Title: Destination Branding Executive Summary

This study revolves around the destination branding of a particular area, from the anthropological view. To carry out this research, a blend of qualitative and quantitative strategies are used to collect data using the questionnaire from 100 tourists and interviews from 10 property owners, travel guides and governmental officials of those areas. For this study London, Scotland and Whales have been chosen.

This study has analyzed that does the destination branding has a positive impact on the tourists or not. When a place is branded, will it make it to evoke set of tourist or not. Based on this a questionnaire has been developed, and data collected.

The data have been presented using Microsoft Excel, pie diagram, histogram, bar chars, etc.

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

The first chapter is an introduction to entire research study. It is a roadmap of all the techniques, sources, and methods used to collect, understand and interpret the data. The important aspects of the research study, which develops base e-g aims, objectives, problem statements, hypothesis etc. are discussed in this chapter.

1.2 Background of Study

Cai, et, al., (2004) says that it is widely acknowledged that tourism destinations must be included in the consumers’ evoked set, from which an ultimate decision is made. But when it comes to consumers they are offered a number of choices for a final decision to be made. All the most prominent features are highlighted such as accommodation, quality of food, scenic beauty, friendly and safe surroundings, etc. Tasci & Kozak (2006) says this is the reason a destination in order to make its position in evoke the set of a consumer it has to have all these important features or else it will be lost in the crowded market. Due to this factor the concept of destination branding has to be done very critically and with much care, as the process of motivating consumers is not an easy task. Although the concept of explaining the destination and its components in the most intricate manner has not been mentioned in the text as yet, but Pike (2009) says still it is very important and the marketers should understand the importance of this factor.

The process of destination branding all comes down to one point, creating a positive image of the destination, which is to be pitched to consumers. The most favourable aspects are selected and highlighted so the consumers are aware of their qualities. The image that is created in front of consumers in order to aid the decision making process. According to Cai, (2002, pp. 723) “The insights which the tourists have in their memory in association with a particular place”.

 

This definition makes the reader to wonder about a couple of question, first and foremost of them is what these associations are with the particular place? It would not be wrong to say that in the past a handful amount of studies have been carried out to investigate how the branding of a particular destination is carried out.  Cai, (2002) highlights that what factors are taken into accounts while the image building of that place .But due to not enough information on this topic, a clarity lacks, that what is destination branding and image building. The purpose of this study is to create an understanding of the concept of destination branding, and that to form an anthropological aspect.

This study examines the importance the uniqueness created for the image of a destination, in comparison to the qualities and characteristics it possesses. In today’s time, the competition is cut throat, one needs to create their own unique selling proposition in order to survive. Differential marketing and branding is the key for survival in the global competition, because for a destination to become popular, there are certain aspects which needs to be worked upon. Therefore, a lot of hard work and effort has to be put in to create a mark in this crowded and jam packed market. Various authors offer a similar concept (Mihalic,2000; Mykletun, Crotts, & Mykletun, 2001; Uysal et al.,2000) when a destination is branded upon strong characteristics, its positioning would be much stronger and easily retainable in the minds of consumers.

1.3 Scope of Research

The objective of destination branding is to position the place in a unique manner so that its visibility is enhanced for onlooker tourists at a global level. Planning and actions to create and maintain this uniqueness has become must drill for every organisation and even countries to brand their most favourite and famous tourist spots to the world. The marketers have overstressed the factor of uniqueness to a level where another important factor for a favourable branding is recognition. This approach must also be kept in mind, before draining all the resources and efforts towards creating the concept of uniqueness.

This study attempts to take into account not only the branding aspect of the topic, but the branding of destination through an anthropological perspective.

1.4 Problem Statement

The problem statement for the current research project is:

How a destination brand can be developed, and the effects it has from the anthropological aspect.

This statement is explored and investigated throughout the research study.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses are defined for the study.

  • H1: Destination branding has a positive effect on tourists and tourism
  • H2: Destination branding has a negative effect on tourists and tourism
  • Ho: Destination branding does not have any effect on tourists and tourism

1.6 Research Aims

Every research study has a particular aim, around which the entire study is based upon. This aim has to be in harmony with the problem statement and objectives of the study defined. As an integrated approach is the key to a successful research study. For the particular research study the aim is defined as:

To investigate the effects producing the destination brand from anthropological perspective

1.7 Research Objectives

The objectives of the research study are mentioned below:

  • To explore the relationship between tourist and destination
  • To ascertain the reasons why the tourist chose a particular destination
  • To critically evaluate the need and the necessity of developing a destination brand.
  • To compare a destination without brand, with it producing a destination brand
  • To identify which brand model has beneficial effects.

Once these aims and objects of the study are appropriately investigated and studies, a major portion of the project will be covered, as the study revolves around these points.

1.8 Research Questions

The research is carried out keeping the list of particular questions in mind

  • How the concept of tourism and destinations are linked together?
  • How can a destination be transformed into a brand to be sold to the tourist (consumers)?
  • Why tourists are attracted towards a particular destination?
  • How the development of a destination separates it from a non-developed destination in the eyes of a tourist?
  • How can the use of brand model have positive influence on consumers?

1.9 Structure of Dissertation

The following dissertation structure will be followed.

Chapter 1: Introduction

This is the first chapter and explains the research background, the problem statement, scope of study, aims, objectives, questions, etc. This is a roadmap of the how and when the research will be carried out.

Chapter 2: Literature review  

The second chapter is the richest of all in terms of context, as it contains the literature from other studies which have been previously carried out by researchers on the similar concept. Variables are defined in this chapter which is derived by the information gathered by secondary sources, and the aims and objectives defined in first chapter.

Chapter 3: Methodology        

This chapter explains who the research study will be carried out. Which philosophies, strategies and methods will be used to gather the primary and secondary data, which needs to be analysed in later chapters.

Chapter 4: Analysis    

The data that have been collected from the outlines defined in chapter 3 is analysed using the methods explained earlier. The different methods are sued to analyse the collected data, it is either qualitative or quantitative

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations           

All the discussions in chapter two and the analysis in chapter four are merged together and a single consolidated conclusion is drawn. This conclusion has to be in harmony with the aim objectives and research questions explained in the first chapter. Moreover, recommendations for future researchers are also provided.

1.10 Summary

This is the first chapter and explains the research background, the problem statement, scope of the study, aim, objectives, questions, etc. This is a roadmap of the how and when the research will be carried out.

 

 

 

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 The process of destination branding

According to Heath, (2007) the following questions commence the destination branding:

? Where are we?

? Where we would like to be?

? How would to get there?

? In comparison with the competition how do we fare?

Vision is essential for the destination to be reached. Cleverdon, and Fabricius, (2006) explains that the vision should be manifested in the core values of brand at the launch if it is shared by all stakeholders and potential consumers. Ooi, (2010) emphasises on the importance of the actions concerning the monitoring, evaluation and review that can aid in reaching the destination and advancing the notions of identity, consistency a unique brand identity.

Morgan et al (2003) focuses to create trust marks, destinations must go beyond the brands, name or symbol that one way or the other connects the destination on an emotional level with aspirations and /or desires of people to create love-marks. In the first stage of building up a destination brand. Ndlovu and Heath, (2013) says it is important to create the core values that are durable, essential and also relevant to the potential tourist. It is further strengthened when Morgan, et al (2003) values chosen must also be reflective of the consumer’s wants and needs and resonate with him.

2.2 Phases of destination branding

Jesca, et al., (2014) gave the idea that branding can also be considered and subsequently applied to destinations just like it is on products, then implicitly it is admitted that for the purposes of marketing destinations too are treated like Coca-Cola or McDonald’s burgers This also collaterally means that the rules of communications also apply and followed in the tourism-destination marketing as they are in cases of products.

Ndlovu and Heath, (2013) focused on the five phases of the brand-building process which can be broken down as follows:

Phase one: Investigation of the market, its analysis and subsequently strategic recommendations.

Phase two: Development of brand identity.

Phase three: Launch of brand and its introduction, i.e. advancing the vision.

Phase four: Implementation of the brand.

Phase five: Finally, review, monitoring and evaluation.

Morgan, et al (2004) says it is important to keep in mind that the branding of the country must not start with that country itself but with the consumers and marketplace in general. Moreover, it should also be a consideration how relevant a brand is for consumers and the degree of comparison it makes with other brands already there in the marketplace.  The branding, in essence involves simplifying the decision making of the consumers by making patterns and structures within their minds about a particular brand and the mental check list they consequently draw on things they hold valuable. Therefore, it is crucial to gauge the level of quality afforded in the destination to make the experiences of the consumers’ worthwhile keeping in view the resources at disposal, the competition and customer-demand segments

Figure 1

 

(Cleverdon and Fabricius, 2006)

While communication can be linked to the four phases mentioned above, the brand-building can be linked to the target marketing and brand strategy. Cai and Feng, (2003) believes it is pertinent to mention that the destinations need to be geared towards conveying a sense of experience rather than merely delivering the site on the encounter. Björk (2007) says in the same vein, all the successful brands adhere to the changing trends and norms of society and customer’s life in general The core values, even if they remain the same, the personality of it continues to evolve.

According to Morgan et al., (2002) researchers need to assess the benefits the consumers associate with the establishment of brand equity The brand building process needs to be humanised and take cognisance of experiencing, identity, communication and quality. They are crucial to the development of the brand architecture and its nomenclature. In this regard, following are illustrative.

EXPERIENCE

It involves:

  • Expectations of customers.
  • Service those customers receive.
  • The conduct of the sales-delivery staff and other staff.
  • The evolution of the brand must also be reflective of the changes the society undergoes and different trends that become current over a period of time.
  • The taste of the pudding is in eating; accordingly, seeing is believing/disbelieving.

COMMUNICATION

It involves:

  • Strategies devising advertising and public relations.
  • Qualitative letterheads and other modes of communication such as writing materials including pads
  • The presence of the internet
  • Access to news, reading materials, including articles and books etc
  • Other modes of communication
  • Different events including the road shows

IDENTITY

It involves

  • Tangible, strong and visible.
  • Salient names
  • Packaging, logos, trademarks.
  • Display and layout
  • Sponsors
  • Branding/vehicle display
  • uniforms

QUALITY

It involves

  • Level of service and standardisation of tastes.
  • Different raw materials and ingredients used.
  • The durability of products.
  • Guarantees/warranties.
  • The state of the art technology
  • The indigenous effect of the country of origin.

2.3 Destination-brand equity

Nilson, (2005) says the brand equity is simply the value of the band. It corresponds to the level of loyalty one associates with the brand, the name awareness, perceived quality and associations, inter alia, patents, trademarks and public relations (

But Hatch, & Schultz, (2003) believes in the destination brand equity, the concept actualises the emotional value that is associated with the brand that concerns the quality of experience one draws out of the destination or associates with it. Essentially, it caters to the branding to develop the marketing strategies in the brand destination.  The role of visibly or appearances has been stressed by Loureiro, & Gonzalez, (2008) who says it can hardly be underestimated in the brand equity.  This influences the perceptions of the consumer’s vis-à-vis the brand. Brand equity is geared towards the design and its implementation of activities in order to enhance the performance of the brand. 

Figure 2

 

Brandt & Johnson in Fabricius 2006

Aaker,(1996) says the brand equity adds value to the assets connected with a brand’s name and the symbol and aid in adding value given by a product or a service for that matter to firms and customers. Kolb, (2006) says it is the total accumulated value or a brand’s worth it must be mentioned that the brand equity includes both the tangible and intangible assets which a brand adds to the destination. The assets can be both financial and otherwise which have the capacity to draw out brand equity. Kolb, (2006) again focuses the destination in order to carry out a brand equity must have a brand audit. It means a thorough and comprehensive review and examination of the brand that are geared towards assessing the health of the brand with suggestions to improve and leverage brand equity It requires from the viewpoint of both the destination and a tourist to understand the sources of brand equity. The key aspects of it are:

  • Awareness
  • Associations
  • Availability
  • Images and personality
  • Loyalty
  • Familiarity
  • Brand Equity
  • Preference

According to Hart, (2003) if all the power of a brand is perceptive and is only carried in the mind of the people, then DMOs ought to use their understanding to build up destination brand equity.

Additionally, it is vital to understand that brand equity bridges the gap between the past and future. Therefore, Keller, (2007), says it the quality of investment made into the brand and not the quantity of investment those catalyses the brand building for years to come. The perspective of the customer is always important. Aksoy, et al., (2006) says if a customer is more aware, has a degree of association with a brand and has certain preferences so far as certain traits or the quality of a brand is concerned then that the customer is more likely to make the purchase at any given point in time of that particular brand. In the same vein, if the brand has certain negative association for a customer for any reason whatsoever then the response of the customer towards the purchase, or the absence of it, is also different. 

According to Della and Micera, (2007) it is important to understand that a key concept of brand equity is to make people realise that their brand is different from the competition due to the host of values. Heath, (2004) says for instance, a preference for wine means that tourists would prefer travelling to that particular area where the origin of that wine is associated with. It does happen, at the time that the destination equity is built along the lines of products and services that are known to be produced or attributed to that area for a long period of time.

Keller, (2007) focuses on four important steps for the development of the destination-brand equity :

  • Make sure that due to the image of the brand consumers clearly identify with the brand and other influencing factors;
  • Create a comprehensive and composite understanding in the minds of all consumers about the definition of a brand and pick up a direction that establishes a clear difference between other brands.
  • Draw out responses from the customers on the identification and definition of brand equity and use to build up loyalty of the consumers for the brand; and
  • Persuade as many stakeholders to side with their devised direction.

Figure 3

 

Source: (Keller, 2003)

The tourist, in the first instance selects a destination that he or she fancies the most of the first look due to the host of personal reasons. Association is also connected with salience – a cardinal aspect of identity. Association it must be borne in mind is the consequent result of the benefits that a customer gets out of a holiday destination or perceives as such.  Salience alone is not enough unless it is coupled with the visitation or the intended visitation of destination.

The second stage that follows of the development of destination brand-equity is the creation of the meaning or definition of a brand. Alvarez , (2010) says this concerns the understanding of a customer regarding the points of difference and parity of a particular brand with the other brand, including the performance or various other features such as reliability of the brand. The third stage in the development is drawing out responses from the customers regarding the brand equity. This is done by inviting the customers by judging the brand by two fold rational and emotional criteria. The customers judge the brands by different reference points such as trustworthiness, know-how, confidence and its fitness. We may break down the responses into two sub-heads, namely; empirical and enduring. At the end, and very importantly at that, the brand loyalty is established. This can be established either by word of mouth or by constant and repeated visits to destinations by the tourist to create a long lasting relationship with the destination. This is also associated with the resonance of the customer. Keller, (2007) says it creates a sense of community with a brand for a customer who would miss it if it is no longer there. According to Cherntony, (2006) if it is understood that a destination brand is a sum aggregate of the perceptions of the consumers which they accumulate as the result of their experiences at a particular place, then this enables an effective management of these perceptions and experiences. Keller, (2007) says the perceptions and experiences aid in securing the lasting value of the destination, its partners or stakeholders and the customers. Accordingly, brand equity should be created at every point for the customers. This enables in creating a brand equity that cuts the brand above competition. Brand equity should be managed diligently and effectively to build destination-brand identity.

2.4. Destination-brand identity

According to Keller (2007) and Chernatony (2006) the brand identity has become a dominant trend egged on by the most respected of scholars and consultants alike. Driving home the vision of the brand, it gives orientation, purpose and meaning to the brand. Chernatony, (2006) says it is an amalgamation of varied associations that the brand manages to create and then sustain, in addition to the manner in which it conveys its ideas across to all stakeholders.

Kapferer, (2003)  says associations, drawing on the promise they imply to the customers, transform into representations within an organization underscoring what the brand essentially means and manifests to the customers. It is therefore, crucial to broaden the scope of brand identity in order to extract optimal benefit out of the brand strength dodging the banal identity traps. Such traps include, inter alia, highly regressive, disorganized and inefficient associations of the brand. Another common mistake made by many is the fixation of attributes to the brand identity. It is based on a flawed presumption that customers associate with the brand only because of the attributes given to a certain brand. This is in turn based on a restrictive premise that attributes are easily identifiable and can be rationally reduced to associations by the customers for the brand. This exercise unnecessarily applies clogs and fetters to the brand identity and strategy thereof.

According to Aaaker, (1997) there are four widespread perspectives wherefrom a brand is presented. These are, brand as; person, as a symbol, as organisation and as the product. These perspectives streamline the thinking behind the brand identity. Please refer to the figure below:

Figure 4

\

(Aaker, 2007)

If are to consider the product point of view, then they opine that brand remains the most essential feature of the brand identity – this has the innate risk of fixation trap. Grillot, (2007) says based primarily on the user’s experience and choice, all the product related associations are made Associations, it must be pointed out are closely related to the character of the product. Grillot, (2007) again says when an organisation tries to posit itself on the country of origin as the basis of its credibility of the product for the purposes of dominating the marker, it gives way to the brand identity leading to single product type.

On the other hand, if we take into consideration the organisation point of view, then it focuses primarily on the organisation and not on the product or service. It is based on issues such as innovation, differentiation and customer care linking the strategy to customers. This lends a greater understanding of the customer’s needs and wants.

As a person, brand brings in focus, the issues of personality and brand-customer relations. These form the very soul of the brand viewed from the perspective of brand as person. Lastly, brand as symbol, is structural in its approach and focuses on the strength to brand identity. Symbol revolves around the image and reputation of the brand. Grillot, (2007) says symbol is geared towards gaining recognition of the customers, with prime purpose being the enhancement of brand-customer relations.

These perspectives cannot be employed in the letter and spirit when it comes to destination branding, but they should aid in developing an understanding of the what a brand identity in general implies and how that can be used and applied to destination branding.

2.5. Destination-brand personality

Humanising the brand and attributing human characteristics to the brand, in essence, means the brand personality. There is host of characteristics that are attributed to the brands, some of them include, warms and sentimentality of the band. Besides, brands also have gender, age, socio-economic. In additions, brands also tend to have both the head and heart. According to (Heath, 2007; Morgan & Prichard, 2004) the head refers to the rational aspects of the features of the brand whereas the heart envelops the emotional aspects of the brand personality. Morgan et al. (2004) and Chernatony (2006) the destination personality of the brand is highly dependent on the extent of interactions between the brand attributes with the target audience on both emotional and rational levels. Morgan & Prichard, (2004) said the great challenge that people face in developing a destination brand personality is to make it rich and diverse yet have the appeal to the target audience, in a sense, it is identifiable and can be quantified. The attributes are what they are; the artificial construct and they can be sporadic or arbitrary, which in turn, means such a benchmark for destination brand personality remains elusive. Please refer to the destination brand pyramid below:

Figure 5

 

(Cleverdon & Fabricius, 2006)

The pyramid as is evident from the figure above has six levels. In level 1; we cater to the identifiable, visible, quantifiable and tangible characteristics of the destination. On delivery of these characteristics to the customer, they should be able to loosely highlight the salient features of the brand. The level focuses on the exclusivity of the brand in being able to deliver on the promise it visualises. The experiences, that it incorporates, should be in conformity with the market trends and more importantly with the expectations and needs of the people. The other two levels that follow; levels 2 and 3, mainly drive home the benefits that people draw out of the experiences of the destination features. Levels 4,5, and 6 aim at the repeat visits of the people, riding on experiences aspect of the brand destinations. Morgan et al., (2002) says it is therefore argued, that a branding process must also be aided by a positioning statement It can be:

Level 6

  • What may constitute a very nature and characteristics of the destination brand?

Level 5

  • The value, if at all, a routine repeat visitor adds?

Level 3

  • Are there any, if yes, then what are the psychological rewards a tourist generates from destination? The feelings of tourist?

Level 2

  • What benefits to the tourist result from this destination’s features? Are there any benefits, if yes, then, what are those, from visiting a destination from the point of view of a tourist?

Level 1

  • Are there any tangible and quantifiable characteristics given the set objectives of the destination?
  • Values of brand
  • Personality of brand
  • Benefits on an emotional level
  • Benefits on a rational level
  • Attributes
  • Essence of brand

Level 4

  • The communication of essential traits with characteristics by the brand of the destination to heart as well as head.
  • Both tangible and intangible features
  • The benefits that are taken from the features of the destination
  • The rewards those are both psychological and emotional
  • The exclusive characteristics of the destination
  • The value of a brand for a visitor
  • Is there a value in the repeat visit?
  • In general, the nature as well as the various characteristics of the brand.

 

2.6. Destination-brand architecture

According to Heath, (2007) brand architecture can be defined as a blueprint that guides the brand building, development and marketing  that  should  reflect  all  the  key  components  of  a  destination  brand. It is simply the blueprint that enables the brand building, marketing and development by providing guidelines so that they are reflective of all the core components of the destination brand

Accoding to (Cleverdon & Fabricius, 2006; Heath, 2007) it should be reflective of the selected position that provides both or either emotional or rational benefits to the tourists.  Besides facilitating synergy, the brand architecture should also take into account the destination composition; national, regional, the city or a town. It must be borne in mind that the synergy should identify the supra-brands and sub-brands embedded in geographical and product differences

The brand architecture can be portrayed on the trademarks or logos of the destination that project collateral advertising notions. In this regard the campaign carried out on branding of Australia (Brand Australia) is relevant. It had a logo that had a yellow kangaroo; in the backdrop was a red sun and the green and blue sea.  It was done to ensure that the brand projects youth, energy, optimism, openness and the last but not the least; the fun. The personality of the brand is projected as young, stylish, diverse as well vibrant, besides being adventurous. According to (Cleverdon & Fabricius, 2006) the colours and inferences that can be drawn from the campaign manifest that they have tried to portray the image that is both wholesome and clean.

However, post Olympics, the brand Australia wanted to portray the image that was both progressive and futuristic. The images used and the choice of colours were both aimed towards the projection of the image that was futuristic. Another good illustration of the brand architecture is the campaign carried out by Britain as described in the table below.

Figure 6

 

 

The brand architecture of Britain

 

(Morgan, Pritchard & Pride, 2002)

Morgan et al, (2002) says the companies that remain competitive and attract more customers do so because they tend to invest in brand architecture. Similarly, the development of sound brand architecture requires a unique set of product features and enhanced value – that are both tangible and non-tangible. The characteristics should have a nexus and be linked to the destination.

2.7. Strategic brand management

Grillot, (2007) says the model of brand management has been developed in order to focus on the brand building process. The model tends to have two perspectives; internal brand-owner perspective and external consumer perspective. Please refer to the figure below:

Figure 7

 

Source: (Grillot, 2007)

2.8 The external customer brand perspective

(Grillot, 2007) says the brand building process focuses on the broad perspective of the brand building for brand loyalty. Viewed from the perspective of a consumer, it has six steps; involvement,  brand  sensitivity,  brand  awareness,  brand  associations,  added  value  and  brand loyalty. These steps manifest a creation of the value process and are all intertwined. At the stage of involvement, following are necessary:

  • Brand identity
  • Core values
  • Positioning
  • Marketing communications
  • Product attributes
  • Brand equity
  • Brand sensitivity
  • Brand associations
  • Internal brand loyalty
  • Brand awareness
  • Added value
  • Brand loyalty
  • Involvement
  • Brand building in the consumer
  • Internal brand-owner perspective
  • External consumer perspective

Grillot, (2007) says all that generates a healthy interest in the product. The greater level of interest and involvement on part of the customers enables the brand loyalty and the greater extent of sensitivity towards the brand. The direct consequence of the brand sensitivity is that when it becomes a primary source of information the customer only restricts his or her choice of purchase to the known brands. Ergo, if the level of awareness is high of the customers, then the competitive advantage could easily be associated with the quality of the brand. Brand association remains a key aspect and is indeed a prerequisite of brand awareness. Grillot, (2007) says it results in creating and even shaping the perception of a brand destination in the minds of the customers.

2.8 The internal brand perspective

From this perspective brand equity means the accumulated knowledge. Within an organisation the process of branding goes through the following processes: product attributes;  brand  identity;  core  values;  positioning;  marketing  and  communication;  and  internal brand loyalty. This in turn leads to the development of a brand strategic platform which could enable the competitive advantage. The attributes of the brand should be linked with the brand. In the absence of such linkage there is no value creation. 

2.9 Theoretical Framework

The study consists of various variables which are divided into dependent and independent. From the discussion above, it can be concluded that the study revolves around the following variables.

  • Dependent
    • Destination Awareness
    • Destination Image
    • Destination Service Quality
    • Destination Loyalty

 

  • Independent
    • Cognitive Component
    • Affective Component
    • Conative Component

The main variables of this study consists of four dimensions; awareness, image, perceived quality, and loyalty. Different components are affected by different dimensions. Awareness influences the cognitive component while image and quality dimensions influence the affective component. All dimensions appear to influence the conative component which influences brand equity. The brand equity can be measured internally by both types of loyalty since all dimensions influence the conative component.

In this study destination image is a core dimension of destination brand equity which explains the highest proportion of variance among the dimensions. However, this does not mean that other dimensions/ variables are not given their due importance since they play a significant role in destination branding as well.

 

Image

Awareness

Quality

Conative

Affective

Cognitive

Loyalty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.10 Summary

The second is chapter is the richest of all in terms of context, as it contains the literature from other studies which have been previously carried out by researchers on similar concept. Variables are defined in this chapter which are derived by the information gathered by secondary sources, and the aims and objectives defined in first chapter.

 

 

Chapter 3

3.0 Methodology

3.1 Primer

This chapter is the one which defines how and what methods will be sued for the data collection of study. The significance of this chapter shows that how a researcher makes use of abundant research methods, philosophies, strategies and process available. The kind of research strategy which will be sued for the study is completely dependent upon the nature of the study planned. In this study the methodology used is the blend of both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The first method is exercised by carrying out interviews whether structured non structured open ended or close ended. This data does not have a black and white meaning and can be interpreted either way by the researcher. The biggest downside of this method is the presence of researcher bias. The first is exercised by conducting interviews from the guides, resort owners, and government officials at the tourist’s destinations. While the other option deals with questionnaires survey technique using random sampling from the tourists themselves. These techniques are carried out to investigate the behavior and preferences of the tourists as a result of the destination branding done for the destinations. How it influences the number of the tourist’s per spot.

3.2 Research Process

The research process used for this study is Saunders Onion diagram (Saunders et. al., 2007). This is a detailed research process with various steps in it. The Saunders diagram is shaped like an onion and every layer has a new step in it. The order of these steps is ascending, refer to the diagram below for detailed information.

Figure:8

 

. (Saunder, et,. al, 2006)

3.2.1 Research Philosophy

The first step to start the research methodology for a study is to decide upon which research philosophy to be used. Every research study has just two options out of which one is chosen based upon the nature of the study.

  • Phenomenological philosophy
  • Positivistic philosophy

Both of these philosophies have their own characteristics.

Phenomenological: This philosophy is used when the sample size is small and the data has to be collected out of this small sample. The results of this philosophy are qualitative data, which is linked to the instrument of interviews.

Positivistic: This philosophy is used when the sample size is big and data collected out of this sample is quantitative. The research instrument inked with this philosophy is questionnaire and survey. The positivistic philosophy results in reliable and solid data which free of researcher bias.

This study uses a blend of both the philosophies as the data collected for analysis does not comprise of any one kind. This study uses a mix of both quantitative as well as qualitative data, as both the approaches are used i-e questionnaires survey of tourists and interviews of tourist resort owners of UK.

The results are derived by analysis the quantitative data using Microsoft Excel (bar charts, pie diagram, histograms, trend lines etc.) and answers of interviews by comparison of the literature review.

3.2.2 Research Strategies

There are a number of research strategies which are available for the researcher. Now it up to the researcher that which strategy is chosen. The most important factor which helps decide in choosing a research strategy is the nature of research study. In order to understand the chosen strategy for the study it is necessary to know what the other relevant strategy options available are.

Survey: This is the method used in which the sample size, active participation is ensured for data collection. The tool which leads the survey strategy is known is questionnaire. The selected sample size is distributed with a questionnaire either a hard copy or the soft copy depending upon the medium used by the researcher. The question comprises of a number of questions linked with the variables and literature review of the research study. The responses provide quantitative data as a result of survey questionnaire. This strategy is used for bigger and larger sample size.

Ethnographic: This research strategy is used to treat only one sample size. The entire research study is conducted to study only one sample is known as ethnography. This strategy is used to study the sample thoroughly and even intricate minute details are recorded, since its only one sample, so the researcher has ample time and energy. This is more of an observational instrument.

Case Study: A specific specimen is used for the analysis of study is known as case study. It is not necessary that the case study has to be a person but can be a business, organization, company, institute, etc.

Interviews: When the sample size is small, and is treated one by one individually. A series of questions are asked from every respondent personally, and the data gathered is then treated. This data is qualitative and while its interpretation, researcher bias can play a big role.

The research strategy used for this study is a combination two strategies i.e. survey and interviews. This is because it is a blend of two philosophies as well. Each philosophy follows its own particular strategies, hence a blend of two strategies as well.

For the survey, the tool questionnaire is distributed amongst the travel guides present to help visitors in sightseeing, resort owners who provide a place from the tourist to stay eat out and government officials (mayors, sheriffs etc.) who are present to maintain discipline and other matters. The geographic locations selected for this study are the major areas of UK which are a tourist attraction: Whales, Scotland and London. The respondent selection is random to give everyone an equal chance of being selected. A total of 100 tourists of these three main areas are selected as sample size where 10 respondents are selected for interviews from the owners, the government official, guides, etc.

3.2.3 Research Instrument

The list of research instruments are many, namely

  • Observations (experiment),
  • Questionnaires (survey),
  • Interviews (qualitative),
  • Panel discussion (qualitative).

Out of these instruments the one which is according to the nature of the study at hand is selected.  For the current research study, which revolves around destination branding is a blend of two research instruments i-e questionnaire sand interviews. This is because; the study has a combination of two philosophies. Therefore for qualitative and quantitative data collection, both the questionnaire and interviews are used. The questionnaires will lead to quantitative data, by distributing the questionnaires among the selected sample size of 100 tourists. The business owners and employees in the tourism business are contacted for interviews which are 10 in number.

3.2.4 Data Collection Methods

There are two data collection methods

  • Primary data collection
  • Secondary data collection

The first one, primary data collection is a method in which new and fresh data is collected, for the first time. These sources have not been used before. This data is collected from scratch and can be used as a base for other researchers (Lewis. 2009).

On the other hand, secondary data is the one which has already been collected and can be used by the researcher as a reference for the study. This information is taken from the journal, published articles, books, e-journals, newspapers, published interviews, court hearings, internet sources, etc.

For the current research study, both the data collection methods are used primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data is used for the collection of quantitative data and qualitative data whereas secondary data creates the base for literature review.

3.3 Research Ethics

For research to be carried out, it is very important to follow all the ethics guidelines. Once a research study is carried out staying within the ethics limits it is a logical valid, and credible research study. Otherwise, unethical study may lead to a flawed research study. The basic research ethics followed in this study are listed down.

•           The respondents are ensured that their confidentially will be maintained.

•           Under no circumstances the respondents have been pressurized to give desired response.  

•           The interview and survey environment has been kept very natural and normal.

•           The researcher has not tried to influence the response in any way.

•           The ample amount of time was given, so the respondents did not have to rush through the questionnaire.

•           All the secondary data has been obtained from valid and authentic sources.

•           The work is appropriately referenced which shows the work is valid.

3.4 Limitations

The research always has some limitation and constraint, as it is not a perfect world. The biggest limitation in every research study is time, cost and resources. In this case there are three destinations which are being studies, and the extent of their destination branding is checked. Because of this three different geographical locations have been studied, which becomes difficult to visit in person. Therefore, the survey has been carried out by using the internet, (Google Docs) whereas the interviews some in person while some via telephone, video calling or Skype.

3.5 Summary

This chapter explains who the research study will be carried out. Which philosophies, strategies and methods will be used to gather the primary and secondary data, which needs to be analysed in later chapters.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

4.0 Methodology

4.1 Introduction

The data which is collected has to be analyzed and interpreted so conclusions can be drawn. The data collected in this study is using two methods, qualitative and quantitative. The first methods lead to numeric data which give black and white results. It is bias free, and is collected using questionnaires, from tourists (100), and sight enjoyers who have come to London, Whales and Scotland on vacation. Moreover on the other hand the qualitative data is collected using interviews method, from the restaurant owners, shop keepers, travel guides etc. (10). Of those areas, that what are the most important factors which attracts the tourists here. The chapter also contains a series of recommendations from the extracts of interviews that how can the Great Britain improve its image by implementing destination branding to its hot favorite tourist sights.

4.2 Analysis

The analysis is divided into two parts. The first is based on the questionnaire data and the second on the interviews.

Moreover the questionnaires data is further divided into five section. The first section is based on the demographics, of the respondents. It gives the information, that what is the gender of the tourist, income group ethnicity etc. This will help the researcher to understand the respondent’s dynamics in terms of the demographics.

4.2.1 Survey

  1. Gender

Scale

Male

 

Female

Percentage

60

40

 

 

 

100 questionnaires were distributed amongst 100 tourists. The gender balance was not balanced deliberately. The questionnaires were randomly handed over to the tourists, therefore an equally gender balanced the survey could not be carried out. The male to female ratio for the survey is 60:40.

  1. Income group

Scale

< £ 1000

£ 1100-2000

£ 2100-3000

> £ 3000

Percentage

12%

22%

44%

20%

           
 

 

 

 

 

Another thing which has been kept in mind, while carrying out the survey is the financial standing of the respondent. It is very important to know how much a respondent earns a month/year, in order to plan a vacation. Having a holiday, within the country or abroad, within the city or outside city, is all a matter of money. The higher the income of a person, the more one can spend on the vacation. Out of the respondents, mostly lie in the income bracket of £ 2100-3000 i-e 44%, followed by £ 1100-2000 i-e 22% then more than £ 3000 and less than £ 1000. Since the survey was carried in three destinations, London, Whales and Scotland. All these three places are visited by mostly well earning people, since Great Britain is an expensive country to live or visit.

  1. Ethnicity

Scale

British

 

Foreign

Percentage

36

64

 

 

 

Great Britain is a place, which is expensive to live or to visit. Therefore, people who visit any city within the country, or come from abroad for a vacation, plan their trip ahead. Even the locals of Britain plan vacations within the country. Therefore, the tourists, are both from within the country and then of course the foreigners. The ratio of respondents form Britain is 36% and that of other nationals are 64%. The latter is higher in the ratio, since foreigners are keener to visit The Great Britain.

 

  1. Which city have you visited the most in the UK?

 

Scale

London

 

Whales

Scotland

Others

Percentage

39%

24%

27%

10%

 

 

 

 

The survey was conducted from three geographic locations. The questionnaires were randomly handed over to the tourist at these three locations, London, Whales and Scotland. They were asked that out of these cities which one’s have they visited the most. Out of the 100 tourist, the maximums number said they have visited London, i-e 39%. Even the tourists who have made plans of visiting Whales or Scotland, would visit London as well, as it is one of the biggest, tourist’s attractions of the world.

 

  1. How often do you travel in a year?

 

Scale

Very Often

 

Often

Rarely

Never

Percentage

22%

51%

17%

10%

 

 

 

 

The respondents are asked about their travel, vacation frequency in a year. And surprisingly the major portion said often i-e 51%. Now times have changed, people not only believe in earning, but also in spending that money on themselves. It is very important for people now to have a good time, and relax from hectic routines. As opposed to 51% only 10% people said that they never take any vacation, who turned out to be the natives of the selected geographic locations.

 

  1. How often do you travel in a year?

Scale

£ 100- £500

£ 600-£1000

£1100--£1500

£ 1500-£2000

£2000 +

Percentage

19%

38%

26%

12%

5%

             
 

 

 

To have to quality time, it is necessary to plan a vacation beforehand, and allocated ample resources for it as well. The more financially secure one will make the vacation, the more exciting and amazing it will become. But this does not mean, that people in low financial bracket should not take vacations. There are all kinds of restaurants, hotels, motels, available to cater all the members of society. The respondents, which were the samples size of this research 28% said they are willing to spend between £ 600-£1000 on their vacation trip, followed by 26% respondents said £1100--£1500 and so forth.

  1. What is maximum number of vacation you normally take?

Scale

< Week

1 Week

2 Weeks

  1. Weeks

1Month

> Month

Percentage

25%

40%

16%

12%

5%

2%

               
 

 

 

The duration of vacation is directly proportional, to the financial element. The longer vacation it the more expensive, it is going to be, but then a vacation should not be so small, that the person does not even feel relaxed and the vacation is over. Most of the respondents picked the ideal, amount of vacation duration, i.e. 1 week time. This is not too long vacation time, or not too small. Enough for a person to have a good time, get relaxed and then stay within budget as well.

  1. Which of the following positive of effects did the visit to destination (London, Whales, and Scotland) had on you?

 

London:

Scale

Arousing

Pleasant

Relaxing

Exciting

None of the above

Percentage

12%

11%

16%

61%

0%

             
 

 

 

The tourists who visited London had very positive effects on them. More than half of the population, said they found London very exciting i.e.  61%. 12% found it to be arousing, 11% said it is pleasing, and 16% went with relaxing. All these are positive factors, which shows their trip to London has been a successful one.

Whales

Scale

Arousing

Pleasant

Relaxing

Exciting

None of the above

Percentage

50%

22%

16%

12%

0%

             
 

 

 

The tourists who were made a part of the survey at Whales, were asked about the positive effects, the place had on them, and they mostly said it is very arousing-e 50%. They feel as their souls are being lifted above, the greenery, the scenic beauty has allured to their senses. Followed by 22% said it’s very pleasant to be here, but only 12% said it’s exciting, as Whales is mostly nature clad area.

Scotland

Scale

Arousing

Pleasant

Relaxing

Exciting

Non of the above

Percentage

20%

19%

53%

8%

0%

             
 

 

 

For Scotland, the answers were totally different, from that of London, but similar to Whales, due to its natural beauty. 53% respondents said, they have felt very relaxed and happy, and are totally allured aroused by the natural amazing scenes. The mounts the greenery, the scenic beauty is totally breathe taking.

  1. Which of the following negative of effects did the visit to destination (London, Whales, and Scotland) had on you?

London

Scale

Sleepy

Distressing

Unpleasant

Boring

None of the above

Percentage

0%

12%

2%

0%

86%

             
 

 

 

Apart from positive effects, negative effects have also been inquired. Surprisingly, tourists seemed to be contended with their vacations mostly and a few had negative comments about these destinations. In London, out of four negative options and one none of the above, the highest rating is of none of above, 86%. London one of the biggest metropolitan, keeps everyone happy, but only 12% tourists said its distressing, because of the noise, and fast paced life of this place.

Whales

Scale

Sleepy

Distressing

Unpleasant

Boring

None of the above

Percentage

26%

0%

3%

22%

49%

             
 

 

 

About Whales, most had no negative comments as 49% said none of the above, but 26% found it a bit sleepy, as it quite and calm place, and 22% said its boring, since there is not much to do there, except from sight-seeing.

Scotland

Scale

Sleepy

Distressing

Unpleasant

Boring

None of the above

Percentage

19%

0%

0%

21%

60%

             
 

 

 

Similar responses about Scotland, that mostly the tourist are happy and 60% said none of the above negative effects, but then a few said it is boring, who are fast paced, and youngsters, and 19% said they feel sleepy, because it’s quiet, calm and less crowded.

  1. What unique attribute makes you visit a destination? (please mention the destination as well)

London

Scale

Beach

Climate

Mountain

Greenery

Modern Entertainment

Nature Oriented Entertainment

Percentage

19%

11%

5%

13%

44%

8%

                 
 

 

 

There are always some preferences which make a person, opt a place over others. The unique attributes, because of which the tourists, selected a place are determined the people visiting London had different preferences as compared to the other two cities. They are most fast paced, most outdoorsy, and fun loving. 44% said they prefer a place because of the modern entertainment it provides i-e cinemas, theaters, theme parks, discos, bars, etc. moreover the biggest attraction for  a tourist is to have a beach, who are more outdoorsy, so 19% voted for it as well.

Whales

Scale

Beach

Climate

Mountain

Greenery

Modern Entertainment

Nature Oriented Entertainment

Percentage

19%

10%

28%

32%

2%

12%

                 
 

 

 

 The people in Whales had totally different preferences. They said they prefer greenery (32%) and mountains (28%) and nature oriented entertainment (12%) like trekking, rowing, climbing, hiking etc.

 

Scotland

Scale

Beach

Climate

Mountain

Greenery

Modern Entertainment

Nature Oriented Entertainment

Percentage

10%

8%

30%

35%

3%

14%

                 
 

 

 

The Scottish tourist and even the native have similar responses as those of Whales. They prefer greenery (35%), surrounded by the mountain (30%) with abundant natural entertainments (14%). They are nature lovers, and believe in sight-seeing and exploring nature.

  1. What other factors except for ambiance lures to visit a destination

Scale

Quality Food

High Class Bars

Restaurants

Discos

 

Cleanliness

Friendly Natives

Percentage

20%

13%

10%

25%

22%

10%

 

 

 

Apart from the negative positive and unique attributes, here are some other basic reasons why tourists visit a place. Out of all the mentioned above, excellent restaurant is the highest (25%), followed by cleanliness of a place (22%), quality food (20%) high class bar for entertainment (13%) and friendly natives (10%) so that the stay is enjoyable.

  1. Do you intent on revisiting the destination (London, Scotland, Whales)

London

Scale

Most Likely

 

Likely

Uncertain

Unlikely

Most Unlikely

Percentage

35%

50%

10%

2%

3%

 

 

 

Tourists at London very happy and excited about their stay, and said that yes they do intent on revisiting the place again. 50% said they are likely to visit again, 35% said most likely to visit again. Only 15% were not willing to come by again.

 

Whales

Scale

Most Likely

 

Likely

Uncertain

Unlikely

Most Unlikely

Percentage

27%

43%

15%

7%

8%

 

 

 

Same are the results for Whales, the destination branding is done in the manner that tourists are attracted even when they have visited it once. 43% said they are likely to visit this place again.

Scotland

Scale

Most Likely

 

Likely

Uncertain

Unlikely

Most Unlikely

Percentage

22%

36%

25%

7%

10%

 

 

 

Scotland a heaven on earth, the respondents said they can visit it over and over again, and still not be tired of this place. 36% said that yes they are likely to visit to visit Scotland again.

  1. Would you recommend the destination you have visited to your peers?

Scale

Most Likely

 

Likely

Uncertain

Unlikely

Most Unlikely

Percentage

25%

33%

6%

17%

19%

 

 

 

The respondents have been contended with their vacation, and said they will very much recommend these places to peers, so they should come and visit it themselves to see how amazing tourist spots thee locations are.

4.2.2 Interviews

A sample size where 10 respondents are selected for interviews from the owners, government official, and travel guides in UK. They are asked, what measure have they taken to boost the tourism industry, as they are the ones who deal with tourist on a day-to-day basis.

Q1. What is the peak time for tourists, and how do you accommodate them?

This question is directed towards the hotel and motel owners. According to them spring season is the most busy time, and then Christmas followed by New Years. Surprisingly, the owners said they improve their service, do not give booking to the natives , and increase their charges, since it is the only time they can earn some extra cash.

Q2) Which ethnicity, or nationals are the most tourist from?

The owners of restaurants and travel guides said that mostly the tourists are from Central Asia and Africa. There are Europeans, and US national as well, but these central Asian countries and Africans are in abundance.

Q3) What steps have you taken to improve the tourism industry?

This question has been directed towards the Tourist Agencies, which work with the government. Their response was, we take extra caution on cleanliness during the peak tourism season, make sure they are accommodate, provide them help if needed. Take strict security measures, and try to provide them everything in our power.

 Q4) In what ways you think Government is taking part in enhancing tourism?

By building theme parks, famous building, status, restaurants cinemas, cultural arts crafts, museums etc. government is paying its fair share. In case of whales and Scotland, by developing the natural beauty, garden, lawns, lakes etc. tourists are attracted towards it. 

4.3 Summary

The data that have been collected from the outlines defined in chapter 3 is analysed using the methods explained earlier. Different methods are sued to analyse the collected data, it is either qualitative or quantitative

 

 

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

This is the last chapter of the study, which compiles the whole research at one single point and gives a consolidated view. Inferences are drawn from the research process, the data collection and analysis.

This research study revolves around the destination branding of a place form an anthropological point of view. As the focus is on the anthropological view, therefore the variables are also linked to anthropology (the human aspect). The awareness of a place, the image it has, the quality of service and loyalty to a place are developed when a person’s three aspects are satisfied conative, cognitive and affective. Therefore, these are the variable of the study. The entire research has been carried out making these variables the central points. The questionnaire has been design by dividing it in four main parts. The first part is the demographics; the second is cognitive, third is conative and fourth is affective, therefore incorporating the variables in the questionnaire.

The questionnaire has been filled out by 100 tourists, at three main locations of England, which are famous for tourists’ i-e London, Whales and Scotland. Moreover, an interview has also been conducted by 10 individuals who belong to the restaurants’ owners, hotel motel owners, managers, travel guides, and governmental officials.

Both these methodologies have given two types of data, quantitative (questionnaires0 and qualitative (interviews). This is because the research study has used a blend of two research philosophies mentioned in chapter three. 

5.2 Conclusion and Discussion

After the survey and interviews it can be concluded that

  • Most of the tourists are males as compared to women. The tourists belong to all income levels, showing vacation is not only for the rich anymore. Although the ratio of the higher income group is still higher but lower and the middle income group are also no less. Another point to be noted that most of the tourists are foreigners. The British nationals are less as compared to the foreign at tourists’ spots.
  •   Even though Scotland and Whales are the heaven on the earth place, with immense natural beauty, but London, the famous metropolitan still remain the top priority in the evoke set of all tourists. 
  • People now wants to travel at least once in a year and are willing to spend larger quantities on leisure time.
  • Out of the entire three places, tourists, found London to be very exciting, Whales to be naturally arousing and Scotland very relaxing. But people who are found of fast, busy and loud lifestyle found London to be distressing, and Whales and Scotland to be peaceful and relaxing. On the other hand people who tend to enjoy the fast past and entertaining lifestyle loved London and found Whales and Scotland to be dull and boring. There are also such respondents who have visited all three destinations and enjoyed each one of them, as every place has its own uniqueness and its own specialty.
  • Moreover the England Government, has spent ample resources, time and effort on its tourist destination, and have made use of the concept of destination branding. Because of this all the respondents were happy and contended with their vacation, and said would most likely recommend these destinations to their peers.

5.3 Compatibility with Interviews

The interviews were carried out one-on-one from owners of places, government officials mayors, travel guides etc. they know how it is like to lure and entice the tourists, as they have to deal with them every day.

According to them, the tourists who are young and energetic can get themselves accommodated anywhere , even in low prices areas, as their main focus is to enjoy and make the most out of their trips, but the elderly and the rick elite class, would prefer everything to be prim and proper. The tourists are mostly from abroad, ad locals are less in number. The travel guides play an important role in showing around the landmarks to the tourists. And the government has to play its role which to some extent it has by theme parks, famous building, status, restaurants cinemas, cultural arts crafts, and museums etc. government is paying its fair share

5.4 Acceptance of Hypothesis

There has been three hypothesis developed for this research study.

  • H1: Destination branding has a positive effect on tourists and tourism
  • H2: Destination branding has a negative effect on tourists and tourism
  • Ho: Destination branding does not have any effect on tourists and tourism

After the complete research study, data collection, it can be concluded that the

H1: Destination branding has a positive effect on tourists and tourism

Holds true, and is accepted. If it was not the effect of destination branding, then government would not have been spending million on the maintenance of these areas.

5.5 Summary

In order for the destination to make it to the evoke set of a tourist it is very important that the destination branding of that particular areas to have a positive effect on the individual. Only then the individual will be enticed to visit that place.

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

Bibliography

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Questionnaire

  1. Gender
  1. Male    b) Female
  1. Income group
  1. Less than £ 1000
  2. £ 1100-2000
  3. £ 2100-3000
  4. More than £ 3000

 

  1. Ethnicity
  1. British b) Foreigners

 

1st Section (travel behavior)

  1. Which city have you visited the most in UK?
  1. London
  2. Scotland
  3. Whales
  4. Any other (specify)
  1. How often do you travel in a year?
  1. Very often
  2. Often
  3. Rarely
  4. Never
  1. How much do you normally spend on your vacation?
  1. £ 100-£500
  2. £ 600-£1000
  3. £ 1500-£2000
  4. £ 2000 +
  1. What is maximum number of vacation you normally take?
  1. Less than a week
  2. 1 week
  3. 2 weeks
  4. 3 weeks
  5. 1 month
  6. More than 1 month

2nd Section (Cognitive, affective perceptions)

  1. Which of the following positive of effects did the visit to destination (London, Whales, and Scotland) had on you?

a) Arousing

b) Pleasant

c) Relaxing

d) Exciting

e) None of the above

        6)   Which of the following negative of effects did the visit to destination (London, Whales, and Scotland) had on you?

a) Sleepy

b) Unpleasant

c) Distressing

d) Boring

e) None of the above

3rd Section (Unique attributes)

  1. What unique attribute makes you visit a destination? (please mention the destination as well)
  1. Beaches
  2. Climate
  3. Greenery
  4. Mountains
  5. Modern entertainment
  6. Nature oriented entertainment
  1. What other factors except for ambiance lures to visit a destination
  1. Quality food
  2. High class bars
  3. Ample Discos
  4. Excellent restaurants
  5. Cleanliness
  6. Friendly natives

4th Section (Conative)

  1. Do you intent on revisiting the destination (London, Scotland, Whales)
  1. Most likely
  2. Likely
  3. Uncertain
  4. Unlikely
  5. Most Unlikely
  1. Would you recommend the destination you have visited to your peers?
  1. Most likely
  2. Likely
  3. Uncertain
  4. Unlikely
  5. Most Unlikely

 

 

 


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