The Problems Of Solid Waste Management

02 Nov 2017

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Student Name: Mang Fuk Keung

SID: 52812964

Programme: Bachelor of Social Sciences (BSS3)

Course: Environmental Policy Studies

Course Code: SA2605

Submission Date: 3-3-2013

Literature Review 1

Citation

Juliette Jowit, . "Recycling still the most effective waste disposal method, report finds " < http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/mar/16/recycling-waste-disposal >.

Research Question

Is recycling still the most effective waste disposal method?

Background

According to the important report on the industry for the UK government, recycling is still the best way to handle the problem of waste

Data

Report of Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs in March 2010

Report of Wrap, the government's waste and packaging agency

News from Defra, in 2008-9

Examination and Analysis

There is an increase in incineration of waste. Householders need recycling facilities

Biopolymer plastics made from crops should be recycled as they are "biodegradable".

For seven different materials of waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, biopolymers, food, garden cuttings, wood and textiles, recycling works for them

The total waste collected from the UK's 25m households dropped slightly. However, only one third of them was recycle and all of the remainder went to landfill.

Conclusion

Recycling still the most effective waste disposal method

Waste can be valuable in generating renewable energy

Literature Review 2

Citation

George Freduah , . "Problems of Solid Waste Management in Nima, Accra." University of Ghana, <http://www.kon.org/urc/v6/george.html>.

Research Question

How are the problems of solid waste management in Nima?

Background on the problems of solid waste management in Nima

Something can become waste when it is no longer useful to the owner or it is used and fails to fulfill its purpose (Gourlay, 1992);

The third world refused to be the rubbish bin of the western world;

Nima lacks proper storage facilities, treatment technologies, and good ways of disposal for its waste;

Residents’ wrong perceptions and unconcerned attitudes towards waste management can be contributed to the problem.

Mix of source reduction, recycling, incineration, and burring in landfills and conversion is suitable way to manage solid waste;

This research aims at providing insight to alleviate the solid waste management crisis in Nima.

Geographical and Historical Background of the Study Area also are included in the research including, Location and Size, Historical Perspective, Physical Environment, Economic Background and Religious Background

Data

Authors’ survey of 70 residents in Nima conducted in 2004

Authors’ survey of AMA in Nima conducted in 2004

Examination and Analysis

Simple descriptive statistical and analytical tools such as frequencies, percentages, and pie charts were employed in the analysis of the data. Relationships were established by cross tabulations.

1. Opinions on Responsibility for Ensuring Clean Surroundings

With a large percentage of the population thinking that AMA is solely responsible for ensuring clean surroundings, it is likely that the people may not support clean up campaigns meant for making the surroundings clean.

2. Reasons for Individuals to Help Clean their Own Surroundings

The residents clean because of bad odour resulting from dirty surroundings

3. The Relationship between Educational Levels and Individuals Involvement in Cleaning their Surroundings

The problem of solid waste management and people’s attitude and perceptions can be related to the levels of formal education.

4. Lessons Taught to Household Members on Sanitation

People rely on AMA facilities for their refuse disposal.

5. Household Solid Waste Storage Containers

Waste handling methods can be blamed for poor sanitation in the area, because much of the waster is littered about before reaching the sanitary sites.

6. Distribution of Toilet Facilities in Households

Environmental and health hazard-free toilet facilities should be built.

7. Role of AMA in Solid Waste Management

The WMD is not able to solve the solid waste management problems in the area.

8. Types and Numbers of Equipment for Solid Waste Management by AMA

The department has little equipment for the solid waste management.

9. The Labour Force of WMD

The department has no enough for the solid waste management.

10. Incentives Available for WMD Workers Dealing With Solid Waste in Nima

WMD Workers have little incentives to deal with solid waste.

Conclusion

This study investigates the problems of solid waste management in Nima

Some recommendations are made based on the findings

Action should be taken now by the government, local authorities, and the people themselves in order to address the solid waste management problems Nima

Literature Review 3

Citation

Hua, Wang, He Jie, Kim Yoonhee, and Kamata Takuya, "Municipal Solid Waste Management in Small Towns." Policy Research Working Paper 5767 (Yunnan: The World Bank, 2011)

Research Question

How households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved municipal solid waste management (SWM) services in four small towns located in Eryuan county is.

Background

Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for the governments in urban or rural areas

Though the contingent valuation method can be a feasible and valid technique to measure the levels of payment for SWM services (Altaf et al. 1994; Altaf and eshazo, 1996; Whitting ton et al., 1991)

This paper reports on a contingent valuation study we conducted in Yunnan, China, on municipal solid waste management based on a real investment project which was intended to county-level and township-level small towns.

The project was to be located in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province

The survey was conducted for the benefit-cost analysis of a real investment project proposal, the hypothetical nature of a contingent valuation study,

Research Method:

Authors’ survey of 221 residents in conducted in 2007

[Stratified random sampling approach]

Finding

People think the solid waste is causing serious problems in this county Eryuan

Solid waste collection and disposal service lags significantly behind

The obvious lack of solid waste treatment service has caused negative impact on people located around the current solid waste dump site

Conclusion

Mean of a household in Eryuan is willing to pay about 17 yuan per month for its solid waste collection and disposal while the median value of 13 yuan.

The mean WTP estimated in this study is about 1% of the household income.

The poor households may have stronger demand for the proposed improved SWM service than rich ones, not only in a relative sense to their incomes but also in absolute WTP values.

If there have been regular solid waste cleaning services in their neighborhood, rich man are in general willing to pay more for the proposed SWM project.

Income is a dominant factor of WTP for SWM services, with an elasticity of 0.22.



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