Reason Of Adopting Interpretivism Approach Psychology Essay


23 Mar 2015

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Cooper and Emory 1995 cited Saunders, 2007 defines "research" as to provide information systems to solve the problem query. Research methods, will help to achieve research objectives, is also very important to explore the ways of solving the research problem. Saunders, etc., (2007) referred that "research method is a process of directing how the theory should be taken". Here, mostly observation and questionnaire survey and interviews, are used in related to the statistical and non - statistical analysis.

When the definition emphasizes the "systems approach" of research (Cooper and Emory University, 1995, cited Saunders, etc., 2007) suggested that the research study is based on a rational manner with the overall flow of logic and not just researcher belief. The collected data can help researchers to obtain answers to research questions. Organization of Research Methodology is given below:

- Research Philosophy

- Research Approach

-Research Method

- Research strategy

- Research Sample

- Research Ethics

Figure: Research Process the 'Onion' Metaphor: Saunders et al (2007) p101

In this research study, among three philosophies such as: positivism, interpretivism and realism, the researcher will use the interpretivism philosophy. In this dissertation, there is utilized the inductive approach. In relation to this research study, there will be used the qualitative method of research. Both of primary and secondary data collection method will be used in this research. Here, for conducting this research, the researcher used the questionnaire and sent a set of questionnaire via email to the HR manager of the Radisson hotel.

3.2 Research Philosophy

There is needed to contain the clear idea about the philosophy of research study for the purpose of achieving the objectives of this dissertation. Saunders refers that significant assumptions are contained by the philosophy of research which described about the way of viewing the world by the researcher and these assumptions can be used for the purpose of underpinning the strategy of research (Saunders et al., 2009, p. 110).

Schutt 2006 cited in Saunders, 2007 mention that if the researcher investigates the social world it is possible that researcher own assumptions also shaped the investigation that how the business world can be the best examine that is - the research philosophy. This sometimes refers that the way how researcher views the world. Saunders et al (2007) also argue that before investigating the questions your research raise, it is important to clarify your philosophy you adopt (Schutt 2006 cited in Saunders et al., 2007 ) mention five philosophy of social world positivism, post positivism, inter - subjective agreement, Interpretive and constructivism. Although Saunders et al (2007) categorized these into three main philosophies, positivism, Interpretive and realism.

By investigating, one can get significant information about customer relationship management (CRM) and its related software, and how it can work in the organization, if one considers the global hotel business, such as Hilton, IBIS, Holiday Inn, Travelodge etc which are the orders of limit their consumer life period .

Here the above mentioned research philosophies are discussed in detail below:


Positivism can be termed as the natural scientist's philosophical stance (Saunders et al., 2009, p.113). it is also referred as the methodology which is structured highly due to which it is possible to replicate and there can be created the law like generalizations results. In relation to the law like generalizations, it has been meant by the author that the researcher conducts the research study with same topic where same conclusion can be occurred.


Epistemology is referred by the interpretivism philosophy which indicates that the researcher should know about the differences among human in terms of their roles as the social actors (Saunders et al., 2009, p.116). this philosophy of research has the main conception of interpreting the human social roles by the researcher in relation to the set of meaning of the research study. In addition, two traditions such as: phenomenology and symbolic interactionism is the main source of interpetivism. Phenomenology can be defined as the way of making sense among human throughout the world. symbolic interactionism refers that the human involves the continual process by which social world is interpreted surrounded people where the researcher interpreted other peoples' action with whom the researcher interacted and it can be focused towards the adjustment with our own meaning and actions. Moreover, it has been stated by Saunders (2009) that signifcance of interpretivistic philosophy focused towards research willingness for adopting the empathetic stance. One challenge is existed that which is entering to the social world in relation to the subject of research and understandng about the research world from the research perspective. At the end, Smith (2002) concludes that the situation of business is not only complex but also appeared as the unique. They contains the function of the specifc set of circumstances and also individuals. In this research study, interpretivism philosophy will be applied by the researcher.


Realism refers to the reality, the meaning of which is indicated towards the sense of showing the truthness of reality: an existence independent of the human mind is having by the objects (Ester-smith, 2004). In addition realism can be divided into two division such as: direct realism and critical realism. Direct realism refers that you get those things what are seen by you, from this perspective the world is portrayed by our experiences achieving through sense. It has been argued by the critical realists that our experience is the sensatios.

Reason of Adopting Interpretivism Approach:

An interpretivism approach will be followed by this study. For this research study, it is appropriate because a phenomenon such as: specific issue about CRM is explained by the researcher on the basis of the already established research and literature. Moreover, qualitative research is used on this research study which is related with the interpetivism approach.

3.3 Research Approach:

In accordance with Saunders (2009), two general ways are there to approach the problem of research for example: deductive and inductive approach. Now, the details of these two approaches are discussed below:

Deductive Approach:

The deductive approach can be relied towards the thinking by logical way and theory is used there for drawing the conclusion. On the other hand, deductive approach indicates that the main source of conducting research study is using theories which are already establishied and also using model by using which there are develloped the proposition and after that there are tested the proposition by empirical studies. There is used the deductive approach while a theory is developed and also developed hypothesis on the basis of already established facts and theories at the specific field, because of which a research strategy is designed by the researcher and also a theoretical proposition is tested through the researcher.

Inductive Approach:

In inductive approach, empirical study is the main orgin of conducting research study and existing theories are used for conducting these empirical studies. The main starting point of inductive approach is the data collection and the formulation of theory from the results. Nevertheless, in case quantitative studies, inductive approach can be used. On the other hand, there has the main difference among the deductive and inductive approach which is that deductive approach first use a theory and then practice it and inductive approach first collect the data and then formulate the theory that mean practice to theory.

Reasons for Using Inductive Approach:

In this dissertation, there is utilized the inductive approach because the inductive approach involves beginning with a set of empirical observations, seeking patterns in those observations, and then theorizing about those patterns and the deductive approach involves beginning with a theory, developing hypotheses from that theory, and then collecting and analyzing data to test those hypotheses. In case of this research study, collected data will be analyzed through empirical observation and applying these observation for establishing theories of CRM.

3.4 Research Method:

The method of research can be classified into two types such as: qualitative and quantitative method. Both of these methods are described below:

Qualitative research:

It is possible to find out the reason or purpose for making research study through the qualitative research where there is not used the method in relation to the unstructured information that can be conducted by the analysis on the time of research course. Various ways are there by which there can be conducted the qualitative research. Such as: feedback norms, videos, emails and the interview transcripts. In the qualitative research, there is included the basic feature of theoretical concept where this type of research study is not related with the statistics and number in terms of the domain of the qualitative research. It can be defined as the enquiry method by which there are dealing the academic things disciplines by explaining the social sciences in the research market field and along with other context (Bryman 2008). The main purpose to conduct the research of qualitative and along with using this research form study through the researcher is getting knowledge on the human behavior and different issue that can be occurred in terms of the human behavior nature. there can be also investigated the motives and purposes by this research study which can be applied in order to making decision while it can't be connected with the incidental values. In hence, qualitative research has the smaller context but for the purpose of doing this kind of research study, greater focus value should be given by the researcher or larger sampling should be adopted by him or her. There can be produced the information through applying this research method and in order to drawing the general conclusion, hypothesis should be made by the researcher in case of the research study and after that quantitative method is used by the researcher to test the hypothesis validity.

Quantitative research:

In order to gathering information and data, there can be used the quantitative method of research study. This kind of research method is mainly depended on the numerical data or statistical data and it is possible to measure this form of data easily. In this research method, there are used some research techniques such as:

Graphs, tables and statistics by which there can be interpreted the gathered data and information by the researcher in the research study and it is considered as the major difference among the qualitative and quantitative research. In order to making scientific research, both techniques of research for example: qualitative and quantitative or either qualitative or quantitative can be used and biology, physics are the example of scientific research. There are existed the controversies on the using of both of these methods in research study and along with there is also consisted of the ideology in the research techniques forms in case of some certain fields for example: psychology, social anthropology and sociology. Each researcher has the different way of thinking due to which various forms of research methods are used by several researchers. In case of certain matters, there can be produced the information through applying this kind of research study and in order to making the general conclusion, hypothesis should be made by the researcher in terms of research study and then quantitative method can be used by the researcher to test the hypothesis validity.

Reasons for Using Qualitative Method:

In relation to this research study, there will be used the qualitative method of research because of some reasons. This research study is mainly theoretical based where at first theory is formulated and after that the theory is established by analysing collected data. There will not be used any kinds of numerical data or statistics but for interpreting qualitative data, graphs and charts are used by the researcher.

3.5 Research Type:

Generally, every one seeks information in different ways. Researchers are also trying to use logical approach to search. Another way, the system can be determined the exact sciences and appropriate topics in any information of search. This is the main point of the survey is to identify, understand the establishment plan, we will try to follow the amount of information owned a large sort of subjects can communicate. In addition, the technology is not a prerequisite to any study; we can use it whenever we need. Survey methodology, we can be divided into different groups:

Social Research :

Here, the researcher used the social research. For this type of survey research, we follow the theory of scientific information and to disclose more details of the relevant the environment and its past history. In addition, the classification can be divided into academics and non academics, or to maintain the type of application structure or process. The Procedures are as follows: (Ravarini, A., 2002)

Types of Research:

The purpose of the research process is mainly aimed to create new knowledge .The research in the process have three types. These three types of study are: to explore research and constructive research and empirical studies in the final. Here empirical studies will be conducted by the researcher because numerical terms will be used to interpret and analyze the collected data.

3.6 Data collection Method

Primary research:

In case of primary research methods, data is not engaged in obtaining from the current literature. It can be gathered by the field research. In particular, the use of primary information is related with the investigating and conducting interview. Main equipments to perform the research are described below:

3.6.1 Face to face interviews:

In the face to face interview, interviewer can give answer straightforwardly to the question of the researcher, which usually involves maintaining the sequence of question. There may be short answer questions. In most cases, the answer is incomplete, or the like "yes" or "no."

3.6.2 On-line survey:

Online survey is considered as the most commonly used survey which is conducted through the internet. This can be conducted via email by sending questionnaire.

3.6.3 Telephone interview:

This is equivalent to other interviews; the questions that asked are almost same for interviewees, and often short.

3.6.4 Questionnaire:

Some of the questionnaires are distributed via online such as using: email. Here, for conducting this research, the researcher used the questionnaire and sent a set of questionnaire via email to the HR manager of the Radisson hotel.

In this research study, for collecting data face to face interview, online survey and telephone interview will not be used.

3.7 Secondary research :

In case of secondary research, information is used for conducting research studies that have been already used, and this information is already available in the literature which can be gathering through other researchers. Secondary research is considered as the data collection methods. This form of study is considered the most significant research because it is used for comparison and analysis. This type of source of research data can be printed resources, examples are: journals, newspapers, Trade magazines, books, electronic, along with the source such as: software package, or on-line service. It is very much needed to take care about that the original source can get credit when secondary sources are used by the researcher (WL Newman (1991).

3.8 Time Horizon:

For every research types, the frame of time is considered as the most significant for majority of the researcher. Hence, there is needed for understanding that the research refers to something where time is needed and it will not be the same time period for one research type as comparison other type of research. Two types of studies have been identified by the Saunders (2009) such as: cross sectional studies and longitudinal studies. It has been meant by the cross sectional studies that the study conducted on the certain phenomenon or phenomena in a specific period of time. It is common to use these types of studies in research project where a time constraint is there and there is designed the research with the snapshot forms.

In case of longitudinal studies, opportunity is having by the researcher for the purpose of investigating if any changes or developments are there for a specific period of time. In comparison with the cross sectional studies, a phenomenon about various occasions are studied by the longitudinal studies; after that there is designed the research with the form of ''diary''. In this study, there is used the cross sectional approach with the time constraint and the study about the specific phenomenon in a specific period of time.

3.9 Sampling:

After conducting the interview through the researcher, there is conducted a survey for the purpose of finding out customer relationship management (CRM) strategy allows the organization for achieving the competitive advantage with the retention of customer by meeting the customers' demand. Because of time limitation, 50 peoples are taken by the researcher as a sample size from the perspective of the analysis of data and finding easily. Managers of the hotels are the respondents who participated on the survey.

3.10 Ethics:

In order to conducting the research study, there should be maintained some ethical issues by the researcher. Such as: information disclosed and security concern. Not all companies share their private information to other persons due to privacy. Along with this, some respondents don't want to disclose their feedbacks due to security reasons. On that case, the researcher should have to confirm the respondents their opinion will not be provided to any third parties. In addition, the researcher should handle all the respondents without any biasness so that all respondents feel free to give their feedback without any hesitation.

4.00 Design of the Research Questionnaire:

Question 1:

How CRM can be defined from the perspective of the hotel business?

Question 2:

How CRM contributes to gain competitive advantage by the hotel business?

Question 3:

Is your organization considered CRM as a strategy of business?

Question 4:

What is the relationship between customer and the strategy of CRM?

Question 5:

How the strategy of CRM of the hotel business can be differed with each other?

Question 6:

What is the contribution of CRM strategy in the customer retention and satisfaction in the company?

Question 7:

Through which way customer conflicts can be handled by the company?


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