The Differences Of Human Resource Management Between China And UK

Introduction

 

Human resource management is offered as a major sequence in the Bachelor of Commerce. HR management covers recruitment, selection, training and development, workplace diversity, employee relations, performance and change management, and remuneration. In this report, I have chosen two famous companies from China and UK to find the differences of Human Resource between these two countries. China mobile company is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication company that provides mobile voice and multimedia services through its nationwide mobile telecommunications network. The company is one of the largest mobile telecommunications companies by market capitalization today and it is also the world's largest mobile phone operator by subscribers with about 740 million. British Telecom Group is a listed company which has been one of the most famous world's leading telecommunications operators. It is mainly composed of five departments: BT Retail, BT Wholesale, BT Ignite, BT OpenWorld range, BT eXact. The main business of BT Group are including the British long-distance business, international telecommunications services, and Internet services. In this report, I mainly try to find the difference of Human Resource between China Mobile Company and British Telecom. According to make the research, it will help me to understand how the human resource management runs in these companies which are in the same industry but different countries. Then I choose two important point in Human Resource Management to make this comparison : Recruitment and Selection. 1)In the narrow sense,the recruitment is to provide a group of candidates that is large enough to let managers select the qualified employees they need.In the broad sense,recruitment includes recruiting,selection,employment and assessment. 2)To employee Selection, it is a process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. I will make a conclusion by comparing these three aspects between two companies. This report is mainly to find out the differences of Human Resource between Chinese  company and British Company. According to the comparison, it will make me to see the  advantages and disadvantages caused by the difference culture and background. In nowadays, the idea of free trade and integration into the global economy is accepted by  most countries and areas. Almost every famous company has expand market in the whole world. Learning the advantages from others and overcome the disadvantages of itself is obviously important in current competition.

 

 

Literature Review

 

I have read some literatures from professional magazines and periodicals. Therefore, I have paid my attention to some excellent literatures of human resource management.The opinions of Professor Shuming Zhao are reliable and logical and I really agree with his opinions on human resource management. He has made some research to analyze the difference of human resource management between Chinese company and European enterprise. I have followed his opinions and made a conclusion of his literature by myself.

 

 

2.1The features and the advantages and disadvantages of Human resource management in Chinese enterprises

 

According to read Law’s research, we can make a conclusion below: Although during the period of transition economies of China, the effective human resource management still has a significant contribution to performance of enterprises as a special social system existed. The development of human resource management of Chinese enterprises has experienced the transition stage from personnel management to human resource management and administrative support to strategic engagement in the enterprise’s position. The characteristics of human resource management in Chinese enterprises mainly showed in these aspects below: the development of strategic position, the diversity of recruitment, incentives with the equal emphasis on both the moral and the material, the rise of professional managers, the selection based on the seniority, relationships and ability, and constantly improvement of labor market and international human resource management.

 

1) The development of strategic position

 

More and more Chinese companies, such as Huawei, Haier and Media began to pay attention to the strategic position of human resources and implemented the strategic human resource management. The role of Human resource management in the company has changed from the "cost center" to "profit center" and human resources management began to match the enterprise’s strategy. All of these performances showed the transformation of human resources management in the enterprise and also meant that the gradually rise of the position of human resource management in the enterprise strategic status.

 

2) The diversity of recruitment

 

First, the diversity of recruitment means that more and more enterprises begin to choose the campus recruitment, online recruitment, social recruitment, recruiting cooperation (the cooperation of business college and enterprise ) and other ways to attract talents. Second, the diversified recruitment methods often mean that the company will take the methods of the written test, structured interview, telephone interview, case interview and experts interview to choose the interviewer. Finally, the diversified sources of appliers are mainly including the college graduates, incumbents, returned students and foreign appliers in China.

 

3) The rise of professional managers

 

At present,the education of EMBA, MBA and EDP has provided a lot of chances to professional manager group. The reform of shareholding system also help the professional managers to play an important role in management of the enterprise.As the need of a long-time enterprise management,

employing the professional manager has been the inexorable choice for Chinese companies.It is the key point to the sustainable development of Chinese enterprises. The rise of professional managers are helpful for Chinese companies to deal with the highly uncertain global economic environment in current time. Because the professional managers are able to have a better professional point of view to analyze the situation of enterprise management and find a way which matches the strategic for the development of enterprise.

 

4) The selection based on the seniority, relationships and ability

 

The selection of seniority means the selection is mainly based on the years of working of employee in the enterprise, especially for the selection of managers. Actually, it is a selection of experience. The selection of relationships means that employees will be recommended by acquaintances, experts or internal employees. The selection of ability means that selection is based on the professional working ability, communicational skills and some other useful abilities of employees.

 

 

5) Improvement of labor market and international human resource management

 

On the one hand, since the implementation regulation for Labor Contract has been executed in 2008, it has been implemented and perfected days by days. On the other hand, as the diversification of enterprise employment system, the company begin to offer the full-time recruitment, part-time employment and labor dispatching to employees.

 

The human resources management of Chinese enterprises is based on theories and practice of human resource management of western countries and make some changes to adapt to Chinese conditions. Therefore,the new application and exploration of Chinese enterprises will certainly have the characteristic of Chinese conditions. Synthesize the above characteristics of human resources management in Chinese enterprise, we can conclude that there are strengths and weaknesses of human resource management Chinese enterprise. The advantages of Chinese human resource management are mainly reflected in: (1) It could fully draw lessons from mature theoretical system and perfect system of measures from western human resources management. (2) The senior management at companies have paid more attention to the development of human resource management. (3)The diversity of recruitment and incentive mechanism will be benefit for enterprises to absorb excellent talents and reach their full potential.The disadvantages of Chinese human resource management are mainly reflected in: (1) In Chinese companies,the institutional environment is still immature and management foundation is weak. Especially in the small and medium enterprises and private enterprises, the enterprise management is relatively loose. (2) The inertia of enterprise management blocked the introduction of new thought and system of management. (3) The institution of Labor market is not perfect, the leve of social security is low, and the cost of enterprises is high.

 

 

2.2The features and the advantages and disadvantages of Human resource management in European enterprises

 

Europe is not only the birthplace of the modern enterprise system, but also has made an important contribution to the development of theories of human resource management especially for the theories of industrial relations management. As the special historical and Cultural background of Europe, there is a significant difference between Europe and China in human resources management. The Main characters of the human resource management in European enterprise can be summarized as follows:

 

1) The development-oriented strategy to enterprise

Many companies in Europe emphasized that human resources management has supported the enterprise strategy. For example, Alcatel, stressed that human resources management is an important part of the enterprise strategic management, and the main work of human resources department is to serve the setting and decision-making of enterprise strategy.In addition, as trade unions have a strong power in Europe, the human resources management always play an important strategic partner in the enterprise.

 

2) The talents selection mechanism to Europe

European coal and steel community was set up in 1951 and European Union was founded in 1993.

With the development of the process of European integration, people will be able to apply the job from any company which is located in any member country of European Union. European companies tend to hire the talents from the whole Europe and optimize the structure of staffing in the companies.

 

3) Employees’participation to enterprise management

Europe Trade unions will organize employees to participate in decision-making of enterprise management,especially the decisions of human resource management, and the rights of participating in the management of employees are protected by some related laws. For example,

the law prescribes that employees have the right to receive three kinds of professional training lessons: mid-career studies, enterprise interior further education and the vocational skills training lessons organized and paid by labor organizations.

 

(4) Mutual participation model of human resources management

It means that government, enterprises and trade unions have a cooperation to participate in human resources management, as describe next: (1) The government intervention to human resources  management in the enterprise: European government will participate in human resource management by intervening the collective bargaining between enterprises and trade unions. (2) The Collective bargaining between trade unions and enterprises: There are strong national and industry trade unions in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, France and other countries. They protect the employees’ rights by collective bargaining. (3) The function of industry association. For example, the Confederation of Denmark Industry and Denmark industry association have an major impact on company human resources management.

 

 

Finally, combining the above characteristics, we can make a conclusion of advantages and disadvantages of human resources management of European enterprises. The advantages are: (1) participation management can improve the enthusiasm of employees;(2) the perfect legal system ensure the specification of human resources management;(3) trilateral cooperation to promote the integration of human resources.The disadvantages are:(1) the government and trade unions are heavily involved in enterprise human resource management and eliminate the flexibility of enterprise itself;(2) the cumbersome legal provisions restraining to the enterprise human resources management.

 

 

 

2.3The differences of human resource management between China and Europe

 

Combing the above discussion, it shows that the human resources management between Chinese and European enterprises have distinctive features and differences.These characteristics and differences have been affected by their own special social culture, management system, management concept, management standards and so on. We can summarize that there are four main aspects of differences between Chinese and European enterprises: culture difference, institutional difference, conceptual difference and standard difference.

 

 

 

1)Cultural differences

 

For a country or society,culture means a standard of value, historical tradition, basic conceptions, ethics and social customs and habits. HOFSTEDE( Hofstede G 1980 ) made some research to multinational culture on different dimensions. According to analyze the basic value and beliefs, income, job security, challenge, freedom and cooperation of enterprise employees, he has made a conclusion on the basis of comprehensive survey and outlining five cultural dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism&collectivism, sexism&feminism, long-term orientation&short term orientation. He has quantified the cultural dimension of many countries and regions. AYCAN(AYCAN 2000) did a research by choosing the research samples of 10 countries of empirical, and confirmed the cultural impact on human resource management.These scores of dimension are shown in Table 1.(Hofutede G 2010)

 

Table 1

 

Country

Power distance

Individualism

Sexism

Uncertainty avoidance

 Long-term orientation

China

80

20

66

40

118

America

40

91

62

46

29

Germany

35

67

66

65

31

France

68

71

43

86

39

Russia

38

80

14

53

44

Holland

93

39

36

95

N/A

 

As you will see in Table 1, there is a obviously difference between Chinese and European culture.

 

 

1) Chinese cultural values

 

In China, Confucianism has been advocated over two thousands years. Benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and faith are most important views of Confucianism. Since the ancient times, Chinese prevailing philosophy has been one that preaches "peace is most precious", "harmony without uniformity". Chinese people treasure harmonious relations , if the conflict happened with the Chinese , regardless of whom is to blame, have calm and peaceful solution. Loyalty and human relation are very important in Chinese society. The humanistic perspective is advocated in Confucianism. For example, it is an important theory in Confucius ethics that benevolence means to love others. The Confucian culture emphasize the views of "self-improvement" and "social commitment". So Chinese always have the spirit of working hard fortitude and making efforts. Collectivism and equalitarianism are very popular in Chinese society.  Chinese’s personality has been repressed and it subjected their creativity to a blow. The personal favour and inoculation are very important in enterprise management system. Although it is helpful to create a good working atmosphere, the problems are also serious: personal favour have a bad impact on establishment of the regulations.

 

2) European cultural values

 

European cultural values are also known as the "Ocean culture".Europeans are willing to have an adventure and warlike and aggressive spirit. The European people emphasize the power constraints,equality, mutual trust, and the basis for a cooperation is unity rather than power. Most European countries are influenced by Christian culture, and frequent exchanges of economy, politics, and culture have been carried out between European countries. It make the whole Europe to have a common cultural basis.The ancient Egyptian culture, ancient Greek culture, ancient Rome culture, the Renaissance and the enlightenment have an important impact on European thought. In European culture, it has been including the “respect human nature and knowledge” of Greek culture, utilitarianism of Roman culture and “criticize the reality and yearn for idealism” of  Christian culture.

 

The differences of culture on human resource management between Chinese and European enterprise are shown in Table 2.

 

 

Table 2

 

 

 

China

Europe

Differences of national culture

Confucianism: China is the birthplace of Confucian culture. The view of people-oriented has occupied the leading position in enterprise management. People often break the regulations as the problem of personal favour. In enterprise management, the collective interests are always more important than the personal interests.

Christian culture European Christian culture remains connected with the Egyptian culture, Rome

culture, the Judean culture, and Greek culture. Democracy,  participatory management, and employees’ benefits are very are emphasized in enterprise human source management. 

 

Differences of historical culture

A feudal centralized system: Emperor rule had been over two thousands years in China. Centralization is an important way to maintain the unity of the country.

Enterprise human resource management will be subordinated to the enterprise strategy and   provide the talent support for the enterprise.

Monarchy and city-state system: Most in European countries had been city-states. It means that the king will be in power with the support from nobles. Enterprises emphasize on multilateral cooperation in human resources management, and that is the cooperation of enterprise, government and trade union.

 

Differences of social culture

Co-residency of traditional culture and modern culture: After 1911 revolution and 1979 policy of reform and opening, traditional Chinese culture has begun to exist with modern culture. In enterprise human resources management, it has to be both factors of traditional human resource management and modern human resources management.

 

Conservative Eurocentric:

Conservative Eurocentric is popular in European countries, especial after the capitalist system established. The talent selection of European companies are mainly   held in Europe.

 

 

Institutional difference

 

Cultural factors or institutional factors have an important impact on most research about international human resource management. The national culture have directly influenced the human resource management of local enterprises.This is one of the most important reasons why there are differences of human resource management between China and Europe. Institution means that it is a rule which is obeyed by public or formed as some certain historical reasons. It is not only including the formal organizations, such as political, economic, social organizations, but also the social conventions and rules. Institutional differences are mainly reflected in political differences, economic difference and legal differences, etc. The details are shown in Table 3.

 

 

Table 3

 

 

 

 

China

Europe

Political differences

Socialism:the socialist country led by the communist party emphasizes the service to public and represents the interests of the masses of working people. The enterprise human resource management services to the entire enterprise

Constitutional monarchy:

Constitutional monarchy countries are most concentrated in Europe., The monarch is only a head of state and the state power are controlled by parliament. The human resources department has a strong position  in the company and the important functions of participating in strategy decision-making and collective bargaining.

 

Economic differences

The socialist market economic system:The running of economic system is guided by market and government. Human resource management will look for a balance between internal and external labor market to support the development of  company.

 

The capitalist market economy system: Planning is important in market economy, especially in welfare state. The recruitment of human resources management are

mainly relied on internal labor and European labor markets to meet the demand for human resources

 

Legal differences

Improvement of civil law system: Chinese modern legal system mainly draw lessons from Japan, the Japanese law is improved from the civil law of Germany and France. Human resource management emphasizes the institutionalization and improves European theories of human resource management in Chinese style

 

British common law judgments and civil law system.The judge-made law and normalized usage of civil law are very important in European legal system. The enterprise human resource management will be influenced by laws and ready for unforeseen events legally.

 

 

 

Conceptual difference

 

The concept of human resource management is to make it deeper. Innovation is one of the most important functions of the enterprise. In Germany, many companies pay a lot for the research of innovation and they are willing to take risks. If there were a failure in the research, the researchers not only would not be blamed or resigned, but also encouraged by the companies.

 

The conceptual differences of enterprise human resources management are mainly caused by the differences of operation,management and selection from the different countries and regions. The details are shown in Table 4.

 

 

Table 4

 

 

 

China

Europe

Differences of operation

Public benefits first: Chinese enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises mainly service the public and obey the government and state policy.

Enterprise human resources management emphasizes on servicing in the enterprise business,

 

Employee’s benefits first: the fundamental objective of operation is to serve

in the welfare of  employees; Enterprise human resources management is to achieve

the balance between the benefits of employees and enterprise.

 

Differences of management

Effect: the objective of  management is to ensure the success of enterprise strategies and make a contribution to performance; Enterprise human resources management emphasizes the direct effect on performance.

 

Welfare: the objective of management is to improve the social welfare and  employee benefit. Enterprise human resource management department is responsible for the distribution of employee benefit.

 

Differences of selection

Selection on people: In enterprise management, jobs and post are changed by different employees.Enterprise human resources management emphasizes the selection of people. It means to choose the right people.

 

Selection on profession: The work assignment is depended on professions of different employees. Enterprise human resources management emphasizes the professional skills of employees.

 

 

 

Standard difference

 

Human resource management can be subdivided into human resource planning, recruitment and selection, training, assessment and evaluation, compensation and welfare and labor relations management. The details are shown in Table 5.

 

 

China

UK

Differences of human resource planning

Subject to the enterprise strategic planning:  Human resources department is responsible for providing the support and services to enterprise management. The human resource planning is uncertain and dependent, as it has to obey the strategical decision of company.

 

Cooperating with the third party to make human resource planning: Enterprise is able to  optimize the allocation of human resources in Europe and have a cooperation with executive recruiters to make a “talent pool”.

 

Differences of recruitment and selection

Relationship,qualification and ability: China is a relational society and

people's qualifications and personal relationship are very important in daily life, and even have an impact on recruitment and selection. Business people. In addition to the public recruitment,the human resource department will also select talents by the recommendation from experts and employees.

 

A specific background of national culture: European companies prefer to select talents in Europe and even in their own countries,

Differences of training

Employment: A specific job training before people have been employed, such as skill training for unemployed person.

 

Be better: Government and enterprises provide the training for people to improve their existing skills.

Differences of assessment and evaluation

Ethic:  The individual ethic is very important in traditional Chinese society. In evaluation of human resource management, the individual ethic is even more important than the ability.

 

Power and responsibility: European society emphasizes the equivalence of power and responsibility at work,

The legal regulations have been made to stipulate the  standard of working time and environment. Enterprise human resource management emphasize the essential 'responsibility of employee in the company.

 

Differences of compensation and welfare

Educational background: The pay level is generally determined by personal educational background in Chinese companies. The pay level of dispatched employee is also different from that of regular employee.

The result of negotiation between trade union and enterprise: The trade union is able to set the minimum wage level for employee. The welfare level of European company is generally higher and employees are able to get a higher payment by their abilities skills and educational background.

Differences of labor relations management

Loyalty: Generally speaking, enterprises will not dismiss the employees easily and employee would like to be loyal to company. Some Chinese have work in a company for their whole lives,

Two-way choice: With the development of labor relations in Europe, the mechanism of  tripartite consultation between trade union, government and enterprise has been formed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methodology

 

General research questions

 

I have chosen the topic of human resource management to do this research The topic of my research is the differences of human resource management between China and UK. In this dissertation, I decide to analyze the differences of recruitment and selection of human resource management between these two countries. First,it is obviously that there is a large difference on recruitment and selection between China and UK. I am going to look for the reason why the differences exist.and collect the factors which cause the differences from informations of two countries.  In addition , I also have to collect evidences to analyze the details which influenced the recruitment and selection and look for the relevance of there details.

 

 

 

Informations about subjects

 

As I have chose to find the differences of human resource management between China and UK, I have to select two samples to make a comparison. The subjects I finally selected are two famous companies from there two countries, as the demand of analyzing the difference on selection and recruitment. One is China mobile company and another is British Telecom. China mobile company was established in 2000. Its main business are mobile service, network, IP telephone, data service and multimedia services.It has owned some famous brand on mobile service: M-Zone, Easyown and Go Tone. British Telecom Group is a listed company which has been one of the most famous telecommunications operators in telecom industry. It is mainly composed of five departments: BT Retail, BT Wholesale, BT Ignite, BT OpenWorld range, BT eXact. Its main business are the British long-distance business, international telecommunications services, and Internet services.There are many similar characters between these two companies: They are all telecom companies: They are all the famous international companies; They are all modern companies which have own the advanced technologies; ALL of them have been get a great success in telecom industry and market competitions, There are even some similarities on their ways and styles of recruitment and selection. On the other hand ,they are obviously different: One is in China and another is in UK: There are some significant differences on enterprise culture. It is convenient for me to collect many differences from the details of these two companies. The differences and their reasons will shown in a comparison.

 

Data collection

 

In this research, I have used many ways to collect informations for my comparison and analysis

 

1) Read the books from library: As a student, one of the most convenient ways to collect informations is to read the books of human resource management. Before I have to understand the basic theories of recruitment and selection. For example,Human Resource Management 7th edition of Torrington Derek and International Human Resource Management 3rd edition of Chris Brewster.  These theories of human resource management are the theoretical basis of my analysis and findings.

 

 

2) Make an interview: I have worked as an intern in Yiyang Branch of China mobile company. I have made a short interview to my boss, Mr Sun, who is the manager of human resource department in Yiyang Branch. During the interview, he showed some official documents of human resource management to me and simply explained the meaning of some measures in those  documents. I took the notes of this interview and used these notes as the evidences in my research.

Unfortunately, it is impossible for me to make an interview in British Telecom and what I have done is to search some informations from their official website.

 

 

3) Search the internet

 

In order to collect enough informations for my research, I have tried to search some useful informations of these two companies by internet. I have found some literatures written by famous professors on the websites of professional magazines and periodicals. There are many samples of the human resource management of China mobile company and Britain Telecom. I read some useful samples and took the note of some characters of recruitment and selection and references. I have collected enough samples to make a comparison by reading those magazines and periodical. Some specific opinions of those professors have influenced my research and I have learned a lot form their opinions.

 

 

 

4) Data analysis

After the collection of useful informations and evidences, I have made a list to have a comparison between two companies. I listed the measures or samples of recruitment or selection and looked for the differences. Then I collected these differences and started to analyze the reasons or background of them. What I should do is not to explain what two companies have done on recruitment and selection, but the reason why they prefer to take that measure on recruitment or selection. It is impossible for me to make a conclusion without the enough reasons.

 

 

5) Limitations

As my research is mainly to collect informations from library and websites,  I am not able to make a object analysis by these outdated informations. I do not know the recent innovations of human resource management of these two companies. What I can do is to make my analysis and conclusion by the informations I collected from library and periodicals.

 

 

 

 

 

Analyses and Findings

 

The topic of this dissertation is to analyze and find the differences of human resource management between China and United Kingdom.  I have made a comparison between two companies to collect informations for my research. China mobile company and Britain Telecom are all famous enterprises in telecom industry. In this dissertation, I mainly try to find and analyze their differences on recruitment and selection.

 

 

China mobile company

 

Since 2000, China mobile company has taken some measures to reform the traditional structure. The innovation of human resource management played a key role in reforming the structure. The competition between Chinese telecom industries are focus on management and talents. China mobile company keeps exploring the ways of reform in human resource management and has got some periodical results.

 

Recruitment of China mobile company

 

1) Young employees

 

China mobile company is a young telecom company which has been established in 1998 and most branch companies have been found by reorganization of other local telecom companies. Most employees of China mobile company are younger than that of other telecom companies. The details are showed in Table 6.(Lina 2003)

 

Table 6

 

 

Number of employees

Average age

Tianjing Branch

1500

34

Shenzhen Branch

700

28

Guizhou Branch

1816

32

 

The reason why employees are young is that the services provided by China mobile company are related with the new communication and network technologies. Most applies who have learned these new technologies are young people and they have been the main work force to develop the own technologies of China mobile company.

 

2) Good-educated employees

 

In management of Henan Branch,  48% of employees have got the master degree, 64% of employees have the bachelor degree and 48% of employees have the title of senior professional post: In Guizhou Branch, 44.1% of all employees have the bachelor degree. All these above show that the number of good-educated employees has taken a large percentage of the total number employees. The reason is the similar with that of the average age: The services provided by China mobile company are relied on developing the advanced technology and recruitment to good-educated appliers are very necessary in enterprise human resource management.

 

 

 

3) Technician

 

In annual job fair, most appliers who have been recruited by China mobile company are technicians or graduates whose subject is network or communication technology. The number of technician has taken a large percentage of the total number of employees and it has an impact on balance of employee structure in China mobile company. So the number of employees who work in  management and marketing department are less than that of other famous telecom companies.

It is caused by the services provided by China mobile company and recruiting the employees of management and marketing department are really hard, as the demand of working experience. With the development of enterprise human resource management, China mobile company has paid more attention to solve this problem by changing the policy of recruitment. The reason why the innovation is necessary for the development of enterprise is mainly caused by the fierce market competition in China. Although the total amount of business income and net profit in has been ranked the first in Chinese telecom industry, China mobile company are still threatened by competitions from other strong Chinese telecom companies, such as China Telecommunications and China Unicom. Although there are some differences on operations and enterprise culture,some similarities are still existed on technologies, nature and industry environment of these three companies. It is impossible for China mobile company to beat the competition only by the development of technologies. In order to win in the competition, China mobile company have chosen to take  measures to improve the management and market department.

 

4) Recruitment for employee’s welfare

 

As we all know, the traditional Chinese culture still have an impact on Chinese enterprise management, especial the human resource management.  In Chinese opinion, the future of offspring is very important to the family. Most parents would like to arrange the career for their sons and daughters. China mobile company is a famous and successful enterprise in Chinese telecom industry and the level of payment and welfare is obviously higher than that of other telecom companies. In nowadays, as the problem of a large population of China, the job competition are so fierce that many graduates can not find a good job. So many parents who work in China mobile company hope that their sons and daughters will follow their steps to find a suitable job in this enterprise. As the influence of traditional opinion and the importance of making  employees more likely to work hard and stay in their jobs, the management have passed the recruitment policy of “Offspring First”, which means that enterprise prefer to employ the offspring of employees’ than other appliers on equal terms.

 

 

5) A wild range of recruitment

As the requirement of business, China mobile company have to recruit different kinds of professionals to improve its own competitiveness: market planning, IP technology, network optimization, communication engineering, human resource management and so on. Although most appliers are graduates from universities and colleges, the professionals who has once worked in foreign-funded enterprises, international companies and other telecom companies are often found by human resource depart in interviews. With the employment of these professionals, China mobile company has been able to get more more market share in Chinese market and ready for the change of international environment.

 

Selection of China mobile company

 

1) Improve the structure and positions of company

 

In order to improve the operating efficiency of human resource management, the management have taken some measures to streamline and optimize the company structure. The job posting of  many positions of management are open to public and many young appliers who master the advanced technologies or philosophies have got the chance to be one of the management. It is good for improving the quality of the management and importing the advanced philosophies to enterprise management. After the improvement of company structure, some new positions have been set up in China mobile company: project manager, customer manager,sales manager, product manager, brand manager and so on. The selection of new positions emphasize the own quality, working experience and educational attainment of employees.

 

2) A clear classification and management of position

 

As the rules of simplifying the structure and raising the working efficiency, the management have make a decision to reset all kinds of positions in the company: manufacturing positions, technological positions and management positions. It has ensured the smooth implementation of reforming the salary system, improving the organizational management and optimizing the configuration of human resource management. Position management is the foundation of the scientific human resource management.  It will enhance the effect of position system to support

the steady development and innovation of human resource management. Position management is necessary for the modernization of enterprise management. According to steps of job analysis and job description, it will help the employees to understand the position clearly and focus on key point of their own job and realize the requirements of positions. On the other hand, position management is able to enhance the effect of internal management,allocation of positions  and work responsibilities and reduce the waste of human resources. China mobile company has paid attention to job analysis,job description and job evaluation in the construction of position system. It mainly ensures the effect of scientific,standardization, objective and institutionalization in position management, and improves the development of human resources management.

 

3) The standard and requirement of positions

 

After the rule of “competition for job” has been established, the company ask the employees to

receive formal occupational training and get related certificates before they start to work in a new position. especially for technicians and manufacturers. The human resource department will provide the related professional training lessons to different employees and hold the exams to select the talents. Many young employees who have passed the exams and win in the competition have successfully got the higher positions in the enterprise and improve the innovation of traditional selection.

 

4) The innovation of wage scale

 

The innovation of wage scale has an important impact on development of human resource management in China mobile company. The objective of new wage system is to appropriately close the payment gap between managers and ordinary employees to avoid the vicious competition for higher position. It not only ensures the employees’ steady income, but also optimizes the performance bonus scheme. Employees are able to get more performance bonus by improving the quality and efficiency of their own work.

 

5) Special position and bonus for professionals

 

In order to own more professionals of operation, management and technology. the company has set the special positions and bonus for those professionals and provided the specific training lessons for them to improve their own skills. This is a important measure to retain professionals for the future of company.

 

6) Training and self-study

 

China mobile company has provided a lot of training lessons to employees and cooperated with some famous universities and management consulting companies to hold a number of professional training classes.  Employees are also encouraged to have a self -study on their own work. As a result of the successful training policy,  the level of employees’ education background is generally higher than that of other companies in telecom industry.  Training is also a fast and effective way for employees to win in the selection and get a higher position.

 

7) Performance management system

 

The objective of China mobile's performance management system is in order to create the shareholder’s value as and the system is consisted of key indicators of performance,goals of work , and plans of improving the ability. According to take measures of routing management in the company, all employees’ work performance have been measured by these ways: objective measurements, timely supervision, effective guidance and scientific rewards and punishment. There will be something in common between the development strategy of company and employees benefit. The improvement of employees performance will directly improve the level  of performance of the company and create shareholder’s value, which means that there is a common interest between employees and enterprise. The key indicators of performance are concrete quantitative indicators to measure the individual work performance. Generally speaking,it is a direct way to measure the result of work performance and reflect the key factors which have an effect on company value creation. The setting of goals of work is on the basis of  agreement between manager and ordinary employee during making the performance plan. The agreement is mainly about the work employee should complete and the quality of result. The manager will mark the employees’s performance on the basis of standards and rules of their agreement. The plans of improving the ability means that the manager will explain the requirement of performance to employee and make a plan for employee to improve his own abilities. During the plan, employee will receive the direction from manager and training lessons from human resource department and improve his own abilities in work practice.

 

8) Traditional selection

 

In China, Confucianism has an important impact on people’s opinions. Since the ancient times, Chinese prevailing philosophy has been one that preaches "peace is most precious", "harmony without uniformity".Since the ancient times, China's prevailing philosophy has been one that preaches "peace is most precious", "harmony without uniformity". The human relation are very important in Chinese society.The personal favour and inoculation are very important in enterprise management system, especially the selection and recruitment. The employees always choose to please their immediate superiors and the managers prefer to open a gate to employees who get along with them when they have a decision-making on selection. Although China mobile company has been a modern international enterprise, it is still hard to solve this problem at current time, as the traditional opinions are impossible to change in a short time.

 

 

 

Britain Telecom

 

The description of human resource management from the official website of Britain Telecom: “Ours is a hugely competitive market environment, where advances in technology, improvements in lifestyle and increasing globalization all mean changes to the way people communicate and do business. Such transformation brings significant HR challenges. In response, we have developed a People Strategy that will enable us adapt to our changing business environment, and create the high performance organization that is fundamental to our future success. Our mission is to help transform BT into an organization of inspirational leaders and motivated, high performing, adaptable people, delivering world-class customer service within an inclusive and flexible working environment. ”

 

Recruitment of British Telecom

 

 

1) Equity

 

In BT’s opinion, one of the most effective ways to improve the development of the enterprise is to recruit the talents who you need in a wild range. The single cultural values will directly have a bad impact on development of enterprise management and operation, especially the multinational companies. The opinion of fairness and equity is very important in international companies, as the existence of many kinds of cultures, languages and manners in a company. In order to solve this problem, BT has issued the policy of equal chance. The policy is consisted of three rules: equal employment, equal payment and equal training. In the recruitment of British Telecom, every applier has the equal chance to get the job by their working experience and qualifications. All employees in BT have the right to get an equal payment depending on their abilities, skills and performances. They also have the equal opportunities to receive the training provided by BT to improve their own abilities. The equal structure of human resource in BT is showed in Table 7(Lina 2003).

 

Table 7

 

 

Management

Non-managers

Total number of employees

Women

22.9%

24.3%

23.9%

Minorities

 

7.9%

7.6%

7.7%

Disabled

1.1%

2.4%

2.0%

 

 

 

2) Keep talented people

 

In order to attract, recruit and retain the talent, BT have set the personal policy of human resource management depending on needs and psychologies of the employees. BT believes that a good enterprise should provide at least three kinds of social securities: 1) A higher level of salary and benefit than that of competitors; 2) An attractive professional training and improvement planing, including the training and studying; 3) Create a humanized working environment for all employees in the enterprise. BT believes that a higher level of salary and benefit is one of the most important way to keep the employees. The humanized working environment will make the cultivate ascription of employees to the enterprise. An attractive professional training and improvement planing has been the key point to keep the employees. So the human resource department will pay more attention to improve the professional training and improvement planning to employees.

 

A. Payment

In order to attract and retain the talents, BT offers a higher payment than that of its competitors.

With the financial support.BT rewards the excellent employee's performance. The employee's would get more bonus if he made more contribution to the enterprise than others The principle of BT could be well summarized in one sentence: “more pay for more work”.

 

B. Welfare

 

The welfare of  BT mainly includes: 1) holiday: every employee have the right to take a vacation for a certain time every year; 2) the plan of retirement pension: BT provide the retirement pension for employees to guarantee of their late lives; 3) Interest-free loans: BT also provides a special loan to employees who are the new graduates to buy something necessary for their daily lives; 4) Discount products: The employees of BT have the right to enjoy the discount of BT products and services: car,life insurance.health care,dental treatment, trip. hotel and so on. 5) The shares of BT: the employees of are able to periodically enjoy the shares provided by the company; 6) Profit sharing plan: The employees are allowed to share the profits of BT in a certain way.

 

C. The balance of work and life

 

In order to recruit and retain the talents and promote a healthy lifestyle, BT has made a great innovation on employee's work mode and tried to help employees to build the balance of work and life. It launched a plan of " work freely" to encourage the employees to freely determine their work time and office place. BT has established a series of policies related to the balance of work and life,, including flexible working time, home office work, part-time work, maternity leave (Not only to female employees, but also suitable for male employees whose wife is about to give birth), the exceptional case and so on. At present, BT has about 7500 part-time workers and approximately 5000 home workers.

 

D. Health & Safety (The description of BT’s policy from official website)

 

The role of Group Health & Safety is to ensure BT has in place leading edge strategies and policies for the successful management of occupational health, safety and employee well-being, thus minimising the risk of harm to individuals and promoting the overall success of the business.

 

 

 

The selection of British Telecom

 

 

1)Britain Telecom defines the "five abilities" as a standard of selection and recruitment. There are all more than one meaning in each ability. and details are as follow:

 

A. the interpersonal skills: The interpersonal atmosphere will influence the enterprise business atmosphere and affect the ability of the enterprise to have a success in operation. Therefore, BT requires every employee should have the ability to live in harmony with others and advocates that employees should have the attitude of honesty,integrity and open. It also encourages the clear and direct communication between employees. The Interpersonal skills are including: the ability of establishing the interpersonal trust, good communication skills with other and reach their potential.

 

B.the ability of proper planing. The employees of BT should be able to adapt themselves to the development of enterprise. Employees have to know how to use their own resources reasonably, and give play to their own competitive advantage. It is including:the ability of making a bold plan and the ability to fulfill their own potential.

 

C.the ability to seize the opportunity. BT ask employees to understand the enterprise and know how to make a personal contribution to support the success of the enterprise.Therefore, employees of Britain Telecom should be able to keep seizing the opportunities  and complete their own plans to support the development of enterprise and gain the net profit from enterprise business..It is  including: the ability to improve the enterprise growth and finish their own work..

 

D.the ability of satisfying the customers:.BT always pays more attention to benefits of customers., and regards the customers as the foundation of the enterprise existence. .Therefore, BT asks the employees learn the expectations and needs of customers, and reach an agreement with them. The employees should try their best to achieve the expectations and requirements of customers to gain the corporate profits. It is including: the ability of learning the demands of customers and having the innovation of products or services 

 

E. the ability of teamwork. Within the company, BT emphasizes the team spirit and encourage employees to break down organizational and cultural barriers to cooperate with the partners and suppliers of company. The requirements of this ability are that employees must be able to cooperate withe others and have the spirit of cooperation and share. They should learn to respect and accept the others’ differences.

 

2) The attractive training and improvement planning 

 

BT believes that the development of human beings is continuous and never to the end. Therefore, BT has provided the equal opportunity for every employee to improve their knowledge and skills. In BT’s opinion, a good enterprise which is responsible for its employees will pay attention to the individual development of employees. In nowadays, the stable job and professional career have gradually been the important factors to affect the appliers’ decision. It is a good way to attract and retain the talents. According to analyze the characteristics of each employee, BT has made the different personal development plan of their professional career. Meanwhile, BT als provided a large number of opportunities for employees to choose and compete for their professional career. The objective of BT’s training and planning is not only to help employees to do the job, but also  make them have a improvement on their positions. They have gained the working exercise and learned how to adapt to changes in the future. BT encourage the employees to increase their knowledge by a variety of ways and improve their own skills by working practice.

 

A) Training

 

BT advocates the life-long learning and has a perfect employee training plan which is including  the basic training for employees and deep systematic online and offline training for employees who intend to improve their skills. The content of .BT training is extensive, which can be roughly divided into the following aspects:

 

1) Training for creating the enterprise value : understand the goals and direction of the enterprise development. and understand your position and personal role in the management systems of enterprise.,

 

2) Training for creating the service consciousness: learn how BT get a profit and know the products and services provided by BT; help employees to have the necessary commercial awareness and understand how to satisfied the needs of customers.

 

3) Training for professional skills : provide professional training and guidance of technologies  to employees by online and offline courses; provide the training of leadership,communication skills, coordination and time management to employees. 

 

4) Other training: know the structure of your own organization and how to manage and improve yourself in BT; know the policy of equal opportunities in BT : There are no inequalities between men and women, native and foreigner, healthy people and disabled and everyone in BT shall enjoy the equal opportunities for improving themselves; help employees to have an environmental protection and safety consciousness and so on.

 

To encourage employees to have a lifelong learning, BT established the BT university based on network to provide the conditions and support to employees’ training and studying of improving the skills. BT university adopts the most advanced technology and learning management system, and provide more than 2500 electronic learning courses to provide the chances for all employees to study by BT’s Intranet. BT university also established the courses of master degree by cooperating with other universities, such as the course of computer science degree which is related to internet.The objective of establishing the BT university is not only to train people to adapt to the current position, but also help them to master the most advanced technologies and face the challenge in the future.BT believes more and more employees would like to stay in the company to improve themselves, as the lifelong learning atmosphere exists.

 

B. Improve the professional career

 

BT provide a large number of opportunities for employees to have a development in professional career. .In BT,promotion is a good and encouraged way to improve the personal career. BT often provides a number of positions for employees to choose and apply. from.In addition, BT encourages the employees to fully exert their potential and provides potential conditions BT encourages the employees to have a deeper development in their own positions and establishes up two ways for the employees to have a development in their professional career: (1) The qualification of ICT: BT has cooperated with The IEE (The Institute of Electrical Engineers) and The BCS (The British Computing Society) and encouraged the employees to get  certification of IEE and BCS. 2) The qualification of management: The CIPD (The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) and CIMA (The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusions

 

According to find and analyze the differences of human resource management between China

mobile company and British Telecom, I have learned a lot of knowledge of human resource management With a comparison of two companies, I have found some advantages and disadvantages of recruitment and selection of China mobile and British Telecom. In general, the policies and innovations of human resource management in these two famous companies are very successful, although some shortages are still existed. The main difference of human resource management between Chinese and British companies are still caused by the cultural and historical reasons. The traditional opinions still have influenced the operation of modern human resource management and this problem is not easily to be solved in a short time. China mobile company has taken many effective measures and polies to reform the traditional structure of Chinese human resource management and got the remarkable result. It changed the traditional way of recruitment to employ the young appliers who have own the advanced technologies. More and more  good-educated appliers have been hired to optimize the structure of enterprise human resource management. Therefore, it has caused the internal healthy competition for positions by improving the academic levels and professional skills. Meanwhile, China mobile company provided the different kinds of professional training to employees and both company and employee benefit from the atmosphere of training and self-studying. British Telecom emphasizes the importance of equality in human resource management and provides the equal opportunities to all employees. The way of attracting and remaining the talents are consisted of wage, welfare, work environment, equal rights and humanized atmosphere. BT has established the BT University and cooperated with other universities or colleges to provide the high quality training for employees to improve their professional skills. It has set the “five kinds of abilities” to select the suitable employees for the development of company.  It also helped the employees to learn how to satisfied the demands of customers and seize the opportunity to get a higher position or improve themselves. In addition, employees are required to have a teamwork and listen to different opinions. At present, the competitions in telecom industry have been increasingly competitive and the competition between telecommunication enterprises will be come down to the competition of talents. With the deepening of the reform of communications enterprise and structure of human resource management, China mobile company will also be faced with the problem of talent flow and erosion.How to attract and retain the talents has been the important subject for China mobile company. The opinion, methods and experience  of human resource management in BT are worth learning by China mobile company.

 

 

 

References

 

 

Torrington Derek; Hall Laura; Taylor Steven(2008) Huamn Resource Management 7th edition, Harlow: Prentice Hall

 

Chris Brewster; Paul Sparrow; Guy Vernon; Elizabeth Houldsworth(2011) International Human Resource Management 3rd edition

 

Nina BT???????????? ?2003?

 

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

 

????????????????????????????????????????????????????

 

LAW K S . TES D K . ZHOU.N Does Human Resource Management Matter in a Transitional Economy? China as An Example(J): Journal of International Business Studies, 2003,34(3): 255-263

 

HOFSTEDE G . Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Value(M): Beverly Hills; Sage Publication, 1980

 

HOFSTEDE. G Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind(M), London; McGraw-Hill, 1991

 

AYCANZ, KANUNGO R. MENDONCA M,et al. Impact of Culture on Human Resource Management Practices: A 10-Country Comparison (J) Applied Psycholody: An International Review, 2000, 49(1); 129-211

HOFSTEDE G. HOFSTEDE G J.MINKOV M. Cultures and Organizations; Software of the Mind (M) NY McGraw -Hill, 2010

 

https://www.btplc.com/Careercentre/Aboutus/Ourorganisation/BTGroup/GroupHumanResources.htm

 

Appendix

 

Proposal

 

Student Name: Xiao Yi

Student ID Number: S12797324

 

 

Title

 

Differences of Human Resource between China and UK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Context

 

Human resource management is offered as a major sequence in the Bachelor of Commerce. HR management covers recruitment, selection, training and development, workplace diversity, employee relations, performance and change management, and remuneration. In this report, I have chosen two famous companies from China and UK to find the differences of Human Resource between these two countries. China mobile company is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication company that provides mobile voice and multimedia services through its nationwide mobile telecommunications network. The company is one of the largest mobile telecommunications companies by market capitalization today and it is also the world's largest mobile phone operator by subscribers with about 740 million. British Telecom Group is a listed company which has

been one of the most famous world's leading telecommunications operators. It is mainly composed of five departments: BT Retail, BT Wholesale, BT Ignite, BT OpenWorld range, BT eXact. The main business of BT Group are including the British long-distance business, international telecommunications services, and Internet services.

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

In this report, I mainly try to find the difference of Human Resource between China Mobile Company and British Telecom. According to make the research, it will help me to understand how the human resource management runs in these companies which are in the same industry but different countries. Then I choose two important point in Human Resource Management to make this comparison : Recruitment and Selection. 1)In the narrow sense,the recruitment is to provide a group of candidates that is large enough to let managers select the qualified employees they need.In the broad sense,recruitment includes recruiting,selection,employment and assessment. 2)To employee Selection, it is a process of putting right men on right job. It is a procedure of matching organizational requirements with the skills and qualifications of people. I will make a conclusion by comparing these three aspects between two companies.

 

 

 

 

 Aims and Objectives

 

 This report is mainly to find out the differences of Human Resource between Chinese 

 company and British Company. According to the comparison, it will make me to see the 

 advantages and disadvantages caused by the difference culture and background. In 

 nowadays, the idea of free trade and integration into the global economy is accepted by 

 most countries and areas. Almost every famous company has expand market in the

 whole world. Learning the advantages from others and overcome the disadvantages of 

 itself is obviously important in current competition.

 

 

 

 Methodology

 

 In order to get the true and detailed informations to make this comparision, I mainly make  

 two ways to collect the information : Search the offical website and read the books from

 library. Furthermore, as I have worked in one company for a period of time, I get some

 detailed documents of Human resource of that company. In this comparision, I will list the

 informations of three aspect of Human Resource in there two companies and analysis

 the advantages and weakness of two sides. Meanwhile, I have to analysis the reason

 why there is a difference of Human Resource in the same industry. depending on this

 comparision.

 

 

 

Reference

 

Torrington Derek; Hall Laura; Taylor Steven(2008) Huamn Resource Management 7th edition, Harlow: Prentice Hall

Chris Brewster; Paul Sparrow; Guy Vernon; Elizabeth Houldsworth(2011) International Human Resource Management 3rd edition

 

 

 


Get in Touch With us

Get in touch with our dedicated team to discuss about your requirements in detail. We are here to help you our best in any way. If you are unsure about what you exactly need, please complete the short enquiry form below and we will get back to you with quote as soon as possible.