Ichi The Killer 2001


02 Nov 2017

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Ichi The Killer (2001) is banned in Norway since 2009 due to high impact violence and cruelty. Film is about a sadomasochistic yakuza enforcer Kakihara, who searches for his missing boss and comes across Ichi, a repressed and psychotic killer who may be able to inflict levels of pain that Kakihara has only dreamed of. [3] A Serbian Film (2011) is also banned in Norway due to violation of criminal law sections 204a and 382 (dealing with the sexual representation of children and extreme violence). [4] The film is about an aging porn star, who agrees to participate in an "art film" in order to make a clean break from the business, only to discover that he has been drafted into making a paedophilia and necrophilia themed snuff film. [5] 

Saw VI (2009), the sixth chapter of Jigsaw bloody massacre, was rated X and thus banned from regular, non-adult cinemas in Spain. [6] 

The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) used to be banned in Sweden for 25 years. In 2002, the ban was lifted. Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation (1997), a remake of 1974 movie, was also banned due to high impact scary violence and cruelty. [7] 


This chapter presented the review of literature related to topics as democracy and measurement of democracy. This chapter also presented existing collected works on media, media influence and measurement of media influences. It reviewed publications on media and motion pictures’ effect on children. This section also looked over literature on topics as media literacy and media censorship. Literature on political media censorship in countries with an authoritarian regime is based on evidence from People’s Republic of China and the United Arab Emirates. This chapter also reviews literature on prohibited content and banned foreign films in countries with authoritarian regime and films banned in countries with full democracy. Evidence suggests, that films in countries with full democracy are banned in case they clearly contradict to local laws and regulation, or due to potential harm they cause to viewers. On the contrary, in countries with authoritarian regime films can be banned without any legislative bases. For example 2012 (2009) was banned in North Korea for the reason that the year 2012 coincides with Kim Il Sung's 100th birthday. The year had also been designated "the year for opening the grand gates for becoming a rising superpower." [8] The next chapter overviews methodology which is used to study democracy in the film plots and reviews how similar methodologies were used in previews studies and publications.



This chapter looks at how similar approaches were used in previous studies and relates selected methods to the reviewed literature. Moreover, the chapter introduces two research instruments specially adapted for this study: the Democracy Index for Films (DIF) as an instrument for analyzing films from a democratic point of view, and a Five-category Test (5CT), for distinguishing films which would pass the test by qualifying in each of the five categories.

Selection of methodology

The methodology used for the current study is similar to the one used by Ponocny-Seliger and Ponocny (2010). It analyzes selected films according to specific criteria. They use some specially developed questionnaire to document the observations. Unlike in Ponocny-Seliger and Ponocny (2010), no surveys or interviews were applied for this research. It is restricted to blockbuster films, while Ponocny-Seliger and Ponocny also compare series and TV-commercials in their study along with films. A similar approach is used by Booker (2010), which analyzes Disney and Pixar films and debates how the messages, that those animated films contain, affect a child's life.

Furthermore, this study develops criteria for identifying less-democratic movies using 5CT. The test is a trial, based on questions from five categories. A film will pass the test if it gets at least one point in each category (if the film answers positively on at least one question from each category). The methodology is similar to the one used for the Bechdel Test. The Bechdel Test or the Mo Movie Measure is a type of litmus test to assess the presence of women in films. It originates from Allison Bechdel’s comic "Dykes to Watch Out For" in 1985. [9] A film just has to pass these three simple questions: are there two or more women in it who have names? Do they talk to each other? Do they talk to each other about something other than a man? An extraordinary number of films do not pass this test. The test aims to judge the female presence in films and engagement about things other than men. [10] 

Similarly, 5CT aims to distinguish films which qualify in all the following categories:

1) systems in films,

2) people in films,

3) leaders in films,

4) heroes in films, and

5) general questions about other aspects related to democracy in films.

Research instrument

The first research instrument is the Democracy Index for Films (DIF), which was specifically developed for this study and is a modified version of the tools of certain previous studies concerned with measuring democracy in real politics: Bühlmann, Merkel and Wessels (2008) develop "the democracy barometer" to serve as a general instrument for measurement of democracy across countries. Bowman, Lehoucq and Mahoney (2005) apply, based on a case, the proficiency index building technique. The authors utilize a wide range of data sources for developing an index of political democracy of the Central American region. Dalton, Shin and Jou (2007) use a similar instrument to measure democracy in 49 countries from five world regions. Fortunato and Panizza (2011) develop the Quality of Government Aggregate Index to measure the quality of government. Methodologies used in those studies are adjusted and utilized to build the Democracy Index for measuring democracy in fictitious film plots which uses a specifically developed questionnaire to count occurrences which are related to democracy, decision making, citizen’s participation, fairness and justice.

The questionnaire developed for the current study has significant linkage to the reviewed literature, such as Ponocny-Seliger and Ponocny (2009), Booker (2010) or Bühlmann et al.(2008).

The questions are divided into five categories. [11] The entire questionnaire contains more than 100 questions and can be found in Appendix 1. Questions from the first category analyze the political systems shown in the films: is it a republic or a monarchy? What is people’s attitude towards the political system? Is a structure is questioned by the regime? Is a structure is characterized by strong discipline?

The second category consists of questions which analyze heroes, their actions and personal characteristics: Is the hero is superior to other people? Does he or she demonstrate violent behavior? Are heroes supported by friends and are they are law obedient?

Questions from the third category examine leaders and villains, their actions and personal characteristics: Does the leader/villain see a threat in a single hero or in people in general? What happens to him or her in the end?

The fourth category covers questions which examine people/citizens: are people self-organized? Do they criticize the regime?

The fifth category presents questions related to gender equality, discrimination, corruption and other aspects related to democracy. The category also contains questions which do not fall under any other category mentioned above.


The methodology and the research instruments presented in this chapter are applied for the analysis of the data on 155 worldwide highest grossing blockbuster films of the last decade. The next chapter describes the data used in this study and reviews the sampling procedures.

Data and descriptive statistics


This chapter overviews the data used for this study and summarizes descriptive statistics. Furthermore, it describes the sampling procedure according to which 33 films were selected from worldwide 155 highest grossing blockbusters of the last decade. It also overviews how the films are distributed according to different genres, release-dates and external rankings, based on the number of Academy Awards.

Sampling procedures

The films analyzed in this study are selected from 155 all-time Worldwide Box office leaders [12] . For the sake of latest trends and tendencies, only the films released from 2003 till 2012 were selected. Animation and comedy films were omitted from the sample. In case of sequels, only the highest grossing ones were selected: The Passion of the Christ (2004), War of the Worlds (2005), I Am Legend (2007), The Day After Tomorrow (2004), Indiana Jones, The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), and King Kong (2005) were omitted, as they have little in common with the research question. Including them into the study would lead to having over 50 percent "N/A" answers. The final sample consists of 33 titles.

Data description

Films generate income from several revenue streams including a public exhibition in theaters, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising. However, theatrical box office earnings are the primary metric for trade publications in assessing the success of a film, mostly due to the availability of the data compared to sales figures for home video and broadcast rights, moreover due to historical practice. All charts are ranked by the international theatrical box office performance where possible, excluding income derived from home video, broadcasting rights and merchandise. [13] 


Worldwide Box Office

Avatar (2009)


The Avengers (2012)


Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 (2011)


Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011)


The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)


Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest(2006)


Alice in Wonderland (2010)


Spider-Man 3 (2007)


Star Wars: Episode III—Revenge of the Sith (2005)


Inception (2010)


The Dark Knight Rises (2012)


The Da Vinci Code (2006)


The Chronicles of Narnia (2005)


The Matrix Reloaded (2003)


Mission: Impossible—Ghost Protocol (2011)


The Hunger Games (2012)


Hancock (2008)


Iron Man 2 (2010)


Casino Royale (2006)


Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows(2011)


Clash of the Titans (2010)


Angels and Demons (2009)


Rise of the Planet of the Apes (2011)


Troy (2004)


The Last Samurai (2003)


300 (2006)


X-Men: The Last Stand (2006)


National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007)


Thor (2011)


The Bourne Ultimatum (2007)


Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)


TRON: Legacy (2010)


Snow White and the Huntsman (2012)


Table 4 list of the films used in the study; worldwide box office figures as for 1 September 2012

Source: All-Time Worldwide Box office. imdb.com

Traditionally, war films, musicals and historical dramas have been the most popular genres, but franchise films have been the best performers in the 21st century, with films from the Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings and Pirates of the Caribbean series dominating the top of the list. There has also been recent interest in the superhero genre: Batman, Spider-Man, and X-Men have all done particularly well as film stars in attracting audience. The only films in the top ten that do not form a franchise are the top two: Avatar and Titanic — both directed by James Cameron. [14] James Bond and Star Trek films are still being released periodically, and the Star Wars saga was reprised after a lengthy hiatus. [15] 

The figure 4.3.1 represents the distribution of films across genres. It is important to note that each film may belong to 2 or 3 genres simultaneously. Among 33 films selected for the study 27 belong to action genre and 22 are attributed to adventure category. A third of the films belong to the fantasy genre, 9 belong to Sci-Fi. Out of 33 films 7 are dramas, 6 thrillers and 4 belong to the crime genre. Less popular genres are mystery, family and history – 3, 2 and 1 movies are attributed to these, respectively.

Figure 4 Genres distribution across movies selected for the study

Source: the author's calculations, based on the data from imdb.com

Figure 4-1 represents the distribution of the films by the release-date. A relatively smooth distribution is observed, with fewest movies released in 2004 and 2008. Most films were released in 2006 and 2011.

The films used in this study are not only the leaders of box-offices, but some of them are also US Academy Awards winners. Table 4-2 summarizes Categories in which these films won US academy awards.


Categories in which a film won US academy awards

Avatar (2009)

Best Achievement in Art Direction,

Best Achievement in Cinematography

Best Achievement in Visual Effects

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)

Best Art Direction-Set Decoration,

Best Costume Design,

Best Director,

Best Film Editing,

Best Makeup,

Best Music—Original Score,

Best Music—Original Song,

Best Picture,

Best Sound Mixing,

Best Visual Effects,

Best Writing, Adapted Screenplay

Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest(2006)

Best Achievement in Visual Effects

Alice in Wonderland (2010)

Best Achievement in Art Direction

Best Achievement in Costume Design

Inception (2010)

Best Achievement in Cinematography,

Best Achievement in Sound Editing,

Best Achievement in Sound Mixing

Best Achievement in Visual Effects

The Chronicles of

Narnia (2005)

Best Achievement in Makeup

The Bourne Ultimatum (2007)

Best Achievement in Film Editing,

Best Achievement in Sound Editing

Best Achievement in Sound Mixing

Table 42 Categories in which a film won US academy awards

Source: imdb.com.

Although 7 films out of 33 won Oscar, only one has awards in a major category — the best picture. That could be the indication, that films chosen by public are not always first choice of The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. [16] 

Figure 42 films’ distribution by release-date

Source: the author's calculations, based on the data from imdb.com

Figure 43 films’ distribution by the number of academy awards.

Source: the author's calculations, based on the data from imdb.com


The chapter presented the description of data and sampling methodology. It examined distribution of films by genres, release-date and the number of academy awards. The next chapter reviews the analysis outcome of the Democracy Index for Films and presents the results of the five-category test.

Results and discussion


This chapter presents empirical evidence based on the data and research methodology used for the study. It reviews the results obtained by examining 33 films selected from worldwide 155 highest grossing blockbusters using a specially constructed questionnaire consisting of over 100 questions. The chapter also reviews evidence from the DIF and presents the results of the 5CT – an altered version of Bechdel methodology to distinguish films that would pass the test by qualifying in each of five categories.

Analyzing democracy in fictitious film plots

The films are examined based political systems shown in the films, characteristics of the lead hero, features of the leader/villain, characteristics of the societies and other questions related to democracy and citizen equality.

Analyzes of the structure shown in films

The structures presented and analyzed in the study films differ greatly. The systems presented in the films vary from modern democratic structures to fantasy kingdoms. Assessment of political systems is the most extensive part of the film plots analysis in this study. The approach used for the examination is comparable to democracy index-building. The methodology and the questions are analogous also to the technique of Democracy Barometer construction (Bühlmann et al., 2008).

Democratic vs. authoritarian political systems

Based on empirical evidence, in 52.52% of films a democratic political system is presented. An authoritarian regime is shown in 48.48% of cases. An example of non-democratic political system is The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). The film is about an innocent hobbit of The Shire, who "journeys with eight companions to the fires of Mount Doom to destroy the One Ring and the dark lord Sauron forever. While Frodo and Sam edge closer to Mordor with the help of the shifty Gollum, the divided fellowship makes a stand against Sauron's new ally, Saruman, and his hordes of Isengard. Aragorn leads the World of Men against Sauron's army to draw the dark lord's gaze from Frodo and Sam who are on the doorstep of Mount Doom with the One Ring." [17] The structure shown in the film is clearly non-democratic. Decisions are made by autocratic kings and not legitimated in any way. An example of a movie with a democratic structure shown is The Dark Knight Rises (2012). Bruce Wayne lost his philanthropic parents to a senseless crime, and years later became the Batman to save the crime-ridden Gotham City on the verge of destruction by an ancient order. Eight years after Batman saved Gotham from the Joker — a new terrorist leader, Bane, rises. [18] Although corruption within the city's civil authorities and high level of crime is characteristic for Gotham — overall political system is fairly democratic.

Films showing monarchy and non-monarchic structures

A monarchy as a political structure is demonstrated in 36.36% of films. A republic is shown accordingly in 66.67% of plots. An example of a film which shows kingdom is Alice in Wonderland (2010). 19-year-old Alice returns to the magical world from her childhood adventure, where she reunites with her old friends and learns of her true destiny: to end the Red Queen's reign of terror. [19] The structure shown in film is a monarchy which autocratic redoubtable and dreadful ruler.

An example of a film showing republic is Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011). Film is about how an ancient struggle "erupts on Earth between two extraterrestrial clans, the heroic Autobots and the evil Decepticons, with a clue to the ultimate power held by a young teenager. Sam Witwicky leaves the Autobots behind for a normal life. But when his mind is filled with cryptic symbols, the Decepticons target him and he is dragged back into the Transformers' war. The Autobots learn of a Cybertronian spacecraft hidden on the moon, and race against the Decepticons to reach it and to learn its secrets." [20] Events shown in the films develop in the United States – so the structure shown is clearly not a kingdom.

Films showing structures questioned and not-question by government

The structure is questioned by the government itself only in 15.15% of the films. In 84.85% of the cases the structure is not questioned by the regime. An example of a structure being questioned by government can be found in Clash of the Titans (2010). "Perseus, mortal son of Zeus, battles the minions of the underworld to stop them from conquering the Earth and the heavens." [21] The event takes place in the period when people started to question gods. Moreover, gods were not only questioned by people, but also by Queen Cassiopeia and her husband, King Cepheus. The system is not questioned in the majority of the films; one of them is The Hunger Games (2012). Government officials do not question the structure and are largely satisfied with the way the state is organized.

Figure 51 films’ distribution according to structures’ characteristics-1.

Source: the author's calculations.

Films with structure influenced and not influenced by religion

We see structures strongly influenced by religion only in 18.18% of cases. Accordingly in 81.82% percent of cases structures are not influenced by religion. A strongly influenced by religion structure can be observed is Clash of the Titans (2010). The gods play an important part in lives of mortal inhabitants and influence the way state is organized. A vast majority of the films do not focus on conviction, thus the political systems have little to do with religion. An example of a film in which the structure is not influenced by religion is Transformers: Dark of the Moon (2011).

Films showing political systems with one or several decision-makers

Decisions are made by one person in 39.39% of the films. A political system where decisions are made by more than one person is shown in 60.61% of the cases. An example of a film with an autocratic structure is White and the Huntsman (2012). "In a twist to the fairy tale, the Huntsman ordered to take Snow White into the woods to be killed instead becomes her protector and mentor in a quest to vanquish the Evil Queen." [22] Beautiful Ravenna is an autocratic ruler, who takes all decisions without anyone’s advice (except her magic mirror). She kills King Magnus on their wedding night and seizes the control of the entire kingdom. Tabor is left in ruins under Ravenna's rule as she periodically drains the youth from young women in order to keep her beauty. An example of a structure where decisions are done by more than one person is The Avengers (2012). The film is about how Nick Fury of S.H.I.E.L.D. brings together a team of super humans to form The Avengers to help saving the Earth from Loki and his army. [23] The political system shown in the film is characterized by collective decision-making.

Legitimated vs. non-legitimated decisions

Empirical evidence indicates that decisions are somehow legitimated only in 45.45% of the cases. Results show that in 54.55% of cases governors execute decisions, which are not within the bounds of the law. An example of a structure where decisions are not legitimated is Snow White and the Huntsman (2012). Ravenna, after becoming a queen of Tabor, is free to take any decisions without any legislative justification for them. An example of a film, in which decision-making has legislative ground is The Dark Knight Rises (2012). The majority of decisions are within the limits prescribed by the laws of Gotham City.

Figure 52 films’ distribution according to structures’ characteristics-2.

Source: the author's calculations.

Question and non-questioned decisions

As for whether state decisions are criticized or not, the distribution is following: in 64.52% of cases decisions are criticized and 35.48% of case decisions are not criticized. The aim is to observe in how many films people obey and accept decisions made by the government or a leader without raising any objections, without criticizing them. Decisions made by heads of the state can be criticized by citizens or by other governors. An example of a film in which decisions are questioned is Avatar (2009). The films is about how "a paraplegic Marine dispatched to the moon Pandora on the unique mission becomes torn between following his orders and protecting the world he feels is his home." [24] Decisions of the leader Colonel Miles Quaritch are questioned several times through the entire film. Several characters question decisions made by Parker Selfridge, the Chief Administrator for RDA. On the contrary, decisions are not criticized in The Hunger Games (2012). Due to the nature of the system the citizens are forced to obey.

Problematic leaders and systems

The core problem is the political system and the leader in 40.91% of films. The principal problem is the leader only in 59.09%. An example of a film in which both the leader and the system are shown as delinquent is The Matrix Reloaded (2003). A computer hacker learns from mysterious rebels about "the true nature of his reality and his role in the war against the controllers. Neo and the rebel leaders estimate that they have 72 hours until 250,000 probes discover Zion and destroy it and its inhabitants. During this, Neo must decide how he can save Trinity from a dark fate in his dreams." [25] The leaders are a race of machines that need humans' body heat for living. The political system presented in the film is an artificial reality. An example of a film in which the only problem is the leader is Alice in Wonderland (2010). In the end of the film the Red Queen is overthrown and the White Queen takes the throne. The creatures and the people are not satisfied with the Red Queen but have no objections against monarchy.

Death penalty as a form of punishment

No death penalty as a form of punishment is observed in 41.94% of the films. Capital punishment is applied in 58.06% of the cases. An example of a film with no death penalty is The Avengers (2012). In the end of the films villain Loki is first imprisoned and later taken back to his planet. An example of a structure practicing capital punishment is The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (2005). "Four children travel through a wardrobe to the land of Narnia and learn of their destiny to free it with the guidance of a mystical lion." [26] The White Witch, an autocratic ruler of Narnia, turns creatures into stone statues and kills the Great Lion Aslan.

Figure 53 films’ distribution according to structures’ characteristics-3.

Source: the author's calculations.

Structures with one or several leaders

A hierarchical structure without one strong leader is shown only in 20.69% of the films. In 79.31% of cases there is presence of a strong master, a father or a leader whose statements are not to be challenged. A hierarchical structure without one strong leader is shown in The Avengers (2012). An example of a structure with one strong leader, whose decisions are not to be questioned, is observed in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006). "Jack Sparrow, races to recover the heart of Davy Jones to avoid enslaving his soul to Jones' service, as other friends and foes seek the heart for their own agenda as well. Blacksmith Will Turner teams up with eccentric pirate Captain Jack Sparrow to save his love, the governor's daughter, from Jack's former pirate allies." [27] Davy Jones, the notorious captain of the Flying Dutchman is a master whose statements are not to be challenged.

Wealth distribution in films

A structure with equal wealth-distribution is presented in 70% of the films. On the contrary, citizens are poor and leaders extremely rich in 30% of the cases. A particular point of interest is to observe whether the government officials are significantly richer than ordinary citizens and not whether some citizens are richer than others. For example, in the structure shown in Avatar (2009), clan leaders are not any richer than ordinary Na'vies. An example of a structure in which people are very poor and governors extremely wealthy is The Hunger Games (2012). People live in extreme poverty and starvation, while government officials enjoy luxurious lifestyle with expensive nutrition, fashion and entertaining reality shows, in which ordinary citizens have to kill each other in order to survive.

Terror and murder in films

Terror and murder are not characteristic for the system in 51.52% of the cases. Consequently, terror and murder are characteristic for the system in 48.48% of the films. An example of a system for which terror and murder are not characteristic is Iron Man 2 (2010). "When wealthy industrialist Tony Stark is forced to build an armored suit after a life-threatening incident, he ultimately decides to use its technology to fight the evil. Because of his superhero alter ego, Tony Stark must struggle with deadly issues involving the government, his own friends and new enemies." [28] The film presents well-organized system without terror and murder. Surprisingly, there is no single death during the entire film. On the contrary, terror and murder are characteristic for the system shown in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006).

Figure 54 films’ distribution according to structures’ characteristics-4.

Source: the author's calculations.

Police in films

The absolute majority of the films present police as inefficient: In 77.27% of the films police is shown as not capable of fighting the crime and presented as a weak, vulnerable and defenceless unit. Policemen are able to fulfil their duties only in 18.18% of the films. An example of a film in which police is shown as an efficient force is National Treasure: Book of Secrets (2007). Although the role of police is not very important to the plot of the movie—the policemen are presented as reasonably well-organized. One of the films which shown police is extremely inefficient is Spider-Man 3 (2007). "The story begins when bitten by a genetically modified spider a nerdy, shy, and awkward high school student gains spider-like abilities that he must eventually use to fight evil as a superhero after tragedy befalls his family. Peter Parker is beset with troubles in his failing personal life as he battles a brilliant scientist named Doctor Otto Octavius, who becomes Doctor Octopus, after an accident causes him to bond psychically with mechanical tentacles that do his bidding. A strange black entity from another world bonds with Peter Parker and causes inner turmoil as he contends with new villains, temptations, and revenge." [29] The policemen try to combat villains with supernatural powers, however, they are always defeated and not able to protect citizens without the help of superhero—the Spiderman.

Legal system in films

Legal systems protect citizens in 53.85% of cases. Immoral civil law is presented in 46.15% of films. An example of a fair legal system is shown in Iron Man 2 (2010). The legal form shown in the film is fair and protects equality of people. An example of a system which does not protect equality of citizens and their rights is X-Men: The Last Stand (2006). "When a cure is found to treat mutations, lines are drawn amongst the X-Men, led by Professor Charles Xavier, and the Brotherhood, a band of powerful mutants organized under Xavier's former ally, Magneto." [30] The legal system encourages discriminating minorities.

Organized crime in films

There are no areas dominated by organized crime in in 87.5% of the films. Certain areas are dominated by organized crime in 9.38% of cases. Particular areas are dominated by pirates in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006). No areas are dominated by organized crime in The Avengers (2012) as superheroes are there to protect the citizens.

Figure 55 films’ distribution according to structures’ characteristics-5.

Source: the author's calculations.

Corruption in films

Remarkable numbers are obtained while looking whether system shown is characterized by corruption at political, administrative or judicial branches. Corrupt systems are shown in 72.73% of the films. Non-corrupt systems are shown in 27.27% of the cases. Strong presence of corruption is shown in Inception (2010). In a world where technology exists to enter the human mind through dream invasion, a highly skilled thief is given a final chance of redemption, which involves executing his toughest job to date: Inception. [31] Although Cobb is judged guilty for murder of his wife and must be detained once he tries to cross US border— Saito keeps his promise and once they arrive in Los Angeles makes the call to get the authorities off Cobb's back. Cobb goes through security and customs without a hitch.


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