the results; it can be concluded that key project team members understood the objectives and goals of this project.

 

 

 

 

All of the necessary, relevant project team members were involved in an effective risk identification and management process for Engineering.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

1

2.0

2.0

2.0

Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

12.0

Neutral

13

26.0

26.0

38.0

Agree

28

56.0

56.0

94.0

Strongly Agree

3

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

Employees have been asked through questionnaire for if all of the relevant, and needed project team members were involved in manageemnt process and effective risk identification for Engineering. 1 percent of the employees strongly disagreed that relevant project team members were involved in the management process and risk identification. 5 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement. On the other hand; 28 percent of the employees agreed that there was relevant and necessary project team members in the effective management process and risk identificaiton. 3 percent of the employees strongly agreed with the statement. 13 percent of the employees neither agreed nor disagreed that all of the relevant and necessary team members were present in management process and effective risk identification for Engineering.

 

 

 

 

Engineering deliverables were released in a timely manner as a result of a good Engineering work sequence on this project.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

5

10.0

10.0

10.0

Disagree

4

8.0

8.0

18.0

Neutral

7

14.0

14.0

32.0

Agree

25

50.0

50.0

82.0

Strongly Agree

9

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

50

100.0

100.0

 

 

Employees were asked for if engineering deliverables were delivered to them in timely way because of the good sequence of Engineering work. According to the analysis of questionnaire; it has been seen that 5 percent of the employees strongly disagreed that engineering deliverables were released in time. 4 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement. 7 percent of the employees neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. 25 percent of the employees out of 50 percent stated that engineering deliverables were released in timely manner because of good sequence of Engineering work in the project. 9 percent of the employees strongly agreed that engineering deliverables were released in timely manner because of good sequence of engineering work on this project. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that engineering deliverables were released in timely manner.

4.4. Interview Analysis

 

In order to understand the importance of Deming Cycle in project management, 10 managers of Yongkang Ocean Imp Exp Co. Ltd. The interviewees were asked different questions about their way of managing projects, risk management, utilisation of tools for monitoring and controlling projects and use of various methodologies to manage construction projects. The analysis of their responses was done on the basis of themes related to PDCA cycle, continuous improvement in projects and team management in projects.

One of the managers A stated that, “In order to manage projects, we often rely on advanced tools and techniques. This helps us in managing projects effectively and efficiently. The Deming cycle is considered to be a valuable process with a wide applicability. This technique is widely used in the firm for improving performance of teams. This method is considered to be highly applicable for manufacturing.”

This is consistent with findings of Taylor et al (2014) in which they found that in companies PDCA cycle helps in improving quality of projects. By involving PDCA cycle within the culture of an organisation, the problem solving ability of firm is improved. In addition to this, it is considered to be strength of the firm.

When interviewees were asked about managing diverse teams for achieving a common goal then it was stated by manager C that, “Continuous improvement is ensured in a team for solving a particular problem. It is ensured that all employees working in a team have required skills and competencies for achieving desired improvement and goals. After establishment of teams, proper identification of resources is done and responsibilities and duties are assigned before execution of the plan.”

In the initial stages of plan, there is a need of understanding the process or system through which problems can be aroused. The problem needs to be clarified. Particularly, most of the time and effort of teams is spent on this stage of project management. After analysis of this condition, measurements of performance are defined for knowing about the targets to make improvements (Montgomery, 2010).

One of the managers F claimed that, “It is important to use performance targets for using them in evaluating outcomes of efforts done for solving problems. This technique helps in securing the achievement of improvement. It is quite difficult to specify the particular matrices for achieving desired improvement.” This statement is in contrary to findings of Sobek II and Smalley (2013) in which they argued that it is important for companies to use some specific matrices or methods for managing projects. This helps in achieving the goal of a project. In case of construction projects, it is important to follow some kind of matrices or techniques in order to manage projects in an effective way.

In addition to this, manager B stated that, “Before initiation of a project, a team is gathered that have those employees who have relevant skills and expertise. After this an informal process is initiated that involves brainstorming and discussions. On the basis of problem, various tools and techniques are used. During this process, the involved individuals are informed about the issue, for getting different ideas related to the solution.”

This analysis shows that the company focuses on preparation of every individual involved in the team before initiation of formal PDCA cycle. Most commonly, an issue is faced by companies in which they quickly start discussing and as a result draw solutions rapidly. Although this a quick method and requires less time, but it also depicts that problem is not analysed by them appropriately and there are chances of faulty solutions (Tan et al, 2011).

In case of project management, a key aim is implementing improvements for the purpose of enhancing efficient processes. The aim of effective project management is meeting the expectations of customers. In order to manage projects effectively, to do lists and proper schedules is generally used for following decisions.” As stated by manager H.

It is consistent with findings of Heagney (2012) in which they claimed that evaluation is considered to be very important in case of project management. After bringing any kind of changes, there is a need of evaluating that change. If desired improvements are not resulted due to those changes then planning phase is to be started again in accordance with Deming Cycle. The main aim is finding better solutions in accordance with current findings.

4.5. Discussion

It has been found from the current study that there is a significant impact of Deming cycle on engineering project management. In order to ensure success in the project, there is a need of applying Deming Cycle in the whole process of project management. The study has revealed that in the firm, a large number of development changes are experienced within the project. In order to this, it has been found from the analysis of data that in the company, the management focuses on communicating with the employees who work in the team. The team management is considered to be very important. This finding is consistent with the research done by Sokovic et al (2010) in which they found that employees’ contribution is considered to be very important in engineering project management. In addition to employees, customers’ feedback is also considered to be important. In order take decision about achievement of performance goals, companies usually get feedback from customers.

Moreover, the study has found that all plans and strategies of project are clearly communicated to team members before initiation of a project. This helps in achieving goals of project in timely and appropriately manner. While following the PDCA cycle, the communication is considered to be very important at the planning stage. All the planning of project is to be done along with team members. This helps in bringing continuous improvement in the project (Tan et al, 2011).

It has been revealed from the current research that in order to manage an engineering project, all team members are properly informed about their roles and responsibilities. In order to get success in the end of project, all stages of PDCA cycle have to be followed properly. This enhances the efficiency and performance of all team members and managers.

Various techniques and tools are utilised in the project for monitoring, coordinating, directing and planning various approaches of business and new ways in which these techniques and tools are used which assists in developing the service or product right on time, with required quality and less cost. This also makes sure that customers get satisfied (Zeng et al, 2015). This analysis shows that in the company selected as a case study in current research, PDCA cycle is followed by the management in order to manage projects. With the help of PDCA cycle, companies can manage engineering projects in an effective and efficient way.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

5.0. Introduction

This chapter focuses on discussion of main findings of research. The summary of results is provided on the basis of fulfilment of objectives set at the start of the research. In addition to this, the chapter aims at describing the selected research design. In order to explain the basis of current study, some theoretical evidences are also used. The results of study are stated on the basis of comparison with previous studies done by other researchers. In addition to this, the chapter also includes implications both practically and theoretically. Moreover, limitations of research are also described that can have an impact on generations of results. In light of limitations some directions for future research are also provided that can be followed by other researchers for conducting the research. Finally the conclusion of research is given.

5.1. Findings

This research has been conducted in order to analyse the use of Deming cycle for the purpose of Engineering Project Management. The conduction of research is done using quantitative research techniques. Before initiation of the research, some research objectives were set. First of all, the objective of this research was to identify the importance of Deming cycle for effective management of engineering project. This objective has been achieved by critically analysing different theories and previous studies related to Deming cycle and its implication in engineering project management. It has been revealed from the analysis that the usage of Deming Cycle helps in the isolating operations and in monitoring results. Along with it, engineering project management enhances responsibility as being the work isolation can be done and responsibilities assignment can be done very easily through this. With the help of Deming Cycle, full concentration is provided on some significant and particular tasks (Tan et al, 2011).

In addition to this, the other objective was to analyse the use of Deming Cycle for Engineering Project Management in engineering projects in a building exterior decoration enterprise, China. This objective was achieved through empirical study. For evaluating and analysing the impact of Deming cycle on engineering project management, quantitative research technique is used. By using quantitative research method, primary data is collected from 50 employees and 10 managers of Yongkang Ocean ImpExp Co. Ltd. The data from employees was collected through questionnaires and interviews were conducted with managers of the firm to get their insight about the use of Deming cycle for engineering project management. It has been found from the analysis of data that there is a significant impact on Deming cycle on project management. The company uses Deming cycle (PDCA Cycle) in order to manage its projects. In case of Deming cycle, the management follows all four steps identified in the cycle. The study has found that management of Yongkang Ocean ImpExp Co Ltd uses various strategies for managing the project. In order to complete an engineering project, industry standards are properly followed by management of the company. Moreover, the study has revealed that involvement of top level management is considered to be an important factor of Deming cycle. By following this cycle the top management focuses on high level of communication with employees and all team members. This helps in improving performance of projects (Goodpasture, 2010). The management needs to depict commitment towards improvement and development of quality management system. With the help of quality management system, the leadership of the organization does the implementation of the quality policy. Along with it, there should be well-documentation of quality management. While in operation, the quality management system gives some beneficial information which is acquired through analysis of processes and audits. If the target of organization is customer, the organization needs to choose the efficient way for the market survey and data acquisition for the confirmation that the services or products of organization fulfill the expectations and demands of customers. The collected information is of no value in the process of decision making dependent on facts. Analysis and data collection is also important for defining chances for more processes and for the improvement of product quality (Fewings, 2013).

Moreover, from findings of current study it has been revealed that PDCA cycle is considered to be major aspect of project management. In todays’ age of competitive business world, this model is used as a dynamic business model due to the fact that it helps in bringing improvement in quality of the project. Companies use Deming cycle for coordinating efforts of improvement. It also helps in reducing the level of stress and shows that an engineering project must be started with appropriate planning and concluded as an effective action. There is no end of Deming cycle; in order to ensure continuous improvement in the project. This technique is used for acquiring the breakthrough improvements in aims of critical business, costs of delivery, quality and protection (Montgomery, 2010).

PDCA approach is linked with project involving number of people in United Kingdom, and therefore managers like seeing large improvements of breakthrough for justification of expended efforts. However, the PDCA and scientific methods can be applied to all types of projects and improvement operations (Taylor et al, 2014). In implementation of quality tools, quality management system is important. The laws of quality management are initial point for the management of organization. 

The usage of Deming Cycle helps in the isolating operations and in monitoring results. Along with it, engineering project management enhances responsibility as being the work isolation can be done and responsibilities assignment can be done very easily through this. With the help of Deming Cycle, full concentration is provided on some significant and particular tasks (Tan et al, 2011).

The quality management system gives useful information acquired through different procedures and audits. If an organization targets the customer, the organization needs to choose the effective ways for the acquisition of data and market survey. Through all this, it can be confirmed that services or products of organization fulfil the expectations and demands of customers. The collected information is invaluable for the process of decision making.

It has been found that various techniques and tools are utilized in the project for monitoring, coordinating, directing and planning various approaches of business and new ways in which these techniques and tools are used which assists in developing the service or product right on time, with required quality and less cost. This also makes sure that customers get satisfied. Generally, project management is mainly used in various companies. There is no such industry, where project management is not practiced. Through project management, objectives become clearer and issues are identified (Matsuo and Nakahara, 2013).

Moreover, by fulfilling the last objective of research, it has been found that in YongKang Ocean ImpExp Co Ltd, the management follows Deming cycle and on the basis of this all planning is done in the start of project and all team members are informed about their roles and responsibilities. Moreover, all employees are informed about aims and objectives of the project. All team members are encouraged highly to work in the form of teams. This in turn results in ensuring success of the engineering project.

The major focus of Deming Cycle is to decrease the time frame which is needed to process different operations and continuous improvement of the process with the help of PDCA approach for keeping solution spaces open. This allows coping up with the certainty level through development of flexibility. That is why; the major benefit of lean planning is that it proves to be the effective way of communicating information in the dynamic surroundings. Most of the lean thinking is based on human system needing more involvement of employee because of the reason that they are the ones who will make decisions. This condition causes a risk of error in the process of decision making linked with the human behaviour (Riley et al, 2010).

5.2. Limitations

Although there are many positive implications of this research for theory as well as practical implications, there are some limitations of this research that had to be managed appropriately. One of the major limitations faced by researcher in this study is lack of specificity of secondary data. It is evident that as compared to primary data there is a lack of relevancy of data with the research issue and therefore some biasness can exist. However, in current study for overcoming this limitation, the researcher used only reliable and relevant journals, books and other internet sources. The researcher had to face limitation with respect to reliability and validity of secondary data. There is a need of taking in to account this aspect at the time of applying findings of study on wider settings. Another limitation of this research is low sample size. The data was collected from less sample size due to lack of time and due to some financial constraints. In order to enhance generalizability high sample size must be used.

5.3. Directions for Future Research

The current research has backed the influence of Deming cycle on engineering project management. The study has used a case study of YongKang Imp Exp Co Ltd. There are some limitations in current study that need to be addressed by future researchers. In some future research more detailed analysis of application of Deming cycle in engineering project management can be done. Moreover, the sample size must be increased in future research for enhancing generalizability of research. In addition to this, future research can be conducted on more organisations as case studies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Appendices

Appendix A: Questionnaire

Name: ____ (Optional)

Gender

  1. Male
  2. Female

Age

  1. Below 25 years
  2. 26-35 years
  3. 36- 45 years
  4. 46- 55 years
  5. More than 55 years

Select one number from 1 to 5, where

1= Strongly Disagree

2= Disagree

3= Neutral

4= Agree

5= Strongly Agree

Deming Cycle

1

2

3

4

5

The management used the industry standards to complete the project.

 

 

 

 

 

The project experienced a high number of project development changes.

 

 

 

 

 

For managing the project, average team size was used.

 

 

 

 

 

The owner level of involvement was appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

The project team members were familiar with the project execution plan (PEP) and they used it to manage their work.

 

 

 

 

 

The procurement strategy and plan were communicated to the project team during Engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

A formal startup execution plan including operations and maintenance philosophy was incorporated in Engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

The project objective and priorities were clearly defined.

 

 

 

 

 

Project management team members were clear about their roles and how to work with others on the project.

 

 

 

 

 

Engineering Project Management

 

 

 

 

 

The equipment procurement and vendor schedules were a significant challenge for this project during Engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

Comprehensive constructability suggestions (e.g., preassembly*, prefabrication*, modularisation*, and offsite fabrication*) were evaluated and incorporated into the Engineering of the project.

 

 

 

 

 

People on this project worked effectively as a team.

 

 

 

 

 

The key stakeholders (owner, design, vendors and suppliers) were fully aligned during Detailed Design / Engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

Key project team members understood the owner's goals and objectives of this project.

 

 

 

 

 

All of the necessary, relevant project team members were involved in an effective risk identification and management process for Engineering.

 

 

 

 

 

 Engineering deliverables were released in a timely manner as a result of a good Engineering work sequence on this project.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B: Interview Questions

  1. Tell us about your experience in managing different projects and how this can contribute to our position.
  2. Describe how you recently managed a diverse project team towards a common goal?
  3. How do you monitor risks to the project and mitigate them?
  4. What tools do you use to monitor and control projects?
  5. How do you inform all the stakeholders of the progress of the project on a regular basis?
  6. What project management methodologies are you most familiar with?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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