: Architecture Of General Purpose Computer & Cisco 2600 IOS Memory Organsiation And CPU Organisation In Cisco 2600 And General Purpose Authors Name/s Per 1st Affiliation (Author) Line 1 (of Affiliation): Dept. Name Of Organisation Line 2-name Of Org

Abstract- In this paper, the architecture of general purpose computers and Cisco 2600 series has been analysed. This research paper involves the memory organisation and CPU architecture of general purpose computer and Cisco 2600 series. It has also covered the comparison in between the hardware structure and operating system.


Keywords- Memory organisation, architecture, operating system, hardware structure 



In this paper, the structure and architecture of general purpose computer and cisco 2600 has been identified; their memory organisation and CPU organisation has also been discussed. Along with it a comparison has been made about their hardware features and operating system.



There are three main parts of general purpose computers:


  1. Processor

Processor can be called as brain of the computer that provides arithmetic feedback to the information which is provided to it and then generates the output information.

  1. Primary Storage (RAM or memory)

Primary storage is the scratchpad being responsible for keeping the information that the processor uses. It is linked with the processor through the system bus.




  1. Expansion and system buses

  The transfer procedures (wiring along with connectors) that links the processor to input/ output devices and primary storage[1].








For the speed, primary storage is linked with the processor. Many of the devices like (printer, internal disk) contain the simplest processors that assist the transformation of information from/to the processor from/to the device, they are called as primitive computers.


A processor is called as the Central Processing Units. The processor is wired to do the computation of arithmetical operations on through a register and to primary storage

A picture of processor’s components is given below:



  • The data register keeps the numbers required for computation.
  • There is a clock which can be also being termed as the generator of pulse. Its basic function is to help the Control unit to perform the instructions at the most suitable time.
  • The ALU keeps the wiring which is required to do arithmetic operations over the numbers that are present in the register.
  • The CU is responsible for wiring the trigger. It is also assigned the duty to perform the arithmetic operations. At one in a time, it acquires instruction that are then stored into the memory.
  • The CU keeps the wiring that triggers the arithmetic operations performed in ALU. It acquires the instructions that are then placed into the memory.
  • The instruction counter can also be termed as register that actually guides the control unit to identify the instruction.
  • The instruction register is responsible for storing instruction. It can also be coped for study with the help of control unit.
  • The address and data buffer are termed as two registers which are the drop off point, when processor is required to copy the information from the register to some primary storage area.

The measurement of speed of CPU is done in terms of hertz (which is a type of vibration). It is also the speed of the internal clock of computer; the more the number of Hertz are, the faster the processor gets.


  1. Primary Storage

Primary storage is termed as random access memory. It is a long words’ sequence, which can be termed as cells, where the saving of numbers is done for later usage.


The numbering of cell is done with the help of unique addresses. Therefore the transmission of information is done from the processor and is saved at the specific cell addressand can be retrieved through referring to similar address.

There is component, memory controller, which is primitive processor that search for an address and copy the information which is stored in the address from/to the system bus. This works at faster rate.

When the copying of number is done through processor at some storage place; it is actually written; when something is moved into processor through storage it is termed as read.

The address lines that are present in the system bus do the transmission of bits and then develop an address of cell in the storage which is read or written. The data lines can also be called as wire the do the transmission of information in between data buffer and cell of processor. Control lines make the decision that whether the operation to be performed is for read or write.

Measurement of primary storage is done in bytes form, where 8 bits make up one byte and 4 bits develop one word. There is more storage with increment in number.

B.Secondary storage: disks

There is limited amount of primary storage. Its basic purpose is to save the program that is run through the computers. Information and programs that are stored for later purposes are stored into the secondary storage, like the internal disk which is common to all of the computers.

 A computer disk secondary storage for holding a number of programs are copied to the primary storage in order to be executed, as required by the user. Secondary storage is utilised for archiving the data files. The secondary storage devices are very slow and the time should not be wasted by processor. .


The Cisco 2600 series owns single or dual interfaces of LAN, a new Advanced Integration Module (AIM), two Cisco Wan interface card (WIC) slots and a network module slot. LAN support involves dual and single options of Ethernet; 10/100 Mbps autosensing Ethernet; single Token ring chassis version; and mixed Token ring and Ethernet. WAN interface cards own a number of integrated CSU/DSU, ISDN BRI, and number of serial options for backup and primary connectivity of WAN. Network modules provide multiservice fax/data/voice integration, high density serial choices and departmental dial concentration. The AIM slot facilitates the implementation of different services named as data compression which is assisted through hardware and encryption. All of the routers of Cisco 2600 series involve the auxiliary port which supports 115 Kbps Dial on Demand Routing.


The communication controller owns four (six for the 2691) Serial Communication Channels (SCCs) on chip with individual links towards the slot of WIC.

  1. NM Expansion Slot

 There is one of the expansion slots for the installation of LAN or WAN network module. Some of the NMs can be utilised with Cisco 3600 series routers.

  1. LAN 0/ LAN 1

These are the LAN controllers which are present over the motherboard. There are three basic kinds: token ring, fast Ethernet and Ethernet. Availability is dependent over the special router’s model.

  1. AIM Socket

 This socket can do the accommodation of Advanced Interface Module (AIM) cards. This is 100 pin sockets and it permits such functions which do not look forward to any external connections (like encryption and compression). There are two of the AIM sockets in 2691.


This is the major bridge interface in between the system bus and CPU bus (PCI bus, over which some of the interfaces and Network Modules are linked).


This is used for communication in between the interface boards and CPU board. On the platform of 2600, this is the PCI bus [6].

  1. CPU Bus

This is used through CPU to access different components of system and for transferring data and instructions from or to specific memory addresses.


Memory has four types in the 2600 series router:


BOOTROM is used for storing the start-up diagnostic code permanently (ROM Monitor). The major work for BOOTROM is performing the hardware diagnostics during the boot-up over the router (Power OnSelf Test − POST), and loading the Cisco IOS software through the flash into the memory [7]. The BootROM cannot be erased; it is socketed for replacement. It is used to load the IOS software of Cisco from the Flash to towards the Memory.

B. Flash

Flash is used for storing a full Cisco IOS software image permanently in the compressed form. The Flash is used for storing the NVRAM and boot image. The 2600 XM owns 16 MB Flash which is soldered to the motherboard and one Flash SIMM socket. There is a compact flash card onto the motherboard and one socket for flash SIMM. It should be noted that when Flash SIMM is replaced, ROMMON should be used for copying the Cisco IOS software image over the SIMM.


DRAM is used at the execution time for the executable Cisco IOS software, packets, running configuration, Fast Switching, routing tables and so on. The 2600 owns two of the DRAM sockets and non-parity DRAM is used.Logically, DRAM is divided into Shared I/O Memory and Main Processor Memory. The sharing of shared I/O Memory is done in between the interfaces in order to store the packets temporarily.

  1. NVRAM

NVRAM is utilised for writable permanent storage of the initial configuration. It is EPROM, the configuration of start up is stored into the same flash device where the loading of boot code is done.



A. Operating System of General Purpose Computer

There are particular programs and storage places etc. It is beneficial for having a start-up program that develops these items and does the management of everything.

The manager and start-up program makes up the operating system. When the system is initialised, the OS is executed first. It starts the storage of computer and also the controllers for different devices. The interrupts handlers look over the components of operating system [4].

Along with it, the operating system assists the processor to do the execution of different programs simultaneously through execution of each program.

The operating is beneficial for the management of specific output device, the display of computer. The operating system involves the program which is termed as the window manager. When it is executed, it paints and repaints due to the reason that pixels are required in the display.


A computer owns different input and output devices.

  • For input: a mouse, a keyboard
  • For output: a printer, a monitor
  • For both input and output: CDwriter/reader, memory key, and an internal disk drive, and also the connection towards external networks.


  1. Operating System of Cisco 2600 Series:

The IOS software model of CISCO which was modelled after the Cisco 2500 series and Cisco 3600 series is Cisco 2600 series which provides large sets of characteristics, legacy IBM applications, Quality of Service, multiprotocol and wide variety of intranet applications are used. The Cisco 2600 series provides four of the protocol characteristics and premium characteristics choices involving the firewall and encryption feature sets [8]. The base features are:

  • Enterprise
  • Enterprise APPN
  • IP
  • IP/IPX/Apple Talk/DEC

The best feature set facilitate the standards and protocols like WAN optimisation features (like Dial back-up and RSVP, Weighted Fair Queuing and Customer Priority and bandwidth on demand), IP Multicast RMON, OSPF, NAT, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Remote Access Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) and  IP Multicast [9]. The provided premium sets of features are provided along with the base characteristics sets:

 • Plus

 • Plus with IPSec Encryption (56-bit and 168-bit with 3DES)

  1. Firewall
  2. Plus Firewall
  3. Plus with Encryption and Firewall

The remote access service feature set involve different security (extracting encryption), multicast, management, remote node, protocol translation, terminal services, and optimisation protocols. The feature set involves 3DES and IPSec encryption and also ICSA certified capabilities of firewall with detection of intrusion. The Cisco 2600 also facilitates the IOS IP/H.323 gatekeeper characteristic set providing the additional function of H.323 industry standard gatekeeper that is required to have scalable multiservice network. The Cisco 2600 is dedicated directory maintenance and set up of video conferencing call. Multiple protocols are not supported by it.

  1. Hardware Structure of Cisco 2600 Series

The hardware structure of Cisco 2600 series routers is given below:

• Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) • Synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM)

• Nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM)

• Flash memory

• EIA/TIA-232 (RJ-45)

• EIA/TIA-232 (RJ-45)



[1] Schalk, Gerwin, et al. "BCI2000: a general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system." IEEE Transactions on biomedical engineering 51.6 (2004): 1034-1043. Schalk, Gerwin, et al. "BCI2000: a general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system." IEEE Transactions on biomedical engineering 51.6 (2004): 1034-1043.

[2] Smith, W., and T. R. Forester. "DL_POLY_2. 0: A general-purpose parallel molecular dynamics simulation package." Journal of molecular graphics 14.3 (1996): 136-141.

[3] Owens, John D., et al. "A survey of general?purpose computation on graphics hardware." Computer graphics forum. Vol. 26. No. 1. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007.

[4] Guide, Cisco Solutions. "Survivable Remote Site Telephony Cisco 2600/3600 Voice Technical Marketing." (1992).

[5] Toderick, Lee, Tijjani Mohammed, and Mohammad HNTabrizi. "A reservation and equipment management system for secure hands-on remote labs for information technology students." Proceedings Frontiers in Education 35th Annual Conference. IEEE, 2005.

[6] Collins, Allan M., and M. Ross Quillian. "Retrieval time from semantic memory." Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 8.2 (1969): 240-247.

[7] Fabiani, Monica, and Emanuel Donchin. "Encoding processes and memory organization: a model of the von Restorff effect." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21.1 (1995): 224.

[8] Babaian, Boris A., and Roman A. Khvatov. "Method for emulating hardware features of a foreign architecture in a host operating system environment." U.S. Patent No. 6,732,220. 4 May 2004.

[9] Puschner, Peter. Is worst-case execution-time analysis a non-problem?-Towards new software and hardware architecture. na, 2002.

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