09 Apr 2018
This study was aimed to investigate the Just world belief and attitude toward jirga among university students.
Study shows that the positive attitude toward jirga is positively correlated with just world belief. This shows that people with positive attitude toward jirga system also have high level on JWB. This finding is supported by the theory of “the belief in a Just life: A fundamental delusion” (Lerner, 1980) .theory purposed that a just world is one in which actions and conditions have predictable and appropriate consequences. When people believe that the consequence of every action is appropriate the also trust the decision making by their elders of jirga cause it support there belief that one will only get what her deserve there is no chance of unjust decisions.
Another important finding of the study is, that the level of JWB is high among male students in comparison to female students. JWB is defined as the consequences one faces is because of her own work and what that deserve there. Or in other words “you reap what you sow”. In our society women are consider weaker them men, Men have more resources and opportunities to fight for their right and get what they want according to Lerner (1980) people are motivated to believe that the world is a just place where people get what they deserve. In most cases women are the once who suffers even if the crime is done by the male member of the family i.e Vani . the sample for this study was conducted from the students of Peshawar many of them belong to the ruler areas where the justice system is week or where judicial system is replaced by the Jirga system, in this kind of situation a men in our society have more power to stand for his right and mostly the judgments given by jirga’s are in favor of men or if someone committed a murder his sis or daughter is offered to the male member of the victims family to settle the score and bring peace between two families. In this scenario the women how become Vani lost her faith on just world or any other women who saw this kind of treatment lost her faith on just world. The injustices’ for women in our society is not just in the areas where jirga’s are the main sources of decision, in areas where Judicial system is available even there it’s very hard for the women to get justices, for exam if a women became a rape victim the family prohibited her to go to the polices because according to them taking this kind of matter out from the house will jeopardize there respect and the status and if even then a women go out and approach the police she face the humility by the male member of police and then if the rapist get caught he get his self out from the jail on a bile like in the case of Mukhtaran BIBI anti terrorism court sentenced 6 men to death for rape but the Lahore high court cited “insufficient evidence” and Supreme court too acquitted the accused ( the express Tribune, April 22, 2011). This kind of situations make female member of society not to believe on the phenomena like just world belief.
These findings are supported by the study conducted by (Hayes, Loren & Bell, 2013) on Victim Blaming Others: Rape Myth acceptance and just World Belief, there results indicate that the level of just world belief is higher among men than women.
Important finding of the study is female students have negative attitude toward jirga system then male students and over all the attitude of students toward jirga is more negative than positive. Jirga is a form of local council who have all male members in it, most verdicts given by them goes against women even if it was a male member of the family who committed the crime, Like “VANI” is an example in which if a male member of a family killed or committee a crime to another person or family the female a daughter or a sister or niece of the murderer forcibly married to the male member family of a victim to settle the scores between families the male who committed the crime didn’t get any kind of punishment, there are many expels of this tradition , in district D.I. Khan a three year old girl given to a man of forty five years on the decision of the local Jirga because the uncle of the three years old who kidnapped a girl (Daily Jung , 22 January 2007) , another case a man ran away with the daughter of the neighbor’s and the girls family took the case into local jiga , the jirga decided that the 6 month old daughter of the culprit’s should be married with the 25 years old brother of the runaway girl.( Al-Juzairi, A.R, 1977) and other example of the decisions of the Jirg system is “honor killing” jirga allow to murder a women if a male member of her family think that she dishonored his family they don’t even need prove to prove that women guilty, and another example is “honor rape” in which if a male member of a family raped someone jirga ordered that male members of the victims family should rape the female from the family of the person who rapped. The biggest example of the “honor Rape “ is the case of Mukhatra BIBI, on June, 2002 the 30 years old Mukhtara BIBI was ganged raped on the order of the local jirga , because there was the accusation on his 12 year old brother that he raped an 18 years old girl ( 28th June 2005 , BBC News). According to the HRCP during the time period of one year January 1 2013 to December 31 2013 there are 510 females became victim of the honor killing and 359 victimized by Karo kari.
These numbers and incidents clearly show why women have more negative attitude toward Jirga system. the overall attitude slightly inclined toward negative attitude toward jirga system the reason can be because the data was collected from the Universities the education level played important role in changing the view of the people from positive toward negative attitude.
The findings of the research show that the view of the people is changing toward jirga system, the level just world belief shows that females of our society are facing injustice. Females are more than 51% of our population to make our nation stronger it is necessary to give security and confidence to a huge part of the population.
Limitations and suggestions:
The main limitation of the study was the limited resources and the safety conditions of the country which prohibited the researcher to go further in the rural ares and collect data .To measure the attitude toward jirga system conducting the interviews could give more details views and results. The sample was collected from the Gandhara university Peshawer , it can benefited the study if data was also collated from rural areas e KPK and other provinces where jirga system is also very common . The direct interviews from the victimized females can benefited the study by giving the more insight about the psychological condition and the level of JWB among those females.
Implications of the Findings:
The findings have very important implications, it is shown by the results that females are clear victims of the jirga system and they clearly showed negative attitude toward this system, authorities should take serious steps toward this jirga system which is clearly violating the rights of the women, secondly women shows low level on Just World Belief , which indicates that women who are more 51% of the population are very insecure and victimized by the unjust Law system and biased society if authorities doesn’t take any proper steps to give security and justices to the women then it will make our society more week and vulnerable.
Daily Jung , Multan , Pakistan . 22-1-2007.
Al-Juzairi, A.R . (1977) . Kitabul Fiqah Ala Mazahib elarab, translated by Manzoor Abassi, Publication sector, Aqff dept. Lahore. PAksitan
HRCP , KILLINGS (add it in intro)
Tirmizi.(Aprial, 22, 2011) ,Mukhtara Mai: story of extraordinary courage. The express Tribune.
Anonymous. (21 aprial, 2011), Pakistan : acquittals in Mukhtara Mai gang rape case. BBCNews, south Asia.(add it in intro)
Add research : a social custom Vanni intro and critical analysis. (Add it in intro it’s online.)
Rape myth acceptance and just world belief , Rebecca m. hayes , Katherine and kirstin A Bell.(find it online add in references and research in literature reviews)
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