23 Mar 2015
The League of Nations was the originator to the United Nations. It represented a major attempt by the great powers after the First World War in the year (1914-1918) to institutionalize a system of collective security, and its founded covenant was formulated a part of the treaty of Versailles in the year 1919. The first meeting was held in Geneva in 1920, with 42 states represented. Over the next 26 years, a total meeting was held in 1946, at the end of which the league was formally replaced by the United Nations which promptly moved its headquarters to New York, sparkly not only the status of the United States but also disillusionment with the performance of the League of Nations.
It should be noticed that the League of Nations was never fully representative of the international community. The United States senate did not ratify the treaties and did not become a member of the league. South Africa and Liberia were the only African states. The Soviet Union was not invited to Versailles, and did not join the league until 1934.
The ultimate failure of the league is to maintain international peace and security was a product of its limited membership, its preservation of a territorial settlement that humiliated Germany and its faith in the willingness of great powers to subordinate their short-term national interests to the preservation of international peace.
Territories were awarded to other League of Nations members in the form of mandates, and were given different degrees of political independence in accordance with their geographic situation and stage of economic development.
The UN is an organization of independent state formed in the year 1945 in San Francisco by 51 states, and whose primary plan is to uphold international peace and security, solve economic, social, and political problems through the international cooperation, and promote respect for human right. It was the descendant to the League of Nations, which could stop wars among nations state. The UN was founded to increase international order and the rule of law to prevent another world war from coming up.
The United Nations coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United NationsâÃ¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢âÃ¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢ of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when legislative body of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. A certain tension has long existed between the UN and the united state as the world most powerful state. The United States has not joined the league of nation, and it was partly to ensure united state interest that the UN headquarters was placed in New York.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the UNâÃ¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s membership doubled as colonies in Asia and Africa won independence. This expansion changed the character of the General Assembly, in which each state has one vote. The new members had different concerns from those in the western industrialized countries and in many cases resented having been colonized by westerners. Many state in the global south believed that the United States enjoyed too much power in the UN. They noticed that the UN is usually effective in international security affairs only when the United States leads the effort (which happens when United States interests are at risk).
From 1988 to 1992, the United Nations enjoyed a brief period of success, although this was a direct consequence of the end of the cold war. The United Nations reached its peak of popularity, especially in the United States, after the gulf war in 1991 by providing the auspices for successfully challenging Iraq conquest and annexation of Kuwait.
ORGANS OF UN
Economic and social council
International court of justice
THE SECURITY COUNCIL: is the most important agency in the UN, particularly in fulfilling its primary purpose. It remains ready to meet at any point in time, whenever there is a treat to international peace and security. There are 15 members of the Security Council. Five are permanent, and ten are non-permanent members, are elected for a period of two years from regional groups within the UN: Africa, Asia, eastern European, Latin America, Western Europe, and Oceania. The five permanent are the United States, Russia, china, France, and Britain. Decisions of the council have to be accepted by the majority of members, and must include the five permanent, each of which is able to veto a decision.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY: it has little influence in world politics. It can debate any issues it choose, adopt resolutions with a two-thirds majority, help elect members of other un bodies, and vote on the un budget. Ultimately, whatever power it has depends on its moral authority as a reflection of global opinion.
Without doubt, the general assembly and the Security Council are the most important bodies in the UN. Apart from the other four organs, the UN includes a variety of bodies known as specialized agencies, which regulate specific activities and set world standards.
CHALLENGES FACING UN
Despite the end of cold war, the UN is only as effectively as its member states, particularly the five permanent, allow it to be. The UN lacks its own military forces. And therefore relies on member states to make forces available to the secretary general on request.
UN is completely funded by its member states, particularly the p5. This enables them to use their financial power to promote their own national interest at the UN.
THE REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN 1990s
First, patterns of war have changed. The charter of the UN is based on the principles of sovereignty and non-intervention in the internal affairs of states. The UN is unable to respond effectively to armed conflict that blurs the line between civil and interstate war.
Secondly, despite the end of cold war, the UN is only as effectively as its member states, particularly the five permanent, allow it to be. The UN lacks its own military forces. And therefore relies on member states to make forces available to the secretary general on request.
Third, the UN is completely funded by its member states, particularly the p5. This enables them to use their financial power to promote their own national interest at the UN.
DIFFICULTURIES AND WEAKNESSES OF THE UN
The history of the un since 1945, and more especially the Korean crisis of 1950. Has brought into relief some difficulties and weaknesses in the present organization for collective security. It is clear that the fear of a possible recurrence of war has not disappeared. Nations are spending on armament the money and the energy which they should spend on economic development and the provision of social services. Confidence in the ability of the United Nations to provide security. It was clear that, it has not yet been created though, it may be added. The fact that sixteen member states were prepared to support the united nations to stop aggression by north Korea against south Korea and in deference of collective security (1950-1953). And that Britain and France deferred in December 1956 to the united nations n withdrawing from the Suez war which they had started earlier during the year should help to create greater confidence in the united nations.
The reasons for this state of affairs are simple. At the time when the charter was framed in1945, it was hoped that cooperation between the soviet union and the united states, which found such striking expression during war, would be continued; but that as not to be. Instead, soon after the war differences began to develop about Korea, Germany, Japan the control of atomic energy- and indeed on every political
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