The Impact Of The Islamic Work Ethics On The Work Outcomes – A Case Study Of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC

Summary

This research is about the Islamic work ethics and it aims to investigate how these Islamic work ethics has impact on two work related outcomes which are named as organisational commitment and job performance. By focusing on the significance of work ethics, this research intent to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics on work connected results that contain job performance as well as organisational commitment. This research is specifically conducted on Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC to solve the current problem related to declining performance. The motivation for conducting this research is that currently Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC is facing various problems related to work related outcomes. As per the demand of the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC, this research project is designed.

Objectives:

This project revolves around the following deliverables.

  • Firstly, this research reviews the previous studies which are already conducted on Islamic work ethics. During this review, the link of Islamic work ethics on job related outcomes is established.
  • Secondly, this research examines the role of Islamic work ethics on job performance by conducting a survey at Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.
  • Thirdly, this research has investigated the impact of Islamic work ethics on organisational commitment at Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

Methodology

This research has adopted the quantitative research methodology. This research is based on positivism research philosophy. The strategy of survey is adopted. The survey is conducted on Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC, where this research has used the sample size of 250 employees from various branches of this financial institution. For this research, data is analysed through statistical tests. SPSS is used for data analysis. Various statistical tests were used; most important statistical tests were correlation and regression analysis. This methodology is adopted as per the recommendation of the client of this project i.e. Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

Key results

The results have proved that Islamic work ethics are of great importance as they positively influence the job performance and organisational commitment. The nature of relationship is positive, which shows that Islamic work ethics has a positive impact on both work related outcomes which are named job performance and organizational commitment. The following table depicts the results of hypotheses of this research project.

Recommendations

It is recommended to Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC that Islamic work ethics must be promoted in this financial institution. it could promote this by giving utmost importance to its external and internal customers. There must be a proper code of conduct for treating both external and internal customers. Moreover, Islamic work ethics policy is suggested to Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC, this must be promoted in Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

1.Introduction

Due to the presence of large number of unethical cases in the earlier many years, ethics have become highly significant factor in the work setting. Ethics have become an important topic and concern for large number of scholars. Huge number of issues are being faced by different states as well as business concerns regarding ethics.  Certain types of ethics are dictated by Islamic Shariah. It has been proved from past researches that ethics are significant for job associated results and there is a need to find the function performed by Islamic work ethics (Abdi et al., 2012)

In the view of Ali (1988), job ethics for each person are made by his/her religious belief as well as social beliefs.  Ethics for every person are not same and they are different for every person. Work ethics are highly useful and important for making the business concern successful and sustainable.  Furthermore, business concerns are capable to work more efficiently and proficiently by focusing on work ethics. As per view of Yunus et al (2011) work ethics contributes in the economic development and achievement of the business concern. Furthermore, they also declared that work ethics are beneficial for work connected conduct and results. In a broader view, ethics are significant for a person’s outlooks for the work, therefore his/her work participation, and commitment as well as obligation is related with the ethics at workplace. Therefore, ethical individuals are more useful than those persons who do not give importance to work ethics.

It is found that there are numerous studies, conducted by people on work ethics but the function of Islamic work ethics is someway ignored by the researchers. Furthermore, no research about work ethics is conducted specifically for Kazakhstan. It is indicated that a literature gap is prevailing and it should be reduced. Thus, this research focuses on the role performed by Islamic work ethics in the job related outcomes, especially in Kazakhstan’s context.  Therefore, in a broader context this research is being conducted to find out that either the religious individuals are more productive as compared with the non-religious ones or not.

1.2.Significance

The topic selected for the study is of great importance. It is highly significant to research about the role of Islamic work ethics in growth of Muslim cultures. As per Islamic knowledge, it is stated that Islamic work ethics are significant for betterment of any culture. Though, the declaration of Muslim scholars is not grounded on any experiential proof, consequently, it is of greatest significant to discover either these Islamic work ethics make productive modifications in the business work systems or not. The past studies have shown that work ethics are useful for job productivity. It is recommended by earlier investigators to discover the function performed by Islamic work ethics to make job performance better. Therefore, it will be a significant input in the present literature about this topic. The significance of work ethics is also presented by an investigation. It was inquired that what are utmost significant concerns for the business concerns and outcomes presented that ethics and output are top two concerns. It indicates that ethics at the place of work cannot be ignored at all. Certainly, this research specially studies Islamic work ethics, but it is the input in literature of ethics. Furthermore, up till now, no study has been carried out that is relevant to ethics in Kazakhstan’s framework. Therefore, this research work will also fill a contextual space.  

The research will be of great importance and helpful for both experts and scholars. The outcomes of this research will be advantageous for supervisors and administrators for the reason that they will be capable to recognise that how Islamic work ethics can make work outputs better. Research will make them able to know that either the ethical people are good for companies or they are bad. The findings will be helpful in employing those persons who are better for their business. Supervisors will also get the reply to the query that whether or not they ought to endorse Islamic values in the culture of the business concern. Most importantly, this work is of significance for the client i.e. Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

. By focusing on the function of Islamic work ethics, it will become possible for managers to become familiar to those codes of conduct which are known as good for concerns of the businesses along with the community as an entire. By integrating Islamic work ethics in policies, the better could be assured for the whole society, but earlier doing so, experimental proof is required that discover the effect of Islamic work ethics on work results.

1.3.Aim and Deliverables  

By focusing on the significance of work ethics, this research intent to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics on work related outcomes that contain job performance as well as organisational  commitment. The client for this project is Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. In order to conduct the research, following deliverables  are set as the key deliverables.  

  1. To examine the previous research studies which are related to the influence of Islamic Work Ethics on work related outcomes
  2. To find out how the Islamic work ethics are having an influence on job performance.
  3. To examine the role of Islamic work ethics in developing organisational commitment.

1.4.Research Questions       

  1. What does the literature tells about the influence of Islamic work ethics on work related outcomes?
  2. How the Islamic work ethics are influencing the job performance of employees that are working in Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.?
  3. How the Islamic work ethics are influencing the organisational commitment of employees that are working in Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.?

 

 

2.Background

This research is conducted on Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Currently, managers of the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC has analyzed that performance and commitment of its employees is not up to the required level. Managers are facing many problems due to this. With the decreased level of job performance of the employees, it has become impossible to improve the overall performance of this bank. Therefore, top management is worried about this issue. As the researcher approached this financial institution before starting the project to know whether or not they face any problem. Managers welcomed the student as they said they already were facing the problem of low morale, low job satisfaction, job performance and organizational commitment. Their financial performance was also going down. They asked that they tried to adopt few of the practices of work ethics but they are unable to make a conclusion that whether they should continue implementation or not. they were worried because they were unable to see any influence of Islamic work ethics on job performance. Therefore, they allowed the researcher to study this phenomenon in their institution. Though, there were many other work related outcomes which could be studied, top management requested to study the job performance and organizational commitment in their organization. Hence this study is going to analyze how Islamic work ethics are influencing the job performance and organizational commitment of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

There is a lot of research work, related with the workplace ethics. The findings and results of these studies are not enough to stop people to perform unethical activities at work setting. In various business concerns, unethical actions including deception, dishonesties, sexual provocation, and bribery are still very dominant. There are different studies that are carried out by researchers in various types of cultures (Graham, 1985). There are wide range of states that are becoming the victims of ethical issues and unluckily many business concerns have dissolved due to unethical conduct. Numerous studies were about ethics of persons and these are important for present literature. According to Ali (1986), there is a need to do investigation regarding the Islamic work ethics for the reason that Islam is one of those aspects that form the whole system in Islamic states. It is anticipated, that those who work as per beliefs of Islam are considered to be highly dedicated to their business concerns. Furthermore, they are considered to be highly fruitful. The studies related with Islamic ethics at workplace are not sufficient. That is why, the problem statement is to investigate that why Islamic work ethics are significant for making job performance better and how these play roles in the organisational commitment.

The deliverables of this project are of utmost importance. The research will be highly useful for business experts of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.  Particularly, supervisors of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC will be capable to effect the work associated results by focusing on the findings of research.  For example, if the findings of this research show that Islamic work ethics are useful in making the job performance or job commitment better then Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC can improve their approaches consequently to get advantage out of better job performance and job commitment. For this sake, companies will have to focus on adopting the Islamic work ethics for staffs. This study will be highly useful for making HR functions better inside different business concerns. By focusing on the selection of those staff members who intensely focus on the basis of Islamic work ethics, companies can prosper.  Therefore, with the help of this research, different companies and institutions will be able to realise that either Islamic work values should be adopted or not. Islamic values will also be helpful for the companies and their managers to make useful decisions.

 Furthermore, researchers will surely focus on the findings of this study and the literature gap will be filled with the help of this study. There are only few studies present in the literature that are related with Islamic work ethics. Numerous investigators have disclosed the future research guidelines to focus on Islamic work ethics with work results. Moreover, this study will improve the knowledge of managers and they will be able to make decisions regarding adoption of Islamic work ethics. The findings of this research will be useful for those people who teach ethics to the students. In addition, students studying ethics will be able to get knowledge and empirical evidence about ethics. Thus, this research will be useful for supervisors of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC as well as for students and researchers.

 

 

3.Literature Review

3.1.Introduction

This section of the research analyses the current literature about function of Islamic work ethics in organisational commitment and job performance. The aim of this section is to study the past researches conducted by the previous scholars. This examines the available researches related to the research questions of this research. Those researches are discussed in this section that are relevant with the research questions of study. Initially, it evaluates ethics in general; then detail about the Islamic work ethics will be discussed. Then, job performance and organisational commitment are discussed. Later on, the relation between Islamic work ethics as well as work outcomes that comprise of the job performance and organisational commitment is established.

3.2.Islamic Work Ethics

As per view of Wines (1992), ethics are considered as practice to relate ethical values to a current issue. This is considered to be a kind of knowledge that examines the intellect and understanding of personnel. This is associated with the rational activities of persons. Furthermore, with the growth of global companies, various business workers are giving attention to the ethical behaviour and social responsibility as well as responsibility. Ethics are also considered as a study to know what is correct and what is incorrect. It is related with the principles of choices that persons create (Kumar and Che Rose,  2012). As per view of Morf et al (1999), ethics are considered to be those ethical values on which a person performs while making any choice. Various theorists claim that this is a normative science because it is linked with the principles and customs of conduct.

In the perspective of Abbasi et al (2010), each society is relied upon specific ethical values that lead the personal and qualified conduct of persons in the community. There is a vital role of religion in societies to encourage or forbids any specific behaviour of persons, both in public and personally. According to Marri et al., (2012), Akhlaq is a word that is used for Islamic work ethics by people. Fundamentally, this is the Arabic transformation of the word ‘ethics’. This word has foundation on the word which means ‘to give shape’ ‘to generate’ and ‘to create.  ‘Akhlaq’ is the plural of ‘Khuluq’ and this word is referred to the distinctive characters and understanding of ethics possessed by a person. Ethics in western and Islamic perspective is quite different. As per western scholars, it depends upon a person that either he/she wants to be ethical or unethical person.  But, as per Islamic perspective, ethics are verbalised by religious association and it is accepted by the persons due to the godly revelation that was conveyed to human beings. Particularly, Quran and Sunnah are useful factors that encourages Muslims to establish ethical conduct (Komari and Djafar, 2013). Therefore, all manners of conduct and characters of persons that are identified as good or bad are verbalised by either Holy Book or verified by Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Many scholars are of the view that the Islamic work ethics has its origins in Al-Quran and Ahadit (Rizk, 2008), which is the Holy Book and the sayings of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), respectively.

It is said in Quran that

“You are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah.” (Al - Qur’?n 3:110)

It is noteworthy to analyse here that Islamic work ethics provide assistance to the people that what is correct and what is incorrect and is communicated in a suitable way. As per Islamic work ethics, work is considered to be an asset in human life, thus, every personnel are accountable for performing the respective duties using the skills and it is also important to depict the best conduct at the workplace (Rokhman 2010).

As per view of Beekun (1997),  it has been stated that Islamic work ethics are basically nothing more than the ethical philosophies that aid a person to differentiate what is incorrect and what is correct. As per the arguments of Rizk (2008), it is stated that Islamic work ethics deliver a way towards effort. It is important to mention that the source of Islamic work ethics can be drawn back to Holy Quran (Holy book of Muslims). Furthermore, the lessons and activities of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and 4 caliphs of Islam have also recommended subsequent ethics for work (Ali, 2005). A person can easily understand the Islamic work ethics as they focus on positivity in everything.

According to Ali and Al Owaihan (2008), as per view of Islam, work is considered to be an obligatory action and work offers a chance to fulfil the requirements in an effective way. As per Abbasi et al (2010), it is stated that ethics is considered to be the outcome of walking on the path of Iman (belief). Additionally, he declared that as per the Islamic perspective ethics are important part of the human life. Moreover, Akhlaq which is a mixture of moral Islamic morals presented by a person is also parallel to ethics. Such types of ethical values are represented by Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and are deliberated in Holy Quran.

In the current modern era, Islamic academics have also acknowledged the importance of Islamic ethics for work. Ethics are considered to be useful factor of Islamic thought, and it is demonstrated that it is beneficial for everybody in the world. The work of Ali and Al Owaihan (2008) focus on the sayings of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) in their study and grouped work in 11 classifications. The grouping is done as the activity of legal business, the importance of making capital, quality of work as well as salaries, wages of labours along with monopoly, corruption, transparency and kindness, self-dependency, actions and purposes, intemperance (Yesil, Sekkeli and Dogan, 2012). The study based upon the sayings of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) described that it is declared by him in a very vibrant way that those who do good work are considered to be better as compared with other people. This kind of work is considered to be better than other work and is beneficial for the whole community. The people who focus on performing good work are acknowledged and compensated in this world and the world after this. As per saying of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) there are 70 paths of worship and one of them is to earn honestly. It shows that performing work in an authentic way is equivalent to worshipping even it is the superlative form of worshipping. According to Mahdavikhou and Khotanlou (2012), as per Prophet (PBUH) if the individuals and their work brings ‘good’ for others then it is best. It is specified that work is best which gives advantages to other people. Similarly, it is also declared by the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) that those individuals are best who are helpful to other people. The Islamic lessons and principles declare that every individual has capabilities that are dissimilar to other people. On the basis of such capabilities, individuals become capable to become rich. Therefore, it is suggested that every economic activity should be grounded on ethical and authentic basis.

3.3.Job Performance

Job performance is considered to be a phenomenon that how good an individual can perform the assigned role.  It also focuses on the conduct of a person which he/she involves while performing job. When the work on job performance become greater than before, investigators recognised that it is not an easy job to measure the work in a consistent and suitable way (Jex, 2002).

In the view of Mead (1998) the corporations are effective in emerging an ethical way for themselves are capable to grow a positive goodwill. Furthermore, they also effectively generate a optimistic organisational culture. In the view of Barutcugil (2004) the corporations that focus on ethics are better able to attain a number of extra benefits. The instances of such benefits contain communication efficiency, worker answerability, operational business outcomes as well as competitive edge. These benefits add to the accomplishment and victory of the business and stakeholders become satisfied. 

In the view of Ali and Al-Owaihan (2008) ethical work settings has those employees that are contented and dedicated to the businesses. Similarly, component of ethics in the work practices and philosophies also makes a healthy atmosphere (Jalil et al. 2010). Particularly, it is important to note that Islamic work ethics encourage to work tough, performing struggle, rivalry, ethical accountability, transparency and devotion. Similarly, as per Kumar and Rose (2010) hard work, engagement, novelty, fair effectiveness, collaboration, faithfulness are the outcomes of Islamic ethics of work. These factors are highly useful for HR and contributes in increasing productivity of business concern.

As per Jalil et al (2010) organisational effectiveness gets improved with the help of Islamic ethics of work. As per perspective of Ali and Al-Owaihan (2008), better performance of workers is the outcome of successful Islamic work ethics. Furthermore, various scholars including Kumar and Rose (2010) and Jalil et al (2010) stated that for making job performance better, there is a greater contribution of Islamic work ethics.

Islamic work ethics emphasises on the particular conducts of persons which are basically suitable for functioning in a business concern. It forbids those actions that are not moral for the workers and corporations. Similarly, it also encourages those actions that are considered worthy for the staffs and business concerns. The actions like collaboration and discussion is encouraged by Islamic work ethics, which aids in all matters. Furthermore, it is highly useful in lessening frication and aids in dominating obstacles and this eventually results in success of staffs and company (Darwish, 2000). It is forbidden in Islamic work ethics to sit and become the source of time wastage. Furthermore, it is also forbidden to show idleness and waste time in fruitless actions. Islamic work ethics prescripts that persons who indulge in such actions at the work setting are not useful.

Currently, companies are focusing on Islamic work ethics and considering them as new element for helping the companies to promote ethical behavior. Staff members focusing on Islamic work ethics have high performance level as compared with other staff members. Such ethics verbalised by Islam are not for life repudiation, but these encourages life contentment. Islam encourages people to focus on hard work as the sins of a person can be pardoned with this it. Ethical issues and concerns are faced by people at workplace and it is a normal act. For instance, lying, dishonesty, theft, and monetary cheats (Beekun, 1997).

The research of Hayati and Caniago (2012) indicates that the function of Islamic work ethics in job performance in a workplace. They took the sample of 149 staff members from Islamic banks of Bandar Lampung, Indonesia for conducting research. Findings of research depicted that Islamic work ethics plays an important function in making the job performance of workers better. As per findings of Hadisi (2014), the role of ethics and Islam is highly important for making the companies productive and increasing their efficiency. At the core level, the big corporations are not effected by religion and values of workers. On the other hand, at the internal level, findings show that various work factors like internal and interpersonal conflicts decreases with the Islamic work standards. If the staff members are religiously oriented towards their job then their performance level becomes better. The research conducted by Hadisi (2014) was related with the multinational corporations and the findings showed that there is a major impact of religious morals on work performance of workers working in multinational corporations.

Moreover, significant point to focus is that Islam does not forbid persons to join the worldly issues. As per view of Islamic scholars, Islam encourages hard work and wellbeing of the people. As stated by Abeng (1997), it is not easy to pass the life without helping and taking care of others and not getting help from others and this factor is encouraged by Islam. It is stated by Islam that people should help each other in completing their work. The research work of was Ali (1988) stated about the function performed by Islamic ethics in improving the output of workers. Arab and Western supervisors were selected as sample for the study. This was a and comparative study and findings showed that Arab supervisors were more productive as compared with the western supervisors.

3.4.Organisational Commitment

In the view of Werkmeister (1967), commitment is a way in which a person expresses him/her personally. This actually includes the values that are deliberated significant for the presence of a person. Scholars have stated that a higher level of relationship between work ethics and moral commitment is present. In the view of Allen and Mayer (1990), business commitment is considered as an emotional state that relates an individual worker to the business concern. Commitment is considered to be the affection of staffs that is established in workers for their business concern. Organisational commitment is considered to be the comparative strength of identification and participation of a person for his/her company. Thus, for the sake of establishing organisational commitment, it is recommended that administrators and supervisors have to help workers to improve their contribution to the business. It is stated by Boon and Arumugam (2006) that when staff members become the important part of the company then they like to stay in it for a long time period. It is stated by professionals that respecting workers’ belief and the proposal is an instrument for increasing commitment in workers for the business concern.

As per view of Cooper-Hakim and Viswervara (2005), organisational commitment is one of those issues that are emphasised by scholars. In addition, the literature of psychology also deliberates the idea of commitment in business. It is considered to be the extent to which the individuals establish a sense of identification with the business concern in which they are employed. Different studies have been carried out to discover situational approaches and actions of persons.

It is important to mention that principles for success, as dictated by the Islam, also include to do the business and work in an ethical manner. it is very clearly stated in Quran and Hadith and that successful are those who are invite others for the good, they enjoy only what is right and they forbid others from what is considered wrong (Beekun, 1997). It indicates that it is encouraged by Islam to perform those activities and conducts that are not only good for workers but that are also meant for the good of business, public as well as community.

Ethics are considered to be the “standards of right or good behaviour’. Rules, principles as well as guidelines that manage the behaviour of a person working in a specific occupation. By focusing on the practical viewpoint of ethics, an ethical worker is one who does not have any tendency to indulge in an unlawful conduct and who always performs in a way that is useful for people advantage. A person who has an ethical nature always focus on interest of others over his/her personal concern. Therefore, these ethical persons focus on law and are source of positive input in their business concerns. Furthermore, ethical workers have another aspect that they work energetically not inactively. They work for benefit of everyone. Such people now only focuses on the directions, but they are anxious about the benefit of other individuals. It is indicated by this definition of ethical workers that ethical workers are more expected to be dedicated to their work and their business (Bruce, 1994).

The experimental research carried out by Putti et al (1989) focused on the association that exists among the organisational commitment and values of the workplace. Sample for this research was chosen form Singapore. Findings indicated that there exists a strong association between these two variables. The research of Hayati and Caniago (2012) indicates that the function of Islamic work ethics in job performance in a workplace. They took the sample of 149 staff members from Islamic banks of Bandar Lampung, Indonesia for conducting research. Findings of research depicted that Islamic work ethics plays an important function in making the job performance of workers better. The study of Rokhman (2010) was related with the role performed by Islamic work ethics in organisational commitment in companies. Staff members from 10 business concerns of Denmark were selected as sample. Findings showed that Islamic work ethics are significant for improving job performance as well as the organisational commitment of employees in the business concerns. Furthermore, Zaman et al (2012) stated that Islamic work ethics is highly useful in encouraging the organisational commitment to staff members.

3.5.Conclusion

The aim of this chapter of research was to evaluate current literature about Islamic work ethics as well as commitment and job performance. As per previous literature, it is stated that ethics are significant for work results. Fewer number of researches are carried out, relevant to Islamic work ethics and work results. But, literature indicates that up till now there is no research carried out, specific to the Kazakhstan’s framework. Literature shows that Islamic work ethics are highly useful factors for organisational commitment as well as job performance.

 

 

 

4.Conceptual Framework

The model that is established to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics in work outcomes is as under. In the model, Islamic work ethics is the independent variable while the dependent variables include job performance as well as organisational commitment. It is as under:

 

 

 

There are numerous work outcomes. In this research, two variables are given importance which are named as organisational commitment and job performance. According to the views of Meyer et al (1989), these two work related outcomes named as job performance and organisational commitment are highly useful work results and are helpful in making a company successful. Thus, this research focuses on these two work outcomes relative to Islamic work ethics. 

4.1.Description of variables

In this portion of the report, the major variables included in the research are focused. It is considered to be highly useful to understand the variables. this understanding is highly useful to carry out the study and the readers can understand it as well. In addition, the measurement of every variable is also discussed in this report. In this study, operationalisation of selected variables is performed by focusing on those scales that were established by other investigators. The aim behind choosing the adopted scale is that they are more consistent and effective. The study can be carried out in an efficient manner by focusing on the adopted scale. 

4.1.1.Islamic Work Ethics

In the view of Beekun (1997), Islamic work ethics are considered as the ethical values that are useful for a person to differentiate what is right and what is wrong. In the view of Rizk (2008), Islamic work ethics are helpful in proving a course towards job. As per perspective of Hayaati (2007), Islamic ethics are principally signifying the supporters to specify good values in activities, actions, philosophy and feeling.

4.1.2.Job Performance

Job performance is considered to be a phenomenon that how good an individual can perform the assigned role.  It also focuses on the conduct of a person which he/she involves while performing job. When the work on job performance become greater than before, investigators recognised that it is not an easy job to measure the work in a consistent and suitable way (Jex, 2002). In the view of Meyer et al., (1998), job performance assesses that either a person has performed his/her work well or not. 

4.1.3.Organisational Commitment

In the view of Allen and Mayer (1990), organisational commitment is a way in which a person expresses him/her personally. This actually includes the values that are deliberated significant for the presence of a person. Scholars have stated that a higher level of relationship between work ethics and moral commitment is present. In the view of Mowday et al., (1982), business commitment is considered as an emotional state that relates an individual worker to the business concern. Commitment is considered to be the affection of staffs that is established in workers for their business concern (Mahdavi, 2001).

4.2.Operational hypotheses

This study studies the following hypotheses. These are constructed on the basis of the above research studies.

 

 

 

5.Methodology

This is a research methodology chapter and it has provided details about the methods which are selected for completing this research study. It sheds light on which philosophy is selected and which approach is followed. It tells which data is collected for this study and how this data is collected. Moreover, from where data is collected is also under discussion. Then, it is explained that how data is analysed and how ethics are followed. This section has adopted the methodology which was suggested by top management of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. They wanted the numerical results, hence, this approach is adopted.  For every section, it is explained why particular method is selected.

5.1.Positivism research philosophy

According to Alvesson and Deetz (2000), every researcher has the specific world view which decides the further methodology of the research. In business research, it is either positivism or interpretivism research philosophy which is used most commonly. The researcher of the present research has the assumptions of positivism philosophy. In this philosophy, knowledge could be derived from the sensory experience only which has to be interpreted through logic and reasons. The authoritative knowledge could be formed only through the logic and reason (Bryman and Bell, 2007). The data which is derived from the verified data which is also received from the senses is known as empirical evidence. It can be said that positivism has its base on the empiricism. According to this philosophy, reality could be found in form of general laws (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2012). The rationale for selecting this research is based on the fact that it relies on quantitative data hence there are greater chances to get the reliable data. The scientific methods are used in the quantitative research, therefore, the results has higher trustworthiness. Further to this, quantitative data provides the deliverableinformation which could be used for developing scientific assumption (Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2010). Therefore, the present research is based on the positivism research philosophy. Moreover, in positivism research there is a well defined structure for the discussion. The whole research study is based on laws and rules, which ensures the minimum errors. With this structure, it could also be ensured that there is no higher variance and drastic variable changes. This allows to get more accurate findings through the use of scientific tools (Collins, 2010). Therefore, this research philosophy is being adopted. further to this, the reason for selecting this philosophy is that data collected using the assumptions of this philosophy are easy to analyse. According to Cooper and Schindler (2007), it ensures the precision in data hence data could be analysed in a meaningful manner. The collected data has higher reliability, so it was considered more feasible to use this philosophy while investigating the role of Islamic work ethics in work outcomes at Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.  

5.2.Deductive research approach

According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), there are two choices related to the research approach. A research can either be inductive or deductive. Present research is deductive. In this research, firstly the literature related to the role of Islamic work ethics in work related outcomes is critically analysed. On the basis of theoretical arguments, the hypotheses and framework has been developed. The developed hypotheses are tested on the basis of data which is collected from the Islamic financial instructions of Pakistan. this approach is also known as ‘specific to general approach’, and here the researcher has moved from specific to general approach where on the basis of specific results, general conclusion regarding the role of Islamic work ethics in work related outcomes for Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are made.

5.3.Primary Data

A research study has the choice to use secondary or/and primary data. The present research uses the primary data. This means that original and first hand data is collected for this study. the justification for selecting the primary data is that it has enabled the researcher to get the specific and precise data related to the role of Islamic work ethics in work outcomes (i.e. job performance and organisational commitment). The primary data provides the exclusivity to the research findings (Sekaran and Bougie,  2010). Further to this, in primary research studies, the researcher is responsible for planning and conducting the research study, hence through primary data provides the greater control. The timeliness and budget could be controlled by the researcher. The spending which is done on the primary data collection is always efficient as the researcher collects that data only which is specific and related to the research questions and deliverables . Most importantly, up to dated information is collected related to the research issue, hence, findings are of great importance (Tharenou, Donohueis and Cooper, 2007).

5.4.Quantitative Data

Consistent with the positivism research philosophy, present research relies on the quantitative data. The researchers usually has two choices. They could either collect qualitative or quantitative data. Present research has collected the quantitative data which is in form of numbers. As told by Bell, (2010), in quantitative research studies emphasis is on the unchanging and numeric data. The researcher has focused on the convergent reasoning instead of divergent reasoning which is spontaneous. There are certain characteristics of quantitative research studies and those are followed in this research.  This approach is selected because management of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC also recommended to use this approach for deliverables.The rationale for selecting the quantitative data is few of the characteristics of the quantitative research studies. For example, this is selected because it has allowed to collect the data from a larger sample size which is representative of population. The result findings could easily be replicated if its reliability is high. The definite research questions are constructed which are answered in a precise and deliverablemanner. Data is analysed and presented in non-textual forms. This also helps in generalizing the findings to the whole population on the basis of the selected sample (Sekaran, 2003.). Therefore, the present research has used the quantitative research methods where quantitative data is collected for investigating the role of Islamic work ethics in work outcomes at Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

5.5.Survey research strategy

According to Remenyi et al., (1998), there are many research strategies which could be adopted for one research but for the present research survey research strategy is selected. The rationale for selecting the survey research strategy is that it is relatively inexpensive. The cost per respondent is quite less as compared to other research strategies. A large size of sample could be collected even with quite limited budget. The usefulness of survey strategy is high for describing the characteristics of a large population. Therefore, with the help of sample collected from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC, conclusions about all Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC could be developed. This strategy has provided the flexibility to use various modes for administration. The survey is administered through emails, face-to-face interview and paper form. Many of the employees were emailed the survey and they returned back the filled survey form. For few respondents, face-to-face interviews were also used. Others were given the survey in paper form which were personally administered. Hence, this strategy allowed the flexibility to administer the survey as per needs of the respondents. The rationale for selecting survey was also its dependability. It enabled to ensure the anonymity of participant’s, hence they were more likely to provide valid and candid answers. The confidentiality of participants was ensured effectively through this method (Sapsford, 2007).

5.6.Data collection tool – questionnaire

In this research, questionnaire is selected as the data collection tool. This research instrument has a series of questions which aims to get answer from the respondents. The questionnaire can either be close ended or open ended. The present research has used the closed ended questions. The rationale for selecting the strategy of questionnaire is that it is cheap and it can collect the standardised data which is easier to compile and analyse (Kumar, 2005). The rationale for selecting this data collection tool is that it is the most practical research instrument. The size of sample has no influence on the reliability and validity. Using the statistical software, analysis could be done in an effective manner.  Most importantly, most of the positivist researchers of business research  prefer to use this research instrument (Ramamurthy, 2011). Therefore, questionnaire is selected for the present study. The questionnaire for present research is developed from the themes which emerged from the literature review. Basically, already developed scales are modified as per the needs of this research study. It also has questions for demographic sections. It has the questions for main variables of this study which are Islamic work ethics, job performance and organisational commitment. The scale for Islamic work ethics is based on the scale which was developed by Abbasi and Rana (2012). The questionnaire includes the following questions for measuring the Islamic work ethics.

  1. It is beneficial for one’s self and others to have good beliefs.
  2. For the welfare of stakeholders, it is necessary to ensure justice and generosity at the workplace.
  3. Word is a mean to promote personal growth and social relations it is not only an end.
  4. It is good or society to have more leisure time.
  5. It is beneficial to emphasis and to foster human relations.
  6. The happiness and accomplishment can be achieved through creative work.
  7. Through working, one can successfully get ahead in life.
  8. It is important to follow and meet deadlines for becoming a successful person.
  9. It is an individual responsibility to work hard so that assigned duties can be fulfilled.

There exists various scales that measure job performance, but this research has adapted the scale which was being provided by Becker and Kernan (2003). The questionnaire had following questions to measure job performance.

  1. All assigned duties are adequately completed by me.
  2. It is important for me to meet formal performance requirement.
  3. I avoid duties that I am obliged to do.
  4. I always perform those activities in an effective manner that has potential to improve my performance evaluation.
  5. All duties that are expected from me are performed effectively by me.
  6. I ensure to provide quality work.

For measuring organisational commitment, Allen and Mayer (1990) scale is being used.

  1. I want to spend the rest of my career in this organisation
  2. It feels good when I discuss about my employing organisation with others who are not part of this organisation.
  3. I feel attached to the problems of this organisation
  4. I always solve problems of this organisation as they are my own problems
  5. It would not be possible to become attached to any other organisation like as I am attached to this organisation.

For all of these questions, Likert Scale of ‘Strongly Agree’ to ‘Strongly Disagree’ is being used in the questionnaire.

5.7.Population and Sampling

For the present research, population is Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Basically, it is conducted on employees, therefore, unit of analysis is employees who are working in the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. There were many constraints, due to which the data could not be collected from the whole population. Time for completing this research was limited. This research is not a funded research project, hence, budget was also limited. Therefore, it was not possible to collect data from all employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Hence, appropriate sample is drawn from the population. The technique which is used for sampling is non-probability sampling technique. To be more precise, convenience sampling technique is being used for the present research study. As per this sampling technique, those respondents from the Islamic financial institutions were accessed which were easily accessible at the time of data collection (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). The sample size is 250. The response rate of 33.3% is observed. Initially, 750 questionnaires were distributed in the employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. But due to non-response or incomplete responses, only 250 questionnaires are used in the research.

5.8.Data analysis

In this research, Statistical Package for Social Sciences IBM version is used for analysing the quantitative data. Various statistical tests are performed to fulfil the aim and deliverables . For hypotheses testing, regression was the main test. Other tests like correlation is also performed. For assessing reliability, Cronbach’s alpha value is calculated for collected data. Moreover, the normality of data is also checked using the kurtosis and skewness statistics. For demographics, descriptive analysis is performed where pie charts and tables were constructed. The main variables i.e. Islamic work ethics, job performance and organisational commitment are also analysed descriptively before regression and correlation analysis.

5.9.Accessibility issues

Though, it is easier to collect data through questionnaire but still to access the respondents was not easy. It was a challenge for researcher to access respondents and collect the sample of 250 employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Research orientation is quite low in Kazakhstan, therefore, many employees were unwilling to participate. For being ethical, they were not forced to be part of this study. Initially, when data collection process was being started, many of the Islamic financial institutions did not allow to collect data from their institutions. Considering the situation, one authorised letter from university was gained. As Goodwin (2002) also highlighted this letter helped to gain access to the institutions. Moreover, their management also told them why this survey is being conducted. Hence, their participation increased. Moreover, many employees were not willing to participate due to the concern of confidentiality. They were being assured that their privacy and confidential information will never be harmed. This helped to increase the response rate (Collins, 2010).

5.10.Ethical considerations

Moreover, data is collected considering all ethical standards of the study. It is ensured that there is no unethical conduct which is done by the researcher during this research study. As per recommendation of Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007), while collecting primary data, researcher did not force anyone to fill the questionnaires. All the employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC participated in this study as per their will. There was no coercion or undue influence on them to participate in this research study. Their consent was being taken before start of their participation. The data collected from the participants is only used for this study. As per agreement with the participants, this data will never be shared with the third party. After 6 months of completing the degree, this data will be deleted so there will be no harm to sensitive information of participants (Creswell, 2009). Further to this, data is presented such that the no respondent could be identified.  The questionnaire was designed such that the results or questions do not harm anyone physically, emotionally or psychologically (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003). There was nothing which was hidden from the participants. Their all concerns and questions were handled in a polite manner. Even before start of the research, they were clearly communicated about the aim and deliverables  of this research. while filling the questionnaire, the respondents had the right to withdraw anytime. The material which is used from previous studies is properly referenced (Collins, 2010). It could be said with certainty that this research is conducted in an ethical manner.

 

 

 

6.Findings

6.1.Demographic analysis

This section reports the findings of the demographic variables. The purpose of this section is to have an idea about the type of respondents who have participated in the survey which is about Islamic work ethics, job performance and organisational commitment.

Age

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

24 years and below

20

8.0

8.0

8.0

25-34 years

93

37.2

37.2

45.2

35-44 years

90

36.0

36.0

81.2

45-54 years

32

12.8

12.8

94.0

55 years and above

15

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

The above given table and graph are showing the age statistics of the respondents from the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. It is observable that majority belongs to the group where respondents have age between 25-34 years. Basically, there were ninety three respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC who were having age between 25-30 years. Likewise, ninety out of 250 respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC have age of 35-44 years. While thirty two, twenty and fifteen respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were from age group of 45-54 years, 24 years and below and 55 years and above, respectively.

Qualification

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Above

18

7.2

7.2

7.2

Masters

93

37.2

37.2

44.4

Bachelors

89

35.6

35.6

80.0

Intermediate

42

16.8

16.8

96.8

Below

8

3.2

3.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

The purpose of qualification section was to shed light on the educational level of employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC who have participated in the survey of this research. The analysis statistics has showed that majority of respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were having masters degree. To be more precise, thirty seven point two percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were having the masters degree. After this, thirty five point six percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC possess the bachelors degree. In the same manner, sixteen point eight percent respondents of this research are having intermediate. Eighteen percent respondents stated that they have qualification above masters. Only three point two percent respondents had the qualification below the level of intermediate.

Gender

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

170

68.0

68.0

68.0

Female

80

32.0

32.0

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

The purpose of asking the gender is to analyse what is the proportion of males and females who have participated in this survey to explore the role of Islamic work ethics in the work outcomes in the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. The results as depicted in respective table and graph shows that sixty eight percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were male. On the other hand, thirty two percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were females. The proportion of males is higher and this might be because of the higher ratio of males in the workforce of Innovational Commercial Bank JSC

 

Experience

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

below 2 years

42

16.8

16.8

16.8

2-5 years

70

28.0

28.0

44.8

5-10 years

80

32.0

32.0

76.8

Above 10 years

58

23.2

23.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

The question related to experience was asked in the demographic section to be aware of the experience level of those employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC who have participated in this study. The higher the experience, the greater is the trustworthiness of the results as it could be assumed that experienced candidate provides more accurate and valid answers of the survey questions. The responses as depicted in the respective table and graph shows that majority of respondents were having the experience of 5-10 years. Twenty eight percent respondents have experience of 2-5 years of working in financial institutions. Likewise, twenty three point two percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were having experience of above 10 years. In a similar manner, only sixteen point eight percent respondents had the experience of below 2 years.

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.Reliability analysis

The reliability analysis is conducted in this section. The reliability analysis aims to find out the consistency of the questionnaire which is used for data collection. The reliability shows that what is the consistency of the data if it would be measured at the two different times. Both total and item to total reliability statistics are calculated. Using statistical package for social sciences, the Cronbach alpha value is calculated. The results are depicted in the below tables.

Case Processing Summary

 

N

%

Cases

Valid

250

100.0

Excludeda

0

.0

Total

250

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.

 

The below table shows that Cronbach’s Alpha for the research instrument which is developed for Islamic work ethics, job performance and organisational commitment is 0.916. This value is greater than 0.07. Therefore, it could be said that instrument is collecting the reliable data for this study.

 

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.916

27

 

The next table shows the item-total reliability statistics for the developed instrument. It could be analysed that there are four columns but the relevant one is ‘Cronbach’s Alpha if item deleted’. This column shows that what would be the resulting reliability if the particular item is deleted from the instrument. The results are showing that there is no need to delete any item from the questionnaire because it will not have sufficient impact on the total reliability statistics.

Item-Total Statistics

 

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Age

91.1982

254.221

-.098

.923

Qualification

91.1982

253.376

-.072

.922

Gender

92.5942

252.574

-.046

.919

expereince

91.2982

251.655

-.018

.922

It is beneficial for one’s self and others to have good beliefs.

90.2382

231.160

.597

.912

For the welfare of stakeholders, it is necessary to ensure justice and generosity at the workplace.

90.2982

231.948

.602

.912

Word is a mean to promote personal growth and social relations it is not only an end.

90.4302

234.108

.438

.915

It is good or society to have more leisure time.

90.4342

236.444

.408

.915

It is beneficial to emphasis and to foster human relations.

90.2782

238.192

.361

.916

The happiness and accomplishment can be achieved through creative work.

90.2542

227.794

.700

.910

Through working, one can successfully get ahead in life.

90.0302

229.114

.676

.911

It is important to follow and meet deadlines for becoming a successful person.

90.2102

230.982

.588

.912

It is an individual responsibility to work hard so that assigned duties can be fulfilled.

90.2382

233.060

.524

.913

All assigned duties are adequately completed by me.

90.2542

228.056

.653

.911

It is important for me to meet formal performance requirement.

90.1622

229.836

.610

.912

I do not avoid duties that I am obliged to do.

90.2542

227.794

.700

.910

I always perform those activities in an effective manner that has potential to improve my performance evaluation.

90.0302

229.114

.676

.911

All duties that are expected from me are performed effectively by me.

90.2382

231.160

.597

.912

I ensure to provide quality work.

90.2982

231.948

.602

.912

I want to spend the rest of my career in this organisation

90.2102

230.982

.588

.912

It feels good when I discuss about my employing organisation with others who are not part of this organisation.

90.2382

233.060

.524

.913

I feel attached to the problems of this organisation

90.2542

228.056

.653

.911

I always solve problems of this organisation as they are my own problems

90.1622

229.836

.610

.912

It would not be possible to become attached to any other organisation like as I am attached to this organisation.

90.2662

236.052

.414

.915

Islamic Work Ethics

90.2680

231.760

.953

.909

Job Performance

90.2062

229.085

.927

.908

Organisational Commitment

90.2262

230.896

.887

.909

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2.Normality analysis

The purpose of normality analysis is to analyse whether the collected data is normal or not. Normal data is basically bell curved data if plotted over the x-axis and y-axis. The normal data have the value of skewness and kurtosis between -3 and +3. The results are showed in the below table. It could be analysed that all variables are having skewness between -3 and +3. Therefore, it is confirmed from the below table that the collected data will have bell curved shape if it will be plotted. The data is normally distributed, hence, the results of this research are accurate.

Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Skewness

Kurtosis

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Std. Error

Statistic

Std. Error

Islamic Work Ethics

250

1.00

4.89

3.6462

.68470

-1.368

.154

2.476

.307

Job Performance

250

1.00

5.00

3.7080

.79732

-1.328

.154

2.446

.307

Organisational Commitment

250

1.00

5.00

3.6880

.76485

-1.076

.154

1.352

.307

Valid N (listwise)

250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3.Descriptive Analysis

This section has analysed the responses of the employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. The tables and bar graphs are used in this section. Along with this, a brief description for the results is also provided. 

1.3.1.Islamic work ethics

The survey results showed that majority of respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are showing that majority of participants agreed that Islamic work ethics are good for them. There were around fifty percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC which stated that they somewhat agree that it is beneficial for one’s self and others to have good beliefs.

It is beneficial for one’s self and others to have good beliefs.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.8

Neither agree nor disagree

39

15.6

15.6

30.4

Somewhat agree

125

50.0

50.0

80.4

Strongly agree

49

19.6

19.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

The below table and graph shows that majority of participants from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC believes that it is important and necessary to ensure generosity and justice. There were around fifty two point four percent participants that somewhat agree with this statement.

For the welfare of stakeholders, it is necessary to ensure justice and generosity at the workplace.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

14

5.6

5.6

5.6

Somewhat Disagree

25

10.0

10.0

15.6

Neither agree nor disagree

42

16.8

16.8

32.4

Somewhat agree

131

52.4

52.4

84.8

Strongly agree

38

15.2

15.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The below table and graph depicts that majorly the survey participants from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are having positive view about the Islamic work ethics. There were around forty two percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC that stated that they somewhat agree that work is mean to promoter personal growth and social relations.

 

Work is a mean to promote personal growth and social relations it is not only an end.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

32

12.8

12.8

12.8

Somewhat Disagree

14

5.6

5.6

18.4

Neither agree nor disagree

52

20.8

20.8

39.2

Somewhat agree

105

42.0

42.0

81.2

Strongly agree

47

18.8

18.8

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

The results of the survey are depicting that majority of participants from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC believes that it is not good for society to have more leisure time.

It is not good for society to have more leisure time.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

19

7.6

7.6

7.6

Somewhat Disagree

34

13.6

13.6

21.2

Neither agree nor disagree

46

18.4

18.4

39.6

Somewhat agree

110

44.0

44.0

83.6

Strongly agree

41

16.4

16.4

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

Islamic work ethics state that human relations must be fostered. The results depicted in the respective table and graph are showing that majority of respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are stating that it is beneficial to emphasis and to foster the human relations.

It is beneficial to emphasis and to foster human relations.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

23

9.2

9.2

9.2

Somewhat Disagree

16

6.4

6.4

15.6

Neither agree nor disagree

36

14.4

14.4

30.0

Somewhat agree

129

51.6

51.6

81.6

Strongly agree

46

18.4

18.4

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The results are stating that majority of respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC somewhat agree that the happiness and accomplishment can be achieved through creative work.

The happiness and accomplishment can be achieved through creative work.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

15

6.0

6.0

6.0

Somewhat Disagree

25

10.0

10.0

16.0

Neither agree nor disagree

41

16.4

16.4

32.4

Somewhat agree

118

47.2

47.2

79.6

Strongly agree

51

20.4

20.4

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

As results are depicted in the respective table and graph, majority of respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC believe that through working, one can successfully get ahead in life. This shows the positive orientation of employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC for Islamic work ethics.

Through working, one can successfully get ahead in life.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

8

3.2

3.2

10.0

Neither agree nor disagree

32

12.8

12.8

22.8

Somewhat agree

123

49.2

49.2

72.0

Strongly agree

70

28.0

28.0

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

Islamic work ethics state that deadlines must be followed if one wants to be successful. The respective table and graphs are showing that majority of employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC believe that deadlines must be followed.

 

It is important to follow and meet deadlines for becoming a successful person.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.8

Neither agree nor disagree

40

16.0

16.0

30.8

Somewhat agree

116

46.4

46.4

77.2

Strongly agree

57

22.8

22.8

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

In a similar manner, Islamic work ethics also state that every individual must work hard for fulfilling the assigned duties. Majority of respondents from the Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC have stated that they somewhat agree or strongly agree with the statement that it is an individual responsibility to work hard so that assigned duties could be fulfilled.

It is an individual responsibility to work hard so that assigned duties can be fulfilled.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

18

7.2

7.2

7.2

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

15.2

Neither agree nor disagree

40

16.0

16.0

31.2

Somewhat agree

119

47.6

47.6

78.8

Strongly agree

53

21.2

21.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

1.3.2.Job performance

This section analyses the responses of the employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC for their job performance.

The results of of first question are showing that most of the employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC somewhat agree or strongly agree that they are completing the assigned duties.

All assigned duties are adequately completed by me.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

21

8.4

8.4

8.4

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

16.4

Neither agree nor disagree

36

14.4

14.4

30.8

Somewhat agree

119

47.6

47.6

78.4

Strongly agree

54

21.6

21.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

When the formal performance requirements are met, this shows that performance is good. Forty point eight percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC stated that they somewhat agree while twenty seven point six percent stated that they strongly agree that it is important for them to meet the formal performance requirement.

It is important for me to meet formal performance requirement.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

16

6.4

6.4

6.4

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.4

Neither agree nor disagree

43

17.2

17.2

31.6

Somewhat agree

102

40.8

40.8

72.4

Strongly agree

69

27.6

27.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The good performers are those who do not avoid the duties which they are obliged to do. The respective table and graph is showing that forty seven point two percent and twenty point four percent employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC stated that they somewhat agree and strongly agree that they do not avoid duties that they are obliged to do.

I do not avoid duties that I am obliged to do.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

15

6.0

6.0

6.0

Somewhat Disagree

25

10.0

10.0

16.0

Neither agree nor disagree

41

16.4

16.4

32.4

Somewhat agree

118

47.2

47.2

79.6

Strongly agree

51

20.4

20.4

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

The below mentioned question and its results are telling that most of the employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC believe that they always perform those activities in an effective manner that could improve their performance evaluation.

I always perform those activities in an effective manner that has potential to improve my performance evaluation.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

8

3.2

3.2

10.0

Neither agree nor disagree

32

12.8

12.8

22.8

Somewhat agree

123

49.2

49.2

72.0

Strongly agree

70

28.0

28.0

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The results of the survey conducted on employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC showed that fifty percent respondents somewhat agreed while nineteen percent strongly agreed that they perform all duties in an effective manner which are expected from them.

All duties that are expected from me are performed effectively by me.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.8

Neither agree nor disagree

39

15.6

15.6

30.4

Somewhat agree

125

50.0

50.0

80.4

Strongly agree

49

19.6

19.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

The quality of work is an important determinant of job performance. As depicted in the respective table and graph, it could be analysed that fifty two point four and fifteen point two percent respondents somewhat agree and strongly agree that they ensure to provide quality work.

I ensure to provide quality work.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

14

5.6

5.6

5.6

Somewhat Disagree

25

10.0

10.0

15.6

Neither agree nor disagree

42

16.8

16.8

32.4

Somewhat agree

131

52.4

52.4

84.8

Strongly agree

38

15.2

15.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

1.3.3.Organisational commitment

This section shows the responses of the employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC for organisational commitment.

Like the previous responses of the survey, majority of respondents has showed their inclination towards somewhat agree and strongly agree for organisational commitment. There were forty six point four and twenty two point eight percent employees from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC stated that they want to spend their rest of the career in their current organisation. this shows their commitment for their organisation.

I want to spend the rest of my career in this organisation

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

17

6.8

6.8

6.8

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.8

Neither agree nor disagree

40

16.0

16.0

30.8

Somewhat agree

116

46.4

46.4

77.2

Strongly agree

57

22.8

22.8

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

One dimension of organisational commitment is that employees feel good when they discuss about their employment in the particular organisation. the results are showing that employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are committed to their organisations. forty six point six percent respondents somewhat agreed while twenty one point two percent strongly agreed that they are committed to their organisation.

 

It feels good when I discuss about my employing organisation with others who are not part of this organisation.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

18

7.2

7.2

7.2

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

15.2

Neither agree nor disagree

40

16.0

16.0

31.2

Somewhat agree

119

47.6

47.6

78.8

Strongly agree

53

21.2

21.2

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The commitment of employees is showed when they feel attachment with the organisational problems. Forty six point six and twenty one point six percent respondents from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC were somewhat agree or strongly agree that they feel attached to the problems of the organisation. This shows their commitment for the organisation.

I feel attached to the problems of this organisation

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

21

8.4

8.4

8.4

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

16.4

Neither agree nor disagree

36

14.4

14.4

30.8

Somewhat agree

119

47.6

47.6

78.4

Strongly agree

54

21.6

21.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

Committed employees solve the organisational problems as their own. The results of the survey conducted at the employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC are depicting that forty point eight percent and twenty seven point six percent respondents said that they somewhat agree and strongly agree that they solve organisational problems as their own.

I always solve problems of this organisation as they are my own problems

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

16

6.4

6.4

6.4

Somewhat Disagree

20

8.0

8.0

14.4

Neither agree nor disagree

43

17.2

17.2

31.6

Somewhat agree

102

40.8

40.8

72.4

Strongly agree

69

27.6

27.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

The results are depicting the most of the employees are highly committed to their organisation. most of them has somewhat agreed or strongly agreed that they cannot become attached to other organisations.

It would not be possible to become attached to any other organisation like as I am attached to this organisation.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Strongly Disagree

21

8.4

8.4

8.4

Somewhat Disagree

21

8.4

8.4

16.8

Neither agree nor disagree

37

14.8

14.8

31.6

Somewhat agree

117

46.8

46.8

78.4

Strongly agree

54

21.6

21.6

100.0

Total

250

100.0

100.0

 

 

1.4.Correlation Analysis

This section has presented the results of correlation analysis for variables of this research. First table depicts the correlation between Islamic work ethics which is independent variable and job performance which is dependent variable. Second table depicts the correlation between Islamic work ethics which is independent variable and organisational commitment which is dependent variable.

1.4.1.Islamic work ethics and job performance

The correlation analysis, as depicted in the below table, shows that there is a strong positive and significant correlation between Islamic work ethics and job performance.  

Correlations

 

Islamic Work Ethics

Job Performance

Islamic Work Ethics

Pearson Correlation

1

.857**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

N

250

250

Job Performance

Pearson Correlation

.857**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

N

250

250

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

 

 

 

1.4.2.Islamic work ethics and organisational commitment

The below table is about the correlation between the Islamic work ethics and organisational commitment. The results are depicting that correlation statistic between Islamic work ethics and organisational commitment is 0.799 which shows that correlation is strong, positive and significant.

Correlations

 

Islamic Work Ethics

Organisational Commitment

Islamic Work Ethics

Pearson Correlation

1

.799**

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

.000

N

250

250

Organisational Commitment

Pearson Correlation

.799**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

 

N

250

250

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

6.5.Regression Analysis

There were two hypotheses of this research. The regression analysis helps in testing those hypotheses. This section helps to find out the cause and effect relationship among variables.

6.5.1.Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Job Performance

This table is telling that dependent variable of this model is job performance while independent variable is Islamic work ethics.

Variables Entered/Removedb

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

dimension

 

Islamic Work Ethicsa

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: Job Performance

         

 

The table of model summary provides the overview of the regression analysis. The value of R is basically the correlation among Islamic work ethics and job performance. The R Square and Adjusted R Square tells that how much change in job performance is because of the Islamic work ethics. The value of 0.735 shows that 73.5% change in job performance can be because of the Islamic work ethics. The standard error of estimate value is 0.41106 depicting the amount of change which is caused by some extraneous variables.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

dimension0

1

.857a

.735

.734

.41106

a. Predictors: (Constant), Islamic Work Ethics

           

The table of ANOVA provides two important values for regression analysis and those values are F statistics and significance value. From these values, as depicted in the below ANOVA table, it could be analysed that the model is significant. This means that Islamic work ethics has a significant influence on the job performance.

 

ANOVAb

Model

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

116.391

1

116.391

688.844

.000a

Residual

41.904

248

.169

 

 

Total

158.295

249

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), Islamic Work Ethics

b. Dependent Variable: Job Performance

Below is the coefficients table. Here the value of constant is 0.067 which shows without these Islamic work ethics, performance might as low as 0.067. the Islamic work ethics has the coefficient of 0.999 where t value is greater than 2 while significance value is less than 0.05. Hence, the impact of Islamic work ethics on job performance is significant. Therefore, the first hypothesis of this study is supported with the survey which was conducted on employees of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

.067

.141

 

.476

.635

Islamic Work Ethics

.999

.038

.857

26.246

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Job Performance

 

6.5.2.Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Organisational Commitment

As depicted below, the independent variable is Islamic work ethics while the dependent variable is the organisational commitment.

Variables Entered/Removedb

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

dimension

 

Islamic Work Ethicsa

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Dependent Variable: Organisational Commitment

         

As previously mentioned, R is the value of correlation. R Square how much change in organisational commitment is due to the Islamic work ethics. The standard error of estimate tells about the change which is caused in organisational commitment by the extraneous variables.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Dimension

 

.799a

.638

.637

.46108

a. Predictors: (Constant), Islamic Work Ethics

           

 

The value of F and significance is showing that the model which has organisational commitment as dependent variable and Islamic work ethics as the predictor is significant.

ANOVAb

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

92.941

1

92.941

437.181

.000a

Residual

52.723

248

.213

 

 

Total

145.664

249

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), Islamic Work Ethics

b. Dependent Variable: Organisational Commitment

 

The below table tells that the coefficient for constant is 0.435 which means that when there will be no Islamic work ethics, this will be the organisational commitment of employees who are working in Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. The coefficient for Islamic work ethics is 0.892 while t value is greater than 2 and significance is less than 0.05. Therefore, the impact of Islamic work ethics on organisational commitment is significant. Hence, the second hypothesis is also supported.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

.435

.158

 

2.745

.006

Islamic Work Ethics

.892

.043

.799

20.909

.000

a. Dependent Variable: Organisational Commitment

 

7.Discussion

7.1.Overall summary

In this research, it is analysed that ethics have become an important topic and concern for large number of scholars. Huge number of issues are being faced by different states as well as business concerns regarding ethics.  Certain types of ethics are dictated by Islamic Shariah. It has been proved from past researches that ethics are significant for job associated results and there is a need to find the function performed by Islamic work ethics (Abdi et al., 2012). Though, there are various studied which are conducted on ethics, the studies related with Islamic ethics at workplace are not sufficient. That is why, the problem statement is to investigate that why Islamic work ethics are significant for making job performance better and how these play roles in the organisational commitment. By focusing on the significance of work ethics, this research intent to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics on work connected results that contain job performance as well as business commitment.  This research is about Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. There were three deliverables of this research project. for these deliverables, secondary data through articles and books was reviewed. Moreover, the survey was conducted on Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Researcher has followed the positivistic research philosophy and using the deductive research approach, two hypotheses are developed. Using the primary and quantitative data, these hypotheses are tested. For testing the hypotheses, data is collected from Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. The sample size of 250 is used.

7.1.1.Deliverable 1

Firstly, this research reviews the previous studies which are already conducted on Islamic work ethics. This deliverable was demanded by Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. They wanted to know that whether previous studies has identified any influence or not. During this review, the link of Islamic work ethics on job related outcomes is established. Once this deliverable was completed, it was presented to the management of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. After the formal presentation, they asked the researcher to study this in their organization as they have been investing a lot in promoting Islamic work ethics.

 

7.1.2.Deliverable 2

Secondly, this research examines how the Islamic work ethics are having an influence on job performance through. The results has concluded that Islamic work ethics significantly influences the job performance. Moreover, the nature of relationship was positive, indicating that there is a positive influence of Islamic work ethics on job performance.

7.1.3.Deliverable 3

Thirdly, this research has examined how Islamic work ethics could have an influence on organisational commitment. The results has concluded that Islamic work ethics significantly influences the organisational commitment. Moreover, the nature of relationship was positive, indicating that there is a positive influence of Islamic work ethics on organisational commitment.

 

 

Table: Hypotheses Test Summary

From these results, it could be concluded that the role of Islamic work ethics in work related outcomes is significant. Therefore, the organisations should promote these work ethics. These work ethics are quite beneficial for the performance and commitment of employees. The results of this research study are consistent with Putti et al (1989), Rokhman (2010) and Hayati and Caniago (2012).

7.2.How deliverables are achieved

Present research study aimed to explore the role of Islamic work ethics in the work related outcomes in Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. This aim is successfully accomplished in this research study. For fulfilling this aim, certain deliverables were developed. Those deliverables has helped the researcher to achieve the set aim of the study. Firstly, the deliverablewas to review the previous studies which are about the Islamic work ethics and its influence on the work related outcomes. In the second chapter of this research, various previous studies are analysed to examine the role of Islamic work ethics in job related outcomes. the outcome of this research deliverable was the development of conceptual framework and hypotheses. Hence, the deliverable is successfully achieved. Secondly, the deliverable of present research was to examine how Islamic work ethics could have an influence on job performance. Likewise, third deliverable was to examine the influence of Islamic work ethics on the dependent variable which is organisational commitment. As previously mentioned, this research has conducted the survey on employees of Islamic financial institutions. The data collection through survey is analysed to find out the impact. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that the research aim and deliverables  are effectively accomplished.

7.3.Key issues with the results of this research

Probably, it is unreasonable to say that a research could be completed without having certain limitations. This research also has faced few limitations. These limitations are noteworthy to mention. This research is completely conducted in the context of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC which is a financial institution of a developing country. Therefore, its findings could not be same for other companies who are from developed countries. Moreover, it is an Islamic country and it is not known yet that what would be the impact of Islamic work ethics if these are promoted in the non-Islamic countries. Further to this, this research has not used any qualitative methods. Now days, social science researchers prefer to use mixed methods research. Hence, it is recommended to use the mixed methods in future. Therefore, management of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC should not ignore this fact that this is a pure quantitative study.

 

 

8.Recommendations

From the above results, it has become known that the role of Islamic work ethics is of utmost importance. It can help Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC to promote improved organizational commitment along with the job performance. Therefore, it must be implemented throughout the organisation. Following are recommendations for the implementation of Islamic work ethics.

8.2.1.Ethics and external customers

Those individuals who are not part of the internal organisation, but they purchase the products and services of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC must be given importance. Their perception is important for organisation. They also believe that ethics should be implemented in those organizations from where they are taking services of products. Therefore, ethical practices must be adopted for treating with the external customers. There should be a code of conduct for every employee which should be used when they are dealing with the external customers. there must be a relationship of trust between Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC and its customers. Even other external customers i.e. suppliers and consultants should be treated in an ethical manner. There should be promotion of integrity in all business dealings. The Islamic teachings should be communicated again and again to employees so they treat external customers with great care. The whole organizational culture should promote Islamic work ethics.

8.2.2.Ethics and internal customers

Internal customers are those individuals who are working within the organisation. Employees are the internal customers of Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Employee satisfaction is key to success, therefore, managers should work for their satisfaction. They should use the Islamic teachings to satisfy the needs of the customers. They must be provided with the fair salary. Their efforts should be rewarded on the basis of equity. An healthy work environment should be provided to them. The culture based on Islamic value should be promoted within Kazakhstan Innovational Commercial Bank JSC. Managers should demonstrate the Islamic work ethics in their routine work. This will help them to motivate all employees to adopt Islamic teachings.

8.3.Islamic work ethics policy

This policy should be communicated to employees through handbook. Every employee must be familiar with these policy rules.

  • No one should be allowed to tell a lie to current and potential customers regarding the products of the bank. As Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) has stated that no one should swear about the quality of products, as Allah does not like this. Therefore, no one is allowed to use deceptive techniques while selling the services.
  • There should be no cheating to customers. no misleading information about any financial product should be communicated. Islam does not allow to mislead the potential customers.
  • There should not be hidden anything from the customers. many of the financial institutions communicate good things and conceal the strict terms and conditions. Therefore, it should be forbidden in this company to hide anything.
  • Every employee should be loyal to owners of this company. The owners are shareholders of this company. Therefore, your efforts should be directed towards their good.
  • The commands and instructions of managers should be accepted and followed.
  • Managers must give value to the issues and feedback of their subordinates. They should not forget that Islam fosters fair treatment for subordinates, hence this must be promoted by managers.
  • For decisions, managers must consult their subordinates. Their suggestion should not be ignored.
  • Work should be treated as a mean instead of an outcome. Everyone should give his/her best to the work.
  • The stake of all concerned parties i.e. stakeholders should be considered while making any decision.

 

 

 

References

Abdi, M. F., Nor, S. F. D. W. M., & Radzi, N. Z. M. (2012).The Impact of Islamic Work Ethics on Job Performance and Organisational Commitment. Proceedings of 5th Asia-Pacific Business Research Conference, 17 - 18 February, 2014, Hotel Istana, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Abbasi A.S, Rehman A.K, and Abbasi O.H. (2010). Role of Islamic leadership in value based corporate management: The case of Pakistan, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4(18), pp.4003-4020.

Ali, A. (1986). The Arab executive: a study in values and work orientation, American-

Arab Affairs, Vol. 19, pp. 94-100.

Ali, J. A., (1988), Scaling an Islamic work ethic, Journal of Social Psychology, 128 (5): 575-583

Ali, J. A. (2005). Islamic Perspectives on Management and Organisation. Edward Elgar Publishing, UK 

Ali, JA and Al-Owaihan, A (2008), Islamic work ethics: a critical review, Cross Cultural Management an International Journal, 15 (1), pp.5-19

Alvesson, M., and Deetz, S. (2000). Doing Critical Management Research. London: Sage.

Allen,NJ and Meyer, JP (1990), Measurement and the Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organisation, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, pp.1-18.

Bell, J., (2010). Doing Your Research Project: A guide for the First-time Researchers in Education, Health and Social Sciences, 4th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press

Beekun, R., (1997). Islamic Business Ethics, IIIT, Herndon, Virginia, U.S.A

Becker, T. E., & Kernan, M. C. (2003). Matching commitment to supervisors and organisations to in-role and extra-role performance. Human performance,16(4), 327-348.

Boon, O.K. and Arumugam, V (2006), Influence of Corporate Culture on Organisational Commitment: Case Study of Semiconductor Organisations in Malaysia, Sunway Academic Journal, 3, pp. 99-115.

Barutçugil, ?. (2004). Stratejik insan kaynaklar? yönetimi, Birinci Bask?. ?stanbul: Kariyer Yay?nlar?

Bruce, W. (1994). Ethical people are productive people. Public Productivity & Management Review, 241-252.

Blaxter, L., Hughes, L. C., & Tight, C. M., (2010). How to Research, 4th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Bryman A., and Bell E., (2007). Business Research methods, 2nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cooper-Hakim, A and Viswesvaran, C (2005), ‘The Construct of Work Commitment: Testing an Integrative Framework’, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.131, pp.241-59

Collins, H., (2010). Creative Research: The Theory and Practice of Research for the Creative Industries, London: AVA Publications.

Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S., (2007). Business Research Methods. 9th edition, New York: McGraw Hill.

Creswell, J. W., (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches, 3rd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, J., (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Darwish A. Y., (2000). The Islamic work ethic as a mediator of the relationship between locus of control, role conflict and role ambiguity: A study in an Islamic country setting. J. Manage. Psychol., 15: 283-302

Goodwin, C.J., (2002). Research in Psychology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Guba, E.,& Lincoln, Y.S., (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K Greenfield, T., 1996.Research Method: Guidance For Postgraduates. London: Arnold.

Hadisi, M. (2014). The effect of Islamic work ethics on the performance of Muslim employees of marketing sector in multinational companies, International Journal of Organisational Leadership, 3, 31-40

Hayaati, SI (2007), Values & Ethics towards Quality Public Delivery System of Malaysia: An Islamic Perspective, Journal Syariah, 15 (2), pp. 25-43.

Jex, SM (2002), Organisational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. John Wiley & Sons, New York

Jalil, A., Azam, F. & Rahman, M. K. (2010). Implementation mechanism of ethics in business organisations. International Business Research, 3(4), 45-151

Kumar, R., (2005). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, 2nd edition,London: SAGE Publications

Kumar, N and Rose, RC (2009), Examining the Link between Islamic Work Ethic and Innovation Capability, Journal of Management Development 29(1): pp. 79-93.

Kumar, N. and Che Rose, R., (2012). The impact of knowledge sharing and Islamic work ethic on innovation capability. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal19(2), pp.142-165.

Komari, N., & Djafar, F. (2013). Work ethics, work satisfaction and organisational commitment at the Sharia Bank, Indonesia. International Business Research6(12), 107.

Kidron, A (1979), Work values and Organisational Commitment, Academy of Management Journal, 21 (2),pp.239-47.

Mahdavikhou, M., & Khotanlou, M. (2012). New approach to teaching of ethics in accounting “introducing Islamic ethics into accounting education”.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences46, 1318-1322.

Marri, M. Y. K., Sadozai, A. M., Zaman, H. M. F., & Ramay, M. I. (2012). The impact of Islamic work ethics on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A study of agriculture sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences2(12), 32-45.

Mead, R. (1998). International management: cross-cultural dimensions. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers

Mowday, RT, Porter, LW and Steers, RM (1982), Employee-Organisational Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism and Turnover, New York: Academic Press.

Morf, D. A., Schumacher, M. G., and Vitell, S. J. (1999). A Survey of Ethics Officers in Large Organisations, Journal of Business Ethics, 20, 265-271

Meyer, J. P., Paunonen, S. V., Gellatly, I. R., Goffin, R. D., & Jackson, D. N. (1989). Organisational commitment and job performance:

Hayati, K., & Caniago, I. (2012). Islamic work ethic: The role of intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and job performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences65, 272-277.

Putti, J.M., Aryee, S. and Ling, T.K. (1989). Work values and organisational commitment: a study in the Asian context, Human Relations, Vol. 42, pp. 275-288

Ramamurthy, G.C., (2011). Research Methodology. New Delhi: DreamTech Press.

Remenyi, D., Williams, B., Money, A. & Swartz, E., (1998). Doing Research in Business and Management: An Introduction to Process and Method. London: Sage Publications.

Rizk, R.R., (2008).  Back to basics: an Islamic perspective on business and work ethics, Social Responsibility Journal, Vol. 1 / 2, pp. 246-254, (2008).

Rokhman, W.,(2010) The Effect of Islamic Work Ethics on Work Outcomes, Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organisation Studies , 21-28 (2010).

Wines, WA (1992), Toward an Understanding of Cross Culture Ethics: A Tentative Model, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 11.

Sapsford, R., (2007). Survey Research. 2ndedition, London: Sage publications limited.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., &Thornhill, A., (2003). Research method for business students, 3rd edition, New York: Prentice Hall.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. &Thornhill, A., (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Saunders, M., Lewis P. &Thornhill A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. 5th Ed. Harlow: Pearson Education

Saunders, M., Lewis P. &Thornhill A. (2012). Research methods for business students. 6th edition. Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall

Sekaran, U., (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 4th ed. New York: John & Wiley.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2010).Research Methods for Business A Skill-Building Approach, 5th edition, John Wiley and Sons.

Tharenou, P., Donohueis, R. & Cooper, B., (2007). Management Research Methods. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Werkmeister, W. (1967). Man and his values, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press

Zaman, F. M., Marri, K. Y. M., Sadozai, M. A., H., Ramay, I. M., (2012), Islamic Work Ethics in Contemporary era and its relationship with Organisational Citizenship Behavior, Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business, 4(6): 772-779.

Yesil, S., Sekkeli, Z. H., & Dogan, O. (2012). An Investigation into the Implications of Islamic Work Ethic (IWE) in the Workplace. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies4(11), 612.

Yunus, OM, Abdul Rahim, A, Shabuddin, and Mazlan, M., (1990), Work Ethic of Furnham, The protestant Work Ethic, London: Routledge.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Questionnaire

This research is about the impact of Islamic work ethics on job related outcomes. Your participation is valuable for this study. Please tick the appropriate answer.

Age

  • 24 years and below
  • 25-34 years
  • 35-44 years
  • 45-54 years
  • 55 years and above

Gender

  • Male
  • Female

Qualification

  • Above masters
  • Masters
  • Bachelors
  • Intermediate
  • Below

Experience in financial institution

  • Below 2 years
  • 2-5 years
  • 5-10 years
  • Above 10 years

Islamic work ethics

It is beneficial for one’s self and others to have good beliefs.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

For the welfare of stakeholders, it is necessary to ensure justice and generosity at the workplace.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Word is a mean to promote personal growth and social relations it is not only an end.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It is good or society to have more leisure time.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It is beneficial to emphasis and to foster human relations.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

The happiness and accomplishment can be achieved through creative work.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Through working, one can successfully get ahead in life.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It is important to follow and meet deadlines for becoming a successful person.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It is an individual responsibility to work hard so that assigned duties can be fulfilled.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Job performance

All assigned duties are adequately completed by me.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It is important for me to meet formal performance requirement.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

I avoid duties that I am obliged to do.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

I always perform those activities in an effective manner that has potential to improve my performance evaluation.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

All duties that are expected from me are performed effectively by me.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

I ensure to provide quality work.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

Organisational commitment

I want to spend the rest of my career in this organisation

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It feels good when I discuss about my employing organisation with others who are not part of this organisation.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

I feel attached to the problems of this organisation

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

I always solve problems of this organisation as they are my own problems

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

It would not be possible to become attached to any other organisation like as I am attached to this organisation.

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Neither agree nor disagree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 


Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.