INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMNT AND MNC’S

Globalization has bought the world together and thus it forms a more integrated societies and businesses.  On one hand these business get a boost from industrialization similarly on the other hand they face problems all together. With the change in business patterns multinational corporations (MNC’s) are established with the view of making businesses much wider, productive and innovative. In order to achieve the MNC’s objectives the human resource managers are also intended to change according to the demographic, technological and societal shifts (Elbeltagi, 2007). In this regard the international human resource management became an important concern of today’s business operations.

In the present study we incorporate critical review of International Human Resource Management (IHRM). With its increasing importance in today’s MNC’s in the global business arena following study will elaborate certain disciplinary measures of IHRM and also identify certain challenges associated with the IHRM practices. Finally we will discuss that how does IHRM practices help in leading to a career success that is what effective steps needs to be taken by the human resource managers while operating in the international business.

 

 

1.Critical Review

In the era of diversity and globalization where organizations are no more operating in an insular environment they have a broader vision for their operations and taking strenuous efforts for their growth and development (Knight, 2004). Numerous studies identified that with the advent of globalization multinational corporations (MNC’s) became a key factor of world economy (Lavelle et al., 2010, Clair et al. 2005, Bassett-Jones, 2005). These MNC’s are operating in different regions of the world where high level of interaction amongst the employees take place. These employees belong from different back grounds, culture and traditions (Knight, 2000). Managing such a diversified workforce is indeed one of the most difficult task management has to cope with. The human resource management being a social discipline deals with the behavior, conduct and human insight of employees in any organization. As according to Sparrow, (2012) human resource management is liable for the implantation of the human resource practices in view of greater interest for the firm performance.

In the early 20th century when industrialization was booming the researchers started human relation movements in order to document different business values with the better strategic approaches for workforce. This involves many studies incorporating for the development, motivation and increasing productivity of the work force while incorporating human and industrial psychology discipline (Chan, Shaffer, and Snape, 2004).

After long history of human recognition, now organisations developed sense of the human aspects and its congruence with the organisational development. With the increasing pace of MNC’s operation many academicians are of view that there is a great need of better understanding of the human resource management practices in the organisation(Myloni,Harzing,and Mirza, 2004, Granell, 2000, Scroggins and Benson, 2010). As, MNC’s are operating in different regions with people of different backgrounds, nations and culture, there is a urgency in changing the perspective of human resource management practices in these global integrated organisations (Sparrow, 2012). According to Ozbilgin, (2004) it is of utmost importance that with the increase in international business activities the shift from domestic to global human resource practices have profound effect on the organisations better operations.  Because with the increasing concern of efficient management in the Multinational Companies around the globe.

In this regard an increasing body of knowledge has identified the importance of International human resource management (IHRM) practices in MNC’s. According to Björkman, and Welch,(2015) the increasing literature significantly determines IHRM as a maturing field of a scientific endeavor. With the prominence of MNC’s operation in global economy there is more inclination of practitioners has been noticed for the effective management of human resource mangers.  Numerous studies has indicated that the human resource management in international context has been approached with various disciplines including Psychology, business studies, strategic management, cross culture management, conflict management and comparative management (Björkman, and Welch, 2015, Anderson,Garavan,and Sadler-Smith, 2014, Sumetzberger, 2005). With the view of practitioners and academicians the central perspective of IHRM is that what varies across nations. The diversity identified within the human resource of any organisations needs to be effectively managed, therefore the IHRM perspective relates with the increasing concern in the MNC’s operations. It is defined as the concern of human resource problems with the foreign subsidiaries, or unfolding the associated problems of human resource at various stages of internationalization process (Keating, and Thompson, 2004). Furthermore Dickmann, and Müller-Camen, (2006)  incorporated that IHRM has moved to a broader context of managing human resource by shifting the human resources policies and practices towards the multinational enterprises where these enterprises have to develop effective practices to locate, source and manage efficient work force. In addition the increase in competitiveness between the organisations also insisted in order to develop approaches for emulating practices that helps in increase performance. Therefore, with changing view of business the importance of attracting, developing and managing human resource became an important concern. Furthermore it has been contended that effective management of human resource is vital for the development anyorganisation (Shen et al., 2015). This effectiveness relates with the deployment of talented work force and its efficient management.

As from the above discussionit has been viewed that IHRM literature covers a wide spectrum. However,in the present study we incorporate two basic categories in order to get a more disciplinary view of IHRM.Firstly identifying and focusing on the role of Human resource practices in multinational enterprises, secondly elaboratingthe impact of cross culture management practices on the IHRM practices.

Previously HRM practices in MNC’s are viewed with expatriate management, which implies only when international work assignment has been given to the managers (Aghazadeh,1999). The expertise requires for certain and specific nature of business operations. However, with the increasing number of MNC’s and their geographical shifts to many countries where to increase business operations with maximum return such as India and China, has raised many concerns of human resource management practices (Bassett-Jones, 2005). He cultural shift of European industrialization to American now leading to Asian culture all have significant impact on the business operations. In this regard many academicians have started on studying various aspects that can link to policies and practices regarding the management of these employees in the organisations. Taylor, Beechler, and Napier, (1996) that in order to have a holistic view of IHRM it is compulsory to incorporate the strategic management approach of HRM in international enterprises and the intended activities of strategic approaches also enable the firms to achieve the organisational set goals.The strategic approach will enable the MNC’s to sustain and build competitive advantage. Similarly Ozbilgin(2004) incorporated the theses practices and policies of IHRM in MNC’s are mean to an end rather than the end itself.

The Sadler-Smith, 2014, Sumetzberger, (2005) study bare the link between IHRM and strategic management will help to build a congruence between different human resource practices with the organisational strategic management approaches. The empirical investigation conducted on 243 firms byBecker, and Gerhart, (1996), revealed that the human resource strategies have significant impact on the organisations performance. Therefore, Dickmann, and Müller-Camen, (2006) argues that there isa need of striking balance between the global imperativeness and local responsiveness which leads to global management of Human resource. However, with the associated effectiveness of global management practices clearly indicate that such practices build more conducivework environment for the diverse work force and increase organisational effectiveness (Sparrow, 2012).

The cross cultural management practices are the early concepts in taking the accountability of HRM differences amongst nations. Therefore many studies have indicated the cultural differences and its management as a base for operating in different nations. Though initially studies based on culture differences, leadership style, employee motivation all catered the broader aspect of IHRM (Miroshnik, 2002). However, recently it has been studied as an exploratory variable amongst the employee behavior and management practices.With the increasing research on work force diversity and its challenges clearly establish link between the better understandings of culture differences by the management lead to increase in performance of both the employees and ultimately to the organisation (Svetlik, and Stavrou-Costea, 2007).

Despite with the increasing importance many researchers are of view that the IHRM practices are still at initial stages and needs a more comprehensive approach in order to establish its practices in the multinational enterprises (Whitaker,2003).Subramaniam and Christopher, (2013) pointed out the consistency to be built by MNC’s for managing workforce as Innovation is surge of today’s business, people from different backgrounds carries multiple views, generate new ideas and brings creativity in the organizations. With associated benefits there is a greater need of better managing them. Challenges associated with the IHRM include the systematic patterns for commencement of organisational practices in order to achieve organisational goals (Cheng and Cooper, 2003).The commencement of better practices of human resource aspects will ultimately have profound effect on the firms’ performance. Therefore, in order to gain competitive advantage the effectiveness of managers and policies and practices of human resource should be clearly revised.

The fore most challenge that a MNC’s manager face is the integration of host nation policies which accounts with the differences in labor laws, legal and economic dimensions (Granell, 2000). Beside these issues the global competitiveness and surge of talent raging is also a great concern. The staffing policies may unable to attract the talented work force. As Torrington,and Holden, (1992) contended that due to globalization the attracting and sustaining of better work force has become an increasing concerns. Therefore, in order to sustain them the organization has to provide the advancement in their career ladder.

The second major challenge is the environmental diversity, as discussed above due to cultural variances number of problems arises (Myloni,Harzing,and Mirza, 2004). The MNC’s staffing policies may be ethnocentric, polycentric or geocentric(Whitaker,2003). Such blending are greater source of conflict of culture between the employees and thus leads to devastating situations (Barkema,Baum,Mannix, 2002). The cultural collision according to Allen et al., (2007) is a greater challenge for the IHRM. Similarly the business risk management is another greater issue for human resource managers. With increase in instability in global economy and issues such as terrorism as increased the level of difficulty in managing the international business around the globe. The complexities involved in the integration of world business patterns and business smooth running is always a great challenge for the mangers (Paul, and Anantharaman, 2003).

The compliance with the host country law is another major challenge for the IHRM’s. As every country has its own rule of law, tax policies and economic evaluation. Such compliances increase the burden of human resource managers(Whitaker,2003). Challenges such as host nations government pressure for employing with in countries and later the training and development also accounts much. The expenditure involved with the training and development is much high (Whitaker,2003).However, sustain of the talented work force is also a greater challenge, (Sumetzberger, 2005) argues that the concern of human resource managers to sustain their talented employees as companies around the globe are in search of such candidates they take every possible measure to attract them. As attracting a talent is one thing the major concern is to retain them. Therefore, effective managers need to ascertain policies that help the employees to remain with the organisation.

 

 

 

2.Discussion

In the era of globalization, businesses are striving hard to cope with the fast paced challenges of the emerging global economy. With the expansion of businesses Multinational corporations (MNC) have to meet challenges such as rapid technological advancement, volatile markets, mobility of capital and human resource (Clair et al., 2005). With the associated differences amongst nations are of an important concern in today’s business environment. The international human resource management is a more prompt concept in this regard. The managers of MNC’s needs to ascertain that the pace of globalization has changed the human resource practices, therefore, they need to change their practices accordingly. With the changes in the business and advent of MNC’s has led business to be effective there is a need of more comprehensive approaches of human resource. The aspects of human resource needs to be revised according to the employees cultural backgrounds, this would result in building a more healthy and constructive work environment (Bassett-Jones, 2005).

The above discussion will help the mangers that what needs to be done with the diversified work force. The diversity incorporating in today’s organisations are needs to be developed at one hand and on the other hand they needs to be sustain for the organisational developmentand AlyEltantawy, and Giunipero, (2004). However, certain challenges can also be faced by these mangers while incorporating HRM practices in the organizations.

In order to be effective mangers in MNC’s they needs to develop more strategic approaches for the smoothing running of business operations. However, with increase in competition amongst the competitors these managers need to ascertain proper risk management techniques. With the uncertainty involved in business operations and global economy better mitigating strategies are of utmost important(Granell, 2000). Similarly with the preparedness of certain risk reduce the impact of uncertain situations.However another important criterion in this regard is the flexibility in decision making processes and also incorporating changes according to the prevalent conditions. Flexibility in decision making, out sourcing, delivering models is great source of adding value towards the HRM processes (Eltantawy, and Giunipero, 2004). As with the increasing pace of global integration such strategic approaches will help in reducing barriers in businesses and also helps in inducing positive changes in the HR functions.

The effectiveness of managers in MNC’s are also integrated with the management of one of core concept of international human resource management which is the cross culture management (Scroggins and Benson, 2010). This discipline has been the earliest pioneers of differentiating the HR management perspective in context of varying nations. If managers understood the varying nature of host nation it facilitates in many management process. Such as the employees can be effectively lead in order to achieve the organisational goals. Similarly effective managers also incorporate better motivational strategies in order to the cultural background of the employees. Such understandings of the culture help in reducing culture collision amongst various employees (Victoria, 2002). The managers usually face problems with the cross culture differences usually are miss communication, perceptions of biases and inadequate trust. However by understanding the better and studying the underlined culture helps to reduce such problems(Myloni,Harzing,and Mirza, 2004). Therefore, it’s of a great importance for managers to build an understanding of the culture in which the organisation is operating.

Another challenge which the IHR managers need to cater is to sustain the talented work force. With the increase in competitive environment the managing of talented work force is also a great issue(Subramaniam and Christopher, 2013). The organisations are always in surge of great talent, however sustaining the workforce with better management practices is of utmost importance. In the present competitive environment, a more talent is required by the companies. Therefore, companies are striving hard to attract and retain the talented employees though they belong from any country, religion race, gender or background. Thus, in order to sustain the talent with the organisations is what effective managers have to cater. They can only retain the talented workforce only when they are satisfied with work environment. The managers needs to create a more conduce and cooperative work environment amongst the employees. The provision of training and development facilities also helps to increase the job satisfaction of the employees. The diversity in work groups can also be adopted with the pledging better and comprehensive team work (Scroggins, and Benson, 2010). The managers in order to achieve the organisational objectives they need to foster the team work approach, where open door policies help in building confidence of the workers and also ensure that they are being valued (Keating, and Thompson, 2004). In such instances professional human resource managers also build an environment where the employees being valued and work more comprehensively in a team.

With the changing pace in business patterns the role of effective managers are also changed. The fostering of global collaboration is another role of human resource managers (Knight, 2004). With the global integration and dependence of one aspect with another led managers to think more generically (Victoria, 2002). In order to be effective they need to ensure personnel growth and also fostering the development of the organisation. With the global organisations thehuman resource professionals also work as partners where the HR manager helps to orient the new workforce with the organisational environment and also helps them in adopting it.

The compliances with the host nations while adopting its policies and practices help the organisation in its development. As the host nation has its own social, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds (Subramaniam and Christopher, 2013). However, the policies of the country are also based on them. Therefore, for the better operations of the organisations it is necessary to work according to develop policies such as pay, and compensation policies, recruitment and staffing etc. Adopting and incorporating host nation’s policies helps in the smooth running of the business and also reduce legal risks associated with such concerns.

International human resource management is an important concept in today’s business world. Therefore, there is a need of increasing research in this particular discipline in order to build a more comprehensive approach for the effective human resource management and to reduce problems associated with the international business. Because with the increase in demand of products and services businesses has to operate in its more efficient way in order to meet the customers’requirements. Therefore the international human resource management in today’s business operations requires a fundamental aspect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Literature Matrix

References

Focus

Theoretical Background

Methodology/

Method

Findings

Conclusion

Limitation

Welch, D. & Björkman, I. 2015;2014;, "The Place of International Human Resource Management in International Business", Management International Review, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 303-322.

International Human Resource Management

Strategy, Supply chain, International HRM, , Global organization,

Upper Echelons theory and Co-Evolutionary theory of global organizations

Methodologies such as meta-analysis are suggested to summarize the extant literature on IHRM when applied to SCML in global

Top management teams (TMT) are crucial to manage SCML successfully in today’s global organizations. Research on this intersection should draw attention to find antecedents, consequences and the process showing how those talented people grouped in dispersed teams can be a source of competitive advantage. Six different areas of research are proposed. It is proposed that future research should focus on the human capital (HC); meaning those key individuals of an organization that make things happen. In the near future, the global organization’s competitiveness will be shaped by how the organization manages its HC in SCML. organizations.

Top management teams (TMT) are crucial to manage SCML successfully in today’s global organizations.

The search was conducted in SSCI-ISIWoK and Scopus databases. As a limitation, some articles and other scientific contributions not abstracted there were not included. Nevertheless, both searches enabled obtaining balanced results between scope and richness

Ozbilgin, M. (2004) “International” human resource management: Academic parochialism in editorial boards of the “top” 22 journals on international human resource management. Personnel Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp.205-221.

 

Examining the reasons behind geographical, cultural, linguistic and contextual

boundaries inherent in international human resource management (IHRM) and its positive impact

 

IHRM theory

Three type of content analysis

Literature Review

classification and ranking of academic

prestige of the IHRM journals, the “top” 22 IHRM journals,

discourse analysis

regions of the world that are completely ignored in

the IHRM literature includes latin America middle east and Africa

Moderate level of Coverage eastern Europe and Asia

Well defined IHRM Europe and south America

The first step towards change would be the acceptance and

acknowledgement that there is a problem with the distorted profile of

geographic representation in IHRM

English language non speaking countries

Extensive research is needed

Not an empirical findings

Keating, M. and Thompson, K. (2004) International human Resource Management: overcoming disciplinary sectarianism. Employee Relations, Vol. 26, No.6, pp.595-612.

 

International Human resource management

Cross culture management and comparative human resource management

Culturist and culture free theories

Neghandi, 1983 theory of comparative human resource management

Poole (1990) assesses the suitability of the mode

Qualitative study

Through developing cultural dimensions

provides a method for operationalizing

culture

Convergence of HR issues and concepts

is occurring but interpretation and

practice remain divergent

HRM in MNCs is influenced mainly by

local factors

Describe national HRMSs and attempts

to explain sources of variation between

them

An understanding of how culture

influences behaviour, attitudes,

expectation, etc

Practices and affiliates differ in degree of

adaptation of local environment

Extensive research is needed

Not an empirical findings

Dickmann, M. and Müller-Camen, M., (2006) A typology of international human resource management strategies and processes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp.580-601.

.

 

IHRM

Strategy

Comparative advantage

NIL

six case studies of German MNCs, each operating in the UK and

Spain.96 semi structured interviews are conducted

Individual development plans, moreover, existed for all staff. Its career

management activities were guided by two key principles – to identify key talent early

and to fill open positions with the best persons.

multidirectional information exchanges and generally

attempted to identify and exploit HR ideas originating from anywhere.

 

the degree of international integration

of HR strategies and instruments while tracing communication and coordination

activities

developmental orientation and cooperative employee relations

small number of in-depth cases

the framework to analyse the IHRM of companies

from other countries could yield important insights.

Shen, Y., Demel, B., Unite, J., Briscoe, J.P., Hall, D.T., Chudzikowski, K., Mayrhofer, W., Abdul-Ghani, R., BogicevicMilikic, B., Colorado, O. and Fei, Z., (2015) Career success across 11 countries: implications for international human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 26, No. 13, pp.1753-1778.

 

IHRM

Cross culture comparison

Career success

Schwartz’s theory of cultural values

 

Qualitative study

Inductive approach

Interviews conducted and then analysed

Content analysis

Identified how individuals in different countries perceive career success in terms

of personal values and preferences, task characteristics and relational orientations.

Satisfaction is another important theme of career success

Enjoyment and fun are categorized as sub categories

They

present study provided descriptive profile of meanings of career success across the globe, shed light on

the relative importance of institutional and cultural context for HRM,

inform MNCs in their decisions about HRM policies and practices in the area of careers

and, finally, strengthen a contextualist view of HRM.

 

More empirical studies are required for better understanding and result findings.

for further insight and a more detailed global picture of career success,

the inclusion of more countries with diversified cultural and institutional contexts is

needed.

Sumetzberger, W., Sumetzberger, W. (2005) Managing human resources in a multinational context. Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp.663-674.

 

Management of Human resource

Multinational corporations

Management effectiveness

General Human resource Management description of recruitment staffing and compensation.

Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management.

A concept of four typical varieties of human resource management, a model and important aspects for designing the cooperation processes between human resource departments and company management in multinational companies.

The multinational companies have, many human resource activities, e.g. in the field of training and development, come to nothing. So is human resource management itself challenging enough. In an multinational context, additional complexity arises. Dealing with this complexity cannot be reduced to a stringent model or simple advice.

Constructive cooperation processes is needed in order to study the overall effectiveness of human resource activities.

Scroggins, W.A. and Benson, P.G., 2010. International human resource management: diversity, issues and challenges. Personnel Review, Vol. 39, No.4, pp.409-413.

 

Globalisation and Human resource management in the multinational organisations

NIL

the International Human Resource Management Conference was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Various IHRM papers were presented, and of these, many were subjected to a second round of reviews for this special issue

IHRM has emerged as an academic discipline, a variety of debates and issues have come to dominate the literature. For practitioners, a long-standing issue has been the delineation of specific practices to be used in the management of people within international organizations. Over time, practices have emerged, and texts today can readily be found that represent such practices for those working in MNCs as HR managers.

Diversity has profound effect on the organisations operations

NIL

Anderson, V. Garavan, T. and Sadler-Smith, E. (2014) Corporate social responsibility, sustainability, ethics and international human resource development. Human Resource Development International, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp.497-498.

 

HRM

Sustainability

Ethics

Editorial Writing

NIL

NIL

With the better practices towards the sustainability of the organisational practices will lead to increase in overall performance.

NIL

Björkman, I. and Welch, D. (2015) Framing the field of international human resource management research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.136-150.

 

IHRM and MNC’s

NIL

Literature Review

NIL

A composite, overarching framework that we hope assists

our IHRM colleagues and those within the general international business community make

sense of the field

expatriate management continues to add to our understanding of the consequences of staff

transfers at the Individual level of analysis, there is a growing body of work at the Unit,

MNC and Macro levels.

Torrington, D. and Holden, N. (1992) Human resource management and the international challenge of change. Personnel Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp.19-30.

 

 

IHRM and change management

Change management

Hosfedes culture dimensions

Personal review

Qualitative study

Change has significant positive impact on the performance of the organisation

Needs of more comprehensive empirical and in-depth analysis

Taylor, S. Beechler, S. and Napier, N. (1996) Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.959-985.

 

Strategic International Human resource management and MNC’s

Theoretical approaches of HRM and strategies

RBV model

Prepositions

The resource based view and resource dependence have strategic implications on the IHRM

The role managers to transfer the policies to host nations and strategic management approach helps in gaining competitive advantage

The crucial role of top management in order to find and incorporate better practices SIHRM

In the following paper on at general analysis of resources has been done, however the complexities involved with MNC;s has more integrated and multi level resources are used

Bassett?Jones, N., (2005) The paradox of diversity management, creativity and innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.169-175.

 

Diversity management

Multinational Organisations

Diversity management

Literature Review

The diversity proper management help to build a more innovative work environment,

The management of the talented work force the requirement of the human resource mangers

Diverse work force leads to better work performance and also helps in innovation and creativity

Qualitative study

Becker, B. and Gerhart, B. (1996) The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects. Academy of management Journal, Vol.39, No. 4, pp.779-801.

 

Organisational performance

Human resource management

Organisational Performance

HRM practices

Literature review

The HR systems can have an economically significant effect on firm performance

The recent spate of special issues on the subject reveals not only its prominence, but also the disciplinary range of intellectual interest in the topic. We are concerned that if the traditional HR discipline does not embrace the wider contribution to this area, other disciplines will, and HR as a discipline runs the same risk as the HR function of being marginalized.

Qualitative study

Myloni, B., Harzing, A.W.K. and Mirza, H. (2004) Host country specific factors and the transfer of human resource management practices in multinational companies. International journal of Manpower, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.518-534.

 

HRM

Cultural and institutional frame work

HRM practices

Hosfede cultural dimensions

Interviews

Content analysis

significant cultural changes are underway and that the institutional environment is gradually getting more relaxed, leaving more room to maneuver for MNCs.

cultural and institutional forces lead MNCs to adapt practices conforming to local norms up to a point. At the same time, they point to a considerable degree of HRM transfer, that results in better HRM practices in MNC’s

HR managers as the sole respondent for companies in the sample

The use of multiple respondents would serve to validate the reports of HR managers,

Elbeltagi, I. (2007) E-commerce and globalization: an exploratory study of Egypt. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.196-201.

 

Globalization, Communication technologies, Culture,

NIL

This is an exploratory study based on analysing secondary data and observation. The reason for choosing this approach in this stage of research is the lack of research that deals with this particular issue in the chosen case study

This is an exploratory study based on analysing secondary data and observation. The reason for choosing this approach in this stage of research is the lack of research that deals with this particular issue in the chosen case study

 

Limitations include the use of secondary data and observation as the research method in this study. Empirical data and sampling will be required for further research

 

 

 

 

4.References

Allen, R.S., Dawson, G., Wheatley, K. and White, C.S., (2007) Perceived Diversity and Organizational Performance. Employee Relations, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp.20-33.

Anderson, V.Garavan, T. and Sadler-Smith, E.(2014) Corporate social responsibility, sustainability, ethics and international human resource development. Human Resource Development International, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp.497-498.

Aghazadeh, S.M., (1999) Human resource management: issues and challenges in the new millennium. Management Research News, Vol.22, No.12, pp.19-32.

Becker, B. and Gerhart, B.(1996)The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects.Academy of management Journal, Vol.39, No. 4, pp.779-801.

Barkema, H.G., Baum, J.A. and Mannix, E.A., (2002) Management challenges in a new time. Academy of Management Journal, Vol.45, No. 5, pp.916-930.

Bassett?Jones, N., (2005)The paradox of diversity management, creativity and innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.169-175.

Björkman, I. and Welch, D.(2015) Framing the field of international human resource management research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.136-150.

Cheng, J.L. and Cooper, D.L., (2003)A strategic context approach to international human resource management research. Leadership in International Business Education and Research.Research in Global Strategic Management, Vol. 8, pp.235-50.

Clair, J.A., Beatty, J.E. and MacLean, T.L., (2005) Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplaceAcademy of Management Review, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp.78-95.

Dickmann, M. and Müller-Camen, M., (2006) A typology of international human resource management strategies and processes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp.580-601.

Elbeltagi, I.(2007) E-commerce and globalization: an exploratory study of Egypt. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.196-201.

Giunipero, L.C. and AlyEltantawy, R., (2004) Securing the upstream supply chain: a risk management approach. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp.698-713.

Granell, E.(2000). Culture and Globalisation: a Latin American challenge.Industrial and commercial Training, Vol. 32, No.3, pp.89-94.

Knight, G.A. and Cavusgil, S.T., (2004) Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 35, No.2, pp.124-141.

Keating, M. and Thompson, K.(2004) International human Resource Management: overcoming disciplinary sectarianism. Employee Relations, Vol. 26, No.6, pp.595-612.

Lavelle, J.Gunnigle, P. and McDonnell, A. (2010) Patterning employee voice in multinational companies. Human Relations, Vol. 63, No. 3, pp.395-418.

Miroshnik, V. (2002) Culture and international management: a review. Journal of management Development, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp.521-544.

Myloni, B., Harzing, A.W.K. and Mirza, H.(2004) Host country specific factors and the transfer of human resource management practices in multinational companies. International journal of Manpower, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp.518-534.

Paul, A.K. and Anantharaman, R.N., (2003) Impact of people management practices on organizational performance: analysis of a causal model. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14, No.7, pp.1246-1266.

Shen, Y., Demel, B., Unite, J., Briscoe, J.P., Hall, D.T., Chudzikowski, K., Mayrhofer, W., Abdul-Ghani, R., BogicevicMilikic, B., Colorado, O. and Fei, Z., (2015) Career success across 11 countries: implications for international human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 26, No. 13, pp.1753-1778.

Svetlik, I. and Stavrou-Costea, E. (2007) Connecting human resources management and knowledge management. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 28, No. 3/4, pp.197-206.

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