Biological Basis of Learning, Memory and Motivation

04 Apr 2018

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Human beings are animal. In this world there are lots of animals but human have some special qualities that are why we are the most complex social structure on earth.

We live in society there are included family, tribes, clans, nations. We have an incredibly sophisticated method of interacting speech. We can communicate over time and distance through printing and broadcasting. We have longest memories. We have an interaction which is most intricate; we have perception which is show the world simultaneously the broadest and most detailed.

The combination of our biology and society is making as what we are and what we do. Any kind of responses are stimuli by our biology guides, which is based on thousands of generations of ancestors surviving because of their responses. On the other hand, our social structures dictate restriction on and alterations in how we carry out our biological responses.

As a human being not only I and also all of us have some basic biological work done such as- learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, etc. Those biological works helps us to live perfectly in our society. That’s why it’s very much important to know how biological organs are control our major skills, movement and behavior.

In this assignment I discuss the major parts of biological basis of our learning, memory and motivation which is contributes our behaviors.

Biological Basis of Learning:-

We know that learning is a process of relatively permanent changes in behavior brought about by experience. Its means that any type of behavior can changes by using learning. Learning is a long term process. All learning process are not show instantly, sometimes it shows long time later. But learning process can run from birth to death.

All biological activities are run by the command of brain which is the basic part of our body. In the brain there are some specific parts of specific organs those are drive our basis activities. Learning process is the same activate which is control by brain. Brain has three major organization those are – fore brain, mid brain, hind brain. In fore brain there is an important part is cerebrum which is valuable organ in our body. Cerebrum has some fixed function such as:-

  • Sensory area: it’s control somato sensory area, visual area, auditory area those are very important for learning process. Because learning are related this three parts. If one part are not support properly then learning process are back. Visual area is located back side of this area. Auditory area is located lower side of cerebrum. Most valuable part of this area is visual and auditory because learning is more depend these two parts.
  • Association area: association is a very important works for cerebrum that is association other complex work. This area are control our learning, thoughts, memory, etc.
  • Learning related area: this area contact the stimulus-stimulus association and stimulus-reactions associations for the brain cover.
  • Others creative work has done this area such as inventive learning, thoughts, work, abstract imagine etc have done this part.

Thalamus: the part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay information about the senses. Especially the eye, ear and skin collected information and carry to brain who distribute those different parts of the body. That’s why learning process are damage if thalamus has damages.

Mid Brain: it has tactum who involved our auditory and sensory process. In those processes are important for our learning system.

Cerebellum: it is found just above the medulla and behind the Pons. It is control our bodily balances. So that if this system are flailed then our speech, writing process are hampered. All thought our learning process are also hampered.

Limbic system: This system is also included our learning.

Neurotransmitters: this is most important part of learning because it conveys messages across the synapse to the dendrite (sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. So that if it works will fail then the process of learning will also fail.

Biological Basis of Memory:-

We know that memory is the process by which we encode, store and retrieve information. This process can explain imagine the keyboard of a computer is a encoding (initial recording of information), then the cpu of computer is a storage (information saved for future use) and the monitor of computer is the retrieval (recovery of stored information). Usually memory can explain this short way - memory = learning – forgetting. So we say that memory is also run by our biological basis help. Brain is the main tool which provides information. In brain there is a fixed part of memory. Now I describe those:-

  • Hippocampus: This part helps to storage any information in brain. That’s why it is closely involved to memory. If this part may be destroy then the memory is also destroy.
  • Amygdale: It’s a part of limbic system, also plays a role in memory. The amygdale especially involved with memories involving emotion.
  • Frontal lobe: This area is included motor area and Boca’s area which is involved to storage memory.
  • Temporal lobe: This area is involved primary auditory area, wernicke’s area, auditory association area which is strongly related to memory.
  • Occipital lobe: This area is involved are visual area and visual association area. We know that anything cans easily memories when we see it. So this part is an important to memory.
  • Sensory area: This area is overall related the memory process.
  • Association area: One of the major regions of the cerebral cortex. This side is produce higher mental process such as thought, language, memory and speech.

Biological Basis of Motivation:-

Motivation the factors that and energize the behavior of humans and other organizations. Motivation is also internal state or condition to our thoughts, feelings and actions. Basically motivation can crate many regions such as food, money, living good, social standers and etc. But when a human suffer a motive that time his/her body create some biological activities that’s why they needs motivation. So the reasons for biological basis of motivation are-

  • Hypothalamus: This is a small part of brain which is strongly involved to motivation.
  • Amygdale: This is also change the level of motivation. If it can be surgery then the behavior can changes.
  • Frontal lobe: This is also involved motivation of human behavior.
  • Limbic system: Memory is also control by limbic system. It is situated under the cerebral cortex .
  • Temporal lobe: Temporal lobe is also involved to control motivation.

All the dictation of those three basic part of human behavior on the basis of biologically it clearly come that any kind of behaviors are fully depends of our internal process which is called biological process. So it is very important to know the main function of our biological organs.

The learning, motivation and memory are our basic demand so it is necessary to know which organs is participation on those processes. If we have a rich knowledge about those processes then we can develop our self.



  1. Feldman - Understanding Psychology 8th edition; McGraw-Hill.
  2. Psychology – Abu Bokar Siddeky 9th edition; Sahitokos, Dhaka.
  3. Psychology An Introduction – Lahey 9th edition


Submitted by: Mir Sara Mehzabeen Ahmed; SL- 16; DECP-4 .

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