02 Nov 2017
Student Name: Mang Fuk Keung
Programme: Bachelor of Social Sciences (BSS3)
Course: Environmental Policy Studies
Course Code: SA2605
Submission Date: 3-3-2013
Juliette Jowit, . "Recycling still the most effective waste disposal method, report finds " < http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/mar/16/recycling-waste-disposal >.
Is recycling still the most effective waste disposal method?
According to the important report on the industry for the UK government, recycling is still the best way to handle the problem of waste
Report of Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs in March 2010
Report of Wrap, the government's waste and packaging agency
News from Defra, in 2008-9
There is an increase in incineration of waste. Householders need recycling facilities
Biopolymer plastics made from crops should be recycled as they are "biodegradable".
For seven different materials of waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, biopolymers, food, garden cuttings, wood and textiles, recycling works for them
The total waste collected from the UK's 25m households dropped slightly. However, only one third of them was recycle and all of the remainder went to landfill.
Recycling still the most effective waste disposal method
Waste can be valuable in generating renewable energy
George Freduah , . "Problems of Solid Waste Management in Nima, Accra." University of Ghana, <http://www.kon.org/urc/v6/george.html>.
How are the problems of solid waste management in Nima?
Something can become waste when it is no longer useful to the owner or it is used and fails to fulfill its purpose (Gourlay, 1992);
The third world refused to be the rubbish bin of the western world;
Nima lacks proper storage facilities, treatment technologies, and good ways of disposal for its waste;
Residentsâ€™ wrong perceptions and unconcerned attitudes towards waste management can be contributed to the problem.
Mix of source reduction, recycling, incineration, and burring in landfills and conversion is suitable way to manage solid waste;
This research aims at providing insight to alleviate the solid waste management crisis in Nima.
Geographical and Historical Background of the Study Area also are included in the research including, Location and Size, Historical Perspective, Physical Environment, Economic Background and Religious Background
Authorsâ€™ survey of 70 residents in Nima conducted in 2004
Authorsâ€™ survey of AMA in Nima conducted in 2004
Simple descriptive statistical and analytical tools such as frequencies, percentages, and pie charts were employed in the analysis of the data. Relationships were established by cross tabulations.
1. Opinions on Responsibility for Ensuring Clean Surroundings
With a large percentage of the population thinking that AMA is solely responsible for ensuring clean surroundings, it is likely that the people may not support clean up campaigns meant for making the surroundings clean.
2. Reasons for Individuals to Help Clean their Own Surroundings
The residents clean because of bad odour resulting from dirty surroundings
3. The Relationship between Educational Levels and Individuals Involvement in Cleaning their Surroundings
The problem of solid waste management and peopleâ€™s attitude and perceptions can be related to the levels of formal education.
4. Lessons Taught to Household Members on Sanitation
People rely on AMA facilities for their refuse disposal.
5. Household Solid Waste Storage Containers
Waste handling methods can be blamed for poor sanitation in the area, because much of the waster is littered about before reaching the sanitary sites.
6. Distribution of Toilet Facilities in Households
Environmental and health hazard-free toilet facilities should be built.
7. Role of AMA in Solid Waste Management
The WMD is not able to solve the solid waste management problems in the area.
8. Types and Numbers of Equipment for Solid Waste Management by AMA
The department has little equipment for the solid waste management.
9. The Labour Force of WMD
The department has no enough for the solid waste management.
10. Incentives Available for WMD Workers Dealing With Solid Waste in Nima
WMD Workers have little incentives to deal with solid waste.
This study investigates the problems of solid waste management in Nima
Some recommendations are made based on the findings
Action should be taken now by the government, local authorities, and the people themselves in order to address the solid waste management problems Nima
Hua, Wang, He Jie, Kim Yoonhee, and Kamata Takuya, "Municipal Solid Waste Management in Small Towns." Policy Research Working Paper 5767 (Yunnan: The World Bank, 2011)
How householdsâ€™ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved municipal solid waste management (SWM) services in four small towns located in Eryuan county is.
Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for the governments in urban or rural areas
Though the contingent valuation method can be a feasible and valid technique to measure the levels of payment for SWM services (Altaf et al. 1994; Altaf and eshazo, 1996; Whitting ton et al., 1991)
This paper reports on a contingent valuation study we conducted in Yunnan, China, on municipal solid waste management based on a real investment project which was intended to county-level and township-level small towns.
The project was to be located in Eryuan County of Yunnan Province
The survey was conducted for the benefit-cost analysis of a real investment project proposal, the hypothetical nature of a contingent valuation study,
Authorsâ€™ survey of 221 residents in conducted in 2007
[Stratified random sampling approach]
People think the solid waste is causing serious problems in this county Eryuan
Solid waste collection and disposal service lags significantly behind
The obvious lack of solid waste treatment service has caused negative impact on people located around the current solid waste dump site
Mean of a household in Eryuan is willing to pay about 17 yuan per month for its solid waste collection and disposal while the median value of 13 yuan.
The mean WTP estimated in this study is about 1% of the household income.
The poor households may have stronger demand for the proposed improved SWM service than rich ones, not only in a relative sense to their incomes but also in absolute WTP values.
If there have been regular solid waste cleaning services in their neighborhood, rich man are in general willing to pay more for the proposed SWM project.
Income is a dominant factor of WTP for SWM services, with an elasticity of 0.22.
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