Research On The Effect Of Perceived Organisational Culture On Managers’ Job

Abstract

Today, firms are questioning if organisational culture has any influence on job satisfaction and if it instrumental in fulfilling employees needs such as enhancing interpersonal relationships, employee engagement and involvement and trust and collaboration. Organisational culture faces challenges because of technological changes, changing consumer needs, globalisation, they need to adopt change. Despite these challenges organisations are defining themselves in order to prove the important of organisational culture in business effectiveness and success. It is evident that today many of the flourishing and successful organisations are devoted in providing a working environment that is team-oriented, learning oriented, engaging and encouraging among other aspects that will encourage effectiveness and productivity. In view of this, this research study seeks to investigate the effects of perceived organisational culture on manager's job satisfaction.

The research adopted various methodological techniques to determine if organisational culture influences job satisfaction among managers. Data was collected using questionnaires from thirty two respondents who participated in the survey. To analyse the data descriptive statistical analysis is adopted. The research establishes that organisational culture makes the positive influence on managers’ satisfaction with leadership performance as the mediating role. Good leadership behaviour has a close connection to job satisfaction of managers because it is to get an autonomy and conflict and stress free environment, and boost a supervisory relationship. Additionally, the research established that organisational culture leads to the positive influence on mangers’ satisfaction with interpersonal relationships as the mediating role.  Democratic culture and team-oriented cultures have strong influence on interpersonal relationship they provide an environment for interaction, and employee’s inclusion contribution to satisfaction.

 

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1Background

Both organisations and employees are interdependent in nature. Employees play important roles in organisations and so their contribution to an organisation is critical (Branham, 2012). Their involvement and commitment determines the competitiveness of an organisation. Conversely, employee’s performance is mainly determined by an organisation’s ability to meet their needs (Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002). Employees will perform well if these needs such as rewards are sufficiently met (Branham, 2012). On the other hand, employers are expected to ensure that employees are provided with training, rewards among other needs. First of all, both parties influence on each other to provide positive results. In view of the increasingly global and local competitiveness in today’s organisations, it is crucial for any organisation to ensure that it develops and retains loyal, committed and dedicated team of employees who can be motivated to attain organisational goals and continue their relationship with the organisation (Colakoglu, Culha and Atay. 2010). However, as Pattnaik (2011) observes, there are low levels of motivation among employees in many organisations prompting employees to seek alternative employment where they are able to experience higher degree of job satisfaction (Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002). These actions have adverse effects on organisational attainment of success and ability to be profitable both in the short and long term.

Beyond the research literature and studies, job satisfaction remains an important part of everyday life. Organisations have great effects on people who work for them. These effects are mirrored in the manner people feel about their work and how they treat customers. Dissatisfied employees also affects service delivery to customers as Colakoglu, Culha and Atay (2010) observes. They might be de-motivated, lack creativity and initiative to provide quality services. This makes job satisfaction substantially important for not only employers but employees. Employers might benefit from satisfied employees as a result of low staff turnover, low absences and commitment given that they work in a happy and fulfilling work environment given the amount of time they spend at work and so they can perform well.

Job satisfaction has mainly been explored from the aspects such as rewards, communication, job tasks, and work relationships (Gu and Siu, 2009). The construct of organisational culture was first introduced in the 1980s and early 1990s as management scholars were investigating why American organisations could not compete with Japanese organisations (Colakoglu, Culha and Atay. 2010). From then, organisational culture is frequently blamed for all manner of organisational ills and also sometime credited with contributing to positive results (Shani and Lau, 2005; McShane and Glinow, 2005).

Now, the rapid and continuous growth in the global nature of business has renewed interest in the study of organisational culture leading to the realisation that it affects the behaviour and success of individuals in organisations (Shani and Lau, 2005). Thus, other than variables like rewards, training, work conditions, organisational culture is becoming significant in ensuring that individuals who add value to the bottom line want to stay and be associated in the organisation. Besides, these individuals want to continue providing their efforts to benefit the organisation. However, due to the varying challenges facing the world, organisations have to keep redefining themselves and in the process affect the functioning of the organisation including organisational cultures (Hussain and Yousaf, 2011). Organisational culture is not always stable and some of its elements change from time to time thus affecting organisational practices and processes. But despite all this, many organisations are redefining themselves in order to realise the importance of organisational culture in business effectiveness and so they are shifting from the traditional set of autocratic cultures and adopting democratic norms where they delegate responsibilities to lower levels to enhance involvement (Barrett, 2006). Today, many of the flourishing and successive organisations focus more on providing a working environment that is team-oriented, learning oriented, engaging and encouraging among other aspects that will encourage effectiveness and productivity. A survey carried out by the management consulting firm Bain & Company in 2007, established that organisational culture is an important corporate strategy for business success (Hussain and Yousaf, 2011). It can be used to drive organisational success. It is strong assets of helping a company attain success. In this vein, it is imperative for companies to explore what influence culture may generate to organisation so as to express the function of organisational culture.

1.2. Research rationale

The concept of job satisfaction has grown in popularity receiving a great deal of interest. A large number of studies have investigated numerous antecedents of job satisfaction. However, the influence of organisational culture on job satisfaction has received little attention (Lok & Crawford, 2004; Sempane, Rieger and Roodt, 2002). Regardless of all the attention organisational culture has received from popular and academic management literature during the past decades, many organisations do not fully understand it. Even after great emphasis has been placed on the power and influence of culture in the 1980s and 1990s, research on organisational culture declined dramatically (Martins and Martins, 2002; MacIntosh and Doherty, 2005). It is interesting because prominent organisation culture writers have suggested that organisational culture could have significant influence in organisations in areas such as job satisfaction and performance. Failure to understand the influence of organisational culture on job satisfaction in previous studies highlights a significant issue which calls for further investigation.

The dramatic growth of the retail industry in China and intense competition among different retail stores raises the issue of how retailers can attract and retain satisfied employees (Lasalle, 2012). Employees in this industry can only make positive contributions such as boost productivity and competence when they are satisfied with the general organisational practices, belief and values. However, many retailers in the world today are unable to enhance satisfaction of the individuals working in the organisation leading to such issues as employee’s turn over, absenteeism, poor services among other issues (Pattnaik, 2011). This is a serious issue in retail stores given that these individuals have a direct responsibility on the customer’s relationship, and this relationship is a powerful factor to company’s success. In essence, to achieve service quality and excellence and create loyal customers depend on the attitudes, and behaviours of employees (Ghani, 2006). There is still little focus on employee satisfaction in the retail industry thus affecting service delivery to customers. Additionally, there is a gap in research carried out in retail sector focusing on organisational culture as opposed to research conducted on manufacturing or industrial sectors (Pioch 2007; Harris 2002).

The study concentrates on managers given the critical role they play in retail stores. Retail stores can only operate successfully by hiring the most qualified managers available. Retail managers are key drivers to the success of retail stores performing many important functions every day in the retail stores. Some of the key roles carried out by managers include selecting, hiring and training employees; rewarding, overseeing the operations of various departments within the store, managing labour and inventory costs, promoting products through marketing (Levy and Williams, 2004). More important is that managers motivate employee to work hard and deliver quality customer service. However, managers cannot execute all these responsibilities effectively if they are not happy with their jobs. As a matter of fact, dissatisfaction among the managers is likely to be spread to the employees hence affecting the overall performances of organisation. Despite the remarkable role played by managers, they have received considerably less attention in relation to how their performance can be boosted through job satisfaction.

This study seeks to research on the effect of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction. In so doing, the research study will be able to contribute to the broader research community by adding more knowledge to the existing knowledge and generating new knowledge. This study will be beneficial to many people including the management in retail industry and thus be willing to consider the usefulness of the study in enhancing and strengthening job satisfaction among managers. The study will also be beneficial to academicians in furthering their knowledge on organisational culture and job satisfaction because the results obtained are capable of adding new insights and discoveries to the present body of knowledge. 

1.3 Research aim and objectives

The study aims to conduct a study on the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China. In accordance to this aim, the research will focus on the following objectives:

  1. To examine the relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction;
  2. To analyse how perceived organisational culture influences leadership performance and then affects managers’ satisfaction;
  3. To analyse how perceived organisational culture influences interpersonal relationship and then affects managers’ satisfaction;

1.4 Research structure

This research comprises of five chapters: introduction, literature review, methodology, data findings and analysis and conclusion. Chapter one which is the introduction part provides the research background relating to the topic, research objectives and rationale of the study. It also provides the structure the research will take. Chapter two contains an extensive literature review. Various theoretical frameworks and models on previous research are provided as well as the relevance of these literatures to this study. In the same time, identification of knowledge gaps in the literatures is identified so that this research can build on it. Chapter three contains the methodological procedures and techniques used to collect and analyse data for this research. Chapter four contains data analysis. This chapter provides the data results and the analysis of the data. The final chapter provides the general conclusion of the entire research, the recommendations and limitations of the research.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1. Introduction

This chapter presents various literatures, theories, and models pertaining to the topic under research. The chapter begins by reviewing various literatures relating to the concept of employee job satisfaction. Further, the chapter reviews various literatures on the concept of organisational culture and the different aspects of job satisfaction that are likely to be influenced by organisational culture of a company.

2.2. Job satisfaction

In spite of the wide usage of the term job satisfaction in research and in everyday life, there is no general or official definition of what job satisfaction represents. As a result different authors have come up with different approaches in defining job satisfaction. Hereby, these definitions are some of the most commonly cited definition. According to Kaliski, (2007), job satisfaction is a situation where employees experience a sense of success, achievement and fulfilment on the job. These feelings are directly associated with productivity and personal wellbeing. Meanwhile, Armstong (2006) refers to job satisfaction as the feelings or attitude of individuals hold about their work. If individuals doing their job with positive or favourable attitude, it will indicate directly by job satisfaction and productivity, but when they use unfavourable or negative attitude towards to their job, individuals might be experiencing job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is also described by George and Jones (2008) as they still nurture beliefs and feelings that individuals hold about their work and aspects of work they do, for instance: relationship with supervisors, co-workers and rewards/pay. Individuals’ levels of job satisfaction range from extreme dissatisfaction to excessive satisfaction.

Basically the above definitions all consider that job satisfaction is associated with the personal feelings about work that are birthed out of participating in a certain task or work or the perceptions of how the job is able to meet the psychological or materials needs of the workers.

Among the earlier theories that have studied job satisfaction is Herzberg two factor theory of job satisfaction. The theory made various core assumptions, one of this being that there is a relationship between job attitudes and product productivity. The second one is that there are factors that affect job satisfaction which are divided into two groups; hygiene factors which include work conditions, interpersonal relationships, pay/rewards, and company policies (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, 2010). The second group is the motivation factors which contribute to positive job attitude because they contribute to worker’s self-actualization. Factors falling under this group include career advancement, recognition, achievements and the task itself (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, 2010).

 

 

Besides, two factor theory; there is the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory which states that unless human needs are met, job satisfaction is unlikely. These needs are placed into five categories that ascend in a definite order in the following manner; physiological needs, safety and security needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs and self- actualization needs. Conditions to satisfy these needs should be present at work, for employees to find the job meaningful and motivating (Gart  2013).

 

The other main theory explaining job satisfaction is the expectancy theory. On the contrary the Maslow, Vroom does not concentrate on needs but rather on the outcomes. Maslow focuses on the relationship between needs and the resulting effort but Vroom disconnects effort, performance, and outcomes. The theory believes that when expectations of employees are met, employee job satisfaction will be achieved. The theory points to different sets of expectations that can be used to contribute to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards given for that extra effort are seen to contribute to job satisfaction.

picture_vroom_expectancy_theory

 

 

Earlier research from Chang and Lee (2007) have underscored that job satisfaction has a significant impact on number of aspects that have the potential to affect organisational performance. These include employee work productivity, employee turnover, employee absenteeism, and consequently organisational effectiveness. Impliedly, contemporary organisations are under pressure to ensure that their employees record high levels of job satisfaction and employees’ ability to pursue organisational goals in an unconstrained manner.  A study by Gazioglu and Tansel (2002) suggests that job satisfaction acts as a predictor of employee intentions to leave a job. The implication in this case is that organisations that record low levels of employee job satisfaction are more likely to report high levels of employee turnover. In terms of performance, such organisations are at a higher risk of losing competent employees and consequently their competitive edge. Such concerns are reflected in the study by the Boundless Group (2011), which emphasizes that job satisfaction is reflected in the level of contentment that employees feel regarding their jobs. In this case, job satisfaction is viewed as a strong predictor of an individual wellbeing. Basically, employees would feel incompletion when working that does not offer both the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that are necessary to evoke commitment and loyalty to the organisation.

2.3. Job satisfaction among managers

The role of managers in organisations is quite critical. Managers are mainly charged with tasks such as performance appraisals, recruiting and selecting employees, rewarding employees and handling employment related issues touching on employees. Therefore, providing a harmonious environment would be promoted satisfaction to managers so that they can undertake the various and important tasks they are allocated by organization. The performance of managers also determines how the entire organisation will perform because they are in charge of the organisation critical assets-employees. In view of this, this research intends to investigate how organisational culture can influence satisfaction among managers. Existing literatures reveal that managers act on behalf of the organisation and are expected to apply HR policies in line with organisational procedures (Levy and Williams, 2004).

Job satisfaction gains importance among managers because they are supposed to employ the right people and provide the right relationship in the organisation. When managers are not satisfied the effects is likely to spread to the managers. (Riketta, 2002) explains this is due to the recognition that managers are a major determinant of organisational performance.

When managers are satisfied with their work, they will be less comment to undertaking human resources practices that are beneficial to the organisation. Lok and Crawford, (2001) and Chen and Francesco, (2000) point out that organisational culture is one of the antecedents of job satisfaction and hence has a role to play in developing job satisfaction. Organisational culture embodies the internal working environment created by an organisation (Schein, 1990). It embodies how managers, the kind of relationships they have in organizations, treating employees and how employees interact with managers and how they undertake human resource activities.

 

2.4. Measurements adopted by organizations to improve job satisfaction

Organisations have to undertake various measures to ensure that job satisfaction is high among workers to improve organisational productivity. There are two categorises of variables; organisational variables and personal variables that are likely to have a positive influence on employee job satisfaction. Glen (2006) argues that both organisational and personal factors lead to emotional reaction among employees hence affecting their satisfaction.

Organisational variables which include organisational development focuses on implementing internal change in the organisation with the purpose of enhancing efficiency and effectiveness with the goal of achieve organisational mission and long term objectives (Ghazzawi, 2008).  Organisations have to adopt change given the fast changing external environment characterised with new technologies, regulations and new markets. Similarly, compensations and benefits is an important variable that determines job satisfaction. To attain job satisfaction, employees should be satisfied with the salary packages or fringe benefits, which are competitive, fair and equitable. According to Suliman and Ile (2000), the fringe benefits fall into the falling categories; intrinsic and extrinsic fringe benefits. Spector (1997) argues that intrinsic rewards which include appreciation, recognition and praise have greater influence on employee job satisfaction than extrinsic rewards that mainly involve money.  Employee dissatisfaction may be caused by the perception that rewards are not equitable, performance or tailored to employee needs. Still, Spector (1997) argues that even though payroll is important to employees. individually, money are not necessarily more satisfied in their jobs. This indicates that higher income is not always a variable that leads to job satisfaction.

Promotion and career development is a significant variable for delivering job satisfaction through training program, promotion, and an opportunity to use skills and abilities (Bhatti and Qureshi, 2007). According to Spector (1997), promotion and career development enhances employee job satisfaction because they provide individuals with chances to progress in their career undertake more responsibilities and uplift their social status. However, Spector (1997) is quick to point out that promotional opportunities only enhance employee satisfaction if they are seen fair by the employees. Thus, to enhance job satisfaction using promotional opportunities, a fair and justice system is needed, failure to employees would be feeling dissatisfied rather than being satisfied. Indeed, perception of fairness is a significant determinant of employee reaction to work.

Furthermore, supervisor’s behaviour is instrumental in determining job satisfaction (Spector, 1997). Employees’ level of satisfaction is likely to go up when they have an understanding and friendly supervisor who gives praise for good performance and listens to employees opinions and shows interest in their general welfare (Martins and Coetzee, 2007). Supervisors have the power to determine how employees view work. Ghazzawi (2008) believes that employees want to work in a mentally challenging environment that offers them with the opportunities to make use of their skills and abilities coupled with a freedom and feedback on progress. The role of supervisor is critical in that it determines many factors including the nature of the environment, nature of communication between employees and supervisors and establishes whether the company cares about the employees. Apart from supervisor role, the role of co-workers is also seen instrumental in enhancing job satisfaction. Ghazzawi (2008) explains that having friendly and supportive co-workers enhances job satisfaction. Therefore, The groups’ employees loyalty, and supervisor behaviour are acting important role and having a potential influence on job satisfaction.

Employee satisfaction is also enhanced by job security. This entails providing employees with an assurance that they have low probability of losing their job in the near future (Spector, 1997) Further, employees experience job satisfaction when they work in an environment that provides safety, and comfort, have access to working tools and equipments, security guards and ample parking, good ventilation and neat and clean office area and washrooms (Bowen and Ostroff, 2004). Similar views are also held by Judge Bono and Locke (2000) which is work condition including experiencing the meaningful of work, knowledge about tasks, and feelings of responsibility and autonomy contribute to job satisfaction.

Personal variables include personality of the employee as a result of the personality, perceptions and attitude of the employees; expectation levels of employees from the job, age. Fresher employees have high energy levels and are likely to feel more satisfied than senior employees. Younger employees are more accepting of new techniques, education; education aids in the evaluation process; gender; female employees are more likely to be satisfied than male in the same job.

Martins and Coetzee (2007) also points out the importance of organisational culture in enhancing job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and organisational culture are influenced by how the organisation is able to meet the employee’s needs, including work life balance and physical work environment.

 

2.5. Organisational culture

A single general definition of organisational culture remains elusive. As for the cause and consequences of organizational culture over employees, there are different explanations. Hofstede is among the earlier scholars who refer to organisational culture as the collective programming of the mind, which differentiates members in an organisation from another. Factors that help bring these differences include the values, beliefs and organisational practices. Another definition is by Schein (2010) which refers to organisational culture as the shared perceptions, beliefs and values at work practices that make one organisation differ from another. These definitions reflect that organisations have particular ways of conducting organisational functions that have evolved over time. There are various aspects of employees share namely values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in organizations. Therefore, organisational culture is reflected by a common way of doing things and making sense of the organisation hence allowing people to see things, situations, or events in similar or distinctive ways. Similarly, Robbins and Coulter (2005) defines organisational culture as the shared beliefs, values and perceptions shared by employees in an organisation. Basically, the above definitions of organisational culture reflects the beliefs, values and norms that are utilised by employees to give meaning to situations they encounter and this can influence the attitudes and behaviour of the employees. Understanding the organisations core beliefs, values and perceptions can help provide job satisfaction which is the main reason for this research.  

To understand the impact of organisational culture on job satisfaction means understanding how organisations influences employee’s feelings and attitudes. In the process of researching the impact of organisational culture on employee’s satisfaction, numerous models have been conceptualised. Hofstede (1980) advances the most widely adopted model of cultural differences. According to Hofstede, an organisation can gain considerable insight into behaviours of individuals across different cultures based on the dimensions of power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation (Hofstede, 1991). By gaining knowledge into how different individuals behave according to different cultures, the organisation can influence their feeling, attitudes and behaviours. For instance, on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, Hofstede (1980) posits that employees in cultures with high levels of individualism are more likely to experience job satisfaction by working independently unlike those who are in collectivistic societies where employees feel satisfied working in teams. Besides, employees from cultures with higher levels of collectivism are more likely to enjoy working with other co-workers. Therefore, it is proper to say that teamwork is a greater determinant of job satisfaction in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.

Further, Fons Trompenaars presented a model with some of its dimensions being similar to Hosftede’s dimensions. The model focuses on variations in values and personal relationships across cultures. The seven dimensions include; individualism-collectivism, specific-diffuse, neutral-affective, universalim-paticularism, neutral-affective, achievement ascription, time perspective and relationship with environment. Some of the dimensions focus on relationships among people and the others on time management and relationships in the society (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998).  Both of these theories (Hofstede and Trompenaar’s) reveal a set of cultural dimensions along which dominant value systems can be ordered. These value systems influence human feelings, thinking, acting and the behaviour of the organisation in predictable ways that are likely to influence job satisfaction.

Furthermore, Schein (2004) articulated a conceptual framework for understanding organisational culture. Schein (2004) pointed out that culture has three common characteristics including espoused values, artefacts and behaviours and assumptions. Artefacts entail the structures and processes that are visible in an organisation. Values involve organisational goals, philosophies, and strategies. Meanwhile, basic assumptions refer to the held beliefs, thoughts, perceptions, and feelings towards an organisation (Schein, 2010).

While considering the above models, this research found that Schein’s model offers significant basis upon which the notion of organisational culture leading to significant influences on job satisfaction. This decision was based on the fact that the elements in the model including artefacts would be used to stipulate employee job satisfaction with keen reference to their behaviours and even the volition of employees to attend formal and informal meetings. However, one very important model that emerged as the most plausible model for this research was Denison model, which involves elements such as adaptability, mission, involvement, and consistency (Denison, Haaland and Goelzer, 2004). This model was principally used due to the reason that the cultural dimensions are central in all aspects of organisational life. Therefore, Denison model provides a validated framework of measurement that reveals four different cultural traits and that are related to organisational effectiveness. The four are mission, adaptability, consistency, and involvement (Denison, Haaland and Goelzer, 2004).

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Figure 2-1: The Denison organisational culture model

Source: Denison, Haaland and Goelzer, (2004)

As for the cultural trait of mission, organisations use missions to let employees know why they are working and what the expected contributions of their work. In view of this, employees can work with an understanding of where the organisations priorities rely on. Adaptability of an organisation determines its ability to be altered. These organisations are risk takers, driven by their customers and can easily create change (Denison, Haaland and Goelzer, 2004). Furthermore, organisational traits can also be measured in terms of consistency. Organisations tend to be effective, which have strong cultures that are highly coordinated, highly consistent and are well integrated. Consistency in organisations provides stability and internal integration resulting in a high degree of conformity. Concerning involvement, effective and efficient organisations empower employees and strive to build human capability at every level in the organisation (Denison, Haaland and Goelzer, 2004). In such a kind of organisation where there is the trait of involvement, employees and all the other people in the organisation including managers feel as part of the organisation. People in these organisations are empowered to provide their input during decision-making processes.

Despite the different interpretations and cultural dimension from different models, a number of common themes and similarities can be noted in organisational culture and how it influences job satisfaction. Building a sustainable organisational culture is one way that organisation can show that people are valuable assets of organisation and this enhances job satisfaction

2.6. Types of organizational culture

There are different types of organisational culture and each affect job satisfaction in varying ways. It is significant therefore to understand how these cultures vary and how they contribute to employee satisfaction. According to Carroll and Nafukho, (2006), organisational culture can be classified as competitive culture, participative culture and bureaucratic culture. According to Daft (2007), a competitive culture refers to a situation where goals are individual based even at the cost of others like colleagues, and customers. Leaders structure rewards and other conditions in such a way to encourage competition between individuals. According to Daft (2007), a competitive culture is contrary to a collaborative culture where everyone feels included in achieving the goals of the company. Nonetheless, a collaborative culture enhances job satisfaction more than competitive culture because it provides for a platform for employees to interact and collaborate in different tasks.  Thus, employees assist each other to achieve the objective of the organisation. Individual competition in this case is seen as destructive and undesirable. Then, a competitive culture is destructive, ego based, non-collaborative and individualistic. These aspects prevent organisations from providing an environment for interpersonal relationships to thrive.

 

Participative culture on the other hand tends to emerge in organisations where members view themselves as equals and are involved in the decision-making processes. Meanwhile, bureaucratic culture as Daft (2010) explains provides for many layers of management flowing from senior executives to regional managers. The line further includes departmental managers to supervisors to front line employees. Based on Daft (2010), the many layers of management make the decision making process quite tedious and long. Besides, leaders at the top who provide all the information, which has to flow from one structure to another. Rules and standards and tightly controlled processes as well as close supervision are found in a bureaucratic culture. Due to rigid rules, slow decision-making processes and lack of employee participation and involvement, interpersonal relations are affected.   

Pareek (2006) who classifies organisational cultures as autocratic, bureaucratic, technocratic, democratic, and entrepreneurial culture provides an alternative classification of organisational culture. Autocratic cultures keep tight control over group decisions and activities according to White, & Lippitt, (1960). Hence, a leader in an autocratic culture determines all activities, policies, and practices and dictates all work tasks without particularly engaging other members in the organisation. This kind of behaviour is de-motivating to employees, makes them feel excluded, and lacking enthusiasms for work hence affecting employee job satisfaction. According to Bass (1990), the integral characteristic of a democratic organisation is participation and empowerment. A democratic culture provides for individual liberty and participation in activities of the organisation. This means employees are given freedom to oversee various duties and processes. Empowerment is achieved through training and once they are well informed and educated on various organisational issues such as problem-solving techniques, management entrusts them with decision-making.

A democratic leader provides information and knowledge to the group in order to empower them to meet goals and visions of the organisation. Democratic leaders aim at empowering members and encouraging participation and involvement hence contributing to interpersonal relationships (Bass, 1990). A democratic culture is associated with satisfaction, productivity, commitment, and involvement given the group discussions, participation, and decisions encouraged by leaders. Despite all the benefits that come with a democratic culture, there are significant drawbacks that come with the culture. Length debates and discussions, and time-consuming activities make the culture unappealing.

Alas and Rees (2006) provides another contrasting view by classifying organisational culture as: clan, market, adhocracy, and hierarchy. Clan oriented cultures are characterised with nurturing, mentoring and doing things together. Market oriented cultures focus on achievement and competition. Meanwhile, adhocracy oriented cultures are entrepreneurial and dynamic in nature characterised with innovation, and risk taking behaviour. Hierarchy oriented cultures are controlled, structured and focuses on stability and efficiency (Alas and Rees, 2006). Similarly, Mayfield (2008) explains that a hierarchical corporate culture models the organisation based on clearly defined corporate levels and structures, but a flat organisation has few structures and few levels of management between management and employees. A hierarchy type of organisational culture has items ranked in order of importance. It exhibits a top-down control to guide business practices and activities. The reason has to adhere to controlled process and significant oversight is to enhance productivity and success. However, the hierarchical corporate culture faces criticisms of stifling creativity and employee initiative given the tight control and rigidity. Hierarchical corporate culture delay fast coordination and speedy communication between employees, delays decision-making processes, and increases organisational costs because there are many management levels. Due to above shortcomings, it might not effective in certain situation in enhancing employee satisfaction. 

Furthermore, cultures can also be classified in terms of team oriented and trust oriented cultures. According to Silverthorn (2006), team oriented organizations have more positive relationships with employees especially managers. Most of members are valued and respected in organizations. Leaders always encourage cooperation and collaboration among members. At the mean time, one of leaders communication ways is by listening to all its staff and sharing ideas and information. Employee partnership is encouraged by ensuring employees’ team working and the leader’s acts as coaches and servants. These practices promote cooperation and loyalty between departments resulting to better work relationships. Meanwhile, trust oriented culture is highly recommended for good organisational performance and success. Bechky (2003) argues that trust reduces conflicts and helps groups to co-exist peacefully, enhances teamwork, goal setting, and leadership behaviour. Groups in this case are wide ranging covering employees, management, customers and other stakeholders. Leaders are expected to demonstrate trust in all the activities they undertake. Relationships cannot also last long without trust and employees cannot co-exist peacefully.

 

 

2.7. Measuring job satisfaction

By measuring job satisfaction, an organisation can understand the varying behaviours of employees either desirable or not desirable. However, measuring job satisfaction can be challenging tasks because of the subjectivity of the concept from Martin. According to Martin (2007), an organisation can either adopt direct or indirect method. Direct method involves conducting surveys. A similar view is held by Grobler and Warnic, (2007), that measuring job satisfaction could use survey (questionnaires and interviews). To use interviews or anonymous questionnaires is dependent on the underlying issues. If participants do not want to reveal their identities, then an anonymous survey could be adopted than personal interviews. According to measuring job satisfaction surveys (2006) are common methods in assessing satisfaction in areas of supervision, promotion, pay, tasks and co-workers. Grobler and Warnic, (2007) points out that that measuring job satisfaction should rather adopt qualitative and quantitative data to gain data on different aspects.

 

Moreover, by monitoring targets and performances can be used as an indicator of job satisfaction among employees in an organisation. However, this method requires the organisation to monitor employee job satisfaction such as their ability to reach certain goals, and achieving bonuses. The method is however criticized because it can flag the organisation that there is a problem with job satisfaction, it fails to pinpoint the cause of the problem. It is therefore crucial that it is combined with survey or interviews for stronger analysis.  Adding to the above discussion is Matzler and Renzl, (2007).) that organisation can also detect levels of job satisfaction by paying close attention to rates of absences, and employee turnover. This could be an indication of employee’s feels unmotivated or unfulfilled with job. This method is also likely to miss out on the causes of dissatisfaction. According to Martin (2007), the main advantage of using this method is that employees’ bias are not likely to come into the picture because it does not seek their views or opinions but concentrating on making keen observation.

2.8. The relationships among organisational culture, leadership behaviours and manager’s satisfaction

The relationship between leadership behaviour and employee satisfaction has been extensively investigated (Bass, 1990; Sarros and Woodman, 1993; Collins and Porras, 1996). Leadership is considered as one of the most important determinants of employee job satisfaction because it influences employee’s behaviour, motivation and commitment. Leaders deal directly with people, inspire them, develop rapport with them and collaborate with them to attain the goals of the organisation (Daft, 2005). Apart from that leadership is seen as important element of success or failure in an organisation. Therefore, it is significant to research on how leadership can influence on employee job satisfaction given its importance in the organisation and its capability to influence employee behaviours and dedication.

Leaders create an environment that affects behaviours of employees at work (Yukl, 2002). According to Hartog and Verburg (2002), leaders who are caring and supportive end up providing an environment characterized with open dialogue, cooperation and support for one another and as a result employees feel fulfilled and satisfied with their tasks. These leaders can be found in democratic cultures where open dialogue and communication is encouraged. However, when a culture encourages only directive leadership, it ends up affecting job satisfaction in a negative way. A leader who is caring and supportive, it is also able to meet the needs of the employees because they are concerned with the general welfare of the employees. Wade et al., (2008) further points out that a supportive and caring leader believes in providing equal opportunities, balance of power and open dialogue with the managers and this creates a harmonious environment for employees to execute their duties. According to Sullivan-Havens and Aiken (2009) when leaders are caring and supportive, they create opportunities that lead to employees perceiving their work as stimulating, pleasurable, and meaningful and give a sense of coherence. Every employee would feel contended and joyful to work in an environment where they are accorded support and care as this affects their psychology aspect and affect their attitude towards work. When leaders show concern employees will find the tasks fulfilling and feel satisfied with the job.

 

Communication and interactions between leaders and their managers is equally important in affecting employees’ behaviour because it facilitates timely exchange of information, evaluation and feedback (Gill, 2008). The manners in which leaders relate with employees affect how they think the organisation and the tasks. Generally, managers should pay attention on the quality of communication with employees, which eventually contributes to improved job satisfaction. Similarly, Johlke and Duhan (2001) report the exercising bidirectional communication has positive outcomes for manager and as Chiang and Birtch (2006) points out, this is an important aspect for workplace condition that affect jon satisfaction. Casida and Pinto-Zipp, (2008) holds similar views that job satisfaction is related to communication between supervisors and subordinates while Chen, (2001) found that managers who communicate with their leaders report high satisfaction at work. These findings are in line with those of Laschinger et al (2001) and Sandra (2009) that an organisation with that promotes a culture of communication leads to job satisfaction. This means that leaders can enhance manager’s satisfaction by ensuring that there is bi-directional communication, team interactions and collaborations in tasks and other activities. In this regard, leadership style needs to adapt a culture that encourages good flow of communication and interaction so as to reduce conflicts and employee dissatisfaction.

Communication and conflict management by leaders differ across cultures (Oetzel & Ting-Toomey, 2003; Holt & DeVore, 2005). Organisations in collectivist society will prefer to have less direct methods of conflict management with third party being sought to act as mediators. Employees in such a culture will thus feel satisfied if such a method of conflict resolution is undertaken. However, people from an organisation where individualistic culture manifests, have a tendency to prefer the leaders to handle conflicts in a direct and confrontational measures.

A study on nurses to determine the relationship between leadership and organisational culture and ascertains that there is a correlation between leadership and organisational culture (Casida and Pinto-Zipp, 2008). However, the study also found out that leadership behaviour has an impact on the organisational culture. These results are in line with those of Glifford (2012), that establish leaders need to establish a good infrastructural network in order to improve the working environment in an organisation and improve employee job satisfaction. Studies that have investigated organisational culture conclude that organisational culture is complex. It influences on different aspects of the organisation, particularly employee behaviour and attitude. Even though organisations would like to provide a good working environment and increase employee job satisfaction Tsai (2011) argues that organisations face challenges. According to him, the external environment has adverse effects on the internal context of the environment. As result, leaders will change their behaviours as per the environmental changes. This confirms the need for additional studies to investigate how changes in the external environment affect organisational culture and leadership behaviour, which also affects job satisfaction. 

However, various studies such as Bass, (1990); Casida and Pinto-Zipp (2008); and Tsai (2011) have a different interpretation that states that leadership behaviour also has the capability to influence the type of culture found in the organisation. Similar studies from studies from Yukl (2006) and Avolio (2007) hold that leader’s behaviour shapes organisational culture and organisational culture can also shape leaders behaviours. In view of the above theoretical literatures, leadership is an important topic that has received a lot of attention because of its influence in organisation especially in influencing employee contributions in an organisation. These relationships are influential in boosting employee satisfaction (Holland, Sheehan & De Cieri, 2007). The above literatures posit that leaders have a huge role to play to increase employee satisfaction. Actually, employee satisfaction mainly depends on the leadership behaviour. Leaders can motivate employees and increase their productivity by boosting their employee satisfaction through providing an environment that has minimal conflicts, employee’s interactions, clear vision, and direction.

According to Shannon and Carole (2006), leadership behaviour is greatly determined by the culture of an organisation because it lays down the rules and behaviour within an organisation including how leaders should behave and this influences performances. A democratic culture is likely to produce a supportive and caring leader while a bureaucratic culture inhibits flow of communication. It is for this reason that Berson and Linton (2007), points out that culture shapes the way leaders undertake activities in the company and they manner they behave. Consequently this is translated to other people in the organisation as leader’s shape the way employees think and behave. 

 

2.9. The relationships among organisational culture, interpersonal relationship and manager’s satisfaction

Positive interpersonal relationship enhances job satisfaction among individuals in an organisation (Morrison, 2009; Murrel and Thatcher, 2010). According to Song and Olshfski (2008), friendship at work improves employee attitude and enhances job satisfaction, engagement and performance. Employees are able to provide support to one another, interact freely, aide one another to solve problems and this provides a positive experiences at work. According to Crabtree, (2004) that valued work relationships produces work outcomes like increased individual participation, supportive environments that enhance job satisfaction because they is collaboration, and interactions among individuals in the organisation. Employees feel happy and contented if they are in a setting where they can interact with one another and even exchange ideas and views. On the other hand, negative work attitudes are possible in the workplace if individuals in an organisation do not interact well. However, Holt & DeVore (2005) points out that ddifferent norms, beliefs, orientations and values are associated with different cultural differences and this tends to affect how people relate/interact and communicate with each other in interpersonal relationships. Basically organisational culture is an influential factor in how people relate and how relationships are developed and maintained. Culture tends to provide the social norms and rules that regulate and guide interactions among individuals. 

Further, interpersonal relationship promotes trust in the organisation which an important aspect for delivering job satisfaction. For successful interpersonal relationship, the culture of trust is instrumental as Ghoshal and Barlett, (1994) observes. According to Alvesson (2002), out of trust, the organisation is able to view its employees as loyal, dependable, and trustworthy and this influences the behaviours of employees positively. Many employees desire to have autonomy to undertake their tasks but this is only possible in an organisation where there is trust such that employees are seen as dependable and loyal. Additional findings from Bechky (2003) denote that trust enhances co-existence of groups. The fact that employees can work in teams without conflicts and help each other for personal and organisational gain influences the attitude of employee positively.

Furthermore, strong and positive interpersonal relationships encourage cooperation between employees, teams and even departments in an organisation (Koster & Sanders, 2006). To add onto this Baker, Gibbons, and Murphy (2002) points out that individual in co-operative oriented organisations associate with other individuals to attain mutual benefits and to work towards a common goal and this enhances job satisfaction (Baker, Gibbons, and Murphy, 2002). However, LePine & Van Dyne, (2001) posits that an organisation with a low disposition to cooperate minimizes the chances for employees to cooperate and improve relationships. Individuals tend to show satisfaction if there are in settings that meet their social needs of interaction. However, organisations that emphasises individualism are not likely to promote interpersonal relationships and this lack of cooperative behaviour is likely to affect employee satisfaction (Baker, Gibbons, and Murphy, 2002). Individualism oriented cultures promote individual working while cooperation cultures promote collaboration where all individuals feels that they are working towards one common goal. An organisation in an individualistic society is likely to promote values of independence, self-reliance, in-group goals and detachment from group working. An organisation in an individualistic society is likely to face problems of enhancing cooperation and teamwork among employees and this might affect employees attitudes.

Strong and positive interpersonal relationships also promote the culture of equality oriented communication. By using effective communication, employees are in position to interact more effectively and understand their job roles more effectively (Newstrom & Davis, 1997; Downs & Adrian, 2004). Furthermore, the research of Amalric and Hauser (2005) found out that organisational that had a communication culture were able to influence job satisfaction because it encouraged employee feedback, and enhance relationships between employees and other employees and between employees and their supervisor. Communication provides a platform for employees to share information and boost relationships vital for positive attitudes. Briggs and Verma (2006) also support these assertions that an organisation that fosters a communication culture is able to encourage employees into decision-making processes and access information in the organisation issues that boost employees’ job satisfaction. However, LePine and Van Dyne (2001) disagree with these views and maintain that communication does not necessary, imply information flow. These views are supported by Yang, Mossholder and Peng (2007) who claim that although communication aides and provides relevant information regarding employees’ jobs and contributes to job satisfaction, it might fail to create interpersonal relationships to satisfy interpersonal needs of inclusion and pleasure. This is because employees might be provided with all the information they require but failure to bond and have interpersonal interaction. Thus, apart interpersonal relationship is strengthened by employee’s interaction among the employees and provision of information, which has a positive effect on job satisfaction. It is organisational culture of an organisation that tends to influence the modes of communications.

The nature of interpersonal relationship is mainly dependent on the culture of an organisation. A democratic culture enhances positive relationships and interaction among employees while a bureaucratic or competitive culture impedes interactions. This indicates that organisational cultures affects the nature the nature of interpersonal relationship in an organisation and this end up determining if managers feel satisfied or not.

2.10. Research questions

The role of managers in organisations is quite critical. Managers are mainly charged with tasks such as performance appraisals, recruiting and selecting employees, rewarding employees and handling employment related issues touching on employees. In view of this, this research intends to investigate how organisational culture can influence satisfaction among managers. Existing literatures reveal that managers act on behalf of the organisation and are expected to apply HR policies in line with organisational procedures (Levy and Williams, 2004). Virtually empirical studies tend to focus on employee’s satisfaction and assume uniformity in the adoption and use of HR policies within an organisation and neglect the actions of managers (Boselie et al., 2005). Other than that, there is dearth of studies on organisational cultures and specifically on how it influence managers actions and satisfaction at the organisation. Moreover, this research intends to provide support to the critique of human resource management as managerial rhetoric. According to Purcell et al., (2009), there is a strong disconnect between rhetoric of human resource management and the reality experienced by employees. Simply put, there is a great what is written down in various literatures and what is taking place in the ground. Although this gap can be attributed to the existence of informal organisations, it can also be pointed to the role of each line choosing to focus their attention in varying ways (Purcell and Kinnie, 2007).

This gap as Nishii and Wright (2008) put it is because of lack of research on manager’s actions. Even though, managers are seen as enactors, implementers and translators of HR policies, what is meant by this is still unclear. Subsequently, this has resulted to inconsistent approach to corporate procedures. Some managers will draft performance appraisals less frequently than required by HR policies (Purcell and Hutchinson, 2007). Nishii and Wright (2008) note many managers influence employees perceptions through their leadership styles, behaviour and personality, and how they communicate the perceptions of HR practices as dictated by the organisational culture. Therefore, this research will help provide additional information to the existing information, which is scanty to establish how organisational culture can be used to shape managers’ satisfaction. In view of this, the research will seek to answer the following questions:

How does perceived organizational culture of managers affect interpersonal relationship and then influences managers’ job satisfaction?

How does perceived organizational culture of managers affect leadership behaviours and then influences managers’ job satisfaction?

2.11. Chapter summary

Concerning leadership behaviour, the available literatures establish that there is a relationship among organisational culture, leadership behaviour and employee satisfaction. If the organisational culture has democratic elements, this will be manifested on the leaders who will demonstrate caring and supportive behaviours towards the employees hence enhancing job satisfaction. Other than that, existing literatures provide strong argument that incentives are great elements in an organisation and determine employee satisfaction. Theoretical literatures establish that there is a relationship among organisational culture, incentives, and employee satisfaction. A culture that promotes fair distribution of incentives among its employees influences employees behaviours positively hence increasing employee satisfaction. Additionally, employees as social beings want to work in an environment that promotes healthy interactions. Thus, existing literatures have shown that a culture of trust, collaboration, and communication in organisations is instrumental in promoting interpersonal relationships. A culture of trust, cooperation, and communication enhances positive behaviour among employees and promotes relations at the work place. Trust, cooperation, and communication help reduce conflicts in an organisation, allow flow of information in every part of the organisation, and strengthen interactions in the organisation, and increase involvement and participation of employees in decision-making processes of the organisation thus affecting their attitudes towards the organisation positively. There is a relationship among organisational culture, interpersonal relationships, and employee satisfaction. Based on the literature review, the research questions are made finally. To answer the research question, data will be collected with the methods discussed in the following chapter.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1.Introduction

Present research is aimed at investigating the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China. The key objectives of the study include to examine the relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction, to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences leadership performance and then affects managers’ satisfaction and finally to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences interpersonal relationship and then affects managers’ satisfaction.

 

In the present chapter, an introduction of the research methodologies that have been employed in the current research for accomplishment of objectives will be presented. Each option of the research methodology will be discussed relative to its suitability and pros and cons. After that the rationale behind the selection of each research method will also be presented. In addition to shedding light on research philosophy, research approach, research strategy, research instrument, sampling techniques, data collection and analysis, an argument relative to research reliability and validity will also be provided in the end of the chapter.

3.2.Ontological and epistemological choices

As per viewpoint of Brannick and Roche (2007) ontology can be delineated as the study of being. Likewise, Denscombe (2010) stated that it can be viewed as the branch of philosophy that is particularly related with expressing the structure and nature of the world. Ontology, in fact, illustrates the opinions regarding the nature of reality, both subjective (created in our minds) as well as objective (that really exists) reality.

The conceptualization of epistemology is taken as intimately associated with ontology as it focuses on the most suitable approaches that can be employed to enquire into the nature of the world. Brannick and Roche (2007) delineated epistemology as a philosophy that signifies the nature of human knowledge as well as a perspective that can be obtained through various kinds of analysis and investigations.

Present study is based on positivist ontology. The positivist ontology basically is based on numbers and facts. This ontology helps to study the phenomenon that is observable.  The phenomenon under study is also observable so positivist approach is appropriate.

3.3 Research paradigms

Biehl, Good and Kleinman, (2007) opined that an appraisal of the research paradigms is very significant as this practice tends to broaden the thoughts of the researchers about the available possibilities and choices.  A review of the research paradigms not only play a part in enriching the research skills of the researchers but also enhance confidence to opt the most appropriate methodology. The research paradigms are classified as positivism, interpretivism and Realism. Each of these is discussed in the sections below along with a rational for the selected research paradigm.

3.3.1 Positivism

Brannick and Roche (2007) stated that this research paradigm is basically originated from natural sciences. Positivism is primarily exemplified by the theory testing, i.e. testing the hypothesis derived from accessible theories. Thus positivism involves deductive approach and objectivism. Biehl, Good and Kleinman, (2007) in respect to positivist philosophy referred that it has its foundations on validity, truth and values of reasons and its focus remains confined to assembling of facts by means of experience and direct observation quantified empirically by making use of quantitative methods like statistical analysis, experiments and surveys. 

3.3.2 Interpretivist / Constructivist

Gill and Johnson (2010) referred interpretivism as post post-positivist because of the argument that a basic disparity is prevalent between subject matters of social and natural sciences. On the other hand, Gray (2009) argued this research paradigm as anti-positivist.

It is further added by Brannick and Roche (2007) that interpretivits are of the opinion that multiple realities exist in nature. Interpretivists researches primarily focus on comprehending the connotations and elucidations of social actors. The findings of  interpretivists studies are less generalisable as compared to positivist ones owing to the fact that interpretivists prefer to comprehended the phenomenon from their own perspectives, thus making the situation highly contextual.  Thus interpretivism involves inductive approach, subjectivism and primarily qualitative methods.

3.3.3 Realism

Biehl, Good and Kleinman, (2007) stated that aspects from both interpretivism and positivism are penetrated in to the realism paradigm. The rationale behind this is outlined by Gill and Johnson (2010)  who argued that realism in fact, originated from the aggravation that interpretivism is totally relativist and exceedingly contextual whereas positivism is over the deterministic leaving minimum place for other options due to the causal nature of universal laws. Brannick and Roche (2007) further added that this research paradigm holds that knowledge is created socially and existence of real structures is quite autonomous of human consciousness which gives a notion that our knowledge about reality is a consequence of social conditioning.

3.3.4 Research philosophy adopted in present study

Present research is aimed at investigating the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China and its objectives include to examine the relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction, to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences leadership performance and then affects managers’ satisfaction and finally to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences interpersonal relationship and then affects managers’ satisfaction. In order to meet these objectives in an effective way, use of quantitative methods along with the deductive approach deems inevitable. Keeping in view this requirement, positivist research paradigm is being employed in the study. Interpretivist paradigm is rejected on the ground that it involves qualitative methods and inductive approach whereas use of realism paradigm is overlooked on the basis that it is deemed as inappropriate for management and social sciences studies.

 

3.4. Research approach

Gravetter and Forzano (2006) opined that researches pertaining to management and the social sciences either employ deductive or inductive approach. About deductive approach, it is believed that it is concerned with hypothesis development on the basis of existing theory. After that a research methodology is designed to test this formulated hypothesis. Bryman (2008) on the other hand stated their perspective about the deductive approach as the one that pertains to deduction of conclusions from propositions. This approach moves from general to specific. This approach mostly suits quantitative studies (Holliday, 2007).

The Inductive approach on the other hand is concerned with the new theory generation. It moves from the bottom to top i.e. from specific to general. Biehl, Good and Kleinman, (2007) argued that the inductive approach is mostly used in the studies that are qualitative in nature. It is more exploratory and open ended as compared to the deductive approach.

3.4.1 Research approach adopted in present study

Present research involves investigation of the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China and in doing so, pertinent theories are consulted to generate hypotheses that are then tested to assess their confirmation or rejection. It means that research is being moved from the bottom to top so deductive approach is used to accomplish the aim of research. The deductive approach is selected owing to its suitability with research like it makes use of quantitative approach and employs hypotheses testing for confirmation and rejection of hypotheses. Choice of Inductive approach is overlooked as it is argued to be more appropriate for qualitative researches and does not entail hypothesis testing.

3.5. Research strategy

Types of research strategies as mentioned by Gill and Johnson, (2007) include case studies, surveys and exploratory studies. Each of these research strategies are delineated below.

3.5.1 Case study

Evolved in the past few years, case study method is accepted to as a very useful tool in exploring specific situations and trends in different scientific and social disciplines (Holliday, 2007). This research strategy makes use of in-depth qualitative information to comprehend and unveil the underpinnings of situations and trends under study. In case studies, a very broad field of information is narrowed down into a comprehensible and researchable form. Drawback of this research strategy is that its outcomes are difficult to extrapolate in order to answer all questions. The strength of this strategy lies in the fact that it provides more realistic responses that are difficult to attain through surveys.

 

3.5.2 Surveys

Denscombe (2010) referred that in the social sciences, survey research forms a vital area of measurement. Different measurement procedures are used in the survey researches in order to gain the viewpoints of the respondents (Holliday, 2007). Lohr (2009) argued that surveys are widely preferred in the social sciences owing to their manifold benefits like convenient data gathering, high representativeness, good statistical significance, low cost, precise results and little or no observer subjectivity. But on the other hand, Connell and Nord (2006) opined that certain factors associated with surveys like inflexible design, possible unsuitability of questions and imperfection for controversial situations limit the effectiveness of this research strategy in studies pertinent to the social sciences.

3.5.3 Exploratory research

 

Bryman and Bell (2011) stated that it is a most common form of informal and unstructured research that is primarily employed to obtain in-depth background information about the certain problem under investigation. The situations in which this research strategy is specially used include establishing research priorities, clarifying hypothesis and problems, defining terms and gaining background information.

Denscombe (2010) argued that exploratory studies are very helpful in gaining understanding about a particular phenomenon or situation along with guiding about research techniques for future researches. But at the same time, the outcomes of exploratory researches are not generally supportive in the process of decision making as these outcomes lack statistical strength and are usually judgmental and susceptible to the biasness from interpreter.

 

3.5.4 Research strategy adopted in present study

Present research involves investigation of the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China and in order to meet this aim, survey research strategy is being used. Case study approach is not being employed as research is undertaking a quantitative approach to meet its objectives and exploratory research strategy is being overlooked as it is more suitable for investigating some new upcoming issues. Survey research strategy is selected on the grounds like its suitability relative to research nature, cost effectiveness and opportunity to reach and gather opinion from maximum respondents.

 

3.6. Research instruments

The tools that are typically used in research studies to gather data are referred to as research instruments which are broadly classified in to three types i.e. interview, questionnaire and observation (Holiday, 2007). Details relative to each of these tools is presented in sections below.

3.6.1 Interview

Interviews are of various types like telephonic interview, face to face interview, mail interviews, etc and are primarily used to gather data in qualitative studies. Thomas et al (2011) outlined many key benefits of the interview tool for data collection, such as a more personalised approach, ease to reach specific individuals, opportunity to collect in-depth information, a high response rate and a chance to get clarification. But Bryman and Bell (2007) stated that this instrument also encompasses certain disadvantages too like difficulty in interpreting and quantifying outcomes, the chance of dishonesty in responses, time consuming, and slow approach, expensive and have reactive effect. 

3.6.2 Questionnaire

Questionnaires are typically classified on the basis of nature of questions incorporated in them i.e. open ended or close ended. The use of questionnaire is more common in quantitative studies as many plus points are associated with use of this data collection instrument. These plus points are ease of use and administration, offer the opportunity to reach the maximum number of respondents, inexpensive, suitable for statistical analysis and tabulation and standardisation. Weaknesses of this tool as stated by Thomas et al (2011) are that it requires a separate data entry step and is prone to error.

3.6.3 Observation

This tool assists in the collection of data by just observing a situation either by active participation in that situation or by remains aside. It is unstructured, flexible and natural setting is thought to assist key benefit. But its weaknesses like non generalizability of outcomes, unrealistic approach in case of a large population, and th requirement of skilled observer outweigh its benefits in many situations that why its use remained limited in the scientific as well as social studies.

 

3.6.4 Research instrument adopted in present study

Present research is aimed at investigating the impact of perceived organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction in China and its objectives include to examine the relationship between organisational culture and job satisfaction, to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences leadership performance and then affects managers’ satisfaction and finally to analyse how perceived organisational culture influences interpersonal relationship and then affects managers’ satisfaction. In order to meet these objectives in an effective way, use of quantitative methods along with the deductive approach deems inevitable. Keeping in view this requirement, close ended questionnaire is adopted as a tool to gather data because of its advantages like ease of use and administration, offer the opportunity to reach maximum number of respondents, inexpensive, suitable for statistical analysis and tabulation and standardisation. Interview technique is rejected on the ground that its use in inappropriate in positivist studies with deductive methods. Observations are also not deemed appropriate to be used in present study as data gathered through it is less reliable and outcomes obtained have limited generalizability.

3.7. Sampling

The technique used to get a subset of the population for the purpose of obtaining data is termed as the sampling. Sampling techniques are classified on the basis of use of probability and non probability methods. In case of probability sampling, all the members of a particular population get the same opportunity of being selected while this opportunity is not the same in case of non probability sampling. In stratified sampling technique, individuals are usually placed in certain subgroups prior to making a decision to include or not to include them in the sample of research (Johnson and Christensen, 2010). In convenient sampling technique, researcher select the sample by keeping in view the ease of access. However, Flick (2006) critiqued convenience sampling by stating that the sample selected is likely to be non representative of the population.

Present research is making use of convenient sampling technique as it was realised that this approach will be helpful in accomplishing the task of data collection within limited time resources available for the study. The sample of the study for present research is comprised of 32 managers from Wal-Mart China. Total 60 questionnaires were distributed out of which 32 returned completely responded.

3.8. Data analysis

For the purpose of data analysis, present research made use of SPSS software. The linear regression test was applied on the data thrice. Linear regression is first applied to examine the impact of organisational culture on job satisfaction, second to find out the influence of perceived organisational culture on leadership performance and the third time to check how perceived organisational culture influences interpersonal relationship and then affects managers’ satisfaction.

The reason to select SPSS is that it makes complicated statistical calculations quite simple and easy to understand. The relationship between variables becomes easily quantifiable and interpretation of results is easy as well.

3.9. Data validity and reliability

Present research took effective measures to ensure the reliability and validity of the research findings, for this purpose, pilot testing is done prior to the commencement of the collection of actual data. Reliability means that consistent results are yielded by data collection instrument being used over a period of time. The reliability of the questionnaire items is checked for present research to make sure that the instrument has the capability to gather reliable data for the study. Validity is the measure of assessing the ability of researcher to measure what he aims to measure (Johnson and Christensen, 2010). The content validity of present research ensured that research has significant valid results.

3.10 Limitations of methodology

Present research has certain limitations as well. The use of convenient sampling technique could affect the results as the sample selected via this techniques is usually incapable to represent the whole population thus remains unsuccessful to present a true picture of the situation. Size of the sample for present study is also considerably small, primarily due to time constraints and poor response rate. Moreover, certain methodological approaches used in present study are self-employed that may slightly influence the effectiveness of the study’s outcomes.

3.11. Research ethics

Researcher took many measures to ensure the ethics in present study. Prior consent of all respondents was obtained. Purpose of research and use of information provided by them was also fully disclosed. The questions that can agitate the privacy of respondents or their organization were avoided. All respondents were assured that the data provided by them will only be employed to accomplish this study only. Moreover, all the data sources are fully disclosed in the study and work of all other researchers is fully referenced. All respondents were ensured that their confidentiality will be given utmost importance. Likewise, all data will be stored in a way where protection of data and confidentiality of information can be ensured effectively.

3.12. Chapter Summary

In the present chapter, an introduction of the research methodologies that have been employed in the current research for accomplishment of objectives is presented. Each option of the research methodology is discussed relative to its suitability and pros and cons. After that the rationale behind the selection of each research method is also presented. By adopting a positivism philosophy, and deductive approach the research uses questionnaires to collect data from 32 respondents. The respondents are selected via convenience sampling.  The data is then analysed using SPSS and applying linear regression.

The next chapter will present the data results and data analysis in relation to the objective of the research study. The first part of the analysis will provide the demographic profile of the respondents. The second part will look into different organisational cultures in order to establish the cultures created by Wal-Mart. The third part will present leader performance and interpersonal relationships in Wal-Mart. The fourth part will present the correlation between organisational culture and managers’ job satisfaction.

 

 

 

Chapter 4 Findings and analysis

4.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the data results and data analysis in relation to the objective of the research study. The first part of the analysis provides the demographic profile of the respondents. The second part looks at different organisational cultures in order to establish the cultures created by Wal-Mart. The third part presents leader performance and interpersonal relationships in Wal-Mart. The fourth part presents the correlation between organisational culture and managers’ job satisfaction. Finally, the chapter presents an analysis and discussion of the influence of organisational culture on manager’s job satisfaction. 

4.2 Data results of demographic information

Questions

Items

Numbers

Gender

Male

23

Female

9

Age

18-25 years old

3

26-35 years old

11

36-45 years old

7

46-55 years old

7

56 years old and above

4

Level of education

Junior college

11

Bachelor

3

Master

5

Doctorate and above

3

Years employed in Wal-Mart

4

Below 5 years

21

5-10 years

7

Above 10 years

 

The survey obtained 32 valid samples which were filled by managers of Wal-Mart. Among the respondents, there were 23 male and 9 female. It is evident from these data results that male respondents were more than female. From this, we can conclude that in this study majority of male managers participated. In terms of age, sample of this study covers managers from different age groups. As managers from different age groups may show different perceptions and understanding of organisational culture, it can lead to different results related to job satisfaction. Therefore, it is necessary to include managers from different age groups in the survey to contribute to thorough research. Furthermore, the data results show that the biggest number of respondents is between the age of 26 and 35 years. It can be seen that most respondent managers of Wal-mart are young. In terms of the level of education, majority of the respondents have attained a bachelor degree. Basically, the study can ascertain that majority of the managers who participated in this study have a good education level. Besides, the results indicate that at least 21 respodents have worked at the company for between 5 and 10 years while 7 for 10 years and above and only 4 have been in the company for 5 years and below.

4.3. Organisational culture of Wal-Mart

According to Bechky (2003) trust reduces conflicts and helps groups to co-exist peacefully, enhances team work, goal setting, and leadership. This contributes to employee satisfaction and organisational commitment. As told by Silverthorn (2006), the importance of trust oriented culture is quite greater for increasing organizational performance and success. It is expected from leaders of organizations to demonstrate trust in all activities they perform. For successfully working in an organization, trust is very important. Considering significance of trust oriented culture, the following questions were asked to investigate whether trust oriented culture exists in Wal-Mart or not. To understand the different cultures of Wal-Mart, mean analysis was conducted in the following table.

Trust oriented culture

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

There is high level of trust among everyone in the organisation

3.5938

1.47800

The values or beliefs in our workplace promote trust

3.5313

1.36746

There are no tightly controlled systems and supervision because employees are trusted to perform their duties

3.2500

1.54502

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

According to the data results, the mean is above 3.0. This is an indication that Wal-Mart has a trust oriented culture. The results are consistent with information provided by Wal-Mart (2014). According to Wal-Mart (2014), Wal-Mart trust oriented culture works best is in enhancing employees to co-exist peacefully. It also enhances peaceful co-existence of Wal-Mart customers and employees. From results and information from Wal-Mart (2014) it can be said that Wal-Mart promotes interpersonal relationships which enhances positive behaviour, reduces conflicts between groups and individuals and helps people to co-exist peacefully. According to Flamholtz and Randle (2011), Wal-Mart competitiveness in the global market has increasingly been boosted by its ability to develop trusting relationships not only with its employees but also customers. The climate of trust has also enabled to be successful, adaptive and innovative than other organisations with low levels of trust or pervasive distrust. This shows that trust oriented culture prevails at the Wal-Mart.

Competitive culture

According to Daft (2007), a competitive culture is where goals are individual based even at the cost of others like colleagues, and customers. In such culture, leader distributed rewards in a way that promotes competition between individuals of an organization. The opposite of competitive culture is collaborative culture. For increasing job satisfaction of employees, collaborative culture is better. So the following questions were asked from sample from Wal-Mart to assess whether competitive or collaborative culture prevails in Wal-Mart. The results of survey are showed in following table.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

The company advocates for competition to provide driving force for goal achievement

2.8125

1.14828

Employees' position improvement relies on competitive performance assessment among employees

2.7813

1.40814

Employees are faced with strong competition in the company

2.9375

1.29359

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

The data results given above show that the overall mean is below 3. This is in regard to competitive culture of Wal-Mart. Such a mean is an indication that according to sample respondents Wal-Mart does not have a competitive culture.

As it is also mentioned by Clancy (2014) that Wal-Mart goals are not individual based rather than collaborative where everyone feels included in achieving the goals of the company. Thus, employees assist each other to achieve the objective of the organisation. Individual competition in this case is seen as destructive and undesirable. The analysis of compensation management of Wal-Mart it is also visible that it is having a collaborative culture rather than a competitive and it has conditioned Wal-Mart to structure such practices as rewards in such ways that discourages competition with each other for results but to collaborate and achieve the shared goal. As mentioned by Wal-Mart (2013), basically, instead of encouraging employees to compete within themselves in the company, Wal-Mart advocates for them to collaborate. Because of this, Wal-Mart employees are encouraged to view themselves as one big family. To discourage competition among individuals in the company, the company has introduced such things as the Wal-Mart Cheer. So the overall results of survey and secondary data analysis shows that Wal-Mart does not promote competitive culture rather it promotes collaborative culture.  

Democratic culture

In democratic culture, individual liberty is promoted and promotes individual’s ability to participate in the activities of the organisation. In addition, this culture emphasizes discussion, group decisions and participation.  The main goal of leaders in democratic organisation is to particularly provide information instead of giving orders as it is in autocratic organisations. According to Bass (1990), the integral characteristic of a democratic organisation is participation and empowerment. Basically, a democratic culture is associated with satisfaction, productivity, commitment and involvement. The following questions investigate whether democratic culture prevails in Wal-Mart or not.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

In our organisation, there is small difference in status between the top position and an entry-level position

3.8125

1.30600

The organisation has developed facilities and organisationl practices that promote open communication between managers and everyone else in the organisation

3.9375

1.36636

Employees have higher involvement in the company

3.8438

1.39375

The company develops equality oriented relationship between employees and leaders at all levels of the organisation.

3.5625

1.52268

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

According to the data results, the mean is above 3.0. This is an indication that Wal-Mart has a democratic culture.

According to Bergadhl (n.d), Wal-Mart encourages the management to oversee that employees are in a better position to undertake various duties and processes. Empowerment is achieved through training and once they are well-informed and educated on various organisational issues such as problem-solving techniques, management entrusts them with decision-making. Other than that employees are encouraged to participate in improving business operations and processes. In Wal-Mart, employee participation is encouraged in order to assist in running and improving business operations and practices and thus the organisation as views employees as unique resources for running the business. Thus on the basis of results, it can be said that Wal-Mart promotes democratic culture.

Team-oriented culture

According to Silverthorn (2006), team oriented culture promotes team work and cooperation with one another in the organization. Organizations that promote this culture value the cooperation of employees between departments. Likewise, such culture instils loyalty among staff by always communicating and providing supports to employees. In words of Bechky (2003), team oriented organizations have more positive relationships with employees especially managers. This is seen in the way the company respects each of its staff. Each of the staff is valued and their contributions recognised. The purpose of the following questions that are related to dimensions of team-oriented culture was to investigate whether Wal-Mart has team-oriented culture or not.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

The way the organisation is structured promotes team work and cooperation with one another in the organisation

3.5000

1.41421

The company values the cooperation of employees between departments

3.6250

1.36192

The company has instilled loyalty among staff by always communicating candidly and providing support to individuals

3.7500

1.43684

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

The results of survey showed that Wal-Mart has a team-oriented culture as the data results indicate a mean of above 3.5 and above. The results are consistent with findings of Silverstone et al (2012) who stated that Wal-Mart emphasizes on collaboration and cooperation among the employees. It facilitates team-oriented culture by cross- training of its employees so that provide support to one another. The culture of collaboration and cooperation among individuals in the organisation is incorporated in every aspect of the company. Similarly, the study conducted by Milkman et al (2013) also states that Wal-Mart has empowered employees and communicates by listening to all its staff and sharing ideas and information.  While the low pricing has played a key role in Wal-Mart achieving competitive advantage, the emphasis is on working as a team or as a one family has played an instrumental role. According to Carpenter and Coyle (2011), Wal-Mart has for long created a true employee partnership by ensuring employee work as team and act as business owners while the leader’s acts as coaches and as servants. These practices have resulted into employees and leaders cooperating with one another, cooperation between departments and employee loyalty because they feel part of the company. The results of the survey and previous studies conducted by Silverstone (2012); Milkman et al (2013) and Carpenter and Coyle (2011) are showing that Wal-Mart promotes the team-oriented culture.

Bureaucratic culture

According to Daft (2010), bureaucratic organisational culture provides for many layers of management flowing from senior executives to regional mangers to departmental mangers to supervisors to front line employees. This implies that the many layers of management make the decision making process quite tedious and long. Other than that, authority on the top provides all the information which has to flow from one structure to another. Rules and standards and tightly controlled processes as well as close supervision are found in a bureaucratic culture. The following questions were asked to investigate whether bureaucratic culture is prevalent in Wal-Mart or not.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

The company frequently seeks management input in the decision making process

2.8750

1.07012

The company has made complicated rules and procedures and cause long delays and inflexibility

2.6563

1.35859

Leaders in the company rarely encourage employee involvement or personnel autonomy and flexibility

2.9063

1.05828

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

 

Based on the data results above, that show means of less than 3, it is evident that the majority of respondents of the survey disagreed with the statements that were related to bureaucratic culture. So when majority of respondents are on disagree side, this means that bureaucratic culture is not prevailing in Wal-Mart. Similar results are also shown by Weinreb (2013) who stated that Wal-Mart avoids a bureaucratic culture given that it allows individuals involvement and participation in the organisation practices and processes. Other than that, Amanda (2014) has also mentioned that the company avoids long organisational structures thus ensuring that decisions take shorter time. By not adopting a bureaucratic culture, Wal-Mart is able to encourage innovation and creativity in the organisation particularly because decisions are not made by a single individual and so different individuals can generate strategic ideas. Employees receive less job satisfaction in bureaucratic organisations contributing to employee turnover. So on the basis of responses of sample managers, it can be said that bureaucratic culture does not exist in Wal-Mart.

Hierarchical culture

Mayfield (2008) explains that a hierarchical corporate culture models the organisation is based on clearly defined corporate levels and structures, but a flat organisation has few structures and few levels of management between management and employees. A flat organisational culture is thus likely to provide employees with room for creativity, innovativeness and employee initiative because of less control and rigidity. Mayfield (2008) points out that a flat organisational culture encourages high level of employee responsibility and participation, improves speedy communication and coordination, provides for easier decision making process and cuts down on costs on management. Basically, this type of culture is likely to boost employee satisfaction among the employees because employees are actively engaged, involved and are entrusted with various responsibilities. The purpose of following questions is to investigate whether bureaucratic or flat culture is common at Wal-Mart.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

Managers do as they are told and act more like a conduit for transmitting orders between the senior management and the staff

2.4063

1.38795

Decisions are made at the top senior management. The decision process is more like in a military type of organization with a 'line and staff' and 'chain of command

2.5313

1.39085

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

According to the research results, it can be seen that the mean of responses is below 3.0, this depicts that majority of respondents were disagree with above statements.  So it can be said that there exist flatter culture. This statement is consistent with opinion of Carpenter and Coyle (2011) who stated that at Wal-Mart employees are involved in decision making processes and are not closely supervised through layers of management. This implies that Wal-Mart is having increased employee involvement and less less supervision.

4.4. Leadership performance

According to Shannon and Carole (2006), leadership behaviour is greatly determined by the culture of an organisation because it lays down the rules and behaviour within an organisation including how leaders should behave and this influences performances. According to Berson and Linton (2007), culture shapes the way leaders undertake activities in the company and they manner they behave. Consequently this is translated to other people in the organisation as leader’s shape the way employees think and behave.  Therefore, it was important to assess the leadership performance at Wal-Mart. So to determine the performance level of leaders, following questions were asked.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

Leadership at all levels consistently "walks the talk" (practices what it preaches)

3.6250

1.49731

Leaders encourage group interaction, and satisfying personal relations at the work place

3.7500

1.43684

Leaders have established a good infrastructure that helps improve the work environment

3.8438

1.39375

The leaders' coordination among different departments are efficient

3.5000

1.52400

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

According to the data results, the means for leadership performance are above 3.  This indicates that majority of respondents think that there is existence of good leadership performance in Wal-Mart. The results are similar and consistent with assertion of Daulatram (2003) and Gifford et al (2012) who stated that the leadership of Wal-Mart is able to encourage group interaction and provides satisfying work relations, promotes efficient coordination among different departments; provide a good infrastructural network aimed at improving the work environment and to deliver on its promises. These activities reveal that leaders in Wal-Mart are caring and supportive. Likewise, Laschinger et al (2001) have also stated that leaders at Wal-Mart have a clear goal, and vision of the organisation. They are also open to dialogue, they maintain balance of power and seek to reduce conflicts. So on the basis of results of survey and opinion of Daulatram (2003), Gifford et al (2012) and Laschinger et al (2001), it can be said that leadership performance at Wal-Mart is good. 

 

4.5. Interpersonal relationship

Effective interpersonal relationship is quite important for all organizations. a successful or effective international relationship is developed when every organizational member value cooperation and interaction and keep good interpersonal relationships. Likewise, members help each other whenever there is any difficulty. For successful interpersonal relationships to be found in a company; trust, collaboration, cooperation and coordination and communication are vital. Trust enhances co-existence of groups, and reduces work conflicts. Member’s cooperation and good interaction, strong trust relationship, effective communication and coordination are some of the factors that help to develop effective interpersonal relationships. So the following questions were asked to assess whether effective interpersonal relationship exists in Wal-Mart or not.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

Organizational members value cooperation and interaction

3.6875

1.46876

Organizational members have kept good interpersonal relationship

3.5938

1.36451

Organizational members would like to help each other when come to any difficulties

3.4688

1.36746

 Organizational members have established strong trust relationship in the company

3.6250

1.40850

Divergence can often be resolved through effective coordination and communication between managers and subordinates

3.5000

1.41421

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

According to the data results above, the means for interpersonal relationship is above 3. This implies that majority of respondents of the survey think that there is effective interpersonal relationship in Wal-Mart. As majority of respondents were on agree or strongly agree with above statements, it can be said that effective interpersonal relationship exists in Wal-Mart.

4.6. Managers’ job satisfaction

According to Kaliski, (2007), job satisfaction is a situation where employees experience a sense of success, achievement and fulfillment on the job. These feelings are directly associated with productivity and personal wellbeing. Managers can be declared satisfied when they are satisfied with current work environment and get sense of achievement in work. The following questions were asked to evaluate whether managers at Wal-Mart are satisfied or not.

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

You recognise the culture of the company

3.5625

1.41279

Your are satisfied with current work environment

3.6563

1.42805

The current work can make your ability get into full play

4.0938

1.27910

You get higher sense of achievement in work

3.5313

1.43649

You are satisfied with the company because people help and support each other in work

3.8438

1.34667

Valid N (listwise)

 

 

 

In view of the result above, the means of manager’s satisfaction is more than 3.5 implying high levels of job satisfaction among this group. At Wal-Mart, majority of respondents said that they recognize culture of company and satisfy with current work environment. Likewise, majority od respondents said that current work makes their ability get into full pay and they get higher sense of achievement in work at Wal-Mart. Respondents also said that they are satisfied because of people help and support.

4.7. Correlation between organisational culture and managers’ job satisfaction

4.7.1 Correlation between trusts oriented culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship

As literature has provided enough evidence that trust oriented culture is good for leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. The following correlation analysis is performed to know whether the relationship between trust oriented culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship is also confirmed by survey results or not.

As for the correlation between trust oriented culture and leadership performance and interpersonal relationship, since r= 0.967, 0.973, sig=0.000, it can be seen that trust oriented culture is highly and positively correlated with leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. The results show that one unit change in trust oriented culture can bring 96.7% change in leadership performance. Likewise, one unit change in trust oriented culture can bring 97.3% change in interpersonal relationship. The sign of correlation coefficient has depicted that nature of relationship between trust oriented culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship is positive. From these results, it can be inferred that an organisation that is trust oriented has great interpersonal relationships and well performing leaders while an organisation that is not trust oriented affect work place relationships and performances.

According to Ghoshal and Barlett (1994), for successful interpersonal relationships, the culture of trust is instrumental. If people in the organisation don’t trust each other they cannot be able to develop relationships which are critical for success of organisations. Simply put, trust is needed to build and maintain great relationships at work. Other than that, trust reduces work place conflicts and enhances co-existence of individuals in an organisation. Moreover, trust oriented culture encourage knowledge sharing and communicate effectively thus being able to build and develop great interpersonal relationships.

Additionally, a trust oriented culture is linked to leadership performance. As Yukl (2006) explains leadership behaviour is highly determined by the culture in an organisation. This is because the culture lays down the rules and behaviours expected among the individuals. Thus, a trust oriented culture provides a sense of safety to leaders. This feeling drives the leaders to feel comfortable with the organisation, to open up, take risks and expose vulnerabilities. When trust is lacking in an organisation, leaders feel unsafe and less confident to be creative or innovative, and they instead spend time protecting themselves and their interests instead of helping the organisation to attain its goals. Besides, in a trust oriented culture leaders have a room to dialogue and reduce internal conflicts that affect performance. The leaders are also empowered, have a clear goal and vision thus the ability to perform well. Basically, a trust oriented culture influences leader’s behaviour positively and it is this behaviour that drives them to perform well.

Unlike other programs that are planned, implemented to all individuals in organisations, trust has to be established overtime through work place interaction. The organisation and the individuals working in the organisation have to pay attention to key factors such as credibility, integrity and ethics.

4.7.2 Correlation between democratic culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship

Literature has provided enough evidence that democratic culture is good for leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. The following correlation analysis is performed to investigate whether the relationship between democratic culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship is also confirmed by survey results or not.

 

The correlation coefficient between democratic culture and leadership performance is 0.973. Likewise, the correlation between democratic culture and interpersonal relationship is 0.982. Both correlation coefficients are significant. The positive sign with correlation coefficient tells that nature of relationship between democratic culture and leadership performance and democratic culture and interpersonal relationship is positive. As correlation coefficient explains the strength of the relationship, it can be seen that strong positive correlation exists between democratic culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship.

 

Thus, findings are consistent with literature. According to Bass (1990), a democratic culture provides for better practices that can ratchet up performance of leaders because a democratic culture provides for democratic leadership. Democratic cultures are characterised with participative leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership, achieve-oriented leadership and value leadership which are crucial for good performance. Democratic leadership lays emphasis on group participation and discussion, empowerment and group decisions. In other words, a democratic leader encourages people to provide feedback, opinions and values performance. Subsequently, leaders are able to inspire employees and encourage good performance. A democratic culture fosters work culture and encourages individuals in the company to interact directly with the leaders. Thus, employees feel valued to engage in creativity and explore their talents. Leaders provide information to individuals without need for a lot of so many orders. Other than that, the leaders boost performance in the organisation through providing training and educational programs so that employees have problem solving skills, communication and interpersonal skills among other skills. Afterwards, the employees are entrusted with different roles such as making important decisions in the organisation and participate in different business operations and practices. However, leaders have to put up with length debates, discussions, and others time consuming activities geared towards good performance.

Also the results indicate that a democratic culture is highly and positively correlated with interpersonal relationship, it is also consistent with literature. A democratic culture can be used to build effective relationships at the workplace. According to Silverthorn, (2006), the effectiveness for individuals in an organisation to engage and interact with other effectively is ultimately influenced by the organisational beliefs, attitudes and patterns of behaviours. A democratic culture believes in individual participation and involvement. Thus it encourages employees to have the liberty to engage with each other and the leaders. Interpersonal relationships are developed through the regular group discussions, and individual participation in various activities of the organisation. The individuals in the organisation are provided with information that encourages participation and employee empowerment issues that are instrumental for interpersonal relationships. Other than that a democratic culture creates room for such activities such as coaching and training where individuals can be provided with skills on various issues including how to interact with each other, conflict resolving techniques among other issues that enhance interpersonal relationships. Also, by encouraging employees to participate in the decision making processes of the organisation gives them a great room to form interpersonal relationships.

 

4.7.3 Correlation between team oriented culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship

Literature says that team oriented culture is good for leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. The following correlation analysis is performed to investigate whether the relationship between team oriented culture, leadership performance and interpersonal relationship is also confirmed by survey results or not.

 

The correlation coefficient for team oriented culture and leadership performance is 0.970, and it is significantly related with each other. Thus, 1 unit change in team oriented culture can bring 97% change in leadership performance. The correlation coefficient for team oriented culture and interpersonal relationship is 0.982 and relationship is significant. Therefore, it can be said that one unit change in team oriented culture can bring 98.2% change in interpersonal relationship. The positive sign with correlation coefficient proves the positive nature of relationship. As correlation analysis tells the strength of relationship, the relationship between team oriented culture and leadership performance and team oriented culture and interpersonal relationship is strong positive relationship.

The results are supported by Bass (1990), who posits that leadership performance in team oriented organisations depends on its degree of cohesiveness in the organisation. Thus, leadership performance is best delivered through collaboration and cooperation of employees through team working. Leaders will provide cross-training to employees so that they can be positioned to support each other and work as teams. Leader’s performance is also tagged on sharing of ideas and opinions with employees so they can be empowered to perform well. Basically, team oriented leaders show an attitude of commitment to the team, they respect and trust employees, show fair decision making processes, and demonstrate successful performance on behalf of the team.

Team oriented culture is highly and positively correlated with interpersonal relationship. This is consistent with literature. As According to Silverthorn (2006), a team oriented culture emphasises on collaboration and cooperation which is a catalyst for building interpersonal relationships. Team oriented organizations have more positive interpersonal relationships with employees especially managers. Interpersonal relationships are formed because of the emphasis on collaboration that promotes interaction between individuals and departments.  In other words, team oriented organisations provide frameworks that encourage collaboration and discourages individualism, thus leading to employee engagement and retention.  Other than that a team oriented culture lays emphasis on communication build around transparency hence enhancing interpersonal relationships. Basically, the collaborative nature of team oriented organisations provides a room for people to form relationships. These relationships are critical in delivering the vision and mission of the organisation as individuals they help individuals work as a team.

 

4.7.4 Correlation between leadership performance, interpersonal relationship and manager’s job satisfaction

Literature says that leadership performance and interpersonal relationship is associated with job satisfaction of managers. The purpose of below correlation analysis between leadership performance, interpersonal relationship and manager’s job satisfaction is to investigate whether the survey results confirm this relationship or not.

The correlation coefficient for leadership performance and managers job satisfaction is 0.991 and it correlation is significant at the 0.01 level. The positive sign with correlation coefficient tells that both leadership performance and managers’ job satisfaction are positively linked with each other. Thus, one unit change in leadership performance can bring 99.1% change in job satisfaction of managers. The strength of relationship is strong positively correlated. The correlation coefficient for interpersonal relationship and managers’ job satisfaction is 0.987 and it is also significant. Again, it is with positive sign showing the positive nature of relationship between interpersonal relationship and managers’ job satisfaction. it can be said that one unit change in interpersonal relationship can bring 98.7% change in satisfaction of managers. The strength of relationship is strong positively correlated.

The results basically imply that leadership performance and interpersonal relationship influences job satisfaction among managers and this is consistent with literature. Lo et al (2009) argues that leaders play a significant role in delivering responsibility and not only focus on authority and command when they deal with subordinates. Essentially, leaders have a crucial role to play to ensure that the subordinates deliver accordingly. Besides, leader’s attitudes, behaviours, skills and characteristics, which in many cases are determined by the culture of the organisation, influences leadership performance. A leader with a negative attitude towards a task will likely not provide satisfactory results particularly because they are not in position to motivate subordinates. Without a doubt, a good leader motivates and leads employees to perform at the highest capability. When leaders have the ability to operate with efficiency, honesty and communicate the vision and mission of the organisation, interact well with managers and guide and direct their behaviour, they motivate managers and contribute to job satisfaction.

Furthermore, interpersonal relationship is highly and positively correlated with manager’s job satisfaction and again this is consistent with literature. Interpersonal relationships are developed through trust, cooperation and communication. According to Alvesson (2002), trust is an important aspect for healthy interpersonal relationships which promotes positive behaviour among employees and promotes relations at the work place. Indeed, there is need for trust if people in the organisation are to open up to each other and form healthy relationships. Besides, trust minimises tension and opens up communication which leads to healthy interpersonal relationship. It also helps minimise conflicts and encourage knowledge sharing, communication and co-existence of individuals subsequently promoting healthy interpersonal relationships. Subsequently, healthy interpersonal relationships enhance positive attitudes, and positive feelings which are a catalyst for job satisfaction. Meanwhile, healthy interpersonal relationships are enhanced by cooperation between different members of an organisation. Fehr and Gintis, (2007) support this assertion by stating that the concept of cooperation brings individuals together and in the process they develop relationships with each other. People are social beings and so when they are able to come together and interact and form relationships they feel contented. In other words, interpersonal relationships meet the social needs of human interaction which is important if people are to feel satisfied with their jobs. Other than that, communication is equally important in enhancing interpersonal relationships. Madlock, (2008) explains that communication helps influence employee satisfaction through fostering interpersonal relationships. By using effective communication, employees are in position to interact more effectively and understand their job roles more effectively. Communication also influences interpersonal relations particularly because it encourages manager’s feedback, and manager’s can access information from senior management. These factors help develop job satisfaction. Basically, interpersonal relationships are developed out of trust, cooperation and effective communication which boost job satisfaction.

4.8 The influence of organisational culture on managers’ job satisfaction

4.8.1 The influence of organisational culture on leadership performance

The above table is the summary of model that is under study. According to above table, r square adjusted is 0.954, it shows that the factors including team oriented culture, democratic culture and trust oriented culture can interpret the variation of leadership performance in the linear equation in the degree of 95.4%. The standard error of estimate is 0.3112 which means that 31.12% change in leadership performance is caused by some other variable other than organizational culture.

The above table is the ANOVA. The ANOVA table evaluates the model fitness. The table shows that F statistic is 213.171, significance is 0.000, this shows that model of study is significant. Thus, it is appropriate to move to next step of regression analysis.

The coefficient table depicts the coefficient for all individual independent variables. The constant coefficient is -.102 which tells that without independent variables, leadership performance can become negative 10.2 percent. The coefficient for trust oriented culture is 0.172 which is positive. But the significance value for trust oriented culture is greater than 0.05. Thus, trust oriented culture does not influence leadership performance significantly. Likewise, the democratic culture has coefficient of 0.496.  This coefficient has positive sign which means there exists positive relationship. The significance value is less than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that democratic culture positively and significantly influences the leadership performance. Then, the coefficient for team oriented culture is 0.361 and again it is with positive sign. The p-value is greater than 0.05 so it is concluded that team oriented culture does not significantly influences the leadership performance.

4.8.2 The influence of organisational culture on interpersonal relationship

The above table is the model summary and it gives overview of the model/framework of the study. In the above table, value of R is 0.989 showing that culture has a strong relationship with interpersonal relationship within an organization. Such a strong relationship of organizational cannot be ignored in determination of effective interpersonal relationship. According to regression analysis of team oriented culture, democratic culture and trust oriented culture and interpersonal relationship, R square adjusted=0.975, it shows that the factors including team oriented culture, democratic culture and trust oriented culture can interpret the variation of interpersonal relationship in the linear equation in the degree of 97.5%. Likewise, the value of standard error of estimate is 0.213 which shows that other than organizational culture, there are some extraneous variable that brings 21.3% change in interpersonal relationship. Nothing can be said about these extraneous variables because these variables, basically, are not part of this study.

 

The above table is ANOVA table and the purpose of this table is to evaluate/test the fitness of model that is under study. From above table, it can be seen that F Statistic has value of 411.780 where p value is less than 0.05. From this, it can be said that there is at least one variable (type of culture) that has significant influence of the interpersonal relationship. The model is significant thus researcher can move to next step of regression analysis.

The above table is the coefficient table. It depicts the coefficients for all independent variables namely trust oriented culture, democratic culture and team oriented culture. The above table tells that constant coefficient is -0.063 which means without independent variables of the study, the dependent variables will be negative. Meaning, when there is no or zero organizational culture, interpersonal relationship will be negative. The trust oriented culture has coefficient of 0.039. the positive sign explains that there exists positive relationship. The t-value and p-value are showing that the relationship is not significant.

The coefficient for democratic culture is 0.468 and it is with positive sin. The t-statistic is 3.473 and significance value is 0.002 which is less than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that democratic culture significantly influences interpersonal relationship.

The coefficient for team oriented culture is 0.477 and again this is with positive sign proving the positive relationship. The t-statistics is 3.185 and p-value is 0.004 which is less than 0.05. This proves that team oriented culture significantly influences the interpersonal relationship. One unit change is team oriented culture can bring 47.7% change in interpersonal relationship.

4.8.3 The influence of interpersonal relationship and leadership performance on mangers’ job performance

The above table is the model summary and it gives overview of the model/framework of the study. In the above table, value of R is 0.994 showing that independent variables have strong impact on dependent variable. The value of adjusted R Square is 0.986 which tells that 98.6% variation in managers’ job satisfaction can be explained with the leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. The value of standard error of estimate is 0.15636 which means that 15.63% change in managers’ satisfaction is explained with variables other than interpersonal relationship and leadership performance. These extraneous variables are not part of the current study, so nothing can be said about these extraneous variables.

 

The ANOVA table tests the fitness of the model. From the above table, it can be seen that F statistic is 1121.679 and significance value is 0.000.  This tells that model under study is significant. The significance of model tells that there is at least one independent variable that influences dependent variable significantly. So, it is feasible to move to further analysis.

The above table is the coefficient table. It depicts the coefficients for all independent variables namely leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. According to above table, constant coefficient is 0.298 which tells that with zero leadership performance and interpersonal relationship, managers’ satisfaction will be 0.298. The coefficient of leadership performance is 0.578. It is with positive sign thus the nature of relationship is positive. So one unit change in leadership performance can bring 57.8% change in managers’ job satisfaction. The t-value is 5.391 and significance level is 0.000 which is less than 0.05.  Thus, it can be said that leadership performance positively and significantly influences the managers’ job satisfaction.

The coefficient for interpersonal relationship is 0.367 and it is also with positive sign showing positive nature of relationship. Thus, one unit change in leadership performance can bring 36.7% positive change in managers’ job satisfaction. The t-value is 3.236 and significance value is 0.003 which is less than 0.05. This means that interpersonal relationship significantly influences the managers’ job satisfaction.

 

4.9. Analysis and discussion of the influence of organisational culture on managers' job satisfaction

Influence of organisational culture on leadership performance and subsequently on manager’s job satisfaction

Organisational culture establishes the nature of leader performance. A company with a strong culture will also have a strong leadership because the leaders adopt strong values, skills and a positive attitude. On the basis of responses of sample managers, Wal-Mart has three organisational cultures that is democratic culture; team oriented and trust oriented cultures. These cultures influence on leadership performance with the democratic culture having the strongest influence among the three. These cultures enhance leadership performance because they enable leaders to provide a room for dialogue, decision making and manager’s involvement into the activities of the company. Also, leaders in a democratic, trust oriented and team oriented culture have the liberty to seek skills on problems, decision making techniques and liberty to associate well with employees. Leaders operating in these cultures are also in position to create tools or techniques that encourage job satisfaction. For instance, provide room for employee to make complaints, facilitate regular feedback; create room for dialogue and sharing of ideas, encourage employee participation in company activities and thus help eliminate possible issues that might contribute to employee dissatisfaction.

Influence of organisational culture on interpersonal relationships and subsequently on manager’s job satisfaction

The results of survey are consistent with literature and says that organisational culture can be used to convey the type of interpersonal relationship found in an organisation and if promotes employee satisfaction or not. Results showed that the democratic culture and team-oriented culture created by Wal-Mart leads to good interpersonal relationship a large degree. However, trust oriented culture is not so efficient because it is not significantly influencing interpersonal relationship. These cultures promote interpersonal relationships in an organisation because they advocate for individual liberty and provides individual’s ability to participate in the activities of the organisation. A culture such as democratic culture encourages behaviours such as employee’s discussion, group decisions and participation. An autocratic culture is however likely to suppress such activities that promote interpersonal relationships hence promoting disgruntlement and feelings of hopelessness among employees. Basically, an organisational culture can either enhance interpersonal relationships or suppress them. For instance, a democratic culture that is created likely promotes interpersonal relationship because it creates room for employees to interact, collaborate and cooperate in activities of the organisation. These activities are significant for providing job satisfaction to managers because managers feel that their needs are met and that the organisation is caring, and supportive about their needs. However, an organisation that has created an autocratic culture will in many cases suppress avenues that lead to effective interpersonal behaviour.

4.10. Summary

This chapter provides the data analysis pertaining to the organisational cultures adopted by Wal-Mart and how they influence leadership performance and interpersonal relationships and finally how they influence manager’s job satisfaction. From the data results and analysis, the chapter concludes the democratic culture is more instrumental than trust and team-oriented culture in promoting leadership performance and interpersonal relationships. Attributes of democratic culture include individual participation in various activities of the organisation. It also emphasise on providing information, regular feedbacks and directing employees instead of issuing orders. These attributes are critical for leadership performance and for promoting job satisfaction because they enhance positive feelings among employees and show that the company cares and is supportive. Moreover, a trust oriented culture is able to enhance collaboration, coordination and cooperation among employees. These factors are critical for leaders to perform well and encourage manager job satisfaction. However, with trust culture it becomes difficult for the organisation such as Wal-Mart to know what information to divulge and which not. A team oriented cultured also emphasis on everyone at the organisation working together in unity to deliver the goals and vision of the organisation. In this regard, trust culture enhances co-existence of groups, and reduces work conflicts. This implies that there is relationship between trust oriented cultures and interpersonal relationships. Team oriented culture promotes leadership performance because it encourages a platform for sharing of ideas and opinions with employees so they can be empowered to perform well. Basically, team oriented leaders show an attitude of commitment to the team, they respect and trust employees, show fair decision making processes, and demonstrate successful performance on behalf of the team.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

This chapter provides the general conclusions of the research and the limitations faced by the researcher. It draws on the data analysis conducted in chapter four to deliver the final findings of the research and establish if the research has met its research objectives. The research also presents recommendations and future research suggestions.

5.1. Key findings

The result is similar with the discussion of Bass (1990) which holds that democratic leaders aim at empowering members and encouraging participation and involvement hence contributing to interpersonal relationships. As said by Wal-Mart (2014) Wal-Mart has a highly team-oriented culture characterised with collaboration and cooperation among the employees. The company facilitates team-oriented culture by cross- training its employees so that provide support to one another. The study identified that manager at Wal-Mart are satisfied to work there because the cultures that enhance satisfaction. The results are also consistent with that of Bechky (2003) which argues that trust, cooperation and participation reduces conflicts and helps groups to co-exist peacefully. This way it is able to enhance team work, goal setting, interpersonal relationship and leadership, thereby contributing to job satisfaction. Basically, through correlation analysis, this research identifies that there is strong correlation between organisational culture (trust oriented culture, democratic culture and team oriented culture) and manager’s satisfaction with leadership performance and interpersonal relationship as the mediating role. The company has also in the process developed trust oriented culture, team oriented culture and democratic culture that support manager’s satisfaction.

Firstly, the research found out that organisational culture makes the positive influence on managers’ satisfaction with leadership performance as the mediating role. Depending on the organisational culture created by the organisation the relationship could either negative or positive. The research findings are consistent with that of Yukl (2006) which holds that good leadership behaviour has a close connection to job satisfaction of managers because it able to get an autonomy and conflict and stress free environment, and boost a supervisory relationship. Democratic culture makes major influence on leadership performance. However, trust oriented culture and team- oriented culture fails to show significant influence on leadership performance. This is because it is really difficult to point out the leadership behaviours that that clearly define trust and how it affects performance. In regard to democratic culture, Wal-Mart contribute to employee satisfaction through allowing employees to interact with them, respond quickly to changes in the organisation other than waiting for prolonged chain of command and encouraging frequent communication among employees. Besides, team oriented culture fails to show significance influence on leadership performance because working in teams comes with significant challenges. Leaders have to endure long decision making processes, training is needed to help people work together and need of an infrastructural network that support people to work collaborate while undertaking tasks. However, a democratic culture is able to contribute to leadership performance given it ability to provide leaders with the liberty and ability or power to participate in activities of the organisation. These factors contribute to manager’s satisfaction given that they show that the company cares and supports their efforts in the company. In Wal-Mart, the culture promotes leaders who are open to dialogue, seek employee engagement and involvement and work at minimising levels of conflicts and this enhances manager’s satisfaction.

Secondly, the research found out that organisational culture makes positive influence on managers’ satisfaction with interpersonal relationships as the mediating role.  Culture has significant influence on interpersonal relationships and subsequently on manager’s satisfaction are democratic culture and team-oriented cultures. However, trust oriented culture is shown with less influence on interpersonal relationship. Democratic and team-oriented cultures are able to positively influence interpersonal relationships because as Bass (1990) observes they provide an environment for interaction. Both cultures provide an environment for employee’s inclusion where they establish and maintain relationships with other managers. Thus, the desire for individuals to be part of the group is met against solitude. The cultures also provide for control which is needed to maintain balance of power and influence in relationship. Manager’s job satisfaction is also enhanced because the cultures of democracy and team provides for close and personal relationships. Given that managers are social beings, this kind of interaction, bonding and developing relationships enhances feeling of contentment, and that their desires and needs have been met. However, trust oriented culture has low significance on interpersonal relationships and then on manager’s job satisfaction because interpersonal relationships will only grow after individuals have interacted with one another. Thus, trust is developed after interpersonal relationships have been established.

5.2. Recommendations

Based on the analysis of this research, the research makes the following recommendations. Wal-Mart has demonstrated that a strong culture is correlated to leadership performance, interpersonal relationships and other factors. These factors have partly contributed to the immense success the retail is enjoying. It therefore recommended that retailers in the Chinese supermarket need to adopt cultures that promote leadership performance and interpersonal relationship. For the industry to develop and record success, organisations have to pay attention to the aspect of organisational culture. The study has clearly demonstrated cultures like democratic culture are drivers of success because they provide an environment that is appropriate for employee motivation and satisfaction unlike autocratic and bureaucratic cultures. As a result, the Chinese supermarket industry needs to establish consciously and identity cultural implements that are not helping improve leadership performance, interpersonal relationships and job satisfaction and change them.

It is also true that cultures are dynamic. According to Kirkman, Lowe & Gibson (2006), culture shifts constantly and incrementally in response to internal and external changes in an organisation. Therefore, it becomes sometime complicated and difficult to assess organisational culture. However, it is recommended that the supermarket industry in China opens up to the possibility that culture change can be managed through a continuous process rather than through in big shifts.  It is not easy to change culture all at once, but replacement requires extensive programs and structural redesign. Moreover, organisational cultures are expected to be learning and developing and thus there is need for more regular studies to establish its impacts on employee job satisfaction. The perspective provided is one that advocates for regular research studies because culture keeps changing. Besides, the organisation should understand that apart from the general overall culture, there are other subcultures that are relevant in influencing job satisfaction.

Additionally, Wal-Mart should adopt various strategies that are effective in boosting job satisfaction among its managers. Organisational culture is not effective alone in boosting manager’s job satisfaction. Other than organisational culture, other mediating factors may include interpersonal relationship, leadership, growth of individuals in the organisation, or incentives. For instance, some employees in Wal-Mart might not have a problem with the culture of the company but they might be disgruntled by the lack of incentives, which will still make manager’s feel dissatisfied with their jobs. Basically, Wal-Mart should understand that job satisfaction is a result of many combined factors and not only the culture of the organisation.

Further, the creation of culture is not an easy process. Each of the culture faces various challenges to build and even to preserve them. For instance, they are affected by technological and globalisation changes taking place in the world. However, organisations must work consistently hard to make them work. For instance organisations adopting democratic cultures will time to time face the challenge of having to seek views from different members in the organisation which delays some decisions and the progress of the organisation. As for team oriented culture, the increasingly shift to individualistic is affecting members from collaborating or cooperating. Therefore, it is recommended that the supermarket industry in China understands that despite the benefits that come with a certain culture, there are challenges and difficulties that come along with the culture and this requires efforts and willingness to preserve the limitations of the cultures.

5.3. Limitations of the study

The research findings were arrived at using convenience sampling technique which ended up with only those respondents that were easily available for the research study. This means that important elements could have been left out and this means the results would likely fail to provide representative results. Besides, the use of quantitative methods only means that the research was not in position to identify some human elements that are only identifiable through a qualitative analysis. For instance, the researcher did not have the ability to study the feelings and attitudes of the respondents or uncover their experiences more on their experiences on the organisational culture. Furthermore, the use of standardised questions in the questionnaires still hinder the ability of the research to understand the feelings, attitudes and experiences of the respondents and this could affect the final results. Besides, the research faces structural bias particularly in the designing of the questionnaires. The questions provided are likely to portray the researcher’s mind instead of the sampled group. The research also faced limitations due to costs and time constraints.

5.4. Suggestions for future research

This research identifies that there are many opportunities for future research. Some of these suggestions are as a result of the limitations faced and which must be considered for future research. This research faced limitations because of the sampling strategy used. The researcher had to use only those respondents who were easily available or accessible and hence could have limited the research from giving representative results and a general picture of the situation. Further studies on the effects of organisational culture on job satisfaction can use a stratified sample that focuses on specific types of respondents who have particular features predetermined by the researcher. Stratified sampling will help the researcher ensure that no population is eliminated and thus provide representative results.

Future research can use both qualitative and quantitative methods. The use of only quantitative methods in this research helped quantify data hence considered more objective and collect data from a large population. However, quantitative method fails to provide important human elements. For instance, the researcher is unable to gauge the feelings and attitudes of the managers and to uncover more on the experiences with the culture in the organisation. The combination of qualitative methods would be ideal so that it provides a better and detailed picture about the respondents and provide more detailed and rich findings. In other words, the adoption of qualitative and quantitative measures of organisational culture will definitely lead to a richer understanding of culture and its effects on job satisfaction.

Further research should also assess the strength of Wal-Mart culture by undertaking a comparative study. A comparative study can be conducted across several similar retailers to ascertain the strength of Wal-Mart and if it instrumental for the success of the retailer. This type of research will help compare organisation and the type of corporate culture they have and its influence on performance. It is also important to understand the elements of culture that are important or have major functioning of the organisation. Ultimately, comparative research should demonstrate that organisations who have implemented strong cultures outperform similar organisations that have weak culture type.

Finally, it is important that future studies do not concentrate only on one type of employee attitude but looks into a wider range of employees’ work related outcomes such as employee commitment, innovation and creativity, role conflict, and role ambiguity. These characteristics can be incorporated into a more comprehensive research. Besides that, it is proposed that future research be conducted in other types of organisations such as manufacturing industry using similar approach.

5.5. Reflection

Undertaking this project was an exciting and educating experience. However, the research project was not without challenges and difficulties along the way. One of the challenges was in collecting, synthesizing data for literature review. Given the importance of the study and the contributions the study is supposed to make to the retail industry and to the society at large, I had to seek data from various sources including from public and private libraries, internet and others. I had to go through a lot of information, a process that was not only confusing and tedious but also tedious and costly. However, it yielded positive results at the end because in the process of conducting literature review. The study has also played an instrumental role in enhancing my understanding of organisational culture.  I was exposed to various literatures that helped me understand the concept of organisational culture better and the different dimensions of culture. I recognized that an organisation can have more than one culture and that not all elements of culture that are important or have major functioning of the organisation. Other than that, this study exposed me to various techniques for measuring organisational culture. While I was familiar with quantitative analysis, I did not have much experience on correlation analysis and thus the study has exposed me to this analysis.  

Apart from benefiting from the theoretical learning points, this research project has helped me to improve the practical aspects of my research skills. I have gained more understanding of research planning, data collection, data analysis, and presentation of data. Other than that I have made remarkable improvement in critical and analysis skills, problem-solving skills, research writing skills and communication skills.

 

 

 

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Appendix I: Questionnaire

Questionnaires

Part 1: Demographic information about yourself (Tick the correct response)   

1. Gender

Male

Female              

2. Age

A. 18-25 years old

B. 26-35 years old

C. 36-45 years old

D. 46-55 years old

 E 56 years old and above

3. Level of education

A. Junior college

B. Bachelor

C. Master

D. Doctorate and above

4. Years employed in Wal-Mart      

A. Below 5 years

B. 5-10 years

C. Above 10 years

Part 2: To analyze how organisational culture affects managers’ job satisfaction (Please tick the most appropriate number that would best describe your response)

Part A. Measurement of the organizational culture of Wal-Mart

Measurement of trust oriented culture

 

Not true

Rarely true

Not sure

True

Very true

There is high level of trust among everyone in the organisation

1

2

3

4

5

The values or beliefs in our workplace promote trust.

 

 

 

 

 

There are no tightly controlled systems and supervision because employees are trusted to perform their duties

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measurement of competitive culture

The company advocates for competition to provide driving force for goal achievement.

1

2

3

4

5

Employees’ position improvement relies on competitive performance assessment among employees

 

 

 

 

 

Employees are faced with strong competition in the company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic culture

In our organisation, there is small difference in status between the top position and an entry-level position

1

2

3

4

5

The organisation has developed facilities and organisational practices that promote open communication between managers and everyone else in the organisation

 

 

 

 

 

Employees have higher involvement in the company

 

 

 

 

 

The company develops equality oriented relationship between employees and leaders at all levels of the organisation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team oriented culture

The way the organisation is structured promotes team work and cooperation with one another in the organisation

1

2

3

4

5

The company values the cooperation of employees between departments

 

 

 

 

 

The company has instilled loyalty among staff by always communicating candidly and providing support to individuals

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bureaucratic culture

The company frequently seeks management input in the decision making process

1

2

3

4

5

The company has made complicated rules and procedures and cause long delays and inflexibility

 

 

 

 

 

Leaders in the company rarely encourage employee involvement or personnel autonomy and flexibility.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hierarchical culture

Managers do as they are told and act more like a conduit for transmitting orders between the senior management and the staff.

1

2

3

4

5

Decisions are made at the top senior management. The decision process is more like in a military type of organization with a 'line and staff' and 'chain of command.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part B Measurement of leadership performance

Leadership at all levels consistently "walks the talk" (practices what it preaches).

1

2

3

4

5

Leaders encourage group interaction, and satisfying personal relations at the work place

1

2

3

4

5

Leaders have established a good infrastructure that helps improve the work environment

1

2

3

4

5

The leaders’ coordination among different departments are efficient

1

2

3

4

5

 

Part C Measurement of interpersonal relationship

 

1

2

3

4

5

Organizational members value cooperation and interaction

 

 

 

 

 

Organizational members have kept good interpersonal relationship

 

 

 

 

 

Organizational members would like to help each other when come to any difficulties

 

 

 

 

 

Organizational members have established strong trust relationship in the company

 

 

 

 

 

Divergence can often be resolved through effective coordination and communication between managers and subordinates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part D Measurement of managers’ job satisfaction

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

You recognise the culture of the company

 

 

 

 

 

Your are satisfied with current work environment

 

 

 

 

 

The current work can make your ability get into full play

 

 

 

 

 

You get higher sense of achievement in work

 

 

 

 

 

You are satisfied with the company because people help and support each other in work

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thank you for participating in this survey. All the responses obtained will be kept confidential

 

 

Appendix II: Figures and Tables

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

                                                                       Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

There is high level of trust among everyone in the organisation

32

1.00

5.00

3.5938

1.47800

The values or beliefs in our workplace promote trust

32

1.00

5.00

3.5313

1.36746

There are no tightly controlled systems and supervision because employees are trusted to perform their duties

32

1.00

5.00

3.2500

1.54502

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

The company advocates for competition to provide driving force for goal achievement

32

1.00

5.00

2.8125

1.14828

Employees' position improvement relies on competitive performance assessment among employees

32

1.00

5.00

2.7813

1.40814

Employees are faced with strong competition in the company

32

1.00

5.00

2.9375

1.29359

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

                                                                        Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

In our organisation, there is small difference in status between the top position and an entry-level position

32

1.00

5.00

3.8125

1.30600

The organisation has developed facilities and organisationl practices that promote open communication between managers and everyone else in the organisation

32

1.00

5.00

3.9375

1.36636

Employees have higher involvement in the company

32

1.00

5.00

3.8438

1.39375

The company develops equality oriented relationship between employees and leaders at all levels of the organisation.

32

1.00

5.00

3.5625

1.52268

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

The way the organisation is structured promotes team work and cooperation with one another in the organisation

32

1.00

5.00

3.5000

1.41421

The company values the cooperation of employees between departments

32

1.00

5.00

3.6250

1.36192

The company has instilled loyalty among staff by always communicating candidly and providing support to individuals

32

1.00

5.00

3.7500

1.43684

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

                                                                       Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

The company frequently seeks management input in the decision making process

32

1.00

5.00

2.8750

1.07012

The company has made complicated rules and procedures and cause long delays and inflexibility

32

1.00

5.00

2.6563

1.35859

Leaders in the company rarely encourage employee involvement or personnel autonomy and flexibility

32

1.00

5.00

2.9063

1.05828

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Managers do as they are told and act more like a conduit for transmitting orders between the senior management and the staff

32

1.00

5.00

2.4063

1.38795

Decisions are made at the top senior management. The decision process is more like in a military type of organization with a 'line and staff' and 'chain of command

32

1.00

5.00

2.5313

1.39085

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Leadership at all levels consistently "walks the talk" (practices what it preaches)

32

1.00

5.00

3.6250

1.49731

Leaders encourage group interaction, and satisfying personal relations at the work place

32

1.00

5.00

3.7500

1.43684

Leaders have established a good infrastructure that helps improve the work environment

32

1.00

5.00

3.8438

1.39375

The leaders' coordination among different departments are efficient

32

1.00

5.00

3.5000

1.52400

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Organizational members value cooperation and interaction

32

1.00

5.00

3.6875

1.46876

Organizational members have kept good interpersonal relationship

32

1.00

5.00

3.5938

1.36451

Organizational members would like to help each other when come to any difficulties

32

1.00

5.00

3.4688

1.36746

Organizational members have established strong trust relationship in the company

32

1.00

5.00

3.6250

1.40850

Divergence can often be resolved through effective coordination and communication between managers and subordinates

32

1.00

5.00

3.5000

1.41421

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Descriptives

 

                                                                         Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

You recognise the culture of the company

32

1.00

5.00

3.5625

1.41279

Your are satisfied with current work environment

32

1.00

5.00

3.6563

1.42805

The current work can make your ability get into full play

32

1.00

5.00

4.0938

1.27910

You get higher sense of achievement in work

32

1.00

5.00

3.5313

1.43649

You are satisfied with the company because people help and support each other in work

32

1.00

5.00

3.8438

1.34667

Valid N (listwise)

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Correlations

                                                                                                  

 

 

 

Regression analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 


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