Relationship between Self-Esteem, Gender and Eating Disorder

29 Mar 2018

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Chapter 4

Results

Statistical Approach

The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18.0 was used to analyze the data. Pearson correlation will performed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder among college students. Besides that, Independent T-test was used to examine the female will exhibit higher levels of eating disorder than males.

Data Check

The dataset was screened for missing scores. Not missing scores has been found.

Descriptives and Reliabilities

Table one show the descriptive analysis and reliabilities for measure used in this study. The cronbach’s Alpha for the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) questionnaire was .75. While compare with previous research, the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) questionnaire has internal consistency reliability coefficient score was .98. The cronbach’s Alpha for 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire was .73. While compare with previous research, the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire was .96.

Table 1:

Descriptive and Reliabilities for Measures Used

Items

Mean

SD

Cronbach’s Alpha

Eating Disorder

114.18

15.72

.75

Self-Esteem

23.21

3.67

.73

Independent Sample t-Test Analysis

Table 2:

Independent T-test between Gender and Eating Disorder

 
 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Eating_

disorder

Equal variances assumed

2.116

.148

1.291

135

.199

3.2309

Equal variances not assumed

   

1.276

121.762

.204

3.23098

               

Preliminary assumption testing indicated that both the males’ (M= 124.66, SD = 16.31) and females’ (M= 121.43, SD=12.91). Consequently, independent T-test was non-significant, t (121.76) = (1.28), p=.204.

Correlation Analysis

Table 3:

Correlation Between Self-Esteem and Eating Disorder.

 

1

2

1. Eating Disorder

-

-.191*

2. Self-Esteem

 

-

Note: * p < .05, ** p<.01. All correlations are based on N=137.

To assess the size and direction of the linear relationship between eating disorder and self-esteem, a bivariate Pearson’s product-movement correlation coefficient ( r) was calculated. The bivariate correlation between these two variables was negative and weak, r (135) = -.191, p< .05.

Chapter 5

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Discussion of result

Independent Sample T-Test

In current research, researcher tends to use Independent Sample T-test to measure Hypotheses 2 which is females will exhibit higher levels of eating disordered than males. Independent sample T-test is the measurements which use to examine whether significant difference between two independent samples means.

Different Gender and Eating Disorder

Follow the SPSS analysis results in chapter 4, researcher reject the hypotheses 1. Hence, there is a not significant of females will exhibit higher levels of eating disordered than males.

Female will not exhibit higher levels of eating disordered than males. The finding of the results is consistent with Furnham, Badmin & Sneade (2002) state that the eating disorders are becoming a problem for males. Furnham, Badmin & Sneade (2002) suggest that no gender difference in exhibit the eating disorder.

Furthermore, according to Furnham, Badmin & Sneade (2002), most women show high dissatisfaction with their bodies by desiring to be thinner and men show body dissatisfaction by hoping to be heavier or thinner equally. Another study has shown that women and men feel dissatisfaction regarding their current body shape (Prevos 2005). Hence, this shows that the issue of body dissatisfaction is not merely limited to one gender.

Generally, females would desire the ‘ideal’ thin body shape and the males would desire to have a masculine look (Tan & Yew, 2012). According the Tan & Yew (2012) study also found that Indian males did not differ from Australian or Indian females and had similarly high levels of eating disordered behavior. Indeed, on one of the measures, Indian males had a higher mean than Australian females.

Lastly, it also support by Seepersad (2012), the previous research indicated that males to become conscious of physical fitness and appearance and now becoming more expressive and willing to admit that they have a traditionally “female problem”. Previous research also suggest that this number is likely to be substantially higher among male athletes, especially those for whom there are weight classes or aesthetic ideals, e.g. rowers, jockeys, wrestlers, dancers, gymnasts, and body builders, male models, and gay males (Paul, 2008). Thus, it is show that no gender difference in exhibit the eating disorder.

Pearson Correlation

In current research, researcher tends to use Pearson Correlation to measure Hypotheses 1 which is determine whether the self-esteem have significant relationship with eating disorder. Pearson Correlation analysis is one of the measurements which use to examine the linear association between two variables.

Relationship between Self-Esteem and Eating Disorder

Follow the SPSS analysis results in chapter 4, researcher accept the hypotheses 2. Thus, there is a significant and negative relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder among college students.

Self-esteem is the reasons which cause the eating disorder among college students. The finding of the results is consistent with Katsuanari (2009) state that self-esteem is found to be significant and negative correlated with and eating disorders. Katsaunari (2009) suggest that low self-esteem plays important role an interactional part in the manifestation of an eating disorder.

As the discussed before in chapter 2 state that people with eating disorder tend to have more negative emotion and inability to identify one’s own feelings and a profound sense of ineffectiveness (Seepersad, 2012). Therefore, Seepersad (2012) believe that the best self-esteem predictor of eating disorders was familial acceptance.

Finally, according the Wasylkiw, Mackinnon, & MacLellan (2012) indicated that emotional seems more likely to occur when an individual believes that body appearance is important and is dissatisfied with his/her body. For example, women who with eating disorder behaviors have been shown to have lower self-esteem than women without such eating disorders or less severe eating disorders (Peck& Lightsey, 2008). Therefore, self-esteem was related the cause significant physical and psychological suffering for those afflicted such as eating disorder (Bjorck, 2006).

5.2 Conclusion of result

The research results indicated there is a significant and negative relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder among college students (Katsuanari, 2009). Therefore, the self-esteem is play important roles in eating disorder among college students. People who with eating disorder behavior have been shown to have lower self-esteem than those people who without eating disorder behavior.

On the other hand, the research results indicated there is a not significant of females will exhibit higher levels of eating disordered than males (Furnham, Badmin & Sneade, 2002). Thus, it is no gender difference in exhibit the eating disorder. Study has shown that men also feel dissatisfaction regarding their current body shape and willing to admit that they have a traditionally “female problem” (Prevos 2005). Hence, this shows that the issue of eating disorder is not merely limited to one gender.

5.3 Recommendations

Firstly, researcher had conducted the research, but researcher believe that there have some ways of improvement the research. Researcher suggest can use other kind of the method to collect the data for the research in the future. In current study, researcher was used questionnaire method to collect the data. So, researcher also can try to use other methods in order to collect data such as personal interview, telephone interview and other method. The interview method will be feasible method to gather the detail data that helps in improve research accuracy. It also can help results obtained would have more detail and accurate information.

Second, researcher can improve the future research by give further explanation the contents in the survey and seek for respondents’ advice as well. It should be notify them what the issue has been carried on in the survey and guide them to fill up the survey when uncertainly and doubts of the question. Respondents’ answers and opinion can be able to represent the whole reality and truth circumstances in the research. It also can help the results obtained would have more detail and accurate information.

Other than that, the constraint encounter by the researcher was better and reliable resource is hard to obtain. Then, researcher is encouraged only searching reliable and trustworthiness web site and online database to obtain the data. Besides that, researcher should have capability to well manage the time frame and spend longer period to carry out the research in order to gather more in-depth, reliable and complete information for the research.

Even though the samples represent the target population, it does not cover all the college students in whole Malaysia and the result may not apply to all of the college students in Malaysia. The convenience sampling method restricts the generalization. Since 137 samples size may not provide researcher an adequate result attributable to the small sample size is not equally distributed in the population. So, researcher may need to enlarge the target respondents. It help researcher to an adequately measure the more reliable outcome of study. Besides that, questionnaire should be distributed throughout to more university rather than only specialize one university. It is not fully generalized to all geographic areas as the sample researcher selected only limited to specific areas. So, researcher may able to collect wider variety of data from different locations.

5.4 Strength of present study

The researcher had finding out the relationship between eating disorder and self-esteem among college students. The findings of this study are able to provide some strength to the population.

Firstly, clear instrument is one of the strength during the process of the study. Researcher was used clear instrument to conduct the current research. Clear instrument is very important in conduct a research because it can help to clarity the relationship between the variables. Hence, researcher was used questionnaire of Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 was conduct research. It was develop by Garner and Garfinkel (1979). The questionnaire mainly focuses identify characteristic of eating disorder symptoms. Besides that, researcher also used the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire in current research. It was develop by Rosenberg (1965). The questionnaire used to explore about the self-esteem and about the person’s feeling of values. Moreover, self-esteem can also describe self-respect. Therefore, these both instrument have shown a clear instruction to help to researcher to measure the relationship between two variables. Thus, the current study can able to become a clear instrument for the future study.

Lastly, increased the awareness of the problem is also one of the strength during the process of the study. Eating disorder is a serious problem in nowadays. Previous research suggest that there is has significant relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder. Therefore, through this current study, researcher can help the respondents to awareness the problem especially college students. Besides that, current research also helping parents to awareness the problem. After parents study the research, they will pay more attention to their children so that to reduce the risk of eating disorder.

5.5Weakness of present study

There are several constraints encountered in the process of doing this research, although the finding of the research was acceptable. However, there do exist some of the weakness during the process of the study which it may affect the accuracy of the research results.

First and foremost, time constraint is a weakness during the process of the study. The time given to complete the whole research project is restricted. It required a lot of time in order to produce a good quality of research. There are numerous preparations required in the research project such as gathering information, collecting supporting data from other sources, prepare and distributing the questionnaires, collecting the questionnaires from the respondents. Besides that, distributing and collecting the respondents’ feedback had taken a lot of times due to some of the respondent have no time to fill in the questionnaires and cause that they are not willing to help us. Therefore, proper arrange of time is very important.

Second, respondent’s bias is one of the weaknesses during the process of the study. The researchers have found that some of the respondents are not so cooperative and feel disinclination and inconvenience when fill in the questionnaire or seek for their opinion. Some of the respondents think that filling up the questionnaires is wasting their time, so respondents might be just simply answer the question in questionnaire. Furthermore, some of respondent feel that some of the questions in the questionnaires are too sensitive, therefore respondent are unwilling to fill up the certain question or they just refuse to fill up the whole questionnaires. Hence, the progress of the data collecting was compare much more time than other parts such as preparing the beginning of the research and analyzing part.

On the other hand, sample size of the respondent is considered very small as it cannot widely scope in all population of higher institution. The researcher only provides 137 questionnaire on Tunku Abdul Rahman University College Kuala Lumpur campus only. In the end, small sample size may not appropriate enough to justify the problem and the results may not accuracy compare with large sample size.

Lastly, availability of journal also is one of the weaknesses during the process of the study. The researcher also faces some difficulty in searching for relevant article and journals for this research project. In addition, there are lacks of resources on TARUC online database and some of the useful secondary data from the internet were restricted to the specific users but no available for public in the surfing progress, whereas for which available for public reference that are outdated and less accurate data and information. Even the information found are related and supported but there are relatively small area can be used. Therefore, a lot of efforts are spending in searching and viewing the relevant information on this study to compare present research with the previous research.

5.6 Summary

The main aim of this thesis is to measure whether the self-esteem will link to eating disorder. The objective is to identify the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder among college students and examine the gender differences in self-esteem and eating disorder. The sample consisted of 137 college students between the ages of 18 and 23.

Besides that, researcher was used the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test-26 to conduct the research. The data interpreted by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18.0 to analyse the relationship between self-esteem and eating disorder among college students and gender difference with eating disorder. In the study, researcher indicated that are no gender difference with eating disorder. That means females and males to have equal chance to have eating disorders. Self-esteem was significant and negatively relationship with eating disorders.

Lastly, this study also has weakness and strength. The strength is about can help to increase the awareness of the problem especially college students. For the weakness, it is respondent’s bias, sample size of respondents and other cause the research of this study is very hard to complete.



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