The Impact Of Health And Safety Management On Employee Welfare And Well-being In Hotel Industry: A Case Study Of Millennium Hotel Shanghai

This research has been conducted to find the effect of health and safety management practices on employees’ welfare and wellbeing in hotel industry of China. For conducting the research, Millennium Hotel Shanghai has been chosen. The research has been conducted through quantitative research method in which questionnaires are used to collected data from 100 employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai. The study has revealed that there is a significant positive impact of health and safety management practices on employees’ welfare and wellbeing. The hotel management should focus on health and safety management practices in business market of high competition and globalization. In order to increase welfare and wellbeing of employees, the management should highly focus on health and safety management of employees. In the end of this research, recommendations and limitations of this study are also provided.

Keywords: Health and safety management, Welfare, Wellbeing

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background

Due to increased competition and globalization, human resource management practices are considered to be very important for the success of hotel industry. The management of hotels has to formulate effective strategies for managing human resource. Employees of an organisation are considered to be very important for gaining competitive advantage, so their effective management is necessary for organisations. The hospitality industry of China has been facing difficulties and issues from last few years due to change in social, economic and political factors. In 1978, for the first time the doors for international tourism opened in China and now a day’s the industry has experienced huge growth. In order to keep employees satisfied and to enhance their wellbeing, it is very important for managers of hotel industry to provide them better facilities in working environment in which they have to work (Santos et al, 2013). Among human resource management practices, one of the most significant and advanced practice is health and safety management. In order to draw better performance from employees and to increase their level of satisfaction, it is very important for management of organisations to formulate strategies through which health and safety of employees can be protected. Some years ago the main aim of Chinese hotels was just to enhance their profits and they did not focus much on enhancing welfare and well-being of employees (Wachter and Yorio, 2014)

In order to succeed in hotel industry, the hotels have to give value and priority to health and safety management of employees. In hotel industry, a major role is played by employees, so they must be taken care properly. According to some legal compliances also, organisations have to focus health and safety management practices. The enhancement of emotional and mental health comes via tradition of work environment facilitating psychosocial demands of the workers. This tradition is implanted into the workplace’s structure and doesn’t come in the category of distinct programs of health promotion. Simple techniques can facilitate this, for instance motivating staff and managers to admire their co-workers in order to complete a job successfully, this will help a lot in creating better tradition in the workplace. In order to survive for long term, the management of hospitality industry has to initiate efforts for increasing wellbeing of employees. In order to increase performance of employees, their well-being and welfare must be enhanced by management of company (Zanko and Dawson, 2012)

In hotel industry, employees have a responsibility of direct dealing with customers, so their level of performance must be high in this regard. Employees are considered to be the most important asset of hotels, so in order to get better returns from those assets, their management must be done in an effective way. In China, hospitality industry is considered to be one of most significant industry, so its management plays a very important role in growth of industry. In order to gain long term competitive advantage, health and safety management practices must be followed by management of hotels. As, health and safety management is a new concept and it is related to high satisfaction level of employees, so this can help hotels in gaining long term success. In most of the organisations these days, significance of human resource management has been understood by managers. Due to this reason, they put continuous efforts for effectively managing the health and safety of employees. Some years back, there was not much awareness of advantages of health and safety practices by management of organisations, so they was not highly indulged towards adopting health and safety management practices. Even, organisations were not involved in providing better equipment to their employees for doing their jobs (Hughes and Ferrett, 2015)

Among the total employees working in the world, there are just 10-15% employees who have been provided with various opportunities to manage their health and safety. In hotels, there are more chances of experiencing health hasards, so for management of hotel industry it is more important to provide health and safety practices to its employees. Different studies have found that turnover rate of employees tends to increase due to issues of employees’ health and safety. When organisation does not effectively manage health and safety of employees, then, they usually prefer leaving that organisation (Cheng et al, 2012). If employees are unable to perform their duties properly due to severe headaches, difficulties in breathing, watering eyes or panic of exposure to substances which might result in long term health issues, productivity will reduce. Therefore, establishing a safe and healthy workplace not just is professional thing which should be done, but it provides advantages to the employer as well. The role of occupational health and safety measures in work environment is understood by employees, while, the major stress of their replies emphasized on happiness, emotional welfare and mental health. With the help of health and safety practices, the welfare of employees can be enhanced and this results in increasing overall efficiency of organisations. Employees are significant asset in organisations particularly in hotels, as organisations’ performance depends on performance of employees (Ko, 2013).

In an organisation healthy and safe environment helps in creating positive effect on psychological health of workers. In case when employees get secure and healthy psychological mind then this creates highly productive performance of the hotel. This has an impact on efficiency of whole workforce and quality of products and services offered by the organisation. In case of having healthy and safety working environment, there are less chances of accidents and injuries. A safe working environment also helps in improving relationship with employees and increases the level of commitment of employees. The key element of social and economic development is healthy employees. This assists in getting financial advantages for the firm.

According to a research, around 2.2 million people die while working in companies every year due to a fact that companies do not invest in health and safety management practices for employees. The health of employee plays a significant role in enhancing their wellbeing. With the help of implementing health and safety management practices, the firm can enhance performance level of employees. The health and safety management practices implemented by companies also affect GDP of country in which those companies operate. It has been estimated by Wright et al (2013) that in case no focus is given on health and safety management practices, 4% of country’s GDP is lost due to deaths of employees. This shows that it is very important for organisations to provide them effective services to employees for managing their health and safety. Different studies have been performed for analysed the impact of health and safety management practices on employee performance or satisfaction, but only few studies have been performed on impact of health and safety management practices on employee wellbeing and welfare (Bratton and Gold, 2012).

This study has focused typically on hotel industry of China, as there is more employee involvement in hotels as compared to other organisations. The study has been done to evaluate the impact of health and safety management practices on employee wellbeing and welfare. In order to conduct study, Millennium Hotel Shanghai has been chosen as case study.

1.2. Problem Statement

In all kinds of organisations, employees are considered to be an important asset. In order to survive in competitive business world, the organisations have to focus on their employees. The organisations usually do not consider employees as an asset, rather than that they are considered to be expenses for organisation. Due to this, they do not prefer investing on employees. This results in low morale of employees and they prefer leaving the organisation. In order to retain employees for longer period of time, focus must be given on increasing wellbeing and welfare of employees (Longoni et al, 2013).

When employees do not get proper protection from management and different aspects of health and safety management of employees are ignored by management of hotels then this result in different issues. In order to get high performance from employees of hotel, the management has to ensure proper health and safety management of employees. This is considered to be very important for hotels these days as this affects overall success and performance of hotels (Gravel et al, 2011).

It has become crucial for organisations to understand the importance of employees for long term success and profitability of organisation. In order to increase profitability of business, it is important for organisations that in addition to other practices, health and safety management practices of employees must be strictly adopted by firms (Walker, 2015). It has become significant for organisations to focus on health and safety management of employees, as it contributes a lot to employee welfare and this in turn enhance employees’ contribution towards achieving mission and goals of organisation. Health and safety management of employees in organisations has become significant as it directly affects employees working in that organisation. This has been very important for firms to know about ways of managing health and safety of employees for enhancing their welfare as well as well-being (Dollard and Neser, 2013).

1.3. Aim

The aim of this research is to improve employee well-being and welfare for performance employees and for a high productive workforce. The research will also use a case study of Millennium Hotel Shanghai.

1.4. Objectives

The research objectives are:

  • Review health and safety literature in the hospitality hotel industry in China
  • To examine the impact of health and safety management practices on employee welfare in hotel industry
  • To analyse and synthesize health and safety management practices on employee welfare and well-being in Millennium Hotel Shanghai.
  • To evaluate the significance of employee well-being and welfare in the hotel industry.
  • To make recommendation for health and safety management improvement in the hotel industry

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1.5. Research Questions

This following research will be used questions;

  • What is the importance of well-being and welfare of employees for organisations?
  • What is the impact of health and safety management practices on employee well-being?

1.6. Methodology

In present study, quantitative research approach has been used in which primary data is collected. The primary data for study has been collected with the help of questionnaires. In questionnaires, items related to independent and dependent variables were included and these questionnaires were distributed to employees of hotel. In order to conduct this study in a more appropriate and effective way, case study analysis method has been used in which case of Millennium Hotel Shanghai is studied. The data has been collected from 30 employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai through questionnaires and after collection of data, it has been analysed with the help of SPSS.

 

1.8. Scope of Study

The scope of this research is hotels in China and employees working in hotels are considered to be participants of study. The main focus of this research is on Millennium Hotel Shanghai. As research issue is health and safety management that is typically related to employees, so participants of research are employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai. For ensuring higher generalizability of research, large sized hotel has been selected.

 

1.9. Structure of dissertation

 

The research includes five chapters. First chapter is about Introduction of whole research in which mainly background of research topic is discussed. In addition to this, research objectives, aim and research questions are discussed in this chapter. This chapter also discusses problem statement and scope of study.

The next chapter in this study is  the Literature Review. In this chapter, all the important factors about health and safety in hotel industry in China will be discussed. Studies related to research topic have been analysed. This chapter is written for finding the gap between literature and researches done previously related to domain of research. In this chapter, theoretical framework is also given.

After second chapter, next chapter is the Research Methodology. In this chapter, the different research methods are analysed, to understand and select the  most suitable one for this research work. Those methods have been discussed that have been used for conducting the research. The justification for selection of methods has also been given.

The fourth chapter is the Analysis and Findings. In this chapter, different tests have been run for analyzing the data collected from respondents. This chapter  discusses findings on the basis of analysis done.

The last chapter is the Conclusion and Recommendations. This chapter has discussed the overall conclusion of research. The chapter also discusses limitations of research and areas for future research. In the end, recommendations have also been given to management of hotels operating in China for improving their health and safety management practices.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

This chapter is about analysis of previous literature done on health and safety management practices of hotel industry. First of all in this chapter, definition of health and safety management is assessed. After this different researches related to health and safety management in organisations are studied for analysing their findings about the research topic. In addition to this, in this chapter the researcher studied different researches related to the impact of health and safety management practices on welfare and well-being of employees. In the end, health and safety management practices typically in hospitality industry and then hotel industry of China are analysed. This chapter has helped the researcher in identifying the research gap.

2.2. Definition of health and safety

In accordance with Hasle and Limborg (2006) occupational health can be termed as

  • “the promotion and maintenance of highest type of physical, mental and social well-being of workers at every level”
  • the prevention among various workers of different departures which were outcome of the condition of working; the protection of workers in employment term from risks which were caused because of the factors that are injurious to health, the management and placing of worker in such surrounding which is appropriate for both physiological and psychological capabilities;
  • and for briefing the adaption of job related to work compatibility to man and man to some particular job. As Koehn and Datta (2003) described safety as “a control over the recognized hasards for increased the risk level’.

According to Kheni et al (2010) health and safety is termed as a universal factor which should be considered specifically in small and medium companies has been avoided for such a long time period in Africa and due to this, there is an increment in the accidents which are occurring in medium and small organisations at almost daily basis.

2.3.2. Health and Safety Management in Organisations

Large firms usually have better health and safety record. They have the resource to improve health and safety (Groves et al, 2013). However, medium and small companies are not supported much by management as people mostly tend to look over increasing profits instead of improving the working conditions that is why it resulted into poor health and safety of employees (Vinodkumar and Bhasi , 2011). In addition to this, companies do not produce the risk management system it results into the increasing number of accidents. Some of the owners of small organisations do own more experience regarding the technology and recent machinery which is produced in the developed countries that is why the immediate outcome is not to utilize them in an efficient way which is responsible for accidents (Carbonari et al, 2011). Researchers have been done on the occupational health practice in the countries of SADC stated that “workers get to know about the chemical, psychological and physical hasards that emerge because of the types of industrial procedures and working organisations” (Quinlan and Bohle, 2009).

With reference to Torp and Moen (2006), there are various costs to undergo both in avoiding accidents together with cost of accident and in providing safe working environment. For example, cost being taken in order to replace tools and damaged parts. A lot of assistance is provided by in order to give financial support, it is also the reason why a lot of time at work is spent by majority of people while simultaneously, majority of the employee encounter various health dangers which are physical ,chemical and psychological both nature of work and the environment of workplace affect employee health.      

2.4. Impact of Health and Safety Management Practices on Employees Well-being and Welfare in organisation

According to Ismail et al (2012) high effectiveness, job performance and job satisfaction are the core outcomes of healthier enterprises and efforts which are being progressed to establish better Occupational Safety and Health with much improved performance and organisation’s output by various state trade unions, employers and agencies. The progression in technology at enterprises has resulted in enhancements in organisation’s output in majority of progressed corporations while, on the other hand a major impact of this is also on safety and health of employee at enterprise because of hasard connected with the progressed technology (DeJoy et al, 2010). Safety and Health has a significant act in the enterprise and it is entitled as right of workforce at a section which is safe and healthy, a legal workplace, the workers who are involved in working at such healthier and secure workplace likely to strong psychologically more as well as their physical and mental strength supports them in enhancing their efficiency and performance of job as described by Wilkins (2011).

In accordance with Granerud and Rocha (2011) health and safety are entitled as most important in enterprise for moral and psychological reasons. A right is always there for the employees to perform in the atmosphere which is legal and secure. A healthy, safe and strong atmosphere results in much positive impact on psychological health of the employee. If workers will have secure and peaceful psychological mind, this will help a lot in productive performances of the organisations. This affects the efficiency of workers and quality of services or products. Where there will be a secure workplace, there will be less number of accidents. A safer workplace also makes enhancements in relations of workers and facilitates the commitment of workers to work’s quality. The core aspect for social and economic progression is that employee should be healthy. This will assist a lot in achieving financial benefits for the company. As role is played by employees as backbones of the firm, massive and arbitrary employment of various children, women and groups became the order (Nahrgang et al, 2011). Many of the workers were noted to be inexperienced and unskilled on various kinds of duties that were a part of occupation. Workers then change into major risk group. Poor and unsecure working conditions, new tool’s invention, inauguration of progressed industries, relevance of latest instruments for development of mass and few other mechanisms resulted in very major issue for the workers. This leads to various hasards which employee faces and also their families along with them. The employees become exposed to a lot of accidents and various occupational diseases which were resulted from diseases like malnutrition, infestation of worm, malaria and various other hasardous diseases (Badri et al, 2012).   

In order to ensure improvement in well-being of employees, the management of hotels has to focus on providing good working environment to employees. Working environment is considered to be an important factor that affects well-being and welfare of employees. Good working environment results in reduction of turnover. This increases the confidence level of employees, their motivation level and achievement of goals. The personal needs of employee related to working environment have to be properly fulfilled in order to increase their satisfaction level. Working environment is an important factor that affects health and safety of employees. It has been proposed by Wilkins (2011) that there are two important components of working environment; climate and culture. These two factors help in achieving long term goals that result in increasing employees’ performance through ensuring improved well-being.

The disparities between the understanding of employee and employer of workplace health were obvious. A strong emphasis on Occupational Health and Safety was apparent for employers, with procedures and policies cited by employers to avoid any kind of injury and sustain personal safety. Emphasis is also putted by employers on productivity, with a required prerequisite ‘health’ for being ‘capable of dealing’ with needs of job in order to fulfil the desired standards of the job (Hughes and Ferrett, 2015). Activities like counseling, management facilitation, Occupational health and safety measures, supervision and training were acknowledged to be health of the workplace. It was believed that these activities help a lot to enhance psycho-emotional ability and physical capabilities to deal with the position demands. This also became a part of definitions of health of workplace. It was felt by some workers that health of workplace is more than an ability to perform what one has asked to (Eakin et al, 2010). However, it was suggested by others that health of workplace comprise of giving conditions for own growth and permitting employees to be at the top which they can be via opportunities given to them within the organisation. A humanistic belief was the base of this view that workers were allowed to have opportunities in order to improvement themselves at the job (Goetsch, 2013).

The management in organisations has to focus highly on mental health of employees in order to increase their level of productivity. There is an increased evidence of global effect of mental illness. Through problems related to mental aspect, people become disabled. The effect of mental health issues in the workplace has many serious outcomes not only on single individual but also on productivity of whole organisation (Havold, 2010). The performance of employees, rate of illness, turnover ratio, accident and absenteeism are all affected by mental health status of employees. In UK, it has been estimated that in organisations 80 million days are lost each year just because of mental illness of employees due to which employers have to bear high cost. So, it is important for companies to focus on mental health of employees for ensuring their welfare and well-being (Gravel et al, 2011).

In addition to mental health of employees, other significant aspects that affect welfare and well-being of employees are stress at workplace and long working hours. Employees feel unhealthy when they have to face high level of stress at workplace. Generally, employees do not have stamina of working for long hours at one single place. So, due to long working hours mostly employees does not feel satisfied and due to this reason their performance and productivity is affected. The management of companies has to ensure that employees are provided with stress free working environment. They must feel comfortable while working in an organisation. In this way, the management can increase their motivation level and can build long term relationships with employees (Kheni et al, 2010). 

According to Boyle (2015) safety and health plays an important role at workplace and it is the right of employees to perform at safe and healthy workplace which is also legal. The workers who perform in safe and healthy environments tend to be psychologically strong and support is provided by this psychological strength to enhance their job performance and efficiency.

Safety and health is significant for the employees working in a workplace for psychological, moral and legal reasons. There is a legal right for the employees to perform in healthy and safe workplace. Productivity and job performance of the workers reduce because of the dangers of health at workplace. These health hasards can be loud noise at working environment which causes breathing issues, headaches or anxiety of contact to these kind of things which can result to health hasards in log run (Robson et al, 2012). Hence, this exhibits that creating safe and healthy workplace for the workforce benefits employers as a result of increased performance by the employee in safe and healthy environment as stated by Kristiansen (2013) the workplaces which are unhealthy, is a major concern for many people. If employees are unable to perform their duties properly due to severe headaches, difficulties in breathing, watering eyes or panic of exposure to substances which might result in long term health issues, productivity will reduce. Therefore, establishing a safe and healthy workplace not just is professional thing which should be done, but it provides advantages to the employer as well. The role of occupational health and safety measures in work environment is understood by employees, while, the major stress of their replies emphasized on happiness, emotional welfare and mental health. It is reported by employees that working in respectful environment will provide good emotional health, however, working in an unhealthy and unsafe workplace will result in poor emotional heath which will ultimately result poor for organisational performance (Badri et al, 2012).

Commitment and dedication by every management level to World Health Problems programs and a respectful tradition was an encouraging element for workers to take part in programs and transformed respectful features. The level of management which fails to show commitment to world health problems and doesn’t support their employees in such programs, the workers feels less encouraged to take part in world health problems programs. It has been revealed by a worker who worked in a biggest of the companies and whose role was to promote wellbeing and health in work environment that achieving the support of top level executives for the initiatives of health promotions was complex sometimes because of the competing preferences (Ramli et al, 2011). The downturn of business could be because of the prioritization of major business. This is the only reason to the business downturn, while quick business development was one more reason provided for deficiency of support of management for the programs of world health problems (Dollard and Bakker, 2010).

The mental and emotional welfare which was reported by workers as being very much impacted by their work environment hasn’t fascinated the funding or same interest as enhancement campaigns of physical health like health checks of Victorian state government financed work. The enhancement of emotional and mental health comes via tradition of work environment facilitating psychosocial demands of the workers. This tradition is implanted into the workplace’s structure and doesn’t come in the category of distinct programs of health promotion. Simple techniques can facilitate this, for instance motivating staff and managers to admire their co-workers in order to complete a job successfully, this will help a lot in creating better tradition in the workplace (Lee et al, 2010). It is appreciated by the employees when their role is known by the management and significantly management knows exactly the way their employees are performing. These calculated were facilitated in quantitative research by Zalk et al (2010). He reported that workers respond emotionally to their intuition of being facilitated and valued by the workplace and this influence the physical and mental health of the employee in turn. Good characteristics of the organisation are stage from where health programs of the organisations can be introduced. Lacking elements like support of good management, flexibility of job and better communication, any programs tend to suffer because of deficiency of interested members or deficiency of desired results (Havold, 2010).

According to Geldart et al (2010) giving supportive workplace and enhancing the culture of workplace are necessary to make sure the success of programs related to employee health. The aim of such programs should be to make sure that good health behaviors comes in organisational culture of the workplace. For a number of firms this demands a change in theory in order to show interventions in long-term programs, but being a part of tradition of organisation. For achieving this, it is important to have complete support of the management and dedication towards the aims of program.

The shifting philosophy behind safety and health legislation from start of 1970 to end of 1990s was usefully captured by Moraru (2012). This philosophy had initial emphasis on description of standards, to change towards questions on the way to best gain adequate standard of care. This campaign from the demands of legislative to best practice guiding principles and risk management attract attention to the requirement to analyse the direction of future potential for the alteration. For instance, it is examined by Kennedy et al (2010) that inferences of development in more adaptable work applications for involvement of worker in occupational health and safety. It is argued by them that structural shift lined with the turn down in density of union, the progress in home-based and casual work and enlargement in subcontracting have all aided in weakening the provisions of occupational health and safety arrangements. It is contented by them that there is the demand of solving these problems in growth of innovative and new regulatory and non-regulatory approaches, for example in utilization of mobile spokesmen to show the interest of employee in these newly appearing types of small discrete work environments, on the other hand Bain highlighted issues over the propensity for strong business groups to persuade legislative bodies over alleged ‘business constraints’ of regulation of safety and health (Chileshe and Dzisi, 2012).

With reference to Lai et al (2011), methodical occupational health and safety management has the objective to recognize sources of ill-health an injury initially in the process of manufacturing and to establish remedies before the happening of any ill-health or injury. This was seen by them as a consequence of focus of quality management on achieved managerial accountability, and methodical, integrated production management as well. It is asserted by D?jus and Antuchevi?ien? (2013) that the efficient risk management rests at its centre, particularly, the methodical recognition of dangers, risk control and assessment, review and analysis of risk control computations to make sure they are applied and sustained efficiently.  

Provided the looseness and understood breadth of the definition mentioned above, methodical occupational health and safety management is present in large number of different voluntary and mandated forms and these are at diverse environmental levels. The initial reasoning for current growth of safety and health management processes is the attainment of healthy and safe work environments. The core standard for success is minimization in severity and prevalence of disease and injury related to work. Case study and descriptive accounts certify the success of specific organisations in enhancing performance of safety and health following collaborative effort to enhance the management of safety and health (Spath, 2011).  

Over previous 15 years, research and theory targeting on the psychological health in the organisation has given innovative and new ways of measuring and conceptualizing the effect of healthy initiatives of organisation. The description of health organisation given by Mearns et al (2010) is any company that increase the integration of workers objectives for welfare and objectives of organisation for productivity and profitability. This definition recommends that when any company succeeds in fulfilling its mission of becoming a healthy workplace, the company and individuals present in the organisation should be taken into account. The requirement for dual consideration of individual along with the company is epitomized by the argument that are practiced by the human source are progressive only if the concern for the results of organisation match with the concern of employees’ wellbeing which have direct impact of practices.

Well-being of employees depict the emotional, mental and physical facets of health of employee, synergistically acting for influencing individuals in a very complex way Carayon (2011) basically there is no agreement on the best identifier of well-being of employee and different kinds of well-being of employee have consequences for the company. Significantly, research and theory has targeted the constructs like climate, organisational commitment, motivation, stress, employee morale, job satisfaction, general mental health and general physical health. Generally, the outcomes of research have shown that different conceptualizations are significant for the interpretation of employees’ wellbeing but none of the research has done comparison of different constructs for determining their significance (Gravel et al, 2011).

Zin and Ismail (2012) described the programs of health promotion as all “efforts that increase the alter behaviour, increases acknowledgement and develop environments that support good health exercises”. In accordance with the PATH model, organisational exercises have five major categories, under which large number of health policies and programs that are used by the organisation for achieving maximal well-being of employee and effectiveness of organisation can be classified.

2.5. Impact of health and safety program

Health and safety programs tend to increase the mental and physical health of employees with the help of treatment, assessment and prevention of potential health issues and risks (Flum et al, 2010). Assistance programs of employee for drug addiction and alcohol, safety training, counselling, stress management training, and wellness screenings are some of the instances of potential programs that are implemented by the organisation for increasing the health and safety of employees. A comprehensive literature review has been conducted by Cigularov et al (2010) of 72 researches for investigating the link in between organisational productivity and factors of health risk, described in terms of illness-linked absenteeism and costs of health care. They stated that enhanced expenditures related to the health care and absenteeism because of illness was linked with too much stress, occurrence of multiple factors of risk, and excessive weight of body. The review done by Breslin et al (2010) did the evaluation of the influence of programs of health promotion on the productivity of organisation. Across different research studies, programs of health promotion were linked with the expenditures of health care and lower absenteeism. The ratio of average cost-advantages for program savings of health promotion linked with less number of costs of health care was 3.48, for each dollar spent, a cost saving of $ 3.48. In the report the ratio of average cost-benefit was stated as 5.82 for health promotion program savings linked with the expenditures of absenteeism. On the whole, the review of Aldana provides support to the idea that higher health risks are linked with the performance of organisation. Along with it, the review recommends that programs of health promotion do positively influence the effectiveness of company when explained in terms of absenteeism and expenditures related to health care. A review done by Tombs and Whyte (2013) gave extra support for the results made by.  Zin and Ismail (2012) observed 12 of the researches and supported the results that decrement in the absenteeism and expenditures of health are possible with the help of application of initiatives of health program. The influence of practice of health and safety are applicable to the results of organisations and employee, aside from the factors of health risk, absenteeism and health care expenditures. For instance, as Hamel et al (2012) stated that there is a negative connection in between the stress and support of organisation and perception of employees.

Application of healthy organisation initiatives, like those being designed for the promotion of health and safety, are some type of support for organisation. Provision of this type of support is quite beneficial for employees, and as a result they experience less stress. Stress of employees may be focused directly with the help of stress management programs of worksite. Research identifies that training of stress management motivates employees to get engaged in extra role conducts and makes improvements in the well-being of employee, described as assumed stress, depression and affect (Papadopoulos et al, 2010). Along with it, companies stands for getting advantages from the programs of stress management, which have been proven to enhance the productivity and are reducing the absenteeism. The development of programs of Employee Assistance, like drug abuse or alcohol counselling is another chance for companies to depict their concern and commitment for employees. Organisations that want to depict commitment to employees may get advantage from the commitment by employees. Along with this, decrement of destructive conducts like drug abuse or alcohol abuse results into positive outcomes of organisation, involving decrement in the accidents and absenteeism of employees (Sargeant and Giovannone, 2011).

2.6. Hospitality Industry

The hospitality industry is a service industry that involves lodging, theme parks, restaurant, event planning and transportation within the tourism sector. The hospitality industry in all around the world depends on leisure time availability and extra income of individuals. The hospitality industry is growing at rapid pace all around the world. The management of hotel industry has to considerably focus on human resource management as human resource is considered to be key to success of this industry (Hamer et al, 2012). The importance of hospitality industry cannot be denied for any economy’s development. In this era, where tourism activity is continuously increasing, the role of hospitality industry has become critical for the economic development of the countries. interestingly, this industry is crucial not only for developed countries, but developing countries are also taking advantage from the growth of this industry (Gursoy et al., 2015).

2.6.1. Hotel Health and Safety Management

As an employee-intensive industry, the hotel industry has to always focus on health related issues of employees. The human resource management in hotel industry has a considerable focus on welfare and well-being of employees by ensuring their health and safety. In many hotels, management does not focus on occupational health and safety of employees that result in high turnover of staff (Arocena and Núñez , 2010). When management does not protect workers and ignore human resource management then this creates various problems for managing employees’ performance. Currently, different researchers are putting extra efforts for findings solutions to these issues in method of human resource management. In order to manage the employees in an efficient and effective manner, their health and safety management is considered to be most important. In every hotel, employees must be led by human resource management from the effects by no matter the environmental issue or their personal issue (Santos et al, 2013).

Due to inappropriate following of health and safety measures, more than 200 individuals are killed each year due to accidents at workplace. More than 2 million individuals are suffered from illness each year in hotel industry due to lack of health and safety management practices. For the management in hotel industry, it is the responsibility for making necessary arrangements to prevent accidents and illness of workers. Good health and safety management practices make employees competent and ensure long term growth and survival of hotels. So, in hotel industry it is very important to maintain health and safety of employees (Hohnen and Hasle, 2011).

2.7. Hotel Industry of China

The economy of China is facing various structural changes driven by hospitality industry and trend of tourism. Due to the decrease in real estate market and investment in fixed investment, the hotel industry of China has faced considerable change. The sensitivity level of hotel investors has been increased regarding financial returns and they have started focusing on various strategies through which performance level can be enhanced. The occupancy rate in market of China is increased in a similar way of growth in gross domestic product of China. The average rates on daily basis are almost same. There is a continuous increase in domestic tourism in China, due to which the hotel industry is also facing boom. However, the rate of international tourists is low in China’s hospitality industry (Kheni et al, 2012).

From last five years, the hotel industry in China has experienced a growth of 8% to an approximated $58.6 billion. However, the growth of hotel industry in China has been reducing over the time period. One of the bright years in hospitality industry of China was 2010, because of Shanghai Expo and Guangzhou Asian Games. These events resulted in increase of foreign tourists due to which country’s hotel industry experience a sudden growth. After this the country experienced a decline from 2012 to 2014 and then in 2015 the number of international tourists was increased by 3.5%. The development of hospitality industry in China is strongly affected by foreign enterprises. These enterprises have introduced concepts of brand and chain management and high standards of service in hotels of China (IBIS World.com, 2016).

The level of hospitality industry concentration in China is very low and there are top four players in market that are Shangri-la Hotels and Resorts, Shanghai Jinjiang International Hotels Development, InterContinental Hotels Group, Guangdong (International) Hotel Management Holdings. They account for integrated 4.7% market share in 2016. There are different other players in market but they have very small market share. The market of hotel industry is highly dynamic and industry experience rapid change in market share ever year (Hon et al, 2013).

2.7.1. Health and Safety in Hotel in China

In China, health and safety management of employees is considered to be one of the most significant human resource management practices in hotels. It has been understood by management of hospitality industry in China that poor level of health and safety at hotels can lead to accidents and illness. This also results in high costs for hotels (Chan and Wong, 2006). In China most of hotels have understood the importance of health and safety management for improving reputation of hotels for customers, regulators and more importantly for own staff. The management of hotels meet both legal and moral obligations for ensuring high performance of employees at workplace (Stone and Grønhaug, 1993; Tam, Zeng, and Deng, 2004). The workers in hotels are not forced to work in environment where their wellbeing is at risk. The management of hotels in China also ensure safety of employees during their working hours. In case of having injury to any worker, the management provides quick recovery service to that employee. This shows that in most of hotels health and safety management practices are implemented in hotels of China (Yim King Penny, 2007), but there is still need of more focusing towards occupational health and safety of employees for increasing welfare and wellbeing of employees. In order to get competitiveness by hotels and for developing the economy of China through hospitality industry, the management of hotels has to focus on maintaining health and safety of employees. In hotel industry, employees are considered to be most important factor that can affect overall image and performance of hotels, so it is very important for management of hotels to ensure health and safety of employees. They must formulate such strategies through which a hotel can ensure better safety of employees. This would positively affect the economic development of China.

2.8. Summary

Healthy and safety has been known by various terms used by different researchers in their work, while health and safety is most common and universal terminology.  There are various direct and indirect costs associated with health and safety management systems, therefore, small and medium organisations often hesitate to adopt this. Organisations that introduce occupational health and safety management system for their employees are more likely to have employees with greater job satisfaction, job performance, high effectiveness, enhanced efficiency, psychological and physical health, lesser accidents, improved psycho-emotional and physical capabilities,  improved commitment and dedication and mental and emotional welfare of the employees. While analysing the impact of health and safety system, it is found that cost on health and safety management is linked with the cost on health promotions and absenteeism. The hospitality industry which is human resource-intensive industry has greater role of occupational health and safety management systems. When proper health and safety management systems are not implemented in hospitality industry, it results in accidents, poor health and negative impact on employees’ wellbeing and welfare. This ultimately negatively influences the hotel’s survival. As China’s tourism is continuously increasing, hence, the role of hospitality industry is crucial for China’s development. The importance of health and safety management systems has been realized by many hotels in China. Though, this is resulting in positive result but there is much more to explore that how it is associated with wellbeing and welfare of employees.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter set out the procedures for carrying out the primary research which describes the procedure and method used for collection of data and for the selection of sample. Saunders et al research onion has been used in this research for forming the structure of methodology of research. This chapter involves the discussion done the methods, of research, and contains the description of sample size and sampling. Along with it, advantages and disadvantages of research are also discussed at the end due to the reason that there some limitations of methodology.

Along with it, before devising the research methodology, it is significant to do the selection of sample and for contacting people from whom data collection have been done due to the reason that they are the basic source of data. For this objective, researchers have used questionnaire for employees of sample organisation and the target of research was provided to them.

Methodology of research has a major significance in any research. The research validity is dependent on the methodology which is followed (Heely and Perry, 2000). There are some threats to the validity and reliability of research when there is no planned methodology (Kothari, 2004).  In absence of such rigorous methodology, the generalization of research cannot be done (Kumar and Phrommathed, 2005). The methodology of research used in the research is described over here. The research has made attempts to maintain the standards of an effective research and have done compliance with the standards. The researchers have taken into account that the research and the acquired outcomes will prove to be misleading. That is why researchers have taken into account the problem during the conduction of research. In this chapter, first of all different options of methods are given and then description for that method is given. After that there is a description of research instrument that has been used in research for collecting the data. The next step is piloting and after that explanation about sampling is given. In addition to this, the chapter includes the detail of data collection and reliability and validity of data. In the end, summary of whole chapter is given.

Choice of research methodology

Two approaches can be used by researchers in the researches. These approaches are quantitative and qualitative approach. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of research has been given for the justification of selection of approach in the current research.

Qualitative Research Method

A researcher translates or interprets the real meaning of terminologies relevant to different procedures with the help of qualitative approach (Bryman, 2004). For doing in depth analysis, qualitative approach proves to be helpful. For collection of data, different techniques can be used under the qualitative approach (Gummenson, 2000). The procedures which have been used for data collection are observations, unstructured interviews, case studies and target group discussions. The data which is collected is like various techniques such as debriefing, trace evidences, content analysis and behavioural observations (Cooper & Schindler, 2007).

For the generation of more information content, these techniques and methods are quite helpful (Smith, 2008). For the development of knowledge, this information proves to be helpful. However, it is important to note that qualitative approach is linked with the biasness of research. It is quite hard to have control over the personal biasness. Due to this issue of limitation, a research may not be much generalized and reliable. That is why different researchers are having the view that some questionable outcomes are generated because of the qualitative approach (Creswell, 2007). 

Quantitative Research Method

Quantitative approach does the quantification of every element in the research. Research utilises different techniques for quantification of concepts and events. In this approach, the basic feature is quantification (Bodgan and Bilikan, Undated). Even the quantification of qualitative information has also been done through different scales. The collection of data is done with the help of surveys, secondary data collection methods and structured interviews. The methods used to do the analysis in quantitative approach are regression, correlation, descriptive and reliability analysis. Regression and correlation analysis are used for analysing the relationship between independent and dependent variables. In addition to this descriptive analysis is used for summarizing the sample. In case of quantitative research method, reliability analysis helps in assessing the consistency of questionnaire with the research issue (Creswell and Miller, 2000). For controlling the biasness of research, quantitative approach proves to be helpful. This characteristics of quantitative approach helps in making the research more reliable and there is more generalisation this way. However, the content of information which is generated with the help of this approach is quite limited and analysis can be done using this approach (Miles and Huberman, 1994).

Research Method Adopted

In current study, mixed research method has been adopted according to which both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used. This mixed procedure permits to explore the issues of research with the help of quantitative methods and validation of outcomes through such quantitative methods, which increase the accuracy of outcomes. Along with it, the method also allows to collect valid and reliable data, decreasing the personal biasness and to have wider perspective (Patton, 2002). These approaches of research are chosen for acquiring full information from the hotel related to health and management practices. In accordance with the research nature, both quantitative and qualitative approach is used. The researcher has done the integrations of qualitative (interpretivism) and quantitative (positivism) approach in the research which transforms it into a mixed procedures approach or it also transforms it into a pragmatic research where different kinds of methods are utilized in implementation.

The integration of these approaches proves to be appealing and suitable for the research. By using qualitative approach, more information can be generated. The usage of different methods gives more information related to the health and safety practices of Millennium Hotel Shanghai. In this research, the health and safety issues are under investigation and for in detail research, it is significant to use mixed procedure approach for the identification of detailed and accurate outcomes related to the problem. On contrary to this, by using the quantitative approach, the biasness is controlled and more generalized and reliable outcomes are generated.

There are some of the limitations of approach but through using them in implementation can provided in detailed results. Along with it, the mixed methodologies are used frequently in researches in various fields. That is why, it let the researcher to do the collection of data rigorously and analysis of data becomes easier. Along with it, mixed approaches let the researcher to do the contrast and comparison of outcomes and this makes the data analysis crucial and more effective because of reasoning. The collection of qualitative data is done from Millennium Hotel Shanghai. The collection of quantitative data has been done from the employees of Hotel. At first, the collection of qualitative data is done then collection of quantitative data is done. The qualitative data helps in exploring the issues of research on contrary to this; quantitative data does the validation of findings.

Development of research instrument

In order to collect data from respondents, researcher used questionnaire as a research instrument (as shown in Appendix A). The questionnaire consisted of close ended questionnaires related to variables under study. First of all, there were a section of demographic variables in which questions related to demographics of respondents were asked. The demographic variables used in questionnaire were age and gender. For gender, two options male and female was given and for age there were five options available and respondents can choose from them. After this there were different items related to health and safety management practices and after this there were items related to well-being and welfare of employees.

In the health and safety management sections, there are questions addressing the top management issue of policy, leadership, resource, organisation, implementation the in hotel.

In the welfare and well-being section there are issue relating to the employee and worker issue of the duty of care, facilities, worker time.

The structured questionnaire was prepared based on information gathered from previous researches. In questionnaire, five point likert scale was used in order to ensure quantification. In accordance with Babbie (2015), as it has lesser points in this scale so this helps in easily interpreting the data. The validation of questionnaire is done through the factor analysis and conformity with supervisor. The researcher also developed questionnaire on internet and to some respondents it was sent via email. The respondents were not forced to fill questionnaires and enough span of time was given to them. In questionnaire close ended questions were used in order to quantify the responses easily. After developing the questionnaire, researcher also got it tested by some expert related to the field of study.

Piloting

In order to test reliability of instrument used to conduct the research, pilot test is conducted (Healy and Perry, 2000). Before final collection of data and its analysis, pilot testing was done in which researcher collected data from 10 respondents in the start through questionnaires.

 In questionnaire, to assess findings and to reach at results of research issue, it was very important to add questions related to all variables used in the study. The first pilot was done, by given the original work to my supervisor, who helped to refining the question. The Chinese version made from the edited English version was sent out to specific Chinese worker. The feedback won used to refine the questionnaire further.

Due to this reason, five questions related to health and safety management practices that were independent variable and five questions related to welfare and well-being of employees were added in questionnaire. With the help of this, researcher did pilot testing of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Questionnaires were distributed to only 10 respondents in order to know that whether or not questionnaire will be easily understood by respondents. In addition to this, regression and correlation analysis are also done for knowing the possibility of research hypothesis and the possible direction of relationship. After pilot testing, researcher found two questions that had to be refined. Those questions were related to health and safety management but that was related to construction companies, so researcher changed that in accordance with hospitality industry.

3.6Data Collection

There are two kinds of methods through which data can be collected. These two methods are primary and secondary data collection method (Marczyk et al, 2005). In this research, both primary and secondary data is collected in order to draw valid conclusions. In case of primary data, the data was collected from 100 employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai. The primary data is collected through questionnaires.

The primary data is a data that is collected for the first time and there is no prior existence of this type of data (Peffers et al, 2007). The questionnaires used for primary data collection by sending email. The data collection was very tough for researcher as respondents are usually concerned about privacy issue and they usually have a fear that company might penalize them for sharing information about the company. The data was collected from employees through their own will. None of the employees were forced to fill questionnaires. All the respondents were being explained about the research topic. In addition to this, the respondents were ensured that research will keep the confidentiality and none of the respondents were individually identified. Before distribution of questionnaires, the respondents were provided with cover letter related to the purpose of research. In these cover letters, the apprehensions of respondents were addressed. The confidence was provided to all respondents so that they can feel comfortable and ease while filling questionnaires. The rationale behind selection of employees as sample is that through the multi-actor view, the validity and reliability can be enhanced (Merriam, 2002). In addition to this, this technique of primary data collection with the help of questionnaire has more practicality. With the help of questionnaires, researcher became capable of collecting a large amount of data and this enhances the scientific and objectivity of research.

In addition to the primary data, another type of data collection method is secondary data. The sources of secondary data were books, articles, newspapers and different internet sources that are typically related to business management, human resource management and hospitality industry. The books were got from library and articles were accessed from Google Scholar.  These sources are used in present research for building theoretical base of the study. This data was used in writing the literature review in which different studies and researches related to the impact of health and safety management practices on employees’ welfare and well-being are analysed. This data assisted in getting the basic understanding about research issue. With the help of secondary data, the foundation of research was developed and researcher became capable of developing a path that must be followed while conducting the study.

  • Time Horizon

In case of primary data collection, time horizon is considered to be an important aspect. Time horizon tells the number of times for which data is collected in order to conduct the study. There are two choices of time horizon. The first category of time horizon is cross-sectional time horizon and the other type is longitudinal. Usually, researchers collect data for more than one times for one study (Saunders et al, 2007). In cross sectional time horizon data is accumulated not for one time but it is collected for more than one time. In current research the most appropriate time horizon is cross sectional time horizon and researcher did not find many issues while using this type of time horizon. So, in order to complete this research cross sectional time horizon is used.

3.7Sampling

The aim of empirical and quantitative issues is analysing the meaning of specific process through the use of perspectives of participants, hence it is very important to choose that sample through which maximum learning can be gained (Merriam, 2002). In current study, case study of Millennium Hotel Shanghai is used for the purpose of data collection. The sample of employees from Millennium Hotel Shanghai was selected on the basis on non-probability sampling that is named as purposive sampling. The rationale behind selection of this sampling technique is that it provides insight, detailed understanding and finding aspects in more details. With the help of this sampling technique, the researcher got the potential of gaining richer information (Merriam, 1998). Moreover, it also allows the selection of those cases that are rich in information and are capable of answering questions of research in a satisfactory manner (Patton, 1990). In case study strategy, 100 employees were selected as a sample through non-probability sampling. These 100 employees were lower and middle level employees. The researcher did not focus on one gender for the purpose of data collection because it might results in biasness. As, the issue for health and safety management is more considerable for lower and middle level employees, so it is more beneficial to collect data from them for analyzing the impact of health and safety management practices on employees’ welfare and well-being.

3.8 Data Validity/ Reliability/ Analysis

The validity testing of prepared questionnaire is performed by the researcher after composition of the same. The questionnaire is responsible for testing construct validity, content validity. The professionals of health and safety management is contacted by the researcher for the rationale of content and face validity. The schools of this study of quality management are contacted for the field of construct study. After accepting the response from schools and professionals, required alterations is done in the prepared questionnaire before giving them to the sample for collecting data. It is significant for the questionnaire to check for its reliability in parallel with its validity (Merriam, 2002).

 Reliability is concerned with the steadiness of data. Assistance is provided by the reliable data in illustrating inference with an uncertainty. Research quality must not be affected by the collected data. Nevertheless, facts should not be solidified by the data. After achieving the questionnaire ratified from schools and professionals, questionnaires are tested for reliability testing. The reliability of the outcomes is very much significant aspect of a consistent instrument. The desired objective might not be fulfilled by the researcher if there is no reliability of data collected by researcher. The whole research may become void in such case (Saunders et al, 2007). The reliability of consistent instrument is checked by the researcher through different procedures. These procedures are comprised of parallel form methods, test retest method, inter-item consistency analysis and item total analysis. The involvement of various procedures is made sure that there is high reliability level of the instrument. The data reliability is required for making sure the reliability of achieved outcomes along with the study (Saunders et al, 2009).

The collection of quantitative data with the help of prepared questionnaire at a later period has been evaluated via statistical tools. The data after the collection was entered into Microsoft Excel for the purpose of evaluation. This analysis has been carried out through variety of statistical tools such as mean, median, standard deviation, and regression and correlation analysis. Reliable outcomes were produced by this analysis and experimented patterns can be legitimated through this analysis.

3.9. Research Ethics

In order to conduct a research in a more effective and efficient way, it is important to conduct a research in an ethical way. Researchers have to face different kinds of issues related to ethics while conducting a research study. The most important aspect in conduction of research is confidentiality of data collected from respondents. While conducting the research, the researcher ensured the privacy of respondents from whom data is collected. Moreover, it has been ensured that none of participants were forced to fill questionnaires. In addition to this, all of respondents were provided with aims and objectives of research so that they can get to know about the research problem and objective behind the study. The researcher ensures that proper referencing and acknowledgment is done for the data collected from different articles, books and internet sources.

 

 Summary

The research has been conducted through quantitative research technique. With the help of this research method, researcher has used questionnaires for collecting data from respondents. The research is conducted on Millennium Hotel Shanghai and data is collected from100 employees. In order to analyse the data collected from employees, Microsoft Excel is used. The relationship between independent and dependent variables is tested through regression and correlation analysis. While conducting the research, the researcher focused considerably on ethical standards and practices.

 

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS

4.1. Demographic Analysis

 

The research was conducted on employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai in order to analyse the impact of health and safety management practices on welfare and wellbeing of employees. First of all, their demographic variables were analysed. The respondents were asked about their gender. The above table shows the distribution of respondents on the basis of their gender. The data gathered from respondents’ shows that there were total 100 employees from whom data was collected and among those 50 were males and 50 were females. There was equal percentage of both males and females in the sample. This depicts that there was no inequality among males and females in the sample from which data was collected.

 

 

Age

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Less than 25 years

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

26-35 years

20

20.0

20.0

28.0

36-45 years

25

25.0

25.0

53.0

46-55 years

24

24.0

24.0

77.0

More than 55 years

23

23.0

23.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

In addition to the gender, age of respondents was also analysed by providing them different options related to age brackets. The data collected from respondents depicts that there were only 8% employees who were of less than 25 years age. In contrast to this, there were almost equal percentages of respondents who lie in other age brackets given in questionnaire. Most of employees from whom questionnaires were got filled lied in age bracket of 36-45 years.

 

4.2. Descriptive Analysis

 

Descriptive analysis tells about the detail of whole sample used for the purpose of data collection. The table shows that mean responses of respondents for all items related to health and safety management practices is 3.79 that means it is closer to right side of the scale that means towards excellent. Moreover, the average responses of employees for items related to welfare and wellbeing is 3.75 that is again towards excellent side. This depicts the summary of all responses given by employees of hotel and it can be seen from responses that most of employees think that there are effective health and safety management practices offered by the management of hotel and due to this their welfare and wellbeing is affected in a positive way.

 

4.3. Regression Analysis

 

 

 

As the study involves one independent and dependent variables, so it was important to analyse the relationship between these variables. In order to test that how much change in independent variable can bring change in dependent variable, regression analysis is used. The above table shows the value of R tells that one unit change in independent variable will bring how much change in dependent variable. As the value of R for relationship between health and safety management practices and welfare and wellbeing of employees is 0.976, so it means that if hotel improves health and safety management practices by 1 unit the this will result in 97.6% increase welfare and wellbeing of employees.

 

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

23.101

1

23.101

1932.524

.000b

Residual

1.171

98

.012

 

 

Total

24.273

99

 

 

 

a. Dependent Variable: WW

b. Predictors: (Constant), HSM

 

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

.215

.081

 

2.647

.009

HSM

.933

.021

.976

43.960

.000

a. Dependent Variable: WW

4.4. Correlation Analysis

 

Correlation analysis is used to assess the strength of relationship between variables. It tells that whether the relationship is strong or weak. The above table tells about the strength of relationship between health and safety management practices and employees’ welfare and wellbeing. The value of Pearson correlation for the relationship between health and safety management practices is 0.976 with 0.000 as significant value. This means there is strong significant positive relationship between health and safety management practices and welfare and wellbeing of employees.

4.5. Reliability Analysis

 

 

 

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.896

18

 

In current study questionnaires have been used for the purpose of data collection. In order to ensure reliability of results gained at the end of study, it is important to test reliability of research instrument used to collect data. The reliability of instrument is tested through the value of Cronbach’s alpha. For having reliable questionnaire, the value of Cronbach’s alpha must be greater than 0.6. As it can be seen from the above table that value is 0.896 that is greater than 0.6, so it means questionnaire used in study is reliable.

 

Item Statistics

 

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

How certain are you that there is a written health and safety policy in your organisation?

3.7000

.83485

100

How sure are about who is the responsible person to report for any accident or accident in your organisation.

3.7900

.74257

100

Are you sure which document or the form required in your organisation to report accident or incident.

3.5800

1.17362

100

To what extend the hotel takes care of the employees working in the night shift

3.7000

.73168

100

How do you feel about safety provisions available in your organisation for employee safety?

3.9200

.78727

100

How will you rate the suitability and sufficiency of first aid equipment and assistance available in hotel?

4.0000

.69631

100

From your own understanding, do you think there is sufficient fire extinguishing equipment?

3.9200

.80000

100

To what extend do you think there are safe equipment environment in kitchen.

3.8600

.79162

100

What is the safety of the computer used in the hotel reception?

3.7000

.73168

100

To what extent the hotel pays attention to the interests of employees

3.4300

1.05653

100

How well do you think the hotel show duty of care to its employees

3.7000

.83485

100

How would you rate the hotel management in carry out specific health and safety actions to its employees

3.7900

.74257

100

How important do you think the hotel management focus its resources on employee well-being

3.5800

1.17362

100

How do you think about working facilities provided by the company

3.7000

.73168

100

How do you think about hygienic conditions of workplace

3.9200

.78727

100

How do you feel about sanitary facilities provided in workplace

4.0000

.69631

100

How do you rate the working Hours of the Organisation?

3.9200

.80000

100

How do you rate the employee welfare activities of the Organisation give a feeling of safety and improve your performance?

3.7900

.74257

100

 

 

Item-Total Statistics

 

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

How certain are you that there is a written health and safety policy in your organisation?

64.3000

73.606

.542

.890

How sure are about who is the responsible person to report for any accident or accident in your organisation.

64.2100

71.986

.756

.884

Are you sure which document or the form required in your organisation to report accident or incident.

64.4200

72.751

.396

.898

To what extend the hotel takes care of the employees working in the night shift

64.3000

72.172

.752

.884

How do you feel about safety provisions available in your organisation for employee safety?

64.0800

80.519

.065

.904

How will you rate the suitability and sufficiency of first aid equipment and assistance available in hotel?

64.0000

73.798

.650

.887

From your own understanding, do you think there is sufficient fire extinguishing equipment?

64.0800

70.680

.798

.882

To what extend do you think there are safe equipment environment in kitchen.

64.1400

73.031

.621

.888

What is the safety of the computer used in the hotel reception?

64.3000

72.172

.752

.884

To what extent the hotel pays attention to the interests of employees

64.5700

77.399

.191

.904

How well do you think the hotel show duty of care to its employees

64.3000

73.606

.542

.890

How would you rate the hotel management in carry out specific health and safety actions to its employees

64.2100

71.986

.756

.884

How important do you think the hotel management focus its resources on employee well-being

64.4200

72.751

.396

.898

How do you think about working facilities provided by the company

64.3000

72.172

.752

.884

How do you think about hygienic conditions of workplace

64.0800

80.519

.065

.904

How do you feel about sanitary facilities provided in workplace

64.0000

73.798

.650

.887

How do you rate the working Hours of the Organisation?

64.0800

70.680

.798

.882

How do you rate the employee welfare activities of the Organisation give a feeling of safety and improve your performance?

64.2100

71.986

.756

.884

 

In questionnaire, there were different items related to health and safety management as well as welfare and wellbeing of employees. The individual reliability of each question is also tested. The table shows that value of Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.6, so all items have consistency with each other.

4.6. Item-wise Analysis

 

How certain are you that there is a written health and safety policy in your organisation?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

2

2.0

2.0

2.0

Bad

6

6.0

6.0

8.0

Neutral

24

24.0

24.0

32.0

Good

56

56.0

56.0

88.0

Excellent

12

12.0

12.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai were asked that whether or not there is written policy related to health and safety management. It can be seen from the responses of employees that 56 percent employees were of the view that there is good policy about health and safety management in hotel for employees. In opposite to this, only 2 percent employees selected 1 that means worst and 6 percent selected two that means bad. This clearly depicts that in Millennium Hotel Shanghai, policies related to health and safety management of employees are properly formulated.

 

How sure are you about who is the responsible person to report for any accident or accident in your organisation.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

5

5.0

5.0

5.0

Neutral

25

25.0

25.0

30.0

Good

56

56.0

56.0

86.0

Excellent

14

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked that whether there are individuals for reporting for an accident in their organisation. Among 100 employees there were 56 percent employees who selected number 4 that means towards excellent. This means those employees perceive that there is availability of individuals in hotel for reporting any kind of accident or injury. There were only 5 percent employees who selected 1 number from 1 to 5. This means most of employees experienced the presence of individuals for reporting any kind of accident or injury in the hotel.

Are you sure that document or the form is required in your organisation to report accident or incident.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

10

10.0

10.0

10.0

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

18.0

Neutral

14

14.0

14.0

32.0

Good

50

50.0

50.0

82.0

Excellent

18

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

In order to analyse health and safety management practices in Millennium Hotel Shanghai, employees were asked about any kind of document or form that is needed to report any accident or incident. The data gathered from employees’ shows that among 100 employees there were 50 percent employees who selected good and 18 percent employees selected number 5 that means excellent. This means in Millennium Hotel Shanghai management provides forms to employees for reporting any kind of accident or injury.

 

To what extent the hotel takes care of the employees working in the night shift

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

22

22.0

22.0

30.0

Good

62

62.0

62.0

92.0

Excellent

8

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

In health and safety management practices, it is important to take care of employees who work in night shifts as well. Due to this reason, through questionnaires employees were asked that whether that to what extent employees is taken care by management who work in night shifts. The data shows that there were 62 percent employees who chose ‘good’ from the options that means good care of employees is taken by management of hotel. In addition to this, only 8 percent employees selected 2 number that means bad. This depicts that hotel takes care of employees who work in night shifts.

 

 

 

How do you feel about safety provisions available in your organisation for employee safety?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

7

7.0

7.0

7.0

Neutral

14

14.0

14.0

21.0

Good

59

59.0

59.0

80.0

Excellent

20

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

In order to test health and safety management practices of Millennium Hotel Shanghai the employees were asked about it through questionnaire. In accordance with the results of questionnaire, it has been seen that 7 percent of the employees do not think that they get safety provisions in the organisation for safety of employee. 59 percent of the employees agreed that they get safety provisions in the organisation for the safety of employee. 20 percent of the employee is much happy with the safety provisions available in the company for the safety of employee. 14 percent of the employee neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement that they feel safety provisions in company for safety of employee. Therefore; it can be concluded that employees feel good about the safety provisions provided to them.

 

How will you rate the suitability and sufficiency of first aid equipment and assistance available in hotel?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Neutral

24

24.0

24.0

24.0

Good

52

52.0

52.0

76.0

Excellent

24

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked about the sufficiency and suitability of the assistance and equipment available in hotel. In accordance with the results of questionnaire, it has been seen that 54 percent of the employees agreed over the statement that they have sufficiency and suitability of first aid assistance and equipment which is available in hotel. 24 percent of the employees are highly satisfied with the sufficiency and suitability of first aid assistance and equipment which is available in the hotel. Same like this; 24 percent of the people neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement, according to them the services provided to them by the hotel are not sufficient or suitable for them. Therefore; efforts should be made for improving the suitability and sufficiency of first aid in the hotel.

 

From your own understanding, do you think there is sufficient fire extinguishing equipment?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

12

12.0

12.0

20.0

Good

60

60.0

60.0

80.0

Excellent

20

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

Employees have been asked about the sufficiency of fire extinguishing equipment in the hotel. In accordance with the results of questionnaire acquired by the employees; it has been seen that 8 percent of the employees think that they do not get sufficient fire extinguishing equipment in the hotel. According to 60 percent of the employees there are sufficient fire extinguishing equipment in the hotel. 20 percent of the employees are satisfied with the number of fire extinguishing equipment present in the hotel. 12 percent of the people neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed. According to them, there are fire extinguishing equipment in the hotel but are not sufficient. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be concluded that there are sufficient fire extinguishing equipment present in the hotel.

 

To what extend do you think there are safe equipment environment in kitchen.

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

1

1.0

1.0

1.0

Bad

2

2.0

2.0

3.0

Neutral

27

27.0

27.0

30.0

Good

50

50.0

50.0

80.0

Excellent

20

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Employees were asked about the environment of the kitchen, like if they find the environment of kitchen safe for them. In accordance with the results of questionnaire acquired by the employees. It has been seen that very less percent of employees approximately 2 percent of the people stated that environment of kitchen is not safe. There is no safety equipment placed in the kitchen. 1 percent of the people were not satisfied at all with the environment of kitchen in terms of safety.  50 percent of the employees are satisfied with the environment of kitchen, and according to them there is safety equipment placed in the kitchen for their security. Therefore; it can be concluded that environment of kitchen is quite safe. Security and safety of employees is taken into account.

What is the safety of the computer used in the hotel reception?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

22

22.0

22.0

30.0

Good

62

62.0

62.0

92.0

Excellent

8

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked for if the usage of computers in the reception of hotel is source of more safety. In accordance with results of questionnaire; it has been seen that 8 percent of the employees stated that using computers in the reception is of no use. It does not provide any benefit in terms of safety of the employees. On contrary to this, 62 percent of the employees stated that using computers in the hotel reception is effective. It proves to be helpful and provides safety to employees. 8 percent of the employees stated the usage of computers in hotel reception provides feeling of more security and it is good in terms of security of employees. 8 percent of the employees out of 100 percent stated that they are very happy that computers are used in the hotel reception, as it provides safety to the employees of the hotel. 22 percent of the employees neither disagreed with the statement nor agreed. According to them, usage of computers is effective but it does not imply that it would provide much safety. Therefore; according to the conclusion drawn through questionnaire; it can be stated that using computers in hotel reception proves to provide security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To what extent the hotel pays attention to the interests of employees

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

3

3.0

3.0

3.0

Bad

17

17.0

17.0

20.0

Neutral

31

31.0

31.0

51.0

Good

32

32.0

32.0

83.0

Excellent

17

17.0

17.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

Through questionnaire, the employees were asked for if the hotel pays attention to the interests of employees. In accordance with the results acquired through questionnaire it can be seen that 32 percent of the people agreed with the statement that their interests are taken into account by the hotel. On the other hand, 17 percent of the employees disagreed with the statement that hotel take the interest of employees into account. According to them, their interests are given no value by the hotel. 17 percent of the employees out of 100 percent stated that they hotel look over their interests. 3 percent of the employees clearly stated that their interests are not considered at all by the hotel. 31 percent of the employees neither disagreed nor agreed with the statement. It can be the possibility that all of their requirements and interests are not taken into account by the organisation. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be stated that not all of the employees are much happy about the behavior of hotel regarding their interests. Improvements should be made for considering more interests of employees.

How well do you think the hotel show duty of care to its employees

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

2

2.0

2.0

2.0

Bad

6

6.0

6.0

8.0

Neutral

24

24.0

24.0

32.0

Good

56

56.0

56.0

88.0

Excellent

12

12.0

12.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

The employees were asked that how effectively the hotel show care towards employees. In accordance with the results of questionnaire acquired by the employees, it can be seen that 2 percent of employees found hotel not being caring towards employees. 6 percent of the employees stated that hotel do not show any care toward employees. On the other hand, 56 percent of the employees are very happy with the care they get from the organisation. 12 percent of the employees out of 100 percent stated that hotel show much care towards them. 24 percent of the employees neither agreed nor disagreed over the statement. Therefore; according to the results; it can be concluded that hotel should show much care towards employees.

 

How would you rate the hotel management in carry out specific health and safety actions to its employees

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

5

5.0

5.0

5.0

Neutral

25

25.0

25.0

30.0

Good

56

56.0

56.0

86.0

Excellent

14

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

In accordance with the results of questionnaire it can be seen that 5 percent of the employees of hotel stated that hotel management is carrying out particular specific health and safety actions is bad. On the other hand, 56 percent people stated that hotel management is good in terms of carrying out particular health and safety action for employees. 14 percent people marked that they had excellent experience. 25 percent of the employees were neutral, according to them health and safety actions are carried out, but are not appropriate for employees. The hotel management should make more attempts for carrying out more health and safety action for employees.

 

How important do you think the hotel management focus its resources on employee well-being

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Worst

10

10.0

10.0

10.0

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

18.0

Neutral

14

14.0

14.0

32.0

Good

50

50.0

50.0

82.0

Excellent

18

18.0

18.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Through the questionnaire, the employees were asked about the wellbeing of employee, like how hotel take into account the wellbeing of employee through their resources. In accordance with the conclusions acquired by employees; through questionnaire. It has been seen that out of 100 percent 10 percent of people stated that the hotel management does not focus at all on the wellbeing of employees using resources. On contrary to this, 18 percent of people are happy with the management of hotel, according to them; wellbeing of employees is taken into account. 50 percent of people out 100, agreed with the statement that wellbeing of employees is focused using the resources available. 14 percent of the people were neutral. From the outcomes of questionnaire; it can be stated that wellbeing of employees is focused through resources. More of the efforts should be made in order to make employees happier.

 

How do you think about working facilities provided by the company

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

22

22.0

22.0

30.0

Good

62

62.0

62.0

92.0

Excellent

8

8.0

8.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Through the questionnaire, employees were asked about the working facilities they get from the organisation. Employees were asked that if such working facilities are appropriate for them. Out of 100 percent, 8 percent of the employees stated that they do not get appropriate facilities from the organisation and they find difficulty in doing different tasks. On contrary to this, a large number like 62 percent of the employees are happy with the facilities which are provided to them to work by the organisation. According to them, they are provided with all of the facilities, and they find minor difficulties in working. 8 percent of the people stated that working facilities which are provided by the hotel are excellent. On the other hand, 22 percent of the people neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed, according to them, hotel provide them with facilities but are not much appropriate. According to the results, it can be concluded that working facilities which are provided by the organisation are good. More of the improvements can be made for providing more convenient environment to employees.

 

 

How do you think about hygienic conditions of workplace

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

7

7.0

7.0

7.0

Neutral

14

14.0

14.0

21.0

Good

59

59.0

59.0

80.0

Excellent

20

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

With the help of the questionnaire, the employees were asked about the conditions of hygiene at the working place. They were asked that if the surrounding is neat and clean and if cleanliness is maintained this way in the surroundings. 7 percent out of 100 percent stated that there are poor hygienic conditions in the workplace. There is no maintenance of cleanliness in the hotel. On contrary to this, 59 percent of the employees stated that they are happy with the hygienic conditions of workplace. According to them, the workplace is neat and clean. Cleanliness is maintained in the workplace. 20 percent of employees stated that they are very happy with the hygienic conditions of hotel. They don’t find any garbage or poor hygienic environment around them. They termed that there is excellent hygienic environment in the workplace. 14 percent of the people neither agreed over the statement nor disagreed. In accordance with the results of questionnaire, it can be stated that hygienic conditions of hotel are good. It can be improved through proper check and balance.

 

How do you feel about sanitary facilities provided in workplace

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Neutral

24

24.0

24.0

24.0

Good

52

52.0

52.0

76.0

Excellent

24

24.0

24.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

The employees were asked about the sanitary facilities provided to them in the workplace. In accordance with the results of questionnaire, it has been seen that 24 percent of employees out of 100 percent are neutral about the statement. According to them, they are provided with sanitary facilities, but sometimes the system of sanitation is not good in the workplace. 52 percent of the employees stated that sanitary facilities which have been provided by the hotel are very good. Hotel provides maximum sanitary facilities. 24 percent of the employees are very happy with the sanitary facilities provided to them in the organisation. On contrary to this, none of the employees have marked bad sanitary facilities. Therefore; in accordance with the result of the questionnaire acquired by selected employees; it can be stated that hotel provide sufficient sanitary facilities to employees in the workplace. Employees are happy with the sanitary facilities provided to them. Not much of the improvements are required in terms of sanitation.

 

How do you rate the working Hours of the Organisation?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

8

8.0

8.0

8.0

Neutral

12

12.0

12.0

20.0

Good

60

60.0

60.0

80.0

Excellent

20

20.0

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Through the questionnaire, the employees were asked to rate the working hours of the organisation. Like if the employees find working hours feasible for them. Employees were asked to rate about their feasibility while taking working hours into account. Out of 100 percent, 8 percent of the employees stated that working hours of the organisation are bad. They don’t find working hours feasible for them. On the other hand, a large number of employees like 60 percent of the employees stated that they are happy with the working hours of organisation. They do not have any complexity with the working hours of organisation. 20 percent of the employees are very happy with the working hours of organisation. They find these working hours very feasible for them. These working hours are most suitable for them. 12 percent of the employees are neutral about the statement; they neither agreed with the statement nor disagreed. It can be a possibility that they find arrival time feasible for them, but leaving time is not appropriate. Or they may find arrival and leaving time appropriate in terms of traffic issues, but working hours are greater for them. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can be stated that working hours of the organisation are good. More of the improvements can be made for making it feasible for the rest of employess.

 

How do you rate the employee welfare activities of the Organisation give a feeling of safety and improve your performance?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Bad

5

5.0

5.0

5.0

Neutral

25

25.0

25.0

30.0

Good

56

56.0

56.0

86.0

Excellent

14

14.0

14.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

 

Through the questionnaire; the employees were asked about the welfare activities of organisation; like if these activities related to employee welfare, provide them a feeling of safety or let them to make improvement in their performances. Out of 100 percent employees, 5 percent of the employees stated that employee’s welfare activities are of no use. They do not provide them any feeling of security and in turn does not help in improving the level of their performance. On contrary to this; 56 percent of the employees stated that they are happy with the welfare programs of employees, it give them a feeling of being secure. While feeling being secured; they can work with even more efficiency. Therefore; according to 56 percent of employees welfare programs are effective in terms of improving the performance of employees. 14 percent of the employees are very happy with the activities of employee welfare; they feel like as if they are secure in the workplace. While working without any tension; performances are automatically improved. 25 percent of the employees neither disagreed with the statement nor agreed, in accordance with them welfare activities help them in feeling secured, but still does not assist in improving the performance level. Therefore; in accordance with the results of questionnaire; it can stated that welfare activities which are provided by the hotel help the employees in feeling secured. These secured feelings in turn help in improving the performance level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION

5.1. Introduction

This chapter tells about the overall summary of findings that are gained from this research. In this chapter first of all overall summary is provided in which detail about achievement of research objectives is given. In addition to this, detail about findings of current research is given. Moreover, researcher also provided some recommendations to the hotel industry regarding the use of health and safety management practices in order to increase welfare and wellbeing of employees. In the end of this chapter, limitations of this research are given and on the basis of those limitations, directions for future research are provided.

5.2. Overall Summary

The current research has been to achieve five objectives and all of four objectives have been achieved successfully. First of all, the first objective of this research was to review health and safety management practices in hotels of China. This objective has been achieved in second chapter of literature review in which different sources like books, articles and online sources are used.

The next objective of this research was to examine the impact of health and safety management on employee welfare in hotel industry. This objective was achieved through analysis of data collected from employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai and it has been found from the analysis that there is a significant positive impact of health and safety management practices on employees’ welfare.

Third objective was to analyse and synthesize the effect of health and safety management practices on employee welfare and wellbeing. This objective was achieved through analysis of previous literature and through data collected from employees of Millennium Hotel Shanghai. In order to analyse the relationship between health and safety management practices on welfare and wellbeing of employees, some articles and books were accessed and referred. In addition to this, data collected from employees of hotel has shown that there is a significant impact of health and safety management on employees welfare and wellbeing.

The fourth objective of this research was to evaluate the significance of welfare and wellbeing in hotels. This objective has been fulfilled in second chapter where literature related to welfare and wellbeing of employees in hotel industry has been studied.

The last objective was to give recommendations to the industry related to health and safety management practices in order to increase welfare and wellbeing of employees. This objective has been met in the end of this study where researcher gave recommendations to the management of hotel industry through which they can improve their health and safety management practices.  

 

5.3. Overall Conclusion

This study has been conducted to find the impact of health and safety on employees’ welfare and wellbeing in hotel industry. For the purpose of conducting the research, Millennium Hotel Shanghai was chosen as a case study. In this research, 100 employees from the hotel were selected. It has been revealed from the findings of this research that it is agreed by most of the employees that practices of OHS are working in Millennium Hotel Shanghai. It was in compliance with Eakin et al (2010) that real gains of productivity can be accomplished by such enterprises that make investments in high performance practices of health and safety. The study has founded that when a company is dedicated to best practice of OHS and incorporates it in an appropriately managed way, the outcome is win-win which gives advantage to both company and the workforce. It is required for making enhancement in workplace regarding occupational health and safety for advantage of employee and the employer to maximize productivity. The findings of this research agree with Ismail et al (2012) who recommended that productive workplace practices of health and safety can assist in saving lives of employees by minimizing risk hasards and their consequences. The programs of health and safety also have positive impact on employees’ wellbeing and welfare.

The supposition is supported by the findings of the study of Ko (2013) that proactive method to the management of OSH is linked with the outcomes of positive worker. Moreover, employees feel optimistic about the OSH climate, their organisation and job at individual level, they likely to have better wellbeing and health. These outcomes can be inferred as helpful of work done in past which involves viewing a positive strategy to safety regarding the theory of social exchange, and observed organisational support. It has been founded in this research that where it is felt by employees that commitment of management is towards safety, they were correspondingly more tend to report consequences beyond mere enhanced health and safety practices, with optimistic associations discovered for the commitment of management to health and safety satisfaction, job performance and organisational commitment. The wellbeing of workforce is progressively appropriate and essential deliberation in workplace nowadays. Possibly the wellbeing at its uninvolved level is eventually about individual happiness – living healthy and safely and feeling good. This reflects not letting work to demoralize the needs and fundamental purposes in lives of people. 

The organisations in the recent times are working in competitive and complex business atmosphere therefore the requirement for an effective and competent work force. Health and safety staff is one of the most vital resources in a company. Preferably relevant measures to make sure their wellbeing must be observed. This always requires health and safety perception among employees and employers to permit organisation to gain the set target (Kennedy et al, 2010).

There is a need to understand that increasing amount of employers are implementing measures intended to endorsing health and safety among their workers. These, usually bigger, companies have acknowledged that workstation can be involved in promoting or highlighting healthier lifestyle choices and working practices. It is also known by them that they can affect numerous aspects of psychological and physical wellbeing of employee in methods which can enhance their attendance, commitment and productivity. This comprises of providing jobs of better quality which permit workers involvement and autonomy, and more control in the manner work is done by them (Gravel et al, 2011). The establishment of any program of health and safety will differ with respect to the size and location of organisation, the type of work done whether workers comprise of men as well as women and their quantity in different age ranges. The target of the occupational health is maintaining and promoting largest degree of social, mental and physical wellbeing of employees in every occupation; the avoidance amongst employees of evacuations from health initiated by their operating conditions.   

The practices of health and safety are linked with preserving workers and other individual impacted by what organisation develops and does against dangers emerging from employment or their connections with organisation. OHS deal with hindrance of bad health emerging from operational conditions. It has been founded in the research that incorporating health and safety in the organisational policy and strategy forms section of business approach and as well as the constant enhancement circle which operates an organisation towards distinction. The results are manifested on company level since Occupational Health and Safety measures result in alteration by making better conditions for working, enhancing organisational process and social climate (Havold, 2010).

The Occupational Health and Safety surrounds the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of employees in every job. The conditions which are not good for working have the ability to impact health and safety of an employee. The presences of unsafe and unhealthy conditions for working are usual, whether an indoor or outdoor workplace is involved. The conditions which are not good can impact the surrounding of the employee along with the employee. This implies that employees along with their families and rest of the individual of their society, and physical atmosphere around the organisation, can be at high risk because of hasards exposure. The study founded that all of this can be diminished by the incorporation of practices of Occupational health and safety in the workplace (Spath, 2011).                                 

5.4. Recommendations

  • The risks of Occupational Health and Safety which are required to be taken into account by employer emerge from regular operations and functions and during uncommon situations such as incidents and accidents. It is responsibility of the employer to implement relevant locally and globally known standards, guidelines and codes of OHS.
  • The efficacy of OHS systems at its best needs the addition and significant participation of workers in maintenance and incorporation of processes and procedures. In order to gain effective and significant participation, employer may need to incorporate a system to change attitudes and culture of employee in terms of health and safety (Santos et al, 2013).
  • There is a need to encourage organisations to incorporate the measures/programs of OSH to work organisational health and safety problems is required to be taken as an important factor for the growth of workplace which will pave the way to efficiency and performance. 
  • In order to design productive safety plans and incorporating them needs in-depth scrutiny of organisational conditions and figuring out the required level of safety. The amount of safety relies on the amount of risk exist in any occupation.
  • Large number of companies provides check-up services of physical health of their workers periodically. Medical check-ups of workers on regular basis assist in detecting symptoms and signs of depression, ulcers, tension, stress and other diseases caused by exposure of dangerous gases (Lai et al, 2011).
  • It is taken into account as a core step to manage the hasards of occupational health and safety and cure them before they turn out to be a serious concern. Furthermore, it assists managers in revamping workers by restructuring their roles to diminish the more damage.
  • It is required for the organisation to organize policy programs of occupational health and safety as a section of preparation of health and safety testimonial. Efficient occupational health and safety practices need to set an obvious direction for company to pursue. They shall put in to every aspect of business performance as section of a comprehensible assurance to constant enhancement. Roles and responsibilities to individuals and the working atmosphere will be met in a manner which accomplishes the letter and spirit of law. The strategies which are cost effective to develop and preserve physical and human resources will minimize monetary liabilities and losses. In a broader context, expectations of stakeholders, whether they are representatives, workers or shareholders, consumers or society at large, can be fulfilled. 
  • It is significant to persuade, educate and empower employees to work out their potentials in security of their Occupational Health and Safety.
  • Equipment’s, machinery and other items that are installed, manufactured, designed or purchased for operations should conform to the protection needs of OHS. All related information of new equipment should be given by the manufacturers or suppliers. Supplies should be secured, and suppliers should ensure the guarantee of their safety. Following information should reach the users of equipment and machines.
  • The company should do training of employees. Employees should be trained on Occupational safety and health practices. Every employee should be enforced to attend the training no matter what level or cadre of education is provided in training. The major objective is to increase the productivity (Hon et al, 2013).
  • Ramli et al (2011) stated that most effective procedure related to practices of health and safety is through applying good techniques of management. Genuine commitments regarding practices of OHS through management proves to be efficient and effective in the entire organisation. Therefore; it is responsibility of Management to ensure that organisation is free from unneeded hasards and that condition around the organisation is not hasardous for the mental and physical health of employees.

5.5. Limitations     

Although this research is very fruitful and advantageous but there are also some limitations of this research study. First of all, this research has been conducted on one case study due to lack of time and due to financial constraints. So, in future study must be conducted on more organisations in order to increase generalizability of research. In addition to this, sample size was also less so for increasing validity and generalizability of research larger sample size can be used.           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Appendices

Appendix A: Research Instrument

Gender

  1. Male
  2. Female

Age

  1. Less than 25 years
  2. 26-35 years
  3. 36- 45 years
  4. More than 46 years

 

Give rating for each question from 1 to 5, where 1= Worst and 5= Excellent

 

Health & Safety Management

1

2

3

4

5

How certain are you that there is a written health and safety policy in your organisation?

 

 

 

 

 

How sure are about who is the responsible person to report for any accident or accident in your organisation.

 

 

 

 

 

Are you sure which document or the form required in your organisation to report accident or incident.

 

 

 

 

 

To what extend the hotel takes care of the employees working in the night shift

 

 

 

 

 

How do you feel about safety provisions available in your organisation for employee safety?

 

 

 

 

 

How will you rate the suitability and sufficiency of first aid equipment and assistance available in hotel?

 

 

 

 

 

From your own understanding, do you think there is sufficient fire extinguishing equipment?

 

 

 

 

 

To what extend do you think there are safe equipment environment in kitchen.

 

 

 

 

 

What is the safety of the computer used in the hotel reception?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Welfare and Well-being

1

2

3

4

5

 

To what extent the hotel pays attention to the interests of employees

 

 

 

 

 

How well do you think the hotel show duty of care to its employees

 

 

 

 

 

How would you rate the hotel management in carry out specific health and safety actions to its employees

 

 

 

 

 

How important do you think the hotel management focus its resources on employee well-being

 

 

 

 

 

How do you think about working facilities provided by the company

 

 

 

 

 

How do you think about hygienic conditions of workplace

 

 

 

 

 

How do you feel about sanitary facilities provided in workplace

 

 

 

 

 

How do you rate the working Hours of the Organisation?

 

 

 

 

 

How do you rate the employee welfare activities of the Organisation give a feeling of safety and improve your performance?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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