This dissertation is about travel motivational factors of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. The aim of the study is to investigate the factors that motivate mainland Chinese travellers to travel Hong Kong. There are two types of motivations i.e. pull and push. This dissertation considers one pull factor i.e. tourists satisfaction and three push factors i.e. destination attraction, tourism products and government policy. The data for this dissertation is collected through secondary sources. The books, reports and journals are consulted to gather data. Only those journals and books are used that were published after 1990 and maximum variation is ensured in all data.
The findings of the dissertation state that Hong Kong is a famous destination because it is has many natural and cultural attractions. It has all tourism facilities and this attracts business and leisure travellers to Hong Kong. The quality of tourism products is excellent and all products and services are priced reasonably. The government of Hong Kong is also playing a vital role in attracting tourists from mainland China. The favourable tourism policies by tourism commission, tax reduction and diminishing and quality assurance schemes are proving good for Hong Kong. These push factors are affecting the pull factor i.e. tourists’ satisfaction. Tourists become satisfied when they find Hong Kong attractive destination with quality products and services and favourable tourism polices. In future research directions, it is suggested to study these factors of Hong Kong in comparison of any other destination.
1.1 Research background
Travel outer surface Mainland China was one time limited to public dealings. Mainland Chinese outbound sightseeing underwent a developing stage within the 1980s. It started off from “tours for visiting family in Hong Kong” in Guangdong region in 1983. During 1987, the administration gave a sanction to the urban of Dandong during Liaoning Province to function one-day visits to its adjacent city, Sinuiju, inside the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, that marked the commencement of journey in border regions in favour of Mainland Chinese people (World Tourism Organization, 2003). Journey to foreign states by Mainland Chinese formally happen in 1990, while the state assembly accepted the “provisional regulations on management of organizing Chinese citizens to travel to three countries in South-East Asia,” The government’s leisure of the system for drifting overseas reacted towards the Chinese’s wish to travel overseas. As reproduce by the elderly Chinese motto, “Travelling for one thousand Li [equivalent to approximately 311 miles] equals reading ten thousand volumes of books,” there is a native price on journey in Chinese society (Jang et. al., 2003). Voyage was conventionally observed as a means to widen one’s intelligence (Tse & Hobson, 2008). The Chinese sightseers are by scores of perceive as the hit of tourism. If merely the target can acquire its foot in the gate subsequently the utter figure of Chinese will produce enough income to maintain the wealth going. Nevertheless, even if this is accurate, very modest is acknowledged concerning the Chinese travellers. The Chinese voyage market is merely just rising. For numerous years the Chinese do not encompass the profits or a political advance which authorized abroad or outbound tour. Simply free time sightseeing is a moderately new sort of outbound visitors from China. This sort of tour which necessitates no commerce objectives or relatives in the trip country is just 10 years aged and for some nations it is still newer. An accord which provides the Schengen-area “Approved Destination Status” only approached in 2004. The yearly figure of outbound Chinese travellers is hypothetical to attain 100 million within 2020 as well as turn into the fourth major foundation of outbound tour in the earth (WTO, 2003). These data alone hearten destinations as well as businesses to attempt plus attract this enormous market. Except whom they are as well as why carry out tour? The marketplace is so novel and uncharted and so big that it is firm to find responds to these queries. If Odense City is to contend with previous cities in addition to targets in Hong Kong, the urban need to recognize what forces the Chinese sightseer to tour plus what them profits in a purpose.
China is considered to be one of the most significant marketplaces for the Hong Kong sightseeing industry. The significance of the China outbound marketplace towards Hong Kong has strained scholars’ interests into appreciative what induces Mainland Chinese towards travel abroad. It can be said that destination is differentiated on basis of geography, culture, experiences, products, services, characteristics, features, economic conditions, climate and attractions. In this dissertation uniqueness of Hong Kong as a destination is explored. This dissertation will explore what are the factors that differentiate Hong Kong from other destinations of China. The researcher will try to answer the question that whether destination attraction of Hong Kong motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong or there are some other factors except destination attraction. This dissertation will analyze how Hong Kong satisfies needs of local people, visitors, and local enterprises and maintain cost and benefit balance.
1.2 Research Aim and Objectives
This dissertation aims to investigate the factors that motivate mainland Chinese travellers to travel to Hong Kong. The main objectives of this dissertation are the following points:
1. To examine the motivational forces for mainland Chinese tourists that attracts them to visit Hong Kong
2. To find out role of tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong in attracting Mainland Chinese Tourists.
3. To investigate the impact of government policy on travelers' motivation.
4. To study main factors that attracts Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Hong.
1.3 Research Rationale
Travel motivation of tourists is about distinctive biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that shape travel choices, behaviour and experience. Travel destinations are always selected by some kind of external and internal forces of motivation. For marketers, this has become a big question that what actually motivates travellers to select a destination. Marketing of any tourism destination is not possible, until and unless marketers have a clear understanding of motivational factors to select a destination. So to know about this motivation is important for marketing of tourism organizations in Hong Kong. Motivation is the only factor that is considered important while selecting destination for travelling and vacations. He further adds that travellers’ behaviour is always influenced by more than one factor. There are many small factors that affect behaviour of tourists (Ayad & Shujun, 2012).
In Hong Kong, tourists from Mainland Chinese account for more than 70% of total tourists. Hong Kong is known as the most favourite travel destinations of Chinese. There were 15.1 million visits to Hong Kong by mainland Chinese in 2012. This rate of tourism from Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong is increasing with 19.4 percent per year (Upe, 2013).
Competitive prices at Hong Kong are considered as a major factor that motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. This is resulting in the development of retail business in particular of luxury items business and real estate market. The amount of daily spending is also increasing in Hong Kong by Mainland Chinese (Lee, 2013)
With this culture Chinese travellers have become a major segment with brilliant growth opportunities. Mainland Chinese travellers are keen to travel; they do not only travel inside borders but across the borders as well. They play a significant part in international tourism. The thrust to know the motivations of this growing segment is increasing for all marketers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that become a motivation of Chinese travellers to visit Hong Kong.
1.4 Research Question
This study aims to answer 'what are those factors that motivate mainland Chinese travelers to visit Hong Kong?'
The following framework has been drawn which shows the main focus of this research. The below diagram shows what motivates a Mainland Chinese to visit or to tour Hong Kong. These factors which motivates are tourism product and services like the service or product offered is of good quality and is better as compared to other tourism services. The other factor is tourist satisfaction that is the clients or customers are satisfied with the overall performance of the tourism firm. Hong Kong is a very beautiful place to visit thus because of its beauty and attractive places it could lead to attraction of Mainland Chinese customers. Government policy can also be one of the factors that can lead to Hong Kong sightseeing. As government policies can give huge discount to the customers. All these factors above mentioned can lead to the motivation or encouragement to visit Hong Kong. On the basis of the above literature, following framework is developed.
Figure 1: Framework
Source: developed by researcher (2013)
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
In this chapter, development of tourism industry and definition of tourism will be given. As the tourists' behaviour is changing with time, so reason of changing behaviour is discussed. There are different motivational factors that motivates tourists' to specific destination so different author view about those factors is reviewed. To deeply analyze motivational factors, pull and push factors are explained. Travelers' behaviour is predicted by many factors so two models explaining travelers' behaviour is discussed.
Tourism can be considered as an economic activity and consumer behaviour in tourism is backed by many theories and models that predict the behaviour of individuals for tourism activities (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Tourism activities increased right after the second world war period; From that period to till today, an increasing trend in tourism is observed and predicted for the future (Crouch & Shaw, 1992). According to Yoon and Uysal's (2005) opinion, in pervious ten years, many changes have been observed in consumption pattern on tourists. Sometimes, this growth pattern becomes uneven for some regions because of the life cycle of destination (Weiermair, 1998). There are many factors such as price of tourism products, quality of tourism services, preference for leisure, that influence final decision (Ndivo & Mayaka, 2012). The uneven structure is dedicated to changes in consumer behaviour. Traditionally, purchasing decision was based on rational economic decision making. Yoon & Uysal (2005) said that now there have been indentified motivational forces that do not work according to rational economic decision making process. The most important motive force is unrealized deeper needs of human beings (Crouch & Shaw, 1992).
In terms of behaviour, tourist is the person who travels from one place to another and stays there for one night or more (Mok & Defranco, 1999). The purpose of the visit can be leisure, entertainment, interaction with other people or enjoy unique destination characteristics (Leiper, 1997). Abraham(1995) suggests that in this era of globalization tourists' behaviour is similar all over the world. On the other hand, few authors e.g. Douglas & Wind (1987) suggest that this world is still not totally globalized and tourists' behaviour differs with respect to their residential region. All tourists' have different needs and demands and there are different factors that motivate them to visit a particular destination.
According to Baloglu and Brinberg's (1997) research, many tourists plan a tour to another region because they want to get rid of daily routine. The self-actualization is the basic motivation for tourists to travel from one region to another (Huang & Hsu, 2005). Whatever the conditions are, tourists' behaviour is influenced by traditional norms of daily life (Hsu & Lam, 2003). In this dissertation, researcher will analyze whether the mainland Chinese travel to Hong Kong is influenced by traditional norms of daily life or not.
2.3 Regional Tourism
Tour form mainland China to Hong Kong is considered as one type of tourism which is regional tourism. Regional tourism is a tool to provide alternative employment opportunities and income generation; Public and private sector increase investment in particular region because of tourism activities. Tourism act as an 'economic driver for the local economy' enhances protection activities for natural environment and improves standard of living of local people (Wray, et al., 2010). In this dissertation, while investigation role of government in tourism development researcher will also explore whether the regional tourism is economic drive for the Hong Kong economy or not.
Tourists' behaviour is changing with time, novelty in their behaviour is observed. Many authors, for example, Weiermair (1998) said that with globalization tourism has emerged with a new attitude of tourists. Now, tastes and preferences with regard to destination attractions have converged and there is no difference in global and local preferences of tourists (Wray et al., 2010). It can be said that regional tourism and international tourism contains same characteristics in terms of tourists' motivation. So, all motivational factors of international tourism can be applied to regional tourism activities of Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong.
2.4 Motivation of tourists
Tourism activities can become successful when it is backed by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of tourists (Zhang & Lam,1999). Motivation is defined as a psychological state of mind that convinces an individual to act in a certain way to achieve a state of motivation (Kozak, 2002). For marketers and destination management organizations, it is of paramount importance to study and analyse motivation of tourists to better improve tourism practices, destination attractions, government policies and tourism products (Zhang & Lam, 1999). A good knowledge of tourists' motivation can allow a destination to achieve competitive advantage by differentiating itself from other destinations (Beerli & Martin, 2004). Researchers suggest that tourists travel from resident destination to another destination because they seek for pleasure, experiences and happiness that cannot be achieved at resident destination (Yousefi & Marzuki, 2012). So according to Zhang & Lam (1999) it can be said that motivation is a psychological state that convinces individuals to take a certain action. Tourists' motivation is about those factors that convinces travellers to plan a visit to specific destination i.e. Hong Kong (Kozak, 2002).
Travel motivations have been the centre of attention for many researcher of socilogy, anthropology and psychology (Cohen, 1972; Dann, 1977; Crompton, 1979; Gnoth, 1997). Maslow Hierarchy of needs explains the tourism in a very good manner. Motivation has different contexts i.e. environment, personal and cultural. Motivation is the state of personal needs when an individual wants to achieve something and they find a gap between desired state and actual state. Individuals wants to minimize this gap between actual and desired state and plan a tour (Veal, 2002). Travellers' motivations are those factors that influence their purchase (visit) intention in order to be satisfied. Researcher such as Pearce (2005) and Klenosky (2002) have identified distinctive internal and external motivations for travellers. These external and internal factors are also known as pull and push dimensions of travellers' motivation. Basically there are two factors that motivate travelers i.e. Intrinsic (pull) and extrinsic (push) motives (Mohammad, et al., 2010). So motivation is a state when an individual tries to minimize gap between actual and desired state. This dissertation aims to investigate motivational factors of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. As suggested by Mohammad, et al. (2010), in this dissertation, researcher will investigate tourists' motives in terms of pull and push factors.
2.4.1 Push factors
There are socio-physiological motivational factors that shape behaviour of tourists (Mohammad, et al., 2010). Basically, these are intrinsic and personal characteristic of tourists. When intrinsic desires of an individual develop, they plan to visit a specific destination where they can relax, feel pleasure and experience adventurous activities. This is backed by Maslow hierarchy of needs that says there are five types of needs i.e. Basic, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. The researcher identified and presented nine travel motives. From those nine motives, seven are pushing motives and two are pulling motives. Push factors are the following:
1. Escape from daily boring routine
2. Self assessment
3. Self exploration
4. Relaxation from daily tiring routine
6. Augmentation of close relationships
7. Social interaction
There are many factors that are classified as push factors such as educational needs, cultural exploration desire, natural attraction love, leisure(Awaritefe, 2004). Any of these factors can become a motivational factor to convince and individual to travel particular destination. This dissertation cannot cover all push factors. In this dissertation, main focus is on only one push factor which is tourist satisfaction.
2.4.2 Pull factors
These factors shape the behaviour of an individual to select a destination for travelling. These factors are characteristics of destinations that attract tourists to visit (Awaritefe, 2004). Pull factors are tangible factors of a destination that includes natural attractions, man-made attractions, tourism facilities and accommodation facilities (Philips & House, 2009). Sirakaya et al. (1996) also mentioned that pull factors are basically about sea of land attractions, man-made attractions, structure, climate, cultural and heritage buildings, marketing activities and quality of tourism services. In combination, these all factors enhance attraction of a destination and motivate tourists to visit. This dissertation will discuss three pull factors i.e. government policy, destination attraction and tourism product quality.
According to many authors (Mok & DeFranco, 1999), tourism is an activity that is majorly affected by pull factors. This dissertation will analyze whether pull factors plays a major role in motivating a tourist to plan his tour or not.
2.5 Travel Buying Behaviour Models
2.5.1 Model of Travel Buying Behaviour
Mathieson & Wall (1982) suggested a model for analyzing consumer buying behaviour for travel. First of all need of travel is realized by tourists, then they collect information to evaluate image to select destinations, then travel decision is made by selecting one destination between different alternatives (Pearce, 2005). In the fourth stage, preparations for travel are done and tourists experience travel. In the final stage, the tour is evaluated, for example, satisfaction or dissatisfaction from tour (Kim, 1999).
Figure 2: Model of Travel Buying Behaviour
Source: Mathieson & Wall (1982)
2.5.2 Integrate Model of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity Mode
According to this model, evaluation of congruity is meant to evaluate satisfaction level. In this process referent compares and evaluates objects (Huang & Hsu, 2005). Basically, the outcome of this cognitive process is motivational or emotional state (Gnoth, 1997). When consumers are dissatisfied from a particular state, they choose an alternative course to reduce their dissatisfaction. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction is conclusion of perceived value (Sirgy & Grewal, 1997).
The problem is recognized when there is a difference between perceived value and expected standards. There are four possible states of congruity i.e. Negative incongruity, negative, congruity, positive congruity and positive incongruity (Veal, 2002). This congruity state represents satisfaction and dissatisfaction level. Sirgy (1981) also said that there are two images of each product which are functional image and symbolic image. Functional image is associated with physical benefits and symbolic image is associated with status, stereotype and user-specific needs. This self image is about the personal beliefs or individuals such as preference, intention, purchase behaviour and satisfaction level (Gnoth, 1997). Satisfaction and dissatisfaction is also dependent on consumers' self image and product image congruity (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Satisfaction of tourists is influenced by the evaluative difference between expected/desired value and perceived value of the destination and evaluative congruity self image and perception of destination image. According to this model of self congruity and travel behaviour (Figure 3), various factors that motivate tourists to visit a destination are related to self-image of visitor (Gnoth, 1997). The final decision to select a destination is also related to self concept, self congruity and destination image. In addition to this, evaluation of destination is influenced by functional or utilitarian distribution attributes. Both, tourist perceived utilitarian destination attributes and tourist ideal utilitarian destination attributes results in functional congruity and this, in turn, affects self congruity.
Figure 3: An Integrated Model of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity in Explaining and Predicting Travel Behaviour
Source: Sirgy & Grewal (1997)
In this dissertation, this model will be implemented to analyze satisfaction of tourists' experience at Hong Kong.
2.6 Destination Attraction
Traditionally, the destination is defined as 'well-defined geographical areas, such as country, and island or a town' (Hsu & Lam, 2003). But now destination has become a subjective concept and consumers take it differently according to their personal choice, intentions, culture background, purpose and experience (Gnoth, 1997). Destinations are differentiated with political and geographical barriers. Destinations are mixture of products, services and experiences offered at a particular place (Veal, 2002). According to Leiper's (1997) research, tourists visit from one place to another because of particular features, characteristics and attractions at destination. Destinations are often considered as experience-provider (Ryan,1991).
Destinations are places where community members, business associates and government entities take a special interest (Veal, 2002). All destinations are different from each other. Every destination has unique characteristics for instance economic climate, conditions, values and norms. Destinations can be local, regional or international. Basically, these are differentiated from other destinations in terms of clusters of attractions there (Gnoth, 1997). Each destination is unique in itself because of special natural attractions, human resource or government activities. There is no specific definition of destination attraction because each destination attracts travelers in a different manner (Veal, 2002). Natural attractions, political sensitivity and local community behaviour are few factors that make a destination attraction for others. Mostly, every destination has a different perception for travelers and local stakeholders, differentiating it from others (Gnoth, 1997). Only those destinations are successful in attracting travelers that are planned, managed and developed in a careful and effective manner. For sustainable tourism practices, effective tourism management and planning according to different requirements of that destination is needed (Wray, et al. 2010).
One place becomes more attractive for tourists when it has an exotic image in the mind of people. Tourists seek pleasure and want to fulfill their hedonic need therefore they select that destination that has attractive characterises. When one destination has different and unique physical and social features, that destination attracts tourists (Prideaux, et al., 2004).
Kaushik, et al. (2009) identified several factors that attract tourists to a particular destination. They identified destination attraction as the most important factor to attract tourists.
Destinations have a great impact on local stakeholders therefore destination management is one of the complex task in managing tourism and hospitality industry (Sautter & Leisen, 1999). Marketing of destination is another challenging task because there are numerous stakeholders in the development of tourism industry and marketers have to minimize conflicts between the interests of all stakeholders (Hsu & Lam, 2003).
Before visiting a destination, visitors always develop a perception of destination based on past experiences, word of mouth or advertisements (Chon, 1991). Tourists’ perception is completely built with many factors e.g. Hotels, taxi, local people, waiters (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997). A combination of local natural attractions combined with man-made attractions develops the perception of tourist towards a destination (Buhalis & Cooper, 1998). Now most of the tourists are attracted towards natural and environmental resources and thus they are ready to pay premium prices for natural attractions at destinations (Pigram, 1996). As a result, local resources have become the centre of attraction for tourism marketers and suppliers and they can get maximum benefit from local assets by effectively utilizing them (Gnoth, 1997).
2.6.1 Destination management
There are numerous strategic objectives of destination management. These objectives are meant to satisfy needs of stakeholders (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). In tourism management, interests of stakeholder conflict with other stakeholders’ interests (Howei, 2003). Everyone wants to get benefit at the expense of others (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). With effective tourism management, it has to ensure that all strategic objectives are fulfilled and interest of no one is scarified for the benefits of other stakeholders (Sautter & Leisen, 1999). Legislative and management tools can be used for sustainable tourism practices (Howei, 2003). In a developed tourism industry, all stakeholders are highly satisfied with tourism practices and destination can remain sources of attraction for tourists from all over the world (Buhalis & Fletcher, 1995). This basic strategic objectives of destination management are:
All tourism practices should be in accordance to these strategic objectives (Gnoth, 1997). Tourism practices should not neglect regional development practices and rationale of tourism activities by tourists (Buhalis, 1995). A destination can become attractive only when it is effectively managed. When destinations are not managed properly, conflicts of stake holders arise and it becomes difficult to attract tourists. Hong Kong must have been managed in an effective way.
2.7 Types of destination attractions
Choice of destination selection for every visitor differs with respect to their personal lifestyle (Howei, 2003). Every visitor has a different purpose of a visit to a destination. The following are given types of destinations in accordance to their principle attraction.
This is not mandatory for one destination to lie in one category; one destination can be part of more than one category. Hong Kong falls under three categories that are urban, alpine and unique-exotic-exclusive destination.
2.7.1 Urban destinations
According to Law's(1996) opinion, this is the most traditional type of destination. Whenever, people have to meet business associates or politicians, attend a sports match, meetings, conferences or visit religious places e.g. Mosques, temples, they plan a tour to urban destinations (Page & Getz,1994). Those destinations are classified as urban destinations that have big conference halls, accommodation facilities and good quality infrastructure (Hughes, 1995). Such destinations not only attracts business persons but to the leisure seekers as well. Hughes (1995) states that tourism service providers arrange entertainment and leisure activities for business persons and for others as well so that they can better able to reduce reasonability of destination (Gnoth, 1997). Law (1993) also mention that in such destinations, good general facilities e.g. hospitals, banks, also exist thus attract more education and health. Hong Kong is an urban destination, In next chapters characteristics that make Hong Kong an urban destination are analyzed.
2.7.2 Alpine destinations
Alpine destinations are full of lakes, mountains and sea resorts. These destinations are specifically for those pleasure seekers who want to enjoy winter activities for example Skiing (Johnston & Smith, 1994). Alpine destinations are full of natural attractions. Such destinations are the centre of attraction for naturalists (Khan, 1994). Many recreational activities are arranged to attract more tourists. Mountains and seas are used for surfing and skiing like activities (Weiermain, 1993). Alpine destinations are usually near to regional areas but few of them are in remote areas that enhance experience of tourists. In such destinations, resources must be effectively utilized for sustainable tourism (Johnston & Smith, 1994).
2.7.3 Unique-exotic-exclusive destinations
Destinations that offer unique, exotic and exclusive experience are the centre of attraction for tourists (Sofield, 1991). These destinations are considered unique and precious and marketers charge a premium price for an exotic experience (Hughes, 1995). Such destinations remain full of visitors so proper tourism management is mandatory. Accommodation and transportation facilities management is considered very important (Gnoth, 1997). Marketers of tourist institutions is niche, they do not target mass market and charge them high and make good revenue. Tourists plan their once-in-a-life-time events e.g. Honeymoon, at such destinations (Silver, 1993).
Hong Kong can be said an urban destination, unique-exotic-exclusive destination and alpine destination. This dissertation examines the main characteristics that make Hong Kong an urban, unique-exotic-exclusive and alpine destination.
2.8 Models for Destination Attraction
A destination can be attractive because of many different factors (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999). The most famous model for destination attraction is given by Porter. He acknowledged the national competitiveness as the most compelling factor (Porter, 1990). In another model namely Crouch-Ritchie Model, ‘nation-specific, industry-specific and firm-specific factors’ were acknowledged (Kim, 2000). Dwyer and Kim (2003) added demand component in model presented by Crouch-Ritchie. Enright and Newton (2004) states that destination attraction is ensured with amalgam of both business-related and tourism-specific components. There are different factors i.e. natural resources, destination management practices, attractions and other supporting factors that make a destination attractive for tourists (Crouch and Ritchie, 1999). Along with these factors, important role are played by ‘qualifying factors’. These qualifying factors have ability to influence overall attraction of a destination in positive and negative way. Ritchie and Crouch (2000) also states that tourism policy plays an important role in attracting tourists to a destination.
2.9 Tourism Products and Services
According to Inskeep's (2009) opinion, tourism products are attractions, accommodation, transportation, infrastructure, and other tourist facilities and services. Details of these factors are given below:
With tourism products, institutional elements also play an important part in attracting tourists (Hsu et al, 2010). Institutional elements are related to tourism offices and associations, tourism-related legislation, hotel and tour regulations, licensing requirement for travelling, information availability through promotional activities and visa arrangements (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Institutional elements also include distributions of tourism benefits over reducing environmental protection measures, social problems and development of cultural heritage (Inskeep, 2009).
In tourism, there are both tangible and intangible products (Howei, 2003). Tangible products are considered more important in attracting tourists. Tangible products are hotels, restaurants, infrastructure. Intangible products include experiences at a particular destination. Hong Kong offers both excellent tangible and intangible products (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). A detailed analysis of tangible and intangible products will be done in next chapters.
In destination life cycle, tangible products become mature and the time comes when their importance declines (Gnoth, 1997). When tangible products become old and unattractive, element of intangible products attracts tourists (Scherrieb, 1998).
Visitors feel more satisfied when they get quality and high standard products (Kamil, 2010). When low quality products and services and provided to tourists, they become discouraged to visit that destination once again. Quality of services has a 'compelling effect on tourists' (Middleton & Hawkins, 2002).
There are a number of factors that can affect perception of visitors regarding product quality (Veal, 2002). The price, promotion, branding, support services are names of a few factors that influence product quality (Howei, 2003). When customers find a product in accordance with their expectations, they create positive word of mouth about a particular destination and attract more visitors (Budeanu, 2007). In this dissertation, researcher will find how the product quality, price, promotion, branding and support services are motivating mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.
Household tours are most important expense of the year for a family, it includes lots of planning and information research and customers always prefer the destination that has reasonable prices, high quality and easy access to all necessary products and services (Swarbrooke & Horner, 2001). In this dissertation, researcher will investigate whether the tourists' family are attracted toward Hong Kong or not.
Tourists have different lifestyle therefore their demand of products is also different from local residents (Hsu et al., 2010). Few tourists seek for cultural and educational products and few seek for novelty and business (Hsu & Lam, 2003). Thus countries introduce tourism products according to demand of tourists (Poon, 1994). Many tourist destinations have arranged tourists’ products according to demographics of tourists. Tourism products always selected according to behaviour of tourists (Jamieson, 2001). In globalization era, concern for health, safety and security is increased. So, many countries have shifted their focus to healthy tourism products (Klanarongran, 2001). To understand the tourists’ behaviour is much significant now. Tourists can be attracted only when they get products and services in accordance to desired needs (Swarbrooke & Horner, 1999). In this dissertation, Hong Kong tourism products and their attraction for tourists will be explored.
2.9.1 Tourism Products Marketing
Kamil (2010) states that marketing and promotional strategies of a place plays an important role in attracting tourists. A destination that has quality products attracts more visitors. Actually, it creates positive word of mouth and enhances number of visitors per year (Hanqin & Lam, 1999).
Traditionally, the main purpose of tourism marketing was to attract as many tourists as possible (Howei, 2003). The main focus of all promotional activities was on increasing visitation and tourism marketing was treated like commodity marketing (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). But after some time, tourism organization realized the fact that there are different needs of all tourists and there are a few limitations of all destinations (Hanqin & Lam, 1999). Now, marketers of destinations are shifting their concentration to dynamics of the market and requirements of tourists and they offer products and services only to fulfil their needs (Veal, 2002). There was a time when tourism was marketed in a strange manner i.e. it had only one P (Promotion) of the marketing mix. Very little or no attention was used to give to other components of the marketing mix. Only those tourist destinations are attractive for tourists that adopt appropriate social marketing techniques and promotional strategies (Hanqin & Lam, 1999). In Hong Kong, marketers consider the whole marketing mix to attract potential tourists that is why, Hong Kong is attractive for tourists from all over the world. This view is supported by (Ryan, 1991). This dissertation will investigate the whole marketing mix of tourism products at Hong Kong.
2.10 Government Policy
Veal (2002) argues that government always play an important role in protecting natural areas and tourism at any place. Domestic, inbound and outbound tourism has benefits of the whole economy. It creates employment opportunities and generates revenue. By effectively managing tourism and, countries can better exploit numerous socioeconomic opportunities. With effective tourism planning and coordination of government, tourism can be enhanced. With effective tourism coordination, planning, cooperation and policy of government, more tourists can be motivated to make a tour to Hong Kong (Lee, 2013). Basically, all governments show interest in developing tourist industry because it can create new employment opportunities, increases GDP and improves standards of living of local people. Sustainable tourism industry does not only influence one industry but it positively influences all sectors of an economy (Hui, et al., 2007).
In tourism, numerous stakeholders along with distinctive interests are involved (Veal, 2002). Government has to act as an entity that provide a collaborative forum to all stakeholders for minimizing conflicts in interests and produce better outcomes (Kunkel, 2008). Good governance is required to manage destination, processes, opportunities, infrastructure and other tourism facilities (Wray, et al., 2010). Tourism involves management of the interests of all parties such as government, business associates and local community (Veal, 2002). Even though, all stakeholders are required to support healthy tourism practices, the role played by the government is of utmost importance (Wray, et al., 2010). Only those destinations attract travellers have good governance and there are defined roles and responsibilities for all stakeholders, clear communication and operational processes, engagement of all stakeholders, transparent decision-making process, adaptive management, diversity, efficiency and equity of all resources (Kunkel, 2008). This can be ensured only through a good government policy for tourism (Wray, et al., 2010). It is responsibility of government to minimize conflicts of all stakeholders of tourism industry. Government does so with the help of policy that ensures healthy tourism activities (Kunkel, 2008). This dissertation analyzes the role of government policy in governing tourism activities effectively and defining duties and responsibilities of all stakeholders.
Government always plays an important part in attracting tourists from all over the time (Kunkel, 2008). Government has to realize that nature base and man-made attractions bring socioeconomic benefits for an economy (Howei, 2003). Tourism is beneficial because it creates employment opportunities and generates foreign exchange (Kunkel, 2008). There are many economies who do not realize the importance of natural attraction and they do not get maximum benefit out of natural and man-made tourism activities (Howei,2003). Countries that give high priority to planning and coordination of tourism are earning revenue (Wray, et al., 2010). Tourism activities are beneficial for whole economy. This dissertation will analyze whether the government is playing its role to maintain natural and maintain natural attracts or not. Along with this, this dissertation also answers the question how beneficial it is for government to establish healthy tourism activities.
It is the duty of government to protect the environment and nature of its country. There are always particular agencies and institutions that share the responsibility of protecting nature and the environment (Inskeep, 2009). It is one of the duties of such agencies to develop policies for environment and tourism. Tourism can be promoted only by collaboration of government and the tourist industry (Kunkel, 2008). It is considered that the integrated planning process is useful for promoting tourism. The industries who are participating in developing tourism policy will be explored.
With government policies and tools, awards, certification schemes, educational schemes, and healthy tourism activities can be promoted and more sustainable tourism culture can be created (Martens & Spaargaren, 2005). According to Chafe's (2005) research, relaxed regulations, fewer taxes and fees, and appropriate use of other economic instruments for tourists are useful for influencing tourists’ perception in a positive manner. This dissertation analyzes the important tools and schemes that are made for sustainable tourism management.
Tourism activities might be harmful to the local environment and local life. Many problems such as air pollution, congestion, noise and accidents might become result of tourists’ activities (Veal, 2002). Tourists’ entertainment activities also become dangerous for local life (OECD, 2002). It is up to the government to introduce such schemes, efficient mobility schemes, eco-efficient accommodation facilities, to reduce negative impacts of tourism activities (Martens & Spaargaren, 2005). This dissertation examines the role of government policy in minimizing activities for environment and local life.
2.11 Sustainable Tourism Development
Tourism practices have been carried out at international level for many decades. All international practices of tourism have proved that social and environmental issues arise. No matter mass tourism or alternative tourism is being carried in any country but such activities have strong effect on ecological resources, social, cultural norms and values. These concerns lead in to the development and adoption of sustainable tourism in the decade of 90’s. In a short period of time this area acquired importance in both academia/research and in industry. (Dumbr?veanu, n.d.)
Sustainable tourism is define by Veal (2002) as it is an affirmative approach adopted to reduce strains, pulls and resistances that are produced as a result of interactions between tourists their hosts that are local people of a destination and natural environment. Howei (2013) states it as a tourism that operates in the limits of natural capacities of a tourist attraction. Local public of the host areas must possess equal right in the guidance and economic advantages of tourism. Thus both sides of tourism should be fulfilled that is economic benefit, socially liable and quality environmental friendly.
According to Wray, et al., (2010) a perfect balance in issues like environment, community and economic values results in sustainable tourism. The main purpose of such tourism is to enhance those natural resources that attract tourists (Howei, 2003). All tourism activities need to be consistent with long term local norms of community members. A destination must be enough responsive to external environment changes and changing market needs (Veal, 2002). Sustainable tourism development is achieved when a destination become viable for the tourism industry for the long-term. Once a sustainable tourism industry is developed, attractions for that destination increases and more travellers become motivated to attract tourists (Kunkel, 2008). The role of Hong Kong government in maintaining sustainable tourism is explored in later chapters.
According to surveys of World Tourism Organization (2013) it has been found that tourists always prefer a quality tourist destination that is it must possess ecological friendly and sound cultural, social norms. According to (Fennell, 1999), tourism is closely related with sustainable development. Both concepts prioritize quality characteristics. Besides economic factors, environmental and socio cultural factors are also inclusive in concept of sustainable development for tourism. Sustainable tourism is a type of industry which is most responsible in terms of granting economic benefits, preserving environment other resources for the present and future use of local community and keeping safe socio cultural norms and believes.
Three main indicators of sustainable tourism development are elaborated by Hughes (2002):
Tourism in particular sustainable tourism is being currently regulated and operated by community policies and programs and they have a sound effect on all activities related to tourism. To achieve higher level of Sustainable tourism government can practice several instruments like Environmental Management System and Certification Schemes. Environmental Management Systems includes standards for the safety of environment which firms have to follow. ISO 14001 is an environmental standard ought to be followed by all firms. Certification Schemes also play a vital role as they provide an action plan/blue print to the organizations in order to improve (Bolshakova, 2007).
Sustainable tourism should include creating awareness among tourists regarding sustainability problems and also raising encouraging sustainable tourism approaches among tourists. Acquiring sustainable tourism is not a batch rather a continuous process. This process includes three steps; to monitor the impacts of already taken measures; in case if something is going wrong then to take preventive measures; evaluate these measures (UNEP, 2007).
2.11.1 Sustainable tourism triangle
There are three main points in sustainable tourism development; Government entities have to maintain balance in these three points (Wray, et al., 2010).
Figure 4: The Sustainable Tourism Triangle
Source: Wray, et al. (2010)
How the Hong Kong government is maintaining balance in economic and environmental resources, environmental resources and values and economic development and impact of economic development on social values is discussed in later chapters.
2.12 Tourism Satisfaction
Satisfaction is a temporary psychological reaction of performance of a specific product or service (Xia, et al., 2009). Satisfaction is a function of customers’ expectations and perceived value (Huang, et al., 2006). Satisfaction can be defined as a positive psychological result of any activity (Lee, et al., 2007). When a service is unable to perform according to customers’ expectations, outcome is dissatisfaction and vice versa (Song, et al., 2011). Tourists’ satisfaction is a result of travel expectations and experiences in a particular destination (Chen & Chen, 2010). Similarly, when travellers feel pleasure while comparing their expectations and perceived value, they are highly satisfied (Song, et al., 2011). When customers are highly satisfied they are more likely to visit the destination again and they refer particular destination to others as well (Huang, et al., 2006).
According to Marin's (2006) opinion, satisfaction of tourists with destination attributes decides overall satisfaction and they only come back to that destination when they are highly satisfied with destination attributes (Hui, et al., 2007). For development of a sustainable tourism industry, tourists’ satisfaction is of main concern for all researchers. It is the utmost desire of successful tourism organizations to satisfy tourists and they make every possible effort to satisfy tourists (Xia, et al., 2009).
In literature, there are many models and theories that explain customer satisfaction behaviour. To assess customer satisfaction, different methods are explained. The most common models are expectancy/discon?rmation, equity, and importance-performance and perceived overall performance model (Gnoth, 1997).
According to few authors' (Cronin & Taylor, 1992) (Parasuraman, et al., 1994) (Taylor & Baker, 1994) opinion, quality of service attracts customers and they become satisfy. On the other hand few practitioners e.g. (Oliver, 1997) state that when customers are satisfied service provider are more likely to offer quality services. Researchers have stated that both quality and customer satisfaction are influencing factors for purchase intentions of customers (Baker & Crompton, 2000). Tourists’ satisfaction can be assessed by measuring quality, value, costs, risks and image of destination (Cronin & Taylor, 1992).
One of the primary functions of destination management organizations is to satisfy tourists from destinations, Baker & Crompton (2000). When tourists are satisfied, the destination becomes more attractive for tourists. There are some authors i.e. Morgan & Pritchard (1998), Pearce, (1997) and Seaton (1997) that states that tourists’ satisfaction is a crucial goal but it is very difficult to achieve. This dissertation will investigate whether or not the destination managers of Hong Kong are successful to achieve this crucial goal.
According to Fornell, et al, (1996) the tourism industry of any country can be promoted by assessing satisfaction levels of tourists and set goals to satisfy them. Just to increase the number of tourists does not bring economic benefits but satisfied tourists are truly beneficial for the destination. Tourists become satisfied with the number of factors (Ryan, 1991). Tourist satisfaction is made of several factors i.e. Destination image, tourist expectation and perceived value. According to the views of (Gomezelj & Mihalic?, 2008) these factors are called building blocks of customer satisfaction. American Customer Satisfaction Index states that customer satisfaction is a function of ‘customer satisfaction, perceived quality and perceived value’ Fornell, et al, (1996) and the result of customer satisfaction is either complain or loyalty from customers. The affect of service and product quality of tourism products at Hong Kong on customer satisfaction is analyzed in next chapters.
2.13 Building Blocks of Tourists' Satisfaction
2.13.1 Destination Image
Tourist behaviour is directly influenced by destination image (Hsu & Lam, 2003). The destination image is about the overall perception of particular destination (Hsu et al., 2010). Along with tourist behaviour, tourist expectations and perceived value also have an effect on destination image (Xia, et al., 2009). A tourist final decision regarding the selection of a destination is affected by the pre-image of the destination. In next chapters of this dissertation, researcher will analyze how the destination image of Hong Kong attracts mainland Chinese.
Chi (2002) presented a theoretical model for tourists’ satisfaction and destination image. He said that environment, infrastructure, quality and value of a destination have a positive relationship with tourists’ satisfaction and tourists’ loyalty. Chi (2012) also states that destination image plays an important role in satisfying tourists and makes them loyal to a destination. In this dissertation, researcher will analyze how environment, infrastructure and quality of Hong Kong attract Mainland Chinese.
2.13.2 Tourists' expectation
Now, the expectations of the customers play a significant role in overall satisfaction from any service (Hsu et al., 2010). Customers anticipate the performance of product and services and set standards of performance in their mind (Hsu et al., 2010). These already set standards and expectations directly influence customer satisfaction (Xia, et al., 2009). Basically, customer satisfaction is the difference between money paid and value received with respect to already set standards (Lee, et al., 2007). In this dissertation, impact of tourist expectation regarding Hong Kong is analyzed.
2.13.3 Perceived Value
This is the overall evaluation of a service based on the value paid and service received (Song, et al., 2011). The perceived value of any service directly influences the satisfaction level of customers. A customer is highly satisfied when there is a positive difference between value received and money paid for particular service (Chen & Chen, 2010). This dissertation will explore the perceived value of mainland Chinese tourists what they get from visiting Hong Kong.
2.13.4 Local People Behaviour
Alcaniz (2005) presented that how local people i.e. resident of a destination behaves with tourists has an impact on overall tourists’ satisfaction. Overall, a destination satisfies its visitors when it has a positive destination image, positive tourists’ expectations, perceived value and behaviour of local residents. The role of local people behaviour in attracting mainland Chinese will be discussed in later chapters.
2.14 Consequences of Tourists' Satisfaction
Satisfied tourists become loyal tourists i.e. they suggest others to visit and revisit destination (Veal, 2002). They show higher willingness to pay premium prices for tourism services and a long term relationship with tourist can be built with this (Gnoth, 1997). Along with repurchase (re-visit), reputation of destination improves. Destination reputation improves because satisfied tourists are more likely to generate positive word of mouth. This view is supported by (Oliver, 1997).
On the opposite side, tourist dissatisfaction is predicted by their complaining behaviour. Either dissatisfied tourists complain or generate negative word of mouth (Bolton & Drew, 1991). In such condition, tourists do not return back at a particular destination and it becomes difficult to retain back tourists (Anderson & Fornell, 1994). Few authors, e.g. (Maxham & Netemeyer, 2002) states that complain behaviour management is an effective way to satisfy customers. In this dissertation, researcher analyzes do the satisfied tourists of mainland China create positive word of mouth and recommends other to visit Hong Kong or not.
The tourism is an emerging field of study. The number of mainland Chinese who visit to Hong Kong is increasing with a great speed. It is significant to study motivational factors because without analyzing fundamental motivational factors, a destination cannot achieve competitive advantage. There are two type of motivations i.e. pull and push factors. Push factors are intrinsic and personal factors that motivate an individual to visit a specific destination. Pull factors are basically characteristics and features of a specific destination that attracts travellers. Then two models are discussed that explains the travellers behaviour i.e. model of travel buying behaviour and integrated model of self-congruity and functional congruity model.
Each destination has different characteristics e.g. climate, environment, destination management, economic conditions, political conditions. There are different types of attraction that a destination possesses. On basis of these attractions, destinations are classified into urban destinations, sea side destinations and resorts, alpine destinations, rural destinations, third world destinations and unique-exotic-exclusive destinations.
Tourism products are amalgam of both tangible and intangible products. Tourism products are attractions, accommodation, transportation, infrastructure, and other tourist facilities and services. Quality of tourism products is one of the factors that motivate tourists to visit a specific destination. Quality of tourism products is combination of price, promotion, branding, and support services.
Foundation of tourists’ satisfaction is explained by building blocks of tourists’ satisfaction. Building blocks are destination image, tourists’ expectations and perceived value. Satisfied tourists become loyal and recommend destination to other tourists. This results in increased number of visitors and improved reputation.
Good governance is required to manage destination, processes, opportunities, infrastructure and other tourism facilities. Only those destinations attract travellers have good governance and there are defined roles and responsibilities for all stakeholders, clear communication and operational processes, engagement of all stakeholders, transparent decision-making process, adaptive management, diversity, efficiency and equity of all resources.
This dissertation is based on investigation of motivational forces in the selection of a destination i.e. Hong Kong. There are numerous motivational forces that convince Mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. To study the impact of destination attraction, satisfaction level, tourism products and government policy on tourist behaviour to select a destination, this methodology is selected. The methodology chapter is about research approach that is used to conduct the study in an appropriate manner. Basically, research methodology is the ‘scientific investigation’ and aims to solve a problem, to discover something new, to answer a question and to present a solution for existing problems by testing it analytically (Bell, 2010). This chapter takes a start by giving an overview of adopted research process. After giving complete overview of research process, appropriate data collection technique is identified. Then sampling is discussed that includes data collection process, inclusion criteria and maximum variation in data. At the end of the chapter, summary of methodology is given.
Different kinds of researches are performed by analysts. According to Kumar (1999), there are three approaches in conducting research. These include research through application, objectives or type of information sought. The figure showing the Hierarchy of explanation is shown below in figure.
Figure 5: Types of Research
Source: Kumar (1999)
Pure research is for academic purposes only which has no implications practically (Brunt 1997; Clark et al. 2002), whereas applied research basically applies the existing literature to a particular problem (Johns and Lee-Ross 1998). This study applies the existing literature of Mainland Chinese’s motivations as tourists in Hong Kong therefore this is applied research.
Every research is designed in such a way that it contains a few important elements that structures the report formally. For academic reports, the analysis and interpretation of data is given a strong foundation through theory (Finn et al., 2000).
This research is a secondary research. The data sources used in this research are books, journals, articles, websites and internet. Secondary research form is the integral part of any research because it is a fool-proof tool of authentic knowledge that has been made in the related fields already. Secondary research sources are so strong in their reliability that often they help in choosing research topics (Greenfield 1996; Bell 2001).
3.1 Research Process
Research process, as shown in the following figure, starts by explaining researcher process. Then researcher identified the appropriate data collection technique to conduct study effectively. Later on construction of research design, sample, inclusion criteria and maximum variation in data is discussed.
Figure 6: Research Process
Source: Developed by Researcher (2013)
3.2 Data Collection Techniques
In order to study motivational forces that convinces mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong, studies conducted on motivational factors are considered. Basically there are two types of data can be collected i.e. secondary and primary data collection (Blaxter, et al., 2010).
3.2.1 Secondary Data Collection
Data collected from past records, surveys, census or reports is known as secondary data (Bell, 2010). Mostly, it is used when time is short and researcher intends to do a detailed analysis of a topic (Clark et al., 1997). The researcher uses data that are already gathered by some other researcher. More time is spent in analysing data and time to gather data is saved (Denzin& Lincoln, 2008). Reliability and validity of secondary data are already assessed (Blaxter, et al., 2010).The secondary research initiated with a hunt of books and articles that explained fully the tourism in general, Destination attraction, Tourism Satisfaction, Tourism products, Government Policy, the motivation factors of Mainland Chinese for Hong Kong. Hereafter, the selected books and articles from renowned authors and publicators were thoroughly studied and review was made. Moreover those articles and books that made a critical analysis of the main topic were sought. For an in-depth study, the bibliographies of the texts that were available firsthand were fully screened and more of relevant knowledge and literature was obtained. When enough of resource material was gathered, discussions and analysis was made with focus on the Mainland Chinese motivations for Hong Kong.
3.3 Construction of the Research Design
In this dissertation, the only source of information is secondary data. Different journals, books and articles are consulted to support researcher’s view about main topic. This method is selected because there is already many studies that discuss motivational factors for tourists and authors of those studies have provided their personal opinion related to topic. Usually, journals and articles are considered most appropriate source for up-to-date information (Blaxter, et al., 2010) because they are published after a very short period of time and on regular basis. Indeed, books also provide consistent and reliable information but journals provide more updated information (Bell, 2010). For this dissertation, to avoid biasness relevance and usefulness of each journal, article and book was assessed thoroughly by researcher. Those books and journals were selected that presents both negative and positive views about main topic.
All selected articles from renowned journals have distinctive aims and objectives. Their aims and objectives related to motivational factors for tourists were achieved, effectively. The views of few authors about motivational factors for tourists are touched in this study. There were few articles in which authors have used their personal opinion in order to justify research aims and objectives. To be neutral in this study, such articles are studied and analyzed rationally. Books provide detailed information about certain phenomenon. For theories and models, books are considered the most viable source (Blaxter, et al., 2010).According to CQ University Australia, a comparison was made among the authenticity of sources of information such as books, articles, journals and websites. Books are very authentic sources of information which take the lead amongst all other resources. Books contain very comprehensive knowledge, historical data, reviews of expert’s on models and conceptions. This gives a solid background knowledge and in-depth detail on the topic of research. On the other hand, articles and journals are fine sources to gather information regarding topics because they are approved by experts and academics. They go through a rigorous process of checking and re-checking from all possible angles before being accepted and published. Scholarly journals justify the researches and discussions being made. As far as this research is concerned, it is highly recommendable to get information that is authentic, reliable and accurate. This research is solely secondary because the data required for the study is the massive literature in the form of books, journals, articles and websites that are already present. The tourism motivations of Mainland Chinese for Hong Kong understudy is best analysed with the help of scholarly information resource available through books, journals and articles. As already discussed that Mainland Chinese constitute 70% of tourists in Hong Kong, therefore they are a major observation for many academia, scholars, marketers and policy makers. Therefore the best way to obtain data for analysis in this study is through books, journals, articles and internet.
So to lay the foundation about tourism and motivational factors, few books are also consulted. Internet is also used as a source to gather secondary data for this study. To ensure validity and reliability of data, only trustworthy and reliable material is taken from internet. Those websites are used as a source of data that publishes articles of well-known authors, only. Only those authors’ articles on websites were added in this study that has a background and expertise in this field. In this study, reports about Hong Kong or mainland Chinese published by third parties or government are also used. Information that has no or poor source and reference is not used in this study.
For this dissertation, journals, articles and books will be used. Only that material will be added in analysis if it is according to above explained criteria. Relevancy and reliability of material will be given utmost importance to be selected as a sample.
The resource of literature in this dissertation consist the scholarly books, journals and publications about the influences of tourist motivations in Hong Kong. Other sources include articles and
websites about tourist attractions, motivational factors, cultural characteristic of Mainland Chinese, relationships among residents’ image, evaluation of the stay and post-purchase behaviour, tourism, Destination attraction, Tourism Satisfaction, Tourism products, Government Policy, Researches in Hong Kong and other research books.
The majority of books are collected from the renowned libraries. Journals were taken from highly known sources of digital libraries through academic access. It was made sure that the journals are of good impact factor. For a good research, it is needed to be kept in consideration that any information that is being quoted should be accountable for its background and logic.
Whether books, scholarly articles, websites or journals, high attention was given to the perceived authenticity of the academic content and source. Books and articles that were from before 1990’s were not included and the further details of inclusion criteria are mentioned in the following paragraphs. Only those websites have been used that gave clear and logical information. Many of the websites contained authentic knowledge and are recommended by professionals of tourism industry.
3.4.1 Inclusion Criteria
Only those articles and books will be considered as a sample of study that is written or translated in English. Only that information will be selected to be analyzed that is related to tourism, motivation of tourists, motivation of Mainland Chinese tourists and tourism at Hong Kong. Tourism is an emerging field; its trends are changing with globalization. So only that literature is included that is published after 1990s. Information published before 1990s would be used only if that provides a theoretical background to this study.
Table 1: Literature Inclusion / Exclusion Matrix
Reason for inclusion
Reason for exclusion
Year of Publishing (Journals/ websites)
In this dissertation, researcher looked for the articles that are published after 1990s on the topic of tourism and motivational factors for tourism. As globalization is affecting tourism industry greatly, so article published before 1990s are not considered to be analysed. However, in few cases where newer articles views were supported by old articles, original reference is given.
Any article that was published before 1990s is not used for this study. There are many websites that provides published reports of time period before 1990. Although, they can be considered as a source of information but to provide up-to-date motivational factors for tourists, only reports published after 1990 are analyzed.
Year of Publishing (Books)
In this dissertation, books are selected on basis of their published date and relevant theories, examples and explanations. Researcher tried to include only those books that were published after 1990 but for theories and models books published before 1990 are also used.
Books that were published before 1990 were given less importance to be added in this study. But where necessary, especially for strong theoretical foundation, books published before 1990 are also used.
Discussion of findings
Researcher analyzed the findings and if both negative and positive aspects were discussed then that information was used.
Those studies in which author used biased or one-sided approach in discussion and findings are disregarded for the study.
The articles used were generally related to tourism and hospitality industry. As there are many business areas that comes under hospitability and tourism industry so examples of hotels, natural attractions, convention centres, travel agencies are used.
There were many other industries and business areas that can be a reason to attract tourists from mainland china. But to be precise in findings, only few sectors related to tourism and hospitality industry are used. Other business areas e.g. manufacturing and service sector examples are ignored.
3.4.2 Maximum Variation Technique
Books, articles, journals can provide authentic and valid information about any topic. In this study books, articles and journals will be continuously collected to ensure maximum variation in data. To study relevant theories, models and ideas these sources will be consulted until possible variation level is achieved in data collection process. To ensure variety in data and avoid biasness in study, already developed logical argument is used in the study.
In this chapter methodology adopted for this dissertation is discussed. In process of identifying suitable data collection process, secondary data collection is selected. To collect secondary data information from journals, books, articles, surveys and previous reports is used. Then the sample inclusion criteria id discussed. Later on the maximum variation technique is discussed.
4. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION
4.1 Tourism in China
As time is passing, China is becoming one of the biggest tourism economies. Chinese show great interest towards moving from one corner of the china to another. Tourism industry plays a major part in overall GDP of China. China has a population over 1.3 billion and its tourism market is expanding with a great speed. Overall, its domestic market of tourism is increasing by 10% each year. Increase in economic development, employment and consumption is because of expansion in the tourism industry in China. Beijing, Shanghai, Xian, Guilin, Lijiang, Hong Kong and Macau are most famous tourist destinations (China National Tourism Administration, 2010).
Figure 7: Growth of Inbound-Outbound and Domestic Tourism in China 1999-2010
Source: China National Tourism Administration (2010)
4.2 Hong Kong as a Tourists' Destination
Hong Kong has the especial geographic position in China. It is a land that is positioned at border of Mainland China. Since 1997, it is known as ‘Special Administrative Area of China’ and now it’s totally free from sovereign of British Colonists.
Hong Kong has a rich culture and it is filled with shopping malls offering cultural experience for all tourists. It invites and welcomes tourists with great enthusiasm from all over the world. It has also become a gateway for South Asian tourists providing a way from west to east.
The Hong Kong region is classified in four sub-regions:
The weather of Hong Kong is satisfactory all the time. It is most pleasant in months of October and November. Hong Kong is a region that has rains, humidity, cold and hot weather. In winter temperature goes to (14o c) and in summer it goes to (28o c). Winter starts in January and ended in March. The good thing about Hong Kong is that rains can be enjoyed all over the year even in summers.
Hong Kong is a quite safe destination. Overall, the rate of pocket-picking is quite low. There are many few robbery incidents that are observed in Hong Kong. But sometimes, it’s good to be vigilant of robbers and pocket-pickers on your own. Mostly tourists are concerned about customs of local people. In Hong Kong, customs are quite appreciating. Littering and spitting is considered illegal in Hong Kong. This keeps the environment neat and clean.
To communicate internationally and domestically is quite easy at Hong Kong. Tourists have to face no problem with respect to communication. Lots of internet cafe and mobile rent services are available at near airport.
Proportion of business travellers is relatively high in Hong Kong. In 2008, there were 19% tourists who visited Hong Kong for business and meeting purposes (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011). In 2008, there were 37% of tourists who visited Hong Kong for enjoying their holidays (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011). As Hong Kong has a diverse segment of tourists in economic downturns it does not have to suffer with decline in tourist expenditure.
According to a study conducted by Mohammad & Puad (2010) tourists’ motivation is dependent on competitive advantage and destination image. With the help of effective tourism policies, a destination can become competitive. The support services for tourism also play a significant role in satisfying tourists. The core attractions of a destination also become a motivation for tourists to visit a destination. With these factors satisfaction level of tourists improves and they create positive word of mouth and recommend other tourists to visit that destination.
4.2.1 Famous Attractions of Hong Kong
The experience of visiting Victoria Peak starts by taking ride of ‘Peak Tram’. Peak Tram helps tourists to reach Peak Galleria and The Peak Tower. The experience of tourists becomes memorable with passable view of Hong Kong from Victoria Peak. The footpath walk to the Victoria Mountain allows tourists to enjoy the view of the whole city. Tourists find this place cooler, pleasant and attractive than any other destination. The experience of shopping and dining at Victoria Peak malls and restaurants is excellent.
Hong Hong Disney Land
The smallest and fifth Disney land of the world can be found in the Hong Kong. It had four distinctive themes i.e. Main Street USA, Fantasy Land, Adventure-land and Tomorrow-land. In the time between 2011 and 2013, it has added three more themes i.e. Toy Story Land, Grizzly Gulch and Mystic Point. This is known as happiest place on the earth of China. The Chinese culture can be seen everywhere in Disneyland design. The incorporation of Chinese culture e.g. omission of number four in floors and feng shui layout attracts more Chinese tourists than international tourists. There are more than 100 attractions in Hong Kong Disney Land.
This is a famous indoor market of Hong that is made with red bricks. It is quite old market that was built in 1906. Even though, it was renovated in 1991, it is one of the popular and exclusive historical buildings of Hong Kong. This market is famous for its variety of shops and stalls. It sells exclusive products e.g. cultural fabrics. Tourists love to shop from this market as it provides experience of double-decker tram to ancient places along with wonderful shopping experience.
This is a unique museum that represents development of Royal Hong Kong police from 1844 to now. It exhibits the artefacts that are related to police force e.g. uniforms, firearms and photographs. There are four galleries namely orientation, triad societies and narcotics, police then and now and thematic exhibition gallery, having idiosyncratic artefacts. Tourists always find the visit to police museum very interesting.
Along with above listed destinations, Hong Kong has many other attractive places that attract tourists from Mainland China.
Table 2: Unique Attractions of Hong Kong
unique architecture, without a central core design, structural engineering of building, asymmetrical-designed pinnacle
Wong Tai Temple
Temple of legend Wong Tai Sin who has wonderful healing power, pharmacy and many fortune tellers, Attractive premises, Good Wish Garden,
Ocean Park and Middle Kingdom
Two themed parks connected with cable car, famous for spectacular aquarium and adventurous rides,
Traditional lifestyle of boat dwellers, unique rides e.g. water taxis, cruisers. Fishing harbour allows Tourists to experience life on water. Delicious Hong Kong cuisine at Jumbo Floating Restaurant
One of largest Island of world. Famous for walking trails and finest beaches, shopping experience, the great temple namely Po Lin Monastery, outdoor Buddha, Historical Tung Chung Fort, lots of golf clubs and yacht clubs
Tian Tan Buddha, centre of attraction for Chinese who believe on Buddhism, three unique halls i.e. Hall of the Universe, Hall of the Benevolent Merit, Hall of Remembrance
Ngong Ping Village
Walking with Buddha, Monkey’s tale theatre, Ngong Ping Teahouse, shopping experience, Tai O fish Village, Ngong Ping Cable Car and view of lantau Island from cable car.
Hong Kong Science Museum
Science and Technology Museum aims to enhance learning of visitors by involvement in science and technology concepts. The most famous exhibit of this museum is tall twin tower energy machine that produces different energies.
Hong Kong Wetland Park
It is world famous conservation, education and tourism facility. Famous for three exhibition galleries, sixty hectare wetland reserve and green tourism facility
4.2.2 Hong Kong as an Urban Destination
Hong Kong is one of the urban destinations. There are more business travellers as compared to other travellers. Hong Kong has become a destination for business men from all over the world. Efficient, formal and punctual business activities exist in Hong Kong. Business entertainment is common at lunch and dinner times. Many business meetings, conferences are arranged at Hong Kong as it has auditoriums, conference halls and hotels arranging business meetings. All general facilities including banks, hospitals are available at Hong Kong. Its airport has been awarded ‘World’s best Airport’ because it has all modern facilities there. Hotels are also located near to that airport and business travellers can easily access them. South of Hong Kong is full of modern buildings while its West is enriched with traditional and cultural attractions. It has lots of modern shopping malls as well. World’s best shopping experiences can be enjoyed there.
4.2.3 Hong Kong as an Unique-exotic-exclusive Destination
There are many places, attractions, events and experiences that make Hong Kong a unique-exotic-exclusive destination. The exclusive traditional Chinese culture experience, local people of O fishing Village and Chinese and western cuisine in restaurants remains memorable for all tourists. The Chinese cultural experience at Hong Kong cannot be found anywhere else in China. Romero (2010) says that Hong Kong is a super dynamic and very lively destination to visit. The visit to bronze Giant Buddha Statue adds pleasure and gratification in experience of tourists. Garcia (2010) adds that the event organized at both sides of Victoria Harbour namely ‘A Symphony of Lights’ is something that can be experienced only in Hong Kong. Cartes (2010) says that visit to Hong Kong is fascinating and fantastic. The tour to Hong Kong is a life time experience full of pleasures, experiences, delights, fun and entertainment.
4.2.4 Hong Kong as an Alpine Destination
According to (Discover Hong Kong, 2013) at Hong Kong, one can experience a beautiful rural world. Hiking experience at Hong Kong is full of adventure. There are many destinations for example deserted beach, volcanic landscapes, feng shui woods, Farmland and Wetland of Nam Sang Wai, Tung Chung to Tai O, Dragon’s back, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island and Peng Chau and remote temples that make hiking wonderful. The wonderful dragon’s back is an award-wining hiking track. The lovely peak circle walk enhances the hiking experience of visitors. The trip to Fu Lam Reservoir is awesome. The cycling experience of Sha Tin to Tai Po and Tai Po to Tai Mei Tuk is also an exciting activity for tourists.
A study was conducted on Chinese tourists and that study revealed that one of the main motives to plan a tour to a certain destination is natural attraction, Hua & Yoo (2011). In another study (Kim et al., 2005) found the same thing and states that beautiful sceneries at a destination motivates Mainland Chinese to visit that destination.
4.3 Tourism Products
Hong Kong offers products and services that are desired by tourists and considers health, safety and security concerns as well. Travelling to Hong Kong is free from health risks. The quality of food and water is satisfactory and it contains no such elements that are harmful for health. All the health facilities at Hong Kong can be said ‘first class’. In case of emergency, high quality medical care is also available 24/7. Tourists’ health is safe and secure at Hong Kong.
According to Hong Kong Government (2012) Hong Kong has 217 hotels and 68753 rooms. There has been observed 5.9% increases in number of rooms in 2013 when compared to total rooms in 2012.
Hong Kong is a destination that offers excellent quality, price, promotion, and branding and support services of tourism. This is what that attracts mainland Chinese to Hong Kong.
This attracts tourists not only from other countries but from regional lands as well.
Hong Kong Dine and Wine Festival has been a centre of attraction for many tourists. It offers variety of wines and dines with exclusive promotional activities. Variety of districts participates in this festival and brings unique food for festival.
4.3.1 Price at Hong Kong
According to Edwards' (1990) opinion, shopping has become a major reason to travel and Hong Kong has the best facilities for shopping. When Hong Kong is compared with its competitors, the relative prices at Hong Kong are showing downward slope since 2000. The tourism at Hong Kong is price sensitive. Any change in prices of tourism products and services can change the demand level by Mainland Chinese. As said by Anderson(1996), price sensitivity and competition are positively related. Mainland Chinese are very price-sensitive customers and they have many options to choose a destination for tourism. Mainland Chinese select the destination that offers products at lowest prices. Hong Kong is successful in attracting Mainland Chinese by offering tourism at cheaper rates. By maintaining the lowest pricing strategies, Hong Kong is successful in attaining 57.1% of tourists from Mainland China, in 2008 (Hong Kong Tourism Board).
Hong Kong is price competitive only to a certain extent. It does not offer luxurious tourism. While comparing price competitiveness, Hong Kong is ranked 71st destination out of 135 competitive destinations of the world (Blanke & Cheise, 2011).
Hong Kong tourism industries really need to make appropriate pricing strategies to retain the current market share. Its customers are heavily price sensitive. Currently, it is offering tourism at lower prices but it will increase prices it might lose its customer based. Hong Kong government has to play an important role in maintaining a stable inflation rate at Hong Kong. Otherwise, inflation rate can also influence the number of tourists from Mainland China (Li et al., 2013).
4.3.2 Comparison of tourism products offered at Mainland China and Hong Kong
It is argued by many Hong Kong resident that most of the Mainland Chinese visits Hong Kong not for tourism. They visit Hong Kong because they can purchase products at lower prices than Mainland China. So they purchase from Hong Kong and resell in Mainland China (Global Voices, 2012). This shows that product prices at Mainland China are high as compared to Hong Kong.
4.4 Government Policy at Hong Kong
Government of Hong Kong is taking many initiatives to promote tourism and hospitality industry of Hong Kong. Government of Hong Kong is playing its role, effectively. It is quite successful in minimizing conflicts of interest of all stakeholders. It is giving paramount importance to healthy tourism activities, thus earning revenue.
4.4.1 Hotel Accommodation Tax at Hong Kong
Since 2008, government of Hong Kong has diminished the hotel accommodation tax to promote hotel industry. This has resulted in increased number of visitors (Hong Kong Government, 2012).
4.4.2 Government Investment for Tourism
Government of Hong Kong has a special fund that is dedicated to support Hong Kong as a destination of business tourism. To raise and strengthen its meetings, incentive travels; conventions and exhibitions profile government is investing heavy funds. This activity is increasing number of business visitors at Hong Kong. In first half of 2013, 720000 visitors came to Hong Kong to attend meetings, conventions and exhibitions (Hong Kong Government, 2012).
Recently, in 2012, government completed the redevelopment plan and established the ocean park. This is a marine-theme park and it contains more than eighty wonderful attractions. This park has been recognized as the best park in the world. In future, government of Hong Kong is planning to promote tourism by investing in Ocean Hotel and Themed zone. Government is putting all efforts to make Hong Kong a regional cruise hub. It developed the first Kai Tak cruise terminal in 2013 and second is under construction. These terminals aim to provide a path to largest ships.
Government of Hong Kong has invested in enhancement projects to enhance tourism activities at Hong Kong. Few completed enhancement projects are:
Hong Kong government is also participating in joint ventures with private investors to improve tourism activities.
With the efforts of government of Hong Kong, it has become the first duty-free port for wines. It is globally known as a famous city for gourmets and connoisseurs (Hong Kong Government, 2012).
4.4.3 Tourism Commission
This is a separate entity that works in coordination with government to develop policies for development of tourism at Hong Kong. This aims to promote Hong Kong as the premier international destination for business and leisure tourism. Government of Hong Kong is helping Tourism Commission in every possible way.
Tourism commission launched a show at Victoria Harbour with brand name of “A symphony of lights”. This has magnified the charm of Victoria Harbour for all tourists. This wonderful nightly shows has been awarded “Largest Permanent Light and Sound Show” by Guinness World Records.
4.4.4 Sustainable Tourism at Hong Kong
Hong Kong’s government has shifted its focus to sustainable tourism development programs. It has stated many developmental projects that make tourism industry of Hong Kong viable and responsive to environmental changes. Hong Kong government is quite successful in maintaining balance between economic resources, environmental resources, community values, economic development and its impact on social values (Hong Kong Government, 2012).
Hong Kong is an ecologically rich and diverse destination. To protect this Hong Kong government is promoting green tourism for nature conservation and sustainable tourism development. For fulfilling its aim of green tourism, government has taken an initiative and started a program namely “Great Outdoors Hong Kong”. Under this program government promotes tourism activities at outdoors that are full of nature, scenery and greenery for example Hong Kong Global Geopark of China. Government offers tour to natural destinations at free of cost.
4.4.5 Cultural and Traditional Assets at Hong Kong
Government is not just focusing on building new tourism facilities while it is taking good care of traditional assets of Hong Kong. Hong Kong tourism board has started an exclusive program namely Kaleidoscope. This involves practice of cultural and traditional activities of Chinese culture for example cake making, architecture walk. Government facilitates tourists with a help guide “Hong Kong Walks”. This guide tells tourists about unique cultural heritage. This board also promotes traditional Chinese festivals and customs. It has started many practices like Hong Kong arts festival, exhibitions and museums to promote culture and attract more tourists (Hong Kong Government, 2012).
4.4.6 Tourism Service Quality
Hong Kong government is playing an important role in maintaining and improving standard of tourism services offered to tourists. There is a policy namely Travel Agents Ordinance that is introduced to regulate travel agents actions. Through this ordinance government keeps a check on travel service providers and convince them to offer quality services to clients. Now it has become compulsory for all tourist guides to get training (for example Continuous Professional Development Programme) and pass an examination before starting to work as a tourist guide. Travel Industry Council helps Hong Kong Tourism Board to maintain a standard code of conduct of tourist guides (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2011).
4.4.7 Hong Kong Government Schemes
Hong Kong Tourism Government has started a Quality Tourism Scheme. In this scheme, government ensure that all tourism services providers for example restaurants, hotels, salons, retailers provide quality services to tourists. Another scheme namely Hong Kong Young Ambassadors is working with the help of The Tourism Commission. According to this program, young people are encourages to help tourists and show high level of courtesy. The Individual Visit Scheme is introduced to attract individual tourists from Mainland China. This scheme has resulted in increase of individual visitors from Mainland China to Hong Kong.
4.5 Tourist' Satisfaction
Hong Kong marketers are quite successful in satisfying tourists coming from all over the world. As suggested by Anderson (1994), increasing satisfaction of customers reduces the price elasticity of demand so when Hong Kong has more satisfied tourists they visit Hong Kong ignoring the changes in prices. With the help of quality assurance programs in tourism and hospitality industry, satisfaction of Hong Kong tourists is increasing (Li et al., 2013). With quality services tourists are not only satisfied while they are ready to tolerate price increases. The chances of revisiting Hong Kong are increased with satisfied tourists because it become habit of tourists to visit the same place from where they are satisfied (Divisekera, 2003).
It can be said that satisfaction of mainland Chinese is affected by service and product quality offered at Hong Kong. Hong Kong has become popular in mainland Chinese because most of the tourists’ become satisfied when they visit there. Hong Kong has a particular destination image in mind of tourists. That perception of tourists regarding Hong Kong attracts tourists from Mainland China to Hong Kong (Voss et al., 1998). Similarly, the favourable government policy are also satisfying mainland Chinese (Song, et al., 2012).
Hong Kong’s local people behaviour is always welcoming. This attracts mainland Chinese tourists. People of Hong Kong meet everyone with a smile on their face. The welcome and courteous behaviour of local people enhances the satisfaction level (Garcia, 2010).
4.5.1 The Hong Kong Tourist Satisfaction Index
According to this model, satisfaction is analyzed with the gap between tourists’ expectations and perceived performance. When the difference become negative, it means tourists are unsatisfied. In a study conducted by (Song, et al., 2012), differences between expectations and perceived performance of tourists at Hong Kong were observed. According to that study the tourists’ perceived value exceeded their expectations level. The perceived value exceeded with 0.31 for destination attractions, 0.23 for restaurants and 0.22 for hotels and retail shops.
Another study was conducted to find out the satisfaction index of mainland Chinese tourists who visit Hong Kong. Overall, all mainland Chinese tourists are satisfied with Hong Kong tourism. The aggregate index of mainland Chinese tourists’ satisfaction is 74.04 out of 100. The highest satisfaction level is observed for Hong Kong hotel and retail sector (Song et al., 2011).
According to a study, a group of 670 people visited Hong Kong for a week. This group of 670 people experienced sampan ride and other fun rides, shopping at specialty markets and exclusive events. They visited Chinese garden, temples, aquariums and exotic restaurants. Even though, there expectations were high still the tour to Hong Kong proved above their expectations (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2010).
Chinese are becoming more interested towards tourism activities. From past few years, there has been observed an increase in number of tourists to Hong Kong. Hong Kong is one the famous tourists destinations among the world. There are four reasons that attract Mainland Chinese towards Hong Kong i.e. destination attraction, tourism products, tourists’ satisfaction and government policy. Hong Kong is quite attractive as tourists’ destination because it has perfect climate, safety measures, clean environment, easy access to all communication means and all other facilities. The attractions of Victoria harbour, Disney land, western market and police museum are astonishing. It has all those facilities that are demanded by business tourists. From banking, shopping malls, hospitals to conventions, it has everything making Hong Kong a perfect destination for business persons. The attractions of Hong Kong do not only attract business tourists while many tourists come to Hong Kong to enjoy holidays as well. The quality of tourism products and services at Hong Kong is good. The hotels, restaurants, destination management organizations, tourism agencies and other tourism products and services providers are highly committed to provide good quality goods. The prices of high quality goods are always quite reasonable at Hong Kong. This is another reason that attracts Mainland Chinese to Hong Kong. Even though, it has many attractions but the product and price factor is playing major role in attracting tourists to Hong Kong. The government is playing significant role in managing overall destination attraction and product quality. It has implemented many policies and schemes to improve tourism quality. Through tax diminishing policies, heavy investment in tourism industry and sustainable tourism management, it has become successful to make Hong Kong a competitive destination. By keeping a stable level of inflation is another important factor. It can be concluded that its government is managing destination attraction and tourism products quality and prices. If government will stop doing so, Hong Kong’s attraction can be decreased. From this study it can be said that tourists’ satisfaction is result of destination attraction, tourism products and services and government policy. If a destination does not possess these things, there are very less chances that tourists will become satisfied with that destination.
In this chapter, data from reports, journals and books is described, analyzed and evaluated. According to findings, Hong Kong is a destination that has many attractions for tourists. These attractions are for both business and leisure travellers. Hong Kong offers quality products at reasonable cost. Its government is playing a vital role by investing in tourism industry and introducing favourable policies for tourists and tourism service providers. As a result of these attractions, quality products, low prices and favourable policies, tourists become satisfied and they recommend this destination to others and re-visit Hong Kong.
Tourism activities gained a boom after world war era. Since post world war era till now, there have been observed many changes in tourists’ behaviour. Changing consumer behaviour is considered a determinant of changing tourists’ behaviour. Tourists visit one destination because of entertainment, study, leisure, social, business etc. There are many factors that motivate mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. As identified in this dissertation destination attraction, tourism products and service, tourists’ satisfaction and government policy are the main factors that motivates mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong.
A destination can become attractive because of its natural sceneries, cultural attractions, climate, and smooth political and economic environment. Hong Kong, as an urban, alpine and unique-exotic-exclusive destination, has many attractions. These attractions are playing an important role in attracting tourist from not only Hong Kong but from all over the world. The mainland Chinese are inclined to visit Hong Kong because Hong Kong offers the very strong Chinese culture. The affiliation of Chinese with their religious temples and cultural heritage attracts them to visit Hong Kong. Hong Kong, as an urban destination, is more attractive for business tourists. From natural attractions and cultural heritage to exclusive shopping destinations, Hong Kong is the complete package for tourists.
The tourism products and services offered at Hong Kong are of extreme good quality and standard. The prices of products offered are quite reasonable. Hong Kong does not fall under destinations that can be classified as ‘luxurious’ destinations but it is a ‘necessity good’ destination. The findings of this dissertation say that product quality and low price has a major influence in motivating mainland Chinese to tour Hong Kong.
Tourists’ satisfaction is another motive for visiting specific destination. When tourists’ become satisfied from one destination, their loyalty to that destination increases and they visit that again. The satisfaction does affect motivation of mainland Chinese to visit Hong Kong. But satisfaction is the result of high quality tourism products and services, overall destination attraction and favourable tourism policies. When a destination possesses these three things tourists become satisfied. Their satisfaction level motivates them to visit the destination again and recommend the destination to others. Thus we can conclude that satisfaction affects motivation in an indirect way. The relationship between satisfaction and motivation of tourists is mediated by tourism products, destination attraction and government policy.
Government policy plays an important role in attracting tourists. Destinations with friendly government policy attract more tourists. Successful tourism planning, Integration of tourism and other development policies, Flexibility in tourism policy are required for sustainable tourism development in any destination. The government of Hong Kong is playing an important role in making Hong Kong a competitive destination. The favourable and flexible tourism policies, schemes, development plans, quality assurance programs, constructions of new man-made attractions and protection of natural attractions through sustainable tourism management by tourism commission and Hong Kong tourism board have made Hong Kong a wonderful destination to visit.
There are many limitations of this dissertation. This dissertation is completely based on secondary data. In this dissertation, the data is collected only through journals, books and reports. The tourists from Mainland China are not approached. This dissertation is a qualitative study and it is another limitation of this dissertation. This dissertation considers only four motivational factors for tourists and other factors are ignored.
5.2 Directions for Future Research
This dissertation is based on secondary data and research with same variables needs to be conducted by using primary data. The perception of mainland Chinese can better present their motivation to visit Hong Kong. The research need to be conducted by using perception of Mainland Chinese tourists regarding destination attraction, tourism products and government policy. For future research, it is suggested to conduct a quantitative study by using primary research method. It is suggested to conduct a research on same variables by comparing Hong Kong with its competitors e.g. Singapore, Macau or any other.
Alcaniz, E. B., 2005. Relationships among residents’ image, evaluation of the stay and post-purchase behaviour. Journal of Vacation Marketing, Volume 4, pp. 291-302.
Anderson, E. & Fornell, C., 1994. A customer satisfaction research prospectus. In: R. Rust & R. Oliver, eds. Service Quality: New Directions in Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, pp. 241-68.
Anderson, E., 1996. Customer Satisfaction and Price Tolerance. Marketing Letters, 7(3): 265- 274.
Anderson, J. 2006. Qualitative and Quantitative research. CEO.
Awaritefe, O., 2004. Destination image differences between prospective and actual tourists in Nigeria. Journal of Vacation Marketing, Volume 10, pp. 264-281.
Ayad, T. H. & Shujun, Y., 2012. Travel Motivations of Chinese Tourists to Egypt, Bangkok: International Conference on Trade, Tourism and Management.
Ayad, T.H., & Shujun, Y., 2012. Chinese tourism in Hong Kong. Journal of Vacation Marketing, pp. 333-400
Baker, D. & Crompton, J., 2000. Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), pp. 785-804.
Baloglu, S. & Brinberg, D., 1997. Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), pp. 11-15.
Beerli, A. & Martin, J., 2004. Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations; a quantitative analysis- a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(2), pp. 623-636.
Bell, J., 2010. Doing Your Research Project: A guide for the First-time Researchers in Education, Health and Social Sciences, 4th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M., 2010. How to Research. 4th edition, Maidenhead: Open University Press
Blanke, J., & Chiesa, T. (Eds.). 2011. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011: Beyond the Downturn. World Economic Forum, Geneva: Switzerland 2011
Brunt, P., 1997. Market research in travel and tourism. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Bolton, R. & Drew, J., 1991. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of service changes on cutomer attitudes. Journal of Marketing, Volume 55, pp. 1-10.
Bolshakova, O., 2007. Environmental Management Systems and Certification Programs- The Instruments of Sustainable Tourism. [Online]. Available at: http://digilib.lib.unipi.gr/dspace/bitstream/unipi/1750/1/Bolshakova.pdf. [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Budeanu, A., 2007. Sustainable tourist behaviour – a discussion of opportunities for change. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(2), pp. 499-508.
Buhalis, D., 1995. The impact of information telecommunication technologies on tourism channels:implications for the small and medium sized tourism enterprises. Guildford: University of Surrey.
Buhalis, D. & Cooper, C., 1998. Competition or co-operation: The needs of Small and Medium sized Tourism Enterprises at a destination level,. In: Embracing and managing change in Tourism. London: Routledge.
Buhalis, D. & Fletcher, J., 1995. Environmental impacts on tourism destinations: An economic analysis. In: Sustainable Tourism Development. England: Avebury, pp. 3-24.
Cartes, A., 2010. Exotic Hong Kong Cultural Experience. [online]. Available at: http://partnernet.hktb.com/mice/eng/images/meeting_incentives/cs_catalana.pdf. [Accessed on: 22 December, 2013]
Cai, L. A., Lehto, X. Y., & O’Leary, J. T. 2001. Profiling the U.S.-bound Chinese travelers by purpose of trip, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 7(4), pp. 3–16
Cai, L. A., Li, M., & Knutson, B. J. 2007, Research on China outbound market: A meta-review, Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 16(1), pp. 5–20.
Cai, L. A., O’Leary, J. T., & Boger, C. 2000, Chinese travelers to the United States—An emerging market, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 6(2), pp. 131–144.
Cathy H.C., 2003, Mainland Chinese travellers' motivations and barriers of visiting Hong Kong, Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, 2(1), pp. 112-133.
Chafe, Z., 2005. Consumer Demand and Operator Support for Socially. [Online]
Available at: http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/branding/documents/consumer_demand.pdf [Accessed 17 September 2013].
Chen, C. 1998, Rising Chinese overseas travel market and potential for the United States, Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research, 3, pp. 468–478.
Chen, C. & Chen, F., 2010. Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, Volume 31, pp. 29-35.
Chi, G., 2005. A Study of Developing Destination Loyalty Model, Doctoral Thesis
Chi, C. G., 2012. An Examination of Destination Loyalty: Differences between First-Time and Repeat Visitors. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Volume 36, pp. 3-24.
China National Tourism Administration, 2010. Tourism Gorwth. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cnta.gov.cn/html/2009-5/2009-5-13-10-53-54953.html
[Accessed 20 September 2013]
Chon, K. S., 1991. Tourism destination image modification process: marketing implications. Tourism Management, 12(1), pp. 68-72.
Claire, C., 2003.The influence of national culture on the structure of tourism organisations; Examples from France and Switzerland
Clark, M., Riley, M., & Wilkie, E., 1997. Researching and Writing Dissertations in Hospitality and Tourism Management. UK: Thomson learning
Clark, M., Riley, M., Wilkie, E., & Wood, R., 2002. Researching and writing
Dissertations in hospitality and tourism. London: International Thomson Business Press
Cohen, E., 1972. Toward sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 39(1), pp. 164-82.
Crompton, J., 1979. Motivations of pleasure vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), pp. 408-424
Cronin, J. & Taylor, S., 1992. Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. Journal of Marketing, Volume 56, pp. 55-68.
Crouch, G. I. & Shaw, R., 1992. International tourism demand: A meta-analytical integration of research findings. In: P. Johnson & B. Thomas, eds. Choice and demand in tourism.. London: Mansell.
Crouch, G. I., & Ritchie, J. R. B., 1999. Tourism, Competitiveness, and Societal Prosperity.
Journal of Business Research, Volume 44, pp.137-152
Dann, G., 1977. Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, (4), pp. 184-194.
Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. 2008. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. 3rd Edition, London: Sage Publications
Discover Hong Kong, 2013. Hong Kong Asia’s World City. [online]. Available at: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/see-do/great-outdoors/hikes/index.jsp. [Accessed on: 20 December, 2013]
Divisekera, S., 2003. A Model of Demand for International Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1): 31-49.
Dumbr?veanu, D., n.d. Principles and Practice of Sustainable Tourism Planning. [online]. Available at: http://humangeographies.org.ro/articles/11/8DUMBRAVEANU.pdf [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Dwyer, L., & Kim, C. 2003. Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators. Current Issues in Tourism, Volume 5, pp. 369-414
Edwards, A., 1990. Far East and Pacific Travel in the 1990s: Forecasts and Analysis of Potential Constraints, London: Economist Intelligence Unit.
Enright, M. J., & Newton, J., 2004. Tourism Destination Competitiveness: a Quantitative Approach. Tourism Management. Volume 6, pp. 777-788.
Finn, M., Elliott-White, M., & Walton, M., 2000. Tourism & leisure research: Methods, data collection, analysis and interpretation. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited,
Fodness, D., 1994. Measuring Tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 3(21), pp. 555-581.
Fornell, C. et al., 1996. The American Customer Satisfaction Index: nature, purpose and ?ndings. Journal of Marketing, Volume 60, pp. 7-18.
Fennell, 1999. What is sustainable tourism? The London School of Economics and political Science. Available at: http://www.fathom.com/course/21701788/sessional.html. [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Garcia, A., 2010. Exotic Hong Kong Cultural Experience. [Online]. Available at: www.ireviajes.es/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf.../Catalana_14_10.pdf. [Accessed on: 22 December, 2013]
Gayle, D. & Goodrich, J., 1993. Tourism marketing and management in the Caribbean. s.l.:Routledge.
Gomezelj, D. & Mihalic? T., 2008. Destination competitiveness – applying different models, the case of Slovenia. Tourism Management, Volume 29, pp. 294-307.
Gnoth, J. 1997. Tourism motivation and expectation formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), pp. 283–304
Global Voices,, 2012. Hong Kong Rethinks its Relationship with Mainland China. [online]. Available at: http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/01/24/hong-kong-rethinks-its-relationship-with-mainland-china/. [Accessed: 22 December, 2013]
Greenfield, T., 1996. Research Method: Guidance For Postgraduates. London: Arnold
Hanqin, Z. Q., & Lam., 1999. An analysis of mainland Chinese visitor’ motivations to visit Hang Kong. Tourism Management, 20(5), pp. 587 – 594.
Hsu, C., Cai, L. A., & Li, M. 2010. Expectation, motivation, and attitude: A tourist behavioural model. Journal of Travel Research, 49(3), pp. 282–296.
Hsu, C., & Lam, T., 2003. Mainland Chinese travelers’ motivations and barriers of visiting
Hong Kong. Journal of Academy of Business and Economics, 2(1), pp. 60–67
Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB). 2011. Visitor Arrival Statistics. [Online]. Available at: http://partnernet.hktb.com/pnweb/jsp/comm/index.jsp?charset=en. [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Hong Kong Government. 2012. Hong Kong: The facts. Hong Kong: Information Service Department. Available at: http://www.gov.hk. [Accessed on: 20 December, 2013]
Howei, F., 2003. Managing the tourists’ destination. London: Thomson.
Huang, S., & Hsu, C. H. C., 2005. Mainland Chinese residents’ perceptions and motivations of visiting Hong Kong: Evidence from focus group interviews. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), pp. 191–205.
Huang, H., Chiu, C. & C. Kuo, 2006. Exploring Customer Satisfaction, Trust and Destination Loyalty in Tourism. The Journal of American Academy of Business, 1(10), pp. 156-159.
Hua, Y. & Yoo, J., 2011. Travel Motivations of Mainland Chinese Travelers to the United States. Journal of China Tourism Research, pp. 355-376.
Hughes, G., 1995. Authenticity in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, XXII(4), pp. 781-803.
Hui, T., Wan, D. & Ho, A., 2007. Tourists’ satisfaction, recommendation and revisiting Singapore. Tourism Management, Volume 28, pp. 965-975.
Inskeep, E., 2009. National and Regional Tourism Planning, California: WTO.
Jamieson, W., 2001. Interpretation and Tourism. Thailand: Saengsawang World Press
Jang, S., Yu, L. & Pearson, T., 2003. Chinese Travelers to the United States: A comparison of business travel and visiting friends and relatives. Tourism Geographies, pp. 87-108.
Jang, Yu, & Pearson, 2003, Motivation of Chinese tourists to Hong Kong, Journal of Vacation Marketing, pp. 56-88
Jenner, P. & Smith, C., 1993. Tourism in the Mediterranean. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.
Johnston, P. & Smith, C., 1994. The commodification of mountaineering. Annals of Tourism Research, XXI(3), pp. 459-478.
Johns, N., & Lee-Ross, D., 1998. Research Methods in Service Industry Management. London: Cassell
Kamil, A. A., 2010. Travelers' preception of Malaysia as their next holiday destination. ozean Journal of Social Sciences , 2(3), pp. 1943-2577
Kaushik, N., Kaushik, J., Sharma, P. & Rani, S., 2009. Factors Influencing choice of Tourist Destination. The IUP Journal of Brand Mgt, VII(1)
Khan, S., 1994. Tourism and a European strategy for the alpine environment. In: G. Lowman, ed. Ecotourism: a sustainable option?. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 103-110
Kim, C., 1999. Cross-cultural perspectives on motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(1), pp. 201–204
Kim, C., 2000. A Model Development for Measuring Global Competitiveness of the Tourism Industry in the Asia-Pacific Region. Seoul, Korea: Korea Institute for International Economic Policy
Kim, S. S., & Prideaux, B. 2005. Marketing implications arising from a comparative study of International pleasure tourist motivations and other travel-related characteristics of visitors to Korea. Tourism Management, 26(3), 347–357
Kumar, R., 1999. Research Methodology, A Step-By-Step Guide For Beginners. London: SAGE : Publications Ltd
Kumar, R. 2011. Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners (3rd ed.). New Delhi: SAGE Publication India Pvt Ltd
Klenosky, D. 2002. The “pull” of tourism destinations: A means–end investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 40(4), pp. 385–395
Klanarongran, P., 2001. Community Participation in the Royal Development Projects. Thailand: Saengsawang World Press
Kozak, M. 2002. Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3), pp. 221–232
Kozak, M., & Baloglu, S., 2011. Managing and Marketing Tourist Destinations: Strategies to gain a competitive edge. New York: Routledge
Kunkel, L.M., 2008. International Tourism Policy and the Role of Governments in Tourism in the context of sustainability. Germany: GRIN Verlag
Law, C., 1993. Urban Tourism: Attracting visitors to large cities. London: Mansell
Law, C., 1996. Tourism in major cities. London: Thomson Business Press
Lee, C., 2013, An analysis of Mainland Chinese visitors’ motivations to visit Hong Kong, Department of Hotel and Tourism management, 20(5), pp. 587–594
Lee, C. K., Yoon, Y. S. & Lee, S. K., 2007. Investigating the relationships among perceived value, satisfaction, and recommendations: The case of the Korean DMZ.. Tourist management, 28(2), pp. 204-214
Lee, P., 2013. Taipei sees shop and hotel boom thanks to mainland Chinese tourists. [Online]
Available at: http://www.scmp.com/property/hong-kong-china/article/1299825/taipei-sees-shop-and-hotel-boom-thanks-mainland-chinese
[Accessed 21 September 2013].
Leiper, N., 1997. Tourism Management,. Australia: RMIT Press
Li, G., Song, H., Cao, Z., & Wu, D.C., 2013. How competitive is Hong Kong against its competitors? An econometric study. Tourism Management, 36 (1), pp. 247-256. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.019
Lockhart, D. & Drakakis-Smith, D., 1997. Island Tourism: Trends and Prospects. London: Pinter
Marin, J. A., 2006. Satisfaction and Dissatidfaction with destination attributes. Palma, Second International Conference of Tourism Economics
Martens, S. & Spaargaren, G., 2005. The politics of sustainable consumption: the case of the Netherlands.. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy,, pp. 29-42
Maxham, J. & Netemeyer, R., 2002. Modelling customer perceptions of complaint handling over time: the effects of perceived justice on satisfaction and intent’. Journal of Retailing, Volume 78, pp. 239-252
Middleton, V. & Hawkins, R., 2002. Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Mohammad, B., M, A.-H. & Puad, M., 2010. An Analysis of Push and Pull Travel Motivations of Foreign Tourists to Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), pp. 41-50
Mok, C., & DeFranco, A. L. 1999. Chinese cultural values: Their implications for travel and tourism marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(2), pp. 99–114
Morgan, N. & Pritchard, A., 1998. Tourism Promotion and Power: Creating Images, Creating Identities. Willey: Chichester
Ndivo, R.M. & Mayaka. M. 2012. Application of destination choice model: Factors influencing domestic tourists’ destination choice among residents of Nairobi, Kenya. Tourism Management, pp.1-5
OECD, 2002. Household Tourism Travel: Trends, Environmental. [Online]
Available at: http://www.oecd.org/redirect/longAbstract/0,3425,en_2649_34289_2087243_119832_1_1_1,00
[Accessed 17 September 2013]
Oliver, R., 1997. Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill
Page, S. & Getz, D., 1994. Urban Tourism. London: Routledge
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. & Berry, L., 1994. ‘Reassessment of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: implications for further research. Journal of Marketing, Volume 58, pp. 111-124
Pearce, D., 1997. Competitive destination analysis in Southeast Asia. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), pp. 16-24
Pearce, P. L., 2005. Tourist behavior: Themes and conceptual schemes. Buffalo, NY: Channel View Publications
Philips, M. & House, C., 2009. An evaluation of priorities for beach tourism: case studies from South Whales. Tourism Management, 30(2), pp. 176-183
Pigram, J., 1996. Best practice environmental management and the tourism industry. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(3), pp. 261-271
Poon, A., 1994. Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies , s.l.: Cab International
Porter, M. E., 1990.The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press
Prideaux, B., Agrusa, J., Donlon, J. & Curran, C., 2004. Exotic or Erotic-Contrasting Images for Defining Destination. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9(1), pp. 5-6
Romero, A., 2010. Exotic Hong Kong Cultural Experience. [online]. Available at: www.ireviajes.es/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf.../Catalana_14_10.pdf. [Accessed on: 22 December, 2013]
Ryan, C., 1991. Tourism and marketing-A symbiotic relationship. Tourism Management, 12(2), pp. 101-111
Ritchie, J. R. B., & Crouch, G. I. 2000. The Competitive Destination: A Sustainability Perspective. Tourism Management, Volume 1, pp. 1-7
Sautter, E. & Leisen, B., 1999. Managing stakeholders: A tourism planning model. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), pp. 312-328
Scherrieb, H., 1998. Freizeit- und Erlebnisparks in Deutschland.. Würzburg: VDFU
Seaton, A., 1997. Destination marketing. In: A. Seaton & M. Bennett, eds. Marketing Tourism Products: Concept, Issues, Cases. London: Thomson Business Press, pp. 350-376
Silver, I., 1993. Marketing authenticity in Third World countries. Annals of Tourism Research, XX(2), pp. 302-318
Sirakaya, E., McLellan, R. & Uysal, M., 1996. Modeling vacation destination decisions: A behavioral approach.. Journal of Travel& Tourism Marketing, Volume 5, pp. 57-75
Sirgy, M., 1981. Self-Concept Theory for Consumer Behavior. Working Paper, p. 1113
Sirgy, M. & Grewal, T., 1997. Assesing the predictive validity of the two methods of measuring self-image congurence. Journal of the academy of marketing science, III(25), pp. 229-241
Sofield, T., 1991. Sustainable ethnic tourism in the South Pacific: some principles. Journal of tourism studies, II(1), pp. 56-72
Song, H., R. Veen, G. L. & Chen, J., 2011. THE HONG KONG TOURIST SATISFACTION INDEX. Annals of Tourism Research
Song, H., Veen, R.V.D., Li, G., & Chen, J.L., 2012. The Hong Kong Tourist Satisfaction Index. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), pp. 459-479
Song, H., Veen, R.V.D., Li, G., & Chen, J.L., 2011. Assessing Mainland Chinese Tourists’ Satisfaction with Hong Kong using Tourist Satisfaction Index. International Journal of Tourism Research. 13. 82-96
Swarbrooke, J. & Horner, S., 1999. Consumer Behavior in Tourism. Great Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann
Swarbrooke, J. & Horner, S., 2001. Consumer Behaviour in Tourism.. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Taylor, S. & Baker, T., 1994. An assessment of the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in the formation of consumer’s purchase intentions. Jounral of Retailing, 70(2), pp. 163-178
Upe. K., 2013, Chinese travelers to the United States, Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research, 3, 468–478
Upe, R., 2013. Chinese tourists' favourite destinations revealed. [Online]
Available at: http://www.theage.com.au/travel/chinese-tourists-favourite-destinations-revealed-20130909-2tf3f.html
[Accessed 21 September 2013]
UNEP, 2007. Sustainable Consumption & Production Branch. [Online]. Available at: http://www.uneptie.org/scp/. [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Veal, A.J., 2002. Leisure and Tourism Policy and Planning. New York: CABI
Voss, G. B., Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. 1998. The Roles of Price, Performance, And Expectations In Determining Satisfaction In Service Exchanges. Journal of Marketing. 62(4), pp. 46-61
Weiermain, K., 1993. Innovation and innovatory behaviour in the tourist industry: growth strategies for accommodation establishments in alpine regions,. Revue de Tourisme, 48(1), pp. 14-22
Weiermair, K., 1998. The effect on environmental context and management on the performance characteristics of cultural events. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 5(1), pp. 85-91
World Tourism Organization UNWTO, 2013. Tourism. [online]. Available at: www2.unwto.org. [Accessed on: 22 December 2013]
Wray, M. et al., 2010. Sustainable Regional Tourism Development, Australia : Sustainable Tourism
Xia, W. Z. J., Chaolin, G. & Feng, Z., 2009. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Tourist Satisfaction: A Structural Modeling Approach. TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 14(3), pp. 397-406
Yousefi, M. & Marzuki, A., 2012. Travel motivations and the influential factors: the case of Penang, Malaysia. An International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Research, 23(2), pp. 169-176
Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M., 2005. An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), pp. 45-56
Yun, H., & Joanne, Y. 2011, Travel Motivations of Mainland Chinese Travelers to the United States. Journal of China Tourism Research, 222-333
Zhang, H. Q., & Lam, T. 1999. An analysis of Mainland Chinese visitors’ motivations to visit Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 20(5), pp. 587–594
Zeithaml, V., 1988. Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, Volume 52, pp. 2-22
Zou, M., 2012. Mainland Chinese tourists power global travel boom. [Online]
Available at: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1104850/mainland-chinese-tourists-power-global-travel-boom
[Accessed 25 September 2013]
List of Figures
Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.