The wider acceptance and strategic value of global events can be seen from the developing recognition of event management as a profession. There is a strong need for effective management of global events for delivering strategy objectives of organizations. The capability of organisations to professionally manageenvironmental aspects of global events is helpful in achieving impacts (Dolles and Söderman, 2010). Jones (2014) states that there must be effective and strong sustainability management in the case of global events in order to ensure long term success. This essay will investigate sustainability management of Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games. This was a mega international multi-sport event for those athletes who have some kind of disability. This global event was managed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and it was held in Russia from 7th to 16th of March, 2014.
The performance of Sochi 2014 is evaluated with the help of the Three Pillars Model. According to Pope, Annandale and Morrison-Saunders (2004) this model is a powerful tool to define the complete sustainability issue. In this model economic, social and environmental pillars are included. According to this model, the success of an event depends on all three elements of the model. If there is weakness in one pillar, the whole system becomes unsustainable.
The case study of Sochi 2014, identified that the event was successfully focused on all three pillars of the model i.e. social, economic and environmental. In the event, attendees were provided with security and proper care was taken for human rights. The environmental concerns were also tackled in a significant way. The management of Sochi 2014ensured proper waste management, reduction of green gas emissions and treatment for the sewage system. According to the use of the three pillar model, it can be analysed that the management of Sochi had made all of its sustainability pillars strong. Gibson, Kaplanidouand Kang (2012) criticise the three pillar model in a way as they consider it disregarded ecological sustainability with environmental impacts, where in reality there is a dependency of both economic and social viability on the well-being of the environment.
The sustainability value model includes three disciplines that are corporate finance, risk management and accounting. According to this model, the organisation should communicate the value to achieve buy-in. This model presented that with providing benefits to society and the environment, the firm can gain economic benefits. The company has to make investments in sustainability initiatives in order to get long term economic benefits (Jones, 2014). To ensure an integrated approach for the company of operations in the field of progress, the Sochi 2014 Organising Committee developed a Sustainability Management System (SMS). SMS is a system of mechanism and decision making for the staging, preparation, and management of the Games dependent on the laws of sustainable progress (Mair and Whitford, 2013). The main target of SMS was to integrate the Games potential for the development of long-term positive alterations in the economic, environmental and social level of a country, region and city and to develop and use the legacy of the Games.
The Olympic Games are a celebration of sport, which are attended by spectators, fans and athletes internationally. The Olympic values have been an inspirational source for both the states and the athletes. This inspiration assisted the country in integrating the ambitious and boldest projects: for staging the Olympic Winter Games in a certain climate, and within a short duration, creating a world-class-year-round resort from scratch (Finley and Pleket, 2012). Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games is the strongest Catalyst for Russia, in public consciousness and also in terms of culture. Seven years passed when preparing for the Games. In this time period, the venues of ultramodern sports were developed that fulfilled the environmental standards, a modernised, urban infrastructure was developed and new roads were laid. The country became inspired through the Games in Sochi, and every Russian was interested in the sports events of 2014 thanks to large number of options for people, from participating like a volunteer to visiting different operations of the Cultural Olympiad(Prudnikova, 2012).
The Department of State’s Diplomatic Security Bureau (DS) is the head of U.S. government support for the Games (it is important for some of the main events like World Cup, and events which are attended by Heads of State, and for previous Olympics). The responsibility of the State Department was to protect the USA team during some of the global events which have were formalised by Memorandum of Understanding with the Olympic Committee of the USA in November, 2014. The channelling of Washington-dependent interagency coordination for Sochi Games was undertaken for some global events like the Olympic Games. It involves federal law security and enforcement offices and agencies which are held responsible for the law enforcement community’ and interagency security’s long term implementation, coordination and security planning for most of the events which occur overseas(Parent and Smith-Swan, 2013).
According to Taks, Chalip and Green (2015) among some of the steps taken through the Departmental State in the Games was January 10, 2014 Travel Alert given to the public (which was updated on January 24). The alert suggested that there was no identification of a particular threat for the citizens or institutions of the USA, travellers were advised to exercise prudence in the environment. Department officials were requested to deliver all of the information related to credible and particular threats for the public with the help of the travel website of the Department and website of the Moscow Embassy. It was critically analysed that although security of people was ensured through the written declaration the management of Sochi Games did not invest heavily in security. Although a full department was integrated with the team for ensuring safety and security of people, there was a need to use high technology and instruments like road blockers and more CCTV cameras for the purpose of security (Jones, 2014).
Since Sochi’s selection like the website of Olympic Games, most of the viewers raised their concerns related to the human rights protection of visitors and athletes to the Games, the environs and residents of Sochi, workers who were involved in the process of construction and some other related groups. Some of the concerns also raised related to the restrictions over media reports related to the issues in Sochi. Benn, Dunphy and Griffiths (2014) state that the authorities in Russia confirmed that rights of workers and residents of Russia were respected, and that government has eased its stance for investigation and abuses. Restrictions over Olympic Games that can harmhuman rights or the right of athletes involve surveillance of intrusive electrons like internet transactions and monitoring of cell phones; video surveillance of movement out and into sites of Olmpia; the collection of personal data when acquiring event tickets; and restriction over transportationinto and out of the Sochi region. Some of the Russian officials and President Putin emphasised that these restrictions were at the minimal level to guarantee much of the security for the games. Officials of the Federal Security Service (FSB; who was the successor to the Soviet KGB) refused the recommendations that through limiting the access to transportation the human rights were violated. Sochi is not like a concentration camp. Putin pledged that measurements done related to security would not be conspicuous or intrusive resulting into anxiety among respondents of the Games. Most of the security analysts recommended that security resources through different partnering entities could result in more security for the Olympic Games. It is even possible that issues could arise like coordinating feedbacks to assumed or actual events.
To reduce the influence over wildlife, much attention was paid to the use of migration routes of animals. A particular programme was made for Imeretinskaya Valley where a park of almost 300 hectares was developed. This is the most secure region for the habitation of Red Book species of fauna and flora. The ornithological park does not ensure the safety of animals and birds. It is a very famous destination for ecotourism (Van Rheenen, 2014).
According to Giampiccoli, Lee and Nauright (2015) staging of the Olympic Games in Sochi helped in promoting the progress of both professional and amateur sport in the country, famous lifestyles and developed situations for people with impairment to get involved in sport. The analysis shows that while preparing for the Games in 2014, the improvement in efficiency of the present healthcare system was paid much attention: the enhancement of quality and availability of health services, the establishment of medical care in sport for all clients who were included in the staging and preparation of Games, involving people with impairment, spectators, athletes and staff.
Environmental techniques for the events have become the most important component of the sustainability management plans of events. They detailed the actions that should be implemented for reducing the negative influence on the environment resulting from the staging and preparation of the event. In previous decades, the limit of these actions has increased mainly from just planting of new trees to innovative sustainable materials and venue designs and recycling schemes. A large number of standards, environmental guidelines and sustainability have been created which helped the organisers of events with integration of measures of sustainability during the staging and preparation of the event. Few of the guidelines are universal for all of the companies like ISO26000 ‘Social Responsibility’ (ISO, 2014b) or ISO 14001-14006 ‘Environmental Management Systems’ (Jones, 2014).The analysis shows that management of Sochi Games 2014 implemented various environmental management practices in order to protect the environment. In order to conduct sports events, different types of machineries were used for clearing fields and to free some space, some trees were also cut down. This negatively affects the natural beauty (Benn, Dunphy and Griffiths, 2014). So, in the future, management of Sochi Sports should focus on using those practices through which natural beauty of the land cannot be damaged.
According to Mashkovskiy et al. (2016) the zero waste law transformed into the major root of the regulation over waste management at the Games, which mean the development of an environment which is friendly, initiating with the stage of procurement for the use of different products (materials) and ending with disposal and recycling.
In games preparation, a new scheme for the management of waste was developed in Sochi. It stipulated giving most of the waste for reuse and recycling. Sochi is a city which is without landfill (two dumps in Lazarev districts and Sochi’s Adler, 7 million m3 in total over area of around 28 hectares): waste is not dumped in Sochi only but is exported to the district of Krasnodar region. The domestic waste landfill is the first landfill website present in Russia, is the one which has implemented the global regeneration exercise. The waste is then buried undera covering which is made up of crushed stone and sand. This is then covered over with a layer of clay and engineering connections were then put in under the landfill for funnelling off and burning filtrates and harmful gases. This shows that management of Sochi 2014 put a lot of effort into managing its waste. This helped in reducing the level of pollution generated through events.
Scott (2014) states that greenhouse gases get the heat trapped and make the planet even warmer. Human practices result into the increase of greenhouse gases. The greatest source of emissions of greenhouse gas through human activities in the USA is through the burning of fossil fuel for transportation, heat and electricity. In the Olympic Movement, before the initiating ceremony of the winter games in Sochi, the direct carbon footprint through staging and preparation of competitions was not the only competition offset on a voluntary basis, but the footprint through media representatives and the flights of spectators was also the major competition offset. Together, over 500,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions were compensated.
For most of the years, the urgent environmental issue of Sochi was pollution of water. The major reason behind this was the mechanism of surface (storm) wastewater and organised (sewerage). This problem was paid much attention in the preparation for the Winter Games, 1,176km of sewerage and water supply systems were laid, 106 clean water reservoirs, 56 pumping stations, six water intake complexes were developed. The level of treatment of storm water and households of the city was acquired (Mashkovskiy et al., 2016).
The stimulation of the Olympic project was done and in some of the regions it had already started. The development of favourable conditions for positive development of indicators was carried out in both of the cities of Krasnodar and Sochi region.The games enhanced the attractiveness of investment of region and city, and for global investors too. In the period of pre-Games, Sochi attracted a large amount of investment unlinked with the staging and preparation of the Games (210 billion rubbles in 2012). The Krasnodar area transformed into a leading area in the yearly development of investment in fixed capital and it attracted much of the foreign investment (Muller, 2012).
The Olympic Games enterprise is an instance of positive alterations in the social sphere, environment and economy of the city which is hosting the competition. In the history of the Games, a foundation for the progress of countries and areas has been developed slowly, since 2009; the laws of sustainable progress have been made in the manuals of the Global Olympic Committee for the staging and preparation of the Games. Sochi 2014 was the major project in Russia that was integrated in the progressive platform. It has been analysed that the objective of Sochi 2014 organising committee was to increase the opportunities developed through the Olympic project for the success of Sochi. The 2014 Winter Games was the basic example of how the staging of sporting events and company makes a contribution in the promotion of ideas of sustainable progress in the country(The Daily Mirror, 2015).
After the year 2000, the planners and stakeholders’ awareness and attention towards sustainability in events increased. The introduction and implementation of sustainability in events mean consideration of each aspect of planning as a potential element in the generation of pollution emissions and development of best possible solutions for achieving environment, social and economic aims relevant to the event. Since there is a difference in every event in accordance with their size, goals and other standards; it has become important for management to identify correct ways of planning and evaluating the relevant sustainable performances. SMS was implemented into the project management system: the life cycle of the system is connected with the procedure of staging and preparation of the Games. In the procedure of activities of operation, final outcomes and detailed intermediate control was given dependent over the monitoring indicators. The dynamics of indicators were presented in the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) systems and reports of OGI (Olympic Games Impact)(Jones, 2014).
The focus of organising and managing Sochi 2014 team was more on environmental impact, but in contrast to this it was investigated by International Orienteering Federation (IOF) that isthe main focus of World Orienteering Championship (WOC) in Finland and World Master Orienteering Championship (WMOC) in Italy which was more on aspects related to nature rather than environment effects generated by the planning of the event. According to current and contemporary trends of sustainability management, the case of the global event focused on sustainability, therefore the staging might assist in facilitating the processes of change. This shows different distinct characteristics of the event. The focus of contemporary global events is on providing a relaxed atmosphere to their attendees in order to make them capable of learning new things. It helps in increasing the level of attendees’ knowledge. The mix of various exhibitors and exhibits across a consistent theme at one place and potential for increased communication between attendees and exhibitors could make a positive contribution in this process(Muller, 2012).
According to Muller (2012) with respect to the behavioural dimension, sustainability in global events can be ensured through the creation of a relationship between support organisations and exhibitors. In current global event management practices, for effective sustainability management, it is not enough to just provide benefits to society, environment and economy but in addition to these, a strong focus must be given to employees or workers. In order to ensure ethical practices in Sochi 2014, the management of this global event provided equal opportunities to exhibitors and workers of the event. All exhibitors were provided with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in order to positively enforce them. There was fair treatment done with all exhibitors and workers. The management ensured no racism and inequality among people on the basis of their nation, caste as well as gender (Muller, 2012).
One of the significant contemporary issues in global event management practices in Sochi 2014 eventwas managing carbon gas emissions. The success and sustainability managed by management of a global event is calculated on the basis of carbon dioxide gas emissions resulting due to the event. The evaluation of carbon gas emissions is considered to be a significant issue for achieving sustainability. For example, from the results of 2014 WOC carbon footprints, it has been revealed that with the help of the implementation of effective and clear rules related to sustainability management, the CO2 emissions can be reduced. For example, the management of FIFA invests highly on spreading news through the internet and social networks, as well as giving live streaming broadcasting of results. This helps in avoiding emissions of 45 tCO2eq. In case of Sochi 2014 the live streaming was provided on big TV screens within the grounds, so there were chances of having carbon emissions. According to contemporary trends in sustainability management, it is important for management of Sochi 2014 to focus on the use of the internet and social networking for the purpose of broadcasting and live streaming. This will help in underlining the significance of environmental aspects in orienteering events. With the help of this, the positive values of events are also disseminated throughout the world(Kaplanidou et al, 2013).
One of the first Olympic Games with clear sustainability management was Sydney 2000. In that mega event, the key environmental achievements included accessibility to public transport, applications of solar power, selection of appropriate and high quality material for building, recycling of waste material, conservation of energy and water. According to London 2012 Sustainability Plan produced by the London 2012 Organising Committee, five priority themes were identified in case of sustainability management; change in climate, waste management, biodiversity, healthy living and inclusion. The focus of Sochi 2014 was on ideasrelated to neutrality of carbon and ensuring zero waste(Andersson, Getz and Mykletun, 2013).
According to Cserháti and Szabó (2014) to ensure the success of global events, the management of events has to focus highly on potential economic, social and environmental benefits of the mega-event. In addition to these aspects, a strong role is played by ethical practices. With the help of sustainability management of global events, the economy of a country is also boosted. For example, a number of jobs were created by the Commonwealth Games. In South Africa creation of employment through mega events is considered to be a top priority. Similarly, from 2010 more than 700,000 jobs have been created through FIFA World Cup. In addition, through the World Cup, approaimately 148,000 jobs were created both directly and indirectly by the event. It is critically analysed that through these kinds of global events, temporary jobs are created. This may create negative impact on individuals. The management of Sochi 2014 needed to adopt those ways and strategies through which at least some percentage of jobs could be made permanent(Preuss, 2013).
In event of Sochi 2014, it was ensured that none of the individuals’ livelihood was affected in a negative way. In contrast to this, in case of Commonwealth Games arranged in India, it was estimated that around 30,000 to 40,000 families were displaced and this issue arose due to mismanagement of families’ relocation.It was also reported that peopl had to face unemployment and needed to loss of livelihood due to the displacement. According to this, it was analysed that special programes be designed and implemented by host cities for enhancing the social inclusivity of mega events. An integration of local communities and small traders or poor communities must be done in the business model of events (Taks et al., 2014).
Grix and Houlihan (2014) state that there is an impact on the natural environment through all human activities in the case of global events. It is acknowledged by sports federations and managing agencies that environmental dimension of sustainability and ethical practices must be incorporated in the staging of global events. In the case of the Commonwealth Games, it is identified in vision of a green games, that there is large footprint of ecology and consumption in global sporting events. It was indicated through substantial requirements of material driven by activities of construction like requirements for energy, water and generation of waste. In case of environmental management, only carbon emissions are not included but it also includes various ecological problems.
A sporting event that is sustainable, means it is free of addiction, fair as well as ethical. The sustainability of events should be guarented by ensuring that inappropriate construction facilities are not used. In the case of global sporting events, it is important for management to ensure that sports are free of addiction, according to which use of drugs is avoided and individuals are encouraged to use those food items through which they can gain better health. In Sochi 2014, fair sports were ensured in which physical or moral violence was completely prohibited. The event was made more effective as an incomparable tool for education. The ethical management in Sochi 2014 contributedtowards a sound and effective economy, and avoided corruption and criminal activities. In recent years, it is widely reported by the media that drugs were used by sports people while considering it to be a contemporary day phenomenon. To a large extent, the management of Sochi 2014 tried to ensure that no drugs were used by sports people but still there was a need of following those practices through which use of drugs could be avoided one hundred percent. The basic principle and standard of any sporting event should be promotion of fair play and lack of discrimination among people. This is considered to be one of the important standards that must be followed. After following the rules, sporting events become an activity of human that has a lot of worth. When the link of this activity is with aim for generating results than the process itself, then it is generally corrupted (Arnold, Hewton and Fletcher, 2015).
According to Covell and Walker (2013) in global sporting events, ethics is promoted with respect to the promotion of equality and fair play. It becomes an ethical and moral issue for participants who use drugs while having complete knowledge about ethics. According to the Olympic motto, taking part is more important than winning. Ethics is considered to be very important in global sports events. In Sochi 2014, ethics are fulfilled by ensuring gender equality. There were equal opportunities for both males and females to take part in games. There was no discrimination among individuals on the basis of gender.
There is a broad range of initiatives taken by event management organisations regarding sustainability management, for example, allocation of some resources on research and development for the development of products with improved environmental aspects, investment in technology, implementing a code of conduct for labour and investing in social and cultural pursuits. In order to ensure effectiveness, there is a need for addressing and supporting these sustainability initiatives. It includes a vision in which economic, environmental and social aspects are incorporated. In the current events industry, management needs to create a culture through which sustainability efforts are promoted and supported. It is a long and arduous process to become a sustainable organisation in which continuous capability building and the attention of management is required, it also gives opportunities for developing and attracting attendees from different countries.
From the above analysis, it can be concluded that the basis for sustainable development of region and country in relative to the well-being of the environment is generated through Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Different environmental, economic and social projects were implemented by the organising committee of Sochi 2014. As a result of these projects, the objectives set at the start of the event relating to sustainability management were achieved. It helped in creating a green legacy of the Games for future generations.
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