23 Mar 2015
Figure : Six approaches to Personality"Personality can be defined as consistent behavior pattern and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual" (Burger, 2008, p. 4).
But this being said, there is no single answer how to describe human personality. Personality theorists have different ideas and point out different ways to explain personality. According to Burger (2008) there are six general approaches, which all provides a different focus for explaining personality and the differences in people`s behavior. Burger (2008) identified "the psychoanalytic approach, the trait approach, the biological approach, the humanistic approach, the behavioral approach, and the cognitive approach" (p. 5). Each approach has been developed by different psychologists, who display different theories about the differences in the way people behave. From this theory researchers branch hypothesis and collect data that either support or do not support the hypothesis and their theory (Burger, 2008, p.5).
Within the framework of this final enclosure I will only dwell on theories of the psychoanalytic approach, the trait approach, and humanistic approach.
The psychoanalytic approach concentrates on the people`s unconscious minds, which are primary accountable for important differences in their behavior pattern (Burger, 2008, p. 5).That means, that people`s behavior is affected by past experiences that are left in people`s unconscious mind. People are not aware of these minds. In common the psychoanalytic approach places a huge emphases on these unconscious processes in order to explain human behavior.
Sigmunf Freud developed the first widespread theory of personality and psychoanalysis. After working with hypnosis to help patients suffering from hytsteria, Freud realized the huge impact of unconscious minds on human behavior (Burger, 2008, p. 68). As a therapy, psychoanalysis is based on the concept that individuals are unaware of many factors that cause their behavior and emotions. These unconscious factors have the capability to produce unhappiness. This unhappiness could be expressed through noticeable symptoms, which can includes worrying personality nature, difficulty in social relationships or unrest in self-esteem. To get at the unconscious minds of a person, Freudian psychologists use projective tests, free association, hypnosis and dream interpretation to bring the unconscious source of the client`s problems into awareness (Burger, 2008, p. 69).
According to Freud`s topographic model, human personality can be parceled into conscious (thoughts people are aware of), preconscious (thoughts, that can be brought into awareness with little difficulty) and unconscious (is the material, to which people are unaware and have no immediate access) parts (Burger, 2008, pp. 44-45).
Freud also generated the structural model which divides personality in id (selfish part, concerned only with satisfying personal desires; totally unconscious), ego (to satisfy id impulses, but in a manner that takes into consideration realities of the situation; partly conscious) and superego (represents moral, values and standards; totally conscious). Regarding to Freud, a healthy personality is one in which the ego controls the id impulses and superego demand (Burger, 2008, pp. 45-47).
Freud`s theory of subconscious playes an important role in business environment for example by doing marketing and advertsing measures as well as by designing and producing consumer`s products. According to Zaltman (2003) the subconscious mind of the market`s consumer is the place where most purchasing decisions are made. The marketers have to understand the consumer`s thinking, behavior and attitudes in order to satisfy the consumer`s desires and needs. One-on-one interviews that are enriched by using various techniques from clinical psychology and sociology can bear further insights into unconscious consumer thinking, which can for example help to identify new product opportunities (Zaltman, 2003). The cognitive unconscious involves memory, attention, information processing, the nature of human universals, and socially shared cognitions. Zaltman patented 1995 the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), a market research tool by using interviews and analysis to uncover the relevant fundamental structures that guide people's thinking about a topic. (Wikipedia, 2010). Associations of consumers can be effectively identified and then used in advertising and marketing measures to help marketers communicate more effectively to consumers about a brand, product, or topic. Because of the global market and the increasing competition it is more and more important to understand the consumer`s behavior and needs. Relating to Zaltman (2003), therefore the marketers have to acquire advanced knowledge about consumer`s behavior and their unconscious minds in order to use this knowledge to benefit consumers.
According to FreudÂ´s theory of a healthy personality the ego tries to find compromises between the unconscious id impulse and conscious superego demand. Therefore the ego often uses defense mechanism to deal for example with unwanted thoughts or desires as well as to reduce or avoid anxiety by keeping this material out of consciousness (Burger, 2008, p. 68). Freud`s defense mechanism, in order to cope with these unwanted thoughts, desires or anxiety, are for example repression (threatening material is pushed by the ego out of consciousness), sublimation (threatening unconscious impulse are channeled into socially acceptable action), displacement (channeling impulse to nonthreatening objects), denial (refusing to accept, that facts exist), reaction formation (acting in a manner opposite to the unconscious desires), intellectualization (considering something in a intellectual unemotional manner to bring difficult thoughts into consciousness without anxiety), and projection (projecting impulse onto another person) (Burger, 2008, pp 48-50). According to Burger (2008, p. 78) Freud identified the defense mechanism repression as the cornerstone of psychoanalysis. Investigators measure defense mechanisms by interpreting responses to Rorschach inkblots, stories, Thematic Apperception Test, picture cards (Burger, 2008, pp. 79-80)
Also in the business environment defense mechanism play an important role. Day to day Managers and employees try to satisfy their needs for example achievement, job satisfaction, responsibility, self-esteem and self-actualization. They also try to avoid situations, in which they feel dissatisfied, threaten, unhappy, depressed, weak or anxious. Managers and employees use defense mechanism, which we are not aware of, in order to manipulate unlikely situation to feel satisfied, productive, respected and accepted. (Schaffer, 1971).
Schaffer (1971) identified one of the most common defense mechanism of managers "doing all I can in these circumstances" illusion. He argues, that most of the managers place a deferral around their own possible cause of action. Within in this borderline, they see themselves as doing everything they can. Managers often see limitation in their scope of initiative because of unmotivated and unqualified employees. Needed improvements are always the job of another manager or employee (Schaffer, 1971). In this way, Manger cope with their fear of failure and uneasiness and use defense mechanism in order to reach their goals. Schaffer (1971) also suggested that managers keep themselves comfortable by keeping busy to avoid doubts about themselves and how things are going.
Freud`s Psychoanalytic Society, as the oldest and most famous approach to explaining human personality, generated a lot of new theories, which retained the unconscious as a key factor to understand different behavior styles. These neo-Freudians mostly agree with Freudian concepts, but they also went on to develop their own theories, in which they pick up the failures of Freud`s Theory like his emphasis on instinctual over social influences and the generally negative picture he painted of human nature. (Burger, 2008, pp. 99)
Alfred Adler concentrated on the concept of striving for superiority to explain differences in human`s behavior and motivation. He argued, that at the beginning of every psychological life is a feeling of inferiority and helplessness, which a person lifelong tries to overcome. Everything a person does, occurs on this struggle in order to establish a sense of superiority over life`s obstacles. (Burger, 2008, pp. 101-102)
Adler differed from Freud in the way how he described human motivation. Freud identified, that human behavior is motivated by life/sexual and death/aggressive instincts, whereas Adler identified this striving for superiority as an overall motivational factor (Burger, 2008, p. 101).
Regarding to Adler, the reason why we work hard or try to achieve a position of power, is the human`s desire for striving for superiority or success. Due to this fact, Adler saw business success as an expression of superiority striving. He argued, that, the more inferior humans see themselves, the stronger their striving for superiority, which push them to become successful (Burger, 2008, p. 102).
Adler also suggested, that successful business people reach a sense of superiority and success through their performances, but only if they achieve their goals with observance for cooperate social responsibility (CSR) and welfare (Burger, 2008, p. 102). "Success means to provide consumers with a good product at a fair price that will make everyone`s life a little happier" (Burger, 2008, p. 102). This can also involve every kind of CSR activities for example paying employees a fair salary, providing good and safe working conditions, using safe and eco-friendly production and transportation systems, stewardship of available resources, avoiding discrimination as well as unfair competition. "In contrast poorly adjusted people express their striving for superiority through selfishness and a concern for personal glory at the expense of others" (Burger, 2008, p. 102).
Adler also put their emphasis on the role of birth order in forming personality. He argued that firstborn children differ in their behavior and personality from middle-born and lastborn children (Burger, 2008, p. 103). Relating to Adler "problem children, neurotics, criminals, drunkards and perverts" are mostly firstborns, as a result of less attention and less pampering by their parents, after a sibling was born. In the opposite middle-born children develop a strong superiority striving, because they are always used to have another sibling and they are never granted the luxury of being pampering. Adler believed, that lastborn children are pampered throughout their whole childhood, which can lead to a high dependency from others and a strong feeling of inferiority (Burger, 2008, p. 104). In common the middle-born children were the most achieving and were less vulnerable to psychological dysfunction than the firstborns or lastborns (Burger, 2008, p. 127).
Nowadays there are widespread beliefs in science and economy, that birth order is an important determinant of personality, intelligence, and economic success.
Ben Dattner , a professor and notable consultant in New York, argued, that "sibling dynamics play an important role in how you sell yourself in the workplace, based on the time, attention, love and resources your parents devoted to you" (as cited in Bolch, 2007). According to Dattner, firstborn children are likely extroverted and confident, but they are also worried about losing their position or intrigue and stave off failings and mistakes. He argued, that middle-born children are likely diplomatic, are good at negotiation and are very peace-loving persons, who are closer to friends than to family. In his eyes, the most achieving-orientated are the only children, who are always trying to acknowledge their parents` forecasts and requirements. (Bolch, 2007).
Scher, the CEO of a marketing services company, argued, that they found out, that a lot of their best employees were lastborn children, who could negotiate and knew how to communicate (as cited in Bolch, 2007). But finally, the common perception is, that the birth order could have a impact on human`s personality and behavior , but there are any more various factors, which have an huge impact on a person`s development or business success. For example gender, culture, socioeconomic factors, divorces, remarriages and so on (Bolch, 2007).
According to Carl Jung, all human inherit basically the same unconscious material (from past generations) and psychic characteristics, which Jung called the collective unconscious (Burger, 2008, p. 105).This collective unconscious houses primordial images, called archetypes. The most interesting archetypes are the anima (the feminine side of the male), the animus (the masculine side of the female) and the shadow (contains the negative and dark side of human`s personality) (Burger, 2008, p. 106). Jung argued, that "there are as many archetypes as there are typical situations in life" (as cited in Burger, 2008, p.106). He described these archetypes as a certain answer to the world and it`s situations (Burger, 2008, p. 106).
Richardson (2007) focused on the power of Jungian hero archetypes in consumer brand building. He argued, that the archetypes are a powerful tool for mass marketing and brand building and which are successfully used to influence human behavior through story telling in the form of myths (Richardson, 2007). This could help to sell and advertise a company`s products and services in order to create brand recognition and loyal customers. Richardson (2007) argues, that increasing competition is the reason why companies concentrated on consumer`s unconsciousness and their archetypes in order to analyze and influence consumer`s behavior and attitudes. For example, Marlboro used the archetypical hero, the Marlboro Man, to advertise their cigarettes. As a result, Marlboro was ranked as the world's No. 1 most valuable brand, which "clearly supported the power of hero-archetype advertising and drove competitors to try to employ archetypes as well" (Richardson, 2007).
Erikson argued, that personality development persists through a person`s lifetime (Burger, 2008, p. 111). He defined eight stages, all people have to go through. At each stage people are faced with a crisis and two different ways (one is intelligent and suitable, the other not) to cope with the crisis (Burger, 2008, p. 111). The way we pass through each crisis, influences and determines the rout of march of our personality development and how we cope with later crisis.(Burger, 2008, p. 111).According to Erikson a person`s life cycle started from infancy to old age.
Figure : Erikson`s Eight Stages of Development (Burger, 2008, p.112)
When a person complete a stage successfully, this could lead to a healthy personality with good social skills. Failure could result in a disorder of personality and could reduce the ability to cope with later crisis (Burger, 2008, p. 112).
Erik Erikson`s personality development through life cycle is also applicable to career development in business. According to Munley (1977) Erikson's theory helps to understand the developmental nature of job-related behavior. He argues, that "the development of basic senses of initiative, industry, identity, generativity, and integrity all seem to be especially relevant to career development behavior" (Munley, 1977, p. 263). Erikson analyzed the crisis of the ego identity at the adolescence stage, which inherits a human`s conscious about who he is and where he is going.
According to Munley (1977), Erikson recognized the huge impact of occupational choice as a part of the identity crisis. He argues, that most of the young people are confused by the irresolution to choose an occupational identity (Munley, 1977).
A person without a sense of identity and the conscious how he fits into society may likely be unable in terms of job-related choice and career decision making. In the opposite a person with a strong sense of ego identity will be more able to make
suitable vocational decisions and choices in order to become successful in business world (Munley, 1977).
Karen Horney argued, that differences in men`s and women`s personality are the consequences of cultural and social factors (Burger, 2008, p, 116).
According to Freud`s theory, young girl likely has the desire to have penis in their latency stage, which inherits feelings of inferiority and jealously because of its absence (Burger, 2008, p. 54). In respond to this penis envy, Horney identified the concept of womb envy, which is the men`s jealously of women`s ability to bear and nurse children, which men try to compensate by becoming successful in other domains (Burger, 2008, p. 120).
Relating to Horney, there are attributes of men and women, which the other sex admires (Burger, 2008, p. 120). She also argued, that "society often placed women in inferior positions", which could be the reason, why some women wish to be a men (Burger, 2008, p. 120). Even though, nowadays society, labor market, business environment and law seem to treat men and women equally, discrimination against women still exists. According to a study of Johnson et al. (2010), beautiful women were discriminated against when applying for high-level job positions for example a manager, director or leader position, which are almost identified as "masculine" jobs.
Johnson et. al (2010) argued, that attractive women are always preferred in feminine sex-typed jobs, which inherits for example higher salary and better performance evaluations. But in return, there are still men dominated and masculine sex-typed jobs, in which women are still disadvantaged (Johnson et al., 2010).
Freud was the first psychologist, who focused on the association between frustration and aggression (Burger, 2008, p. 137). He identified aggression as a consequence of frustrated instincts. According to Freud all of the persons have an instinctual desire to destroy themselves, whereby "the instinct is turned outward towards others" (Burger, 2008, p.137). Later, based on Freud`s original position, the frustration-aggression hypothesis was created by a team of psychologists. They argued, that "aggression is always a consequences of frustration and frustration will always leads to some form of aggression" (Burger, 2008, p. 137). Relating to Burger (2008) frustration can often effect indirect aggression. Freud argued, that people usual displace their (indirect) aggression against some harmless target in order to deal with their aggression or feelings of frustration (Burger, 2008, pp. 137-138). The frustration-aggression hypothesis was largely analyzed in various studies, which for example fond out, that frustrated people were more aggressively than non-frustrated people or that unpleasant emotions increased aggression (Burger, 2008, pp. 138-141). As a result new models of frustration-aggression hypothesis were created, which expressed, that frustration does not always result in aggression (Burger, 2008, p. 141).
Nowadays, the relationship between frustration and aggression can be seen in various social contexts. Neuman & Baron (1997) for example analyzed the impact of aggression in workplace. They described aggression as a harm-doing pattern, which includes psychological and physical injury (Neuman & Baron, 1997).They categorized eight types of workplace aggression (Neuman & Baron, 1997).
Figure : Eight Types of Workplace Aggression (Neuman & Baron, 1997, p. 40)
Neuman & Baron (1997) identified for example destruction of machinery and goods, work slowdowns, passing on defective work and intentionally misplacing of important paperwork as acts of sabotage in the workplace. Reasons for workplace aggression can be worker frustration (because of unfair salary or mobbing, downsizing and increasing number of part time jobs), stress and emotional disturbance (Neuman & Baron, 1997). In order to cope with workplace aggression Neuman & Baron (1997) suggested different tactic for example (1) creating procedures to select potentially aggressive employees, (2) punishing aggressive employees, (3) developing strategies to reduce feelings of frustration and injustice and (4) providing training programs, which involves improving employee`s social skills, providing coping strategies and alternatives to aggression.
According to Burger, the researchers of this approach focus on a spectrum of different personality characteristics (Burger, 2008, p. 5). The trait approach argues, that each person fits into a personality category, which inherits a certain pattern of behavior, that differs from the behavior of other categories (Burger, 2008, p. 155).
Henry Murray analyzed and explained human personality by focusing on psychogenic needs, which he described as a "readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given conditions" ( as cited in Burger, 2008, p. 161). Relating to Carl Jung, Murray argued, that this personal hierarchy of needs mainly exists in human`s unconsciousness (Burger, 2008, p. 161).
Figure : Murray`s Psychogenic Needs (Ewen, 1980)
Murray`s theory of psychogenic needs is quite useful in order to motivate employees. According to Gray (1998), the most important motivational factor for small business owners and self-employees are their strong sense of autonomy and independency. He found out, that the "need for independency" is the main reason for new business owners to start up their business (Gray 1998, p. 137). Gray (1998) also analyzed the motivational impact of the "need for achievement" on manager`s behavior, performance and success. He also identified achievement as a multidimensional factor in the term of managerial characteristics, which involves for example work ethic, pursuit excellence, social status and respect as well as dominance, competitiveness, acquisitiveness and mastery (Gray, 1998, p.134).
The Big Five model describes five dimensions of personality, which are used to explain human`s personality and differences in human`s behavior. The Big Five model is based on Raymond Cattell`s effort to describe the basic dimensions of personality by analyzing data from different sources with factor analyses (Burger, 2008, p. 165).
According to Burger (2008) different teams of researchers found, via factor analysis, the evidence for five basic dimensions of personality (Burger, 2008, p.165). This model is a descriptive model for personality, which involves the most common used dimensions (1) Neuroticism, (2) Extraversion, (3) Openness, (4) Agreeableness and (5) Conscientiousness (Burger, 2008, pp. 165-167). Burger (2008) argued, that although people may identify personality as if all traits can be clustered to five dimensions, the Big Five model may not exactly capture the complexities and intricacies of human personality (Burger, 2008, p. 169).
Employers realized the importance of personality testes for hiring and promoting employees. By using the five larger personality dimensions, employer try to analyze the relationship of employee`s personality and job performance. Researchers identified the factor Conscientiousness under the Big Five factors as the best predictor of job performance (Burger, 2008, p. 175). According to Burger (2008) high conscientious employees are likely careful, thorough, well organized, hardworking, persistent and achievement-orientated. People with these attribute tend to become a good and diligent employee.
Medical professionals identified the Type A - Type B behavior pattern by noticing that the behavior of heart attack patients differ from other patient`s behavior (Burger, 2008, p. 201). Typical Type A persons are high achievement-orientated, energetic and powerful, attracted to competition, easily aroused to anger and action and donÂ´t like wasting time. In return Type B people are relaxed and unhurried, don`t like to seek competition or to be aroused to anger or action (Burger, 2008, p. 202).
Type A primary differ from Type B in various behavior tendencies for example the sense of achievement striving, time urgency and hostility. The most significant component of Type A people is their expression of frustration through anger and hostility (Burger, 2008, p. 202). Investigators argued, that high-anger and high-hostility patients are fortified hit by high blood pressure, heart and cardiovascular disease (Burger, 2008, pp. 204- 205). But according to Burger (2008) Type A persons are not necessarily unhealthy, if they are able not to be dragged down by minor rebounds and little frustrations (Burger, 2008, p. 206).
A Manger`s working day is filled with various numbers of appointments, meetings, phone-calls, negotiations, responsibility and decision makings. Managers wake up early and they mostly have no time to eat or sleep. They are full of energy, high-achievement orientated, enjoy power and recognition and are strongly motivated to overcome obstacles. These are all characteristics of a Type A personality (Burger, 2008, pp. 201-203).
Larson (2009) also mentioned in his article "How personality can influence success" the following characteristics of Type A personality: always in a hurry, multi-tasking, teeth grinding, tendency to interrupt, fast eater, talker, frequently lose sleep, aggressiveness, inability to relax. He argued, that Type A's seem to be strong leaders, have the ability to work well under pressure and are able to ensure that all work is accomplished in a timely manner. According to Larson (2009) Type A persons are also often entrepreneurial, good delegators and are able to react quickly. Due to this fact, I postulate the hypothesis "Managers are almost Type A persons", which has to be tested or confirmed by already existing studies.
Shyness, feelings of nervousness, inability to concentrate, worrying about to say something wrong or stupid, cut conversations short or avoid them and less self-confidence are all characteristics of socially anxious people (Burger, 2008, pp. 206-210). According to Burger (2008) "social anxiety is anxiety related specifically to social interactions or anticipated social interactions" (p. 206). Relating to different researchers, the reason why people become anxious is, that they worry about what other people think of them (Burger, 2008, p. 210). Shy and socially anxious people fear, that other people think poorly of them or that they disgrace themselves. Burger (2008) argued, that the shy person`s interaction style is a kind of self-protection, because they put all their efforts on making a good impression. (Burger, 2008, pp. 210-211).
Cuncic (2010) postulated, that social anxiety disorder has an huge impact on humans` workplace and career. He argued, that social anxiety in workplace will be reflected by the inability to network effectively, the fear of attending business social events, the difficulty to develop relationships with coworkers, the lack of self-confidence, and difficulty to speak up in meetings (Cuncic, 2010). According to Carducci, a psychology professor at Indiana University, "when shyness is properly managed, there will be no limit to the achievement of shy people in the business world" (as cited in Cuncic, 2010).
The humanistic approach focus on humans` feelings of self-acceptance, self-esteem and personal charge to identify and explain personality and differences in personal behavior (Burger, 2008, p. 5). According to Burger (2008) " a key distinction between the humanistic approach and other theories of personality is that people are assumed to be largely responsible for their actions " (p. 288). Humanistic researchers identified and concentrated on 4 key elements in order to identify human`s personality. Humanistic scientist focused on (1) the personal responsibility, (2) the here and now, (3) the phenomenology of the individual and (4) the personal growth (Burger, 2008, pp.290-292).
Maslow identified five levels of needs, which he arranged in a hierarchy of needs. These needs are (1) physiological, (2) safety, (3) social, belongingness and love, (4) esteem and (5) self-actualization (Burger, 2008, p. 300). He argued, that the lower levels` needs have to be satisfied before a higher-level need comes into play.
C:\Users\Tanja\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\maslows_hierarchy_businessballs.jpg
Figure : Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs (Chapman, 2001)
These needs are the biological needs and consist of the human body`s primary needs, such as foods, water, air, sleep, sex. These needs will dominate when they are unsatisfied and they serve the basis for motivation (Burger, 2008, p. 299).
Maslow argued, that people are also motivated by satisfying their safety needs. Safety needs include protection from physical harm, ill health, economic disasters or when the future is not predictable (Burger, 2008, pp. 299-300).
When physical and safety needs are satisfied, the next higher level of needs assumes importance. These needs are related to the social nature of people and their need for love, belongingness and companionship. According to Burger (2008) "while the satisfaction of the psychological and safety needs will not guarantee happiness, the need for friendship and love soon emerges" (p. 300). Dissatisfaction of this level of need may affect the mental health of the individual.
The need for both awareness of importance to others (self-esteem) and actual esteem from others is included. Satisfaction of these needs may lead to self-confidence and prestige. If the satisfaction of these needs will failure, this may lead in feelings of inferiority and disincentives (Burger, 2008, p. 301).
That means, that people will realize fully the potentialities of talents and capabilities. Maslow argued, if all other lower needs are satisfied, people will try to reach self-actualization and focus on developing themselves. He also suggested, that only a few people will reach the level of self-actualization (Burger, 2008, p. 301).
Nowadays it is more and more important, that firms use its human resources effectively. Companies have to motivate the employees and provide them benefits in order to satisfy their needs. According to Maslow, satisfied employees can motivate them, which may result in higher performance, work effort and productivity. Managers are able to influence the five need hierarchy categories in order to produce a working environment in which the employees are willing to stay, satisfied and most productive (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2009). Managers can help to satisfy employeesÂ´ physiological needs by providing comfortable working conditions with light, space, air conditioning and through cafeterias and canteens. Safety needs can be satisfied through safety working conditions, job security and fringe benefits for example insurance programs. Permitting social interactions and encouraging cooperation may lead to higher motivated employees by satisfying their social needs. Esteem needs can be satisfied, if managers recognize or make good performance public, if managers give their employees significant job activities and responsibility. In order to help employees to reach self-actualization, managers can provide challenges in job and advancement opportunities. They also can encourage high achievement through merit increases, payment incentives or profit sharing. Increasing employees` motivation and improving employees` satisfaction may lead to higher performances and work efforts that will affect employees` job behaviour and final a company`s productivity and success (Tulchinsky & Varavikova, 2009).
According to Burger (2008, pp. 333-334) loneliness is the gap between the numbers and quality of social relationships and contacts we would like to have and we actually get. Several researchers analyzed, why some people like to spent the most of their time by themselves in solitude, "whereas other people surrounded by people feel alone" (Burger, 2008, p. 334). Researchers find out, that lonely people tend to be introverted, spend less time with friends, having feelings of inferiority and less self-esteem, are sensitive to rejections, suffer more from depression and health problems (Burger, 2008, p. 335). Chronically lonely people are characterized trough negative expectations (e.g. that a communication or situation will not go well) and a lack of social skills ( e.g. they don`t know how to interact or communicate, are rude or don`t know when and how much to tell) (Burger, 2008, pp. 335-338). Researchers identified these two reasons, why people avoid social interactions or failed them from serious long-term relationships.
In addition Maslow identified a person`s preference for solitude. That means, that some people feel not socially anxious or lonely, but for all that enjoy their time alone and their privacy (Burger, 2008, p. 350). Maslow argued, that the desire to solitude likely shows, a healthy personality, that have close relationship and real friends (Burger, 2008, p. 350).
The new technology in information, transportation and communication-systems makes it nowadays more cheap and easier to keep in contact with people all over the world.
According to Vaszily (2010), researchers found out, that social anxious and lonely people often employ social networks in a manner, that keep them more away from other people, whereas non-lonely people use for example "Facebook" to stay in contact with people from all over the world, that let them get closer. The new communication technology like the internet and networking websites reduce the need for "face-to-face" communication, which attracted lonely people with social anxiety and a lack of social skills. Relating to Vaszily (2010) the global networking world with all its capabilities to keep in contact and communicate, will make lonely people in society more lonely.
Carl Rogers argued, that we all are striving to a level of fulfilment, optimal sense of satisfaction and happiness during our live. These process involves, experiencing life, using own feelings and doing what you want to do, independently from other`s opinion and societal expectations, creativity as well as expressing and accepting anger (Burger, 2008, pp. 293-294). Roger suggested, that self-acceptance is an assumption for personal development and growth. According to Carl Rogers theory, a person who is concerned with an information, that differ from his opinion about herself/himself, will likely get anxious or unhappy. Based on Freudian`s theory of defense mechanism, Carl Rogers called the process of keeping threatening information out of awareness, subception. He identified distortion as the general defense to maintain a person`s self-concept and to avoid anxiety. Keeping this feelings out of awareness will result in less fully functioning (Burger, 2008, pp. 295-296). Regarding to Rogers, conditional positive regard in childhood is the reason why people use distortion and denial. In return unconditional positive regard (people know, that they are tolerated and liked independently of their behavior) will lead to free experience and fulfillment (Burger, 2008, pp. 296- 297).
According to Nathan & Hill (2006) Carl Rodgers theory of "the fully functioning person" will be applied in career counseling. A career consultant has to know the client`s specific problems, needs, desires, attitudes, gender, cultural type, ambitions, lifestyle, social adjustments, as well as the client`s emotional and cognitive development. Nathan & Hill (2006) argued "that most of the clients come to career counseling feeling, that they "ought" to be different in some way from how they actually are" (p. 15). According to Carl Rogers, these feelings may result from the conditional positive regard (that people try to confirm social or parental expectations).
This can result in feelings of inferiority, failures and irritation, that affect a person`s occasional and personal development (Nathan & Hill, 2006). Career counseling help their clients to find out what they really want, what their abilities and career opportunities are and encourage the client`s fully functioning, including a strong sense of satisfaction and self-acceptance, free experiencing, making decisions and creating solutions for any kind of problem (Nathan & Hill, 2006).
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