Management Of Human Resources Of The Restaurant


02 Nov 2017

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Industrial Orientation Report

Oda Wallwitz

Job: Waitress

Industrial Orientation Report

Oda Wallwitz - 218847

Stenden hogeschool

International Hospitality Management


The Netherlands

Submitted in Partial Fulfilment for the Requirements of the degree Programme

Bachelor of Business Administration

March, 2012

Plagiarism Form


1. This work is composed by me / by us.

2. This work has not been accepted in any previous application for a degree or diploma, by me / by us or anyone else.

3. The work of which this is a record is done wholly by me / by us.

4. All verbatim extracts have been distinguished by quotation marks and the sources of my information have been specifically acknowledged.



Executive Summary

The subject of the report is the analysis of work that was done in a hospitality related organization. Therefore the author used several books about Human Resource Management, Corporate Law in the Netherlands and Business Law to do research on these different elements.

The report starts with a short introduction followed by the company analysis. Here the author concentrated especially on the company type, the company category and culture and the marketing mix. After researching the different categories the author came to the conclusion that the company is worth a visit for all different kinds of people because of its interesting food, the nice design and the central location in the city.

Following the company analysis the author continued by researching the management of human resources of the restaurant. Therefore she took a closer look at the organizational chart, finding out that the company had a clear structure and also used the HRM model to describe the management process even more detailed.

Looking at strengths and improvement points she realized the great company culture due to the good team work but also a lack of communication between her and the supervisor.

After, the author concentrated on the cultural diversity within the organization. Here she took a closer look at different cultural identities. A national identity was found because all employees were Dutch.

Also some research on employees� values was done and the author describes the stages of culture shock that she underwent. First she thought that she didn�t undergo culture shock at all but it turned out that she was wrong. The reasons are going to be described in the report.

Focusing on stereotypes and prejudices and the description of an intercultural conflict helped the author to round off this topic.

The next point in the report is the legal position of the company where a Ltd. was identified by the author and is followed by the reasons the owner of the �De Walrus� chose this specific legal construction.

Continuing to write her report the labour agreement was analyzed by the author. Consequently she looked at the Collective Bargaining Agreement for hotels, restaurants and caf�s in the Netherlands and compared this to her actual job description. As a result she realized that her job totally matched the description in the CBA.

Also she pointed out the differences between gross and net salary where it basically turned out that the net salary is the money that the employee gets to keep at the end because all the taxes have been deducted already.

Following the given guidelines the author now focused on the environment, especially the measures the company takes regarding environmental law.

Here she realized that the restaurant is perfectly taking care of the environment for example by separating the garbage or using organic food.

Another important point in the report is the motivation of employees. The author used different theories concerning motivation to at the end find out that the company motivates the employees really well for example by providing free daily meals and feedback.

Next the supervisor was analyzed by the author taking a closer look at her career so far, a typical day at work and her management style.

After her internship the author was provided with an evaluation which she revised in the following part of the report.

Rounding it off she is drew a conclusion at the end and personal notes were added.

The report should help the reader understand the different elements of management within the company and which role they were playing during the author�s internship.


I wrote this report during my first module called Resources which I am currently taking in the International Hospitality Management program at Stenden University of Applied Sciences in Leeuwarden.

My 40 hours working experience at the �De Walrus� restaurant which is located in the city centre of Leeuwarden is the topic of my report.

The purpose is to give an overview on my two weeks in the company.

While I was working and later doing research in the restaurant the only difficulty for me was the language barrier between me and my colleagues because they were all Dutch and I do still not speak the language.

Thankfully they were all really open-minded and helped me by speaking English when I was around.

I want to thank my supervisor Penelope Hagendoorn for the support on my Industrial Orientation report.

Table of contents

Plagiarism Form 4

Executive Summary 5

Preface 7

Table of contents 8

Introduction 9

Company Analysis 10

Company Type and Size 10

Prize category 10

Company culture 10

Marketing Mix 10

Human Resources 12

Organizational Structure 12

HRM Model 14

Strengths and Improvement Points 16

Cultural Diversity 17

Cultural Identities 17

Kluckhohn and Strodbeck�s Value Orientation 17

Culture Shock and Expectancy Theory 18

Stereotypes, Prejudice and Allport Scale 18

Cultural Awareness 19

Emotional Intelligence 19

Legal Position 21

Labor Agreement 22

Collective Bargaining Agreement 22

Difference between gross and net salary 23

Environment 24

Motivation 26

Maslow�s Hierarchy of Needs 26

Herzberg�s Two Factor Theory 26

Skinner�s Reinforcement Theory 27

The Supervisor 29

Typical day at work 29

Management Style 29

Supervisor Evaluation 31

Conclusion 33

Personal Notes 34

Reference List 36

Appendix 37

Appendix A 37

Appendix B 37

Appendix C 37

Appendix D 37


�I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand.� Confucius (Stenden, 2011-2012)

This quotation perfectly describes what this report is about.

To better understand the employees it is indispensable for every manager to work in a lower position in the beginning of his career.

Therefore Stenden University developed the task to work at least 40 hours in a hospitality related organization for its future graduates.

This report will be about the internship of the author in the �De Walrus� restaurant in Leeuwarden.

It is located in the city centre and a famous meeting point for all different kinds of people.

Here the author was able to work in different positions.

At first she started to work as a waitress serving drinks to the costumers and after that she worked a few hours in the kitchen, helping out the chef to accomplish some minor tasks.

Analyzing the company the author has done research on several points including Human Resource Management, Cultural Diversity, Legal Position, Labour Agreement, Environment and Motivation.

Also information about the author�s supervisor and an evaluation of her work will be provided in the report.

As a result the author hopes to give a clear view on her chosen company and the way things are managed within this organization.

Company Analysis

In the following the author will analyze the company by looking at the company type and size, the prize category, company culture and the marketing mix.

Company Type and Size

There are three different types of companies, depending on the number of employees working there. Starting with a small company there are 1-50 people employed. This is the type of company applying to the �De Walrus�.

Also existing are medium companies which have up to 150 employees and large companies that employ more than 150 people.

�De Walrus� is a restaurant in the City Centre of Leeuwarden, offering a lunch menu, dinner and a lot of other arrangements for every occasion possible.

Currently it consists of about 400 seats, what makes it a really big restaurant. This can be explained by the two levels inside and a big terrace outside the restaurant.

Prize category

�De Walrus� is a mid-range restaurant. A simple lunch meal, like a toasty or a salad, costs between 5� and 15�, a dinner meal costs up to 20�.

Therefore it is attractive to students who just want to have a drink, but also for people having a business lunch or families.

Company culture

In the following the company culture will be analyzed, pointing out how the business is working.

Regarding to Charles Handy there are 4 different kinds of company culture: power, role, task and person. (Graham, HT., & Bennett, R., 1998)

After looking at all four of them the author determined the Task Culture to be the one fitting the company, because it isn�t highly bureaucratic at all, people are really orientated on to fulfilling the restaurants goal which is to make the guest happy at all time.

Also the author experienced that everybody is working together as a team very well and the working environment in general is really nice.

Due to the big devotion of the employees to their job, working hours are flexible because people are helping out each other a lot.

Marketing Mix

The author used the Marketing Mix Perspective to evaluate the company�s marketing mix.

Therefore the four �Ps� had to be analyzed.


The restaurant is offering high quality, organic food. A variety of different lunch and dinner meals is sold.

The food is arranged on the plates very nicely and the plates themselves are modernly shaped. The author means by that, that the restaurant is not using usual circle shaped dishes.

The origin of the meals is not only Dutch. The main influence is coming from the Mediterranean.


The company advertises through their own page in the internet which one can find under:

Also they own a fan page on �facebook� which has around 300 fans at the moment.

Furthermore the restaurant is offering daily and weekly specials which are usually meals with fresh vegetables of the current season. They are supposed to have the guest try something new.

These meals are published in front of the terrace to convince possible costumes to pick the �De Walrus�.


As the author mentioned already before, the restaurant has mid-range price range.

Therefore it is affordable for both, students and the working society.


�De Walrus� is characterized by its big outdoor terrace. There you are able to enjoy the sun in summer, but because of some heaters it is also to be used on colder days.

Also many people think the old interior design creates a really cozy and charming atmosphere. That is one reason why many people choose the �De Walrus� just for a simple cup of coffee, with a friend, in the afternoon.

To summarize the author�s findings concerning the marketing mix, the �De Walrus� targets different kinds of people. Social Media like �facebook� or �twitter� of course aim for Youngsters, where the nice atmosphere makes it attractive also for elderly people.

Furthermore the location in the city centre is also favorable for tourists as well.

All in all the author points out that the restaurant should stick with his current marketing strategy to keep up the success.

Human Resources

This chapter is going to talk about Human Resources including the organizational structure, positions in the company, the HRM model and strength and improvement point in the company.

Organizational Structure

For the different positions in a company to be find out it is handy to use an organizational structure.

It also includes the order of who reports to whom.

Figure 1: Organizational Chart �De Walrus Leeuwarden� � created by the author

To be seen in the organizational chart is that the Owner functions as a General Manager at the same time.

Because he also owns a restaurant in Sneek, he put a Restaurant Manager in charge, which is responsible for the full-time and part-time employees who are mostly waiters and waitresses.

Next to the Restaurant works the Chef who is the head of the kitchen staff.

Also the company has a Personnel Manager, which could also be called Human Resource Manager, who was the author�s supervisor during the internship.

In general there are 76 employees working at the restaurant but of course the author was able to observe various positions:


The owner of the restaurant own two restaurants, both called �De Walrus�, one in Leeuwarden and one in Sneek.

He of course has the full authority over the whole organization. The chef, the restaurant manager and the personnel manager report to him about the things happening in the company.

This is really important due to the fact that he can�t be in the restaurant a lot to do things himself.

He also was the final say deciding on new dishes, new employees or other changes that are to be done within the restaurant.

Personnel Manager:

The author�s supervisor is the personnel manager of the company.

She reports to the owner only but works in cooperation together with the chef and the restaurant manager. Consulting these two positions from time to time she is creating the employees schedules, finding new personnel for both the service and the kitchen and has some other assistant functions for the owner.


The chef of the restaurant is the head of the kitchen staff. He is in charge of his subordinates, works together with suppliers, is deciding on daily and weekly specials and has to make sure, that kitchen stays in good shape.

Realized by the author he reports to the owner but cooperated with the restaurant manager, checking the numbers of reservations or the feedback of the guests.

Also he works together with the personnel manager in case new staff for the kitchen is needed or if he needs some extra help for an upcoming event.

Kitchen employees:

The kitchen employees report to the chef.

They are working in the restaurant to assist the chef in fulfilling all his tasks.

Usually the tasks in the kitchen are divided what means that one person is in charge of the desserts. Also the trainee usually does the �mis en place� but as experienced by the author at the end they all work together by helping each other out in case one needs help doing something.

Restaurant Manager:

The restaurant manager is the head of the restaurant for those times when the owner is not in the restaurant. Therefore he reports to the owner only, putting him in the picture of the things that happened while he was gone and decisions that have to be made in the future.

As mentioned before he works closely together with the chef and the personnel manager to make sure all the processes in the company run fluently.

Full-time employees:

Of course the kitchen staff and the managers are also full-time employees but this category mostly focuses on the waiters and waitresses that are employed in the company.

They report to the restaurant manager and to the personnel manager in case of changes that have to be done in their schedule or problems concerning their wages.

Mostly these full-time employees are young people that couldn�t decide on a study yet. They probably tried something out already but because they wanted to have some time to make a final choice and earn regular money while doing that they started working full-time for a year or two.

Part-time employees:

The part-time employees report to the restaurant and the personnel manager because of the same reasons like the full-time employees.

The only difference between these two positions is that they are mostly students and just have a few days during the week where they can work.

Also they mostly work the night shifts because they are going to university during the day.

The waiters and waitresses were also divided by different task.

Some were working at the bar; a few served the drinks, while others were in charge of taking orders and serving the food.

During her internship the author was clearly a part-time employee because she just worked a few days per week.

Still her shifts were as long as the ones of the full-time employees but also because it was an unpaid job she didn�t have to come to work every day.

Also for two days she was one of the kitchen employees.

HRM Model

In the following the author is going to describe how the company manages his human resources.

Therefore she is going to use Human Resource Model.

It is a model describes different elements in the human resource managing process which are essential for a working company.

The model is to be found on the following page:

Figure 2: HRM Model � Module Book Resources (Stenden Hogeschool 2011-2012)

It is clearly visible that there are nine different elements in this model.

They are divided in the process of finding new employees and introducing them to the company; and the performance management.

Describing the different elements is now going to be done by the author to give a clearer view of the way the company is managing his human resource:


The forecasting is done by the personnel manager. It is used to find out if there will be a shortage of employees in the future or if the company might even need to think about labour turnover.

Talking to her supervisor the author found out that forecasting is just playing a little role in the company at the moment because they are really satisfied with the number of employees they are employing right now.

Recruitment and Selection:

This also is the task of the personnel manager. In cooperation with the restaurant manager and the chef, and later reporting to the owner she is taking a look at the incoming applications. After consulting the owner she invites suitable candidates for an interview.

Then she gives feedback to the owner and together they decide whether the candidate would fit in the company or not.

Introduction and Socialisation:

This is partly done by the personnel manager. In the author�s case the manager chose an experienced employee to be the author�s buddy for the first days.

This employee was in charge of introducing her to the other employees, showing her around and answers her questions on how things had to be done.

Working conditions:

The working conditions at the �De Walrus� were really great as experienced by the author.

Everything was clean, meals were provided for the employees and everybody was working together as a team. Not just the managers but every employee worked on keeping this standart.

Performance Appraisal:

The author�s performance appraisal was done after her 40 hours through an appraisal talk. Also she received feedback during her shifts to check if there were points that she could improve right away.

The final appraisal talk was done by her supervisor who is also the personnel manager and a evaluation form was also handed out to her afterwards.

Usually appraisal talks are done once in half a year but in the author�s special case they of course made an exception.

Training and Development:

The author experienced some training in the beginning of her time working for the company. The bartender showed her the different wines they were offering to the guests so she could give an advice to them which could be best one to pick.

Therefore she was allowed to try the wine so she would actually taste the differences between them.

Also the employees gave her hints about how to carry the tray the best way but in general training does not play an essential role in the company like it probably does in other organizations. For example there are no classes for all employees together.

Mostly the author would just call it �learning-by-doing�.


The author cannot give a detailed description about the compensation element because her job was unpaid.

But some of the employees told her, that one can earn more money the longer he works for a company.

Also they are getting a better salary when they are working during official holidays.

All these points result in the employee�s performance and a good performance is essential for a company. Therefore it is important to combine all parts of this HRM model to have them work the best at all time.

Summarizing the author can clearly point out that the restaurant she spend her internship at is managing their human resources really well.

The employees are very satisfied by the way they are led through their managers and therefore there are no troubles with authority.

But of course there are always improvement points.

Strengths and Improvement Points

Three strengths and three improvement points were found by the author.


New employees are well integrated in the group. This essential for the team work. In the �De Walrus� that was possible because they are employing a lot of young and open-minded people.

Feedback is provided during the day what helped the author to develop daily. Also the appraisal talk at the end of her internship will benefit her for her future jobs.

The working conditions in the restaurant are wonderful for beginners as well as people that already worked in this industry before. The organization has a clear structure and people are really helpful.

Also it was really generous to be provided with a meal or two every day.

Improvement Points:

Sometimes it was hard for the author to reach her supervisor because they were working in different shifts or she was just really busy working in her office.

Also working hours should be even every day to provide better planning possibilities for the employees. Sometime a shift ended two hours later because there was nobody to replace the author after the official end of her shift.

The author was not able to find a third point for improvement because she was just really satisfied with the company managing its human resources.

Maybe if she would have worked in the company for a longer period of time she would have been able to find more improvement points.

Cultural Diversity

In times of globalization there are more and more companies that work with employees from different culture backgrounds.

In the following the author is going to describe the impact this has on the business.

Cultural Identities

Cultural Identities are all about the background the different people have in a company. I general you can say that there are five different identities: National Identity, Regional Identity, Ethnic Identity, personal Identity and Multicultural Identity. (L. Benhadda, 2012)

While working in the restaurant �De Walrus� the author found two different Identities to be present.

On one hand there is the National Identity. It occurs because all the employees working in the company are Dutch. Also most of them are from Leeuwarden or other town close by.

On the other hand a Personal Identity exists. There are mostly differences in Gender and Age.

In the restaurant there are working both female and male employees.

Mostly all of the waiters and waitresses are students and around the same age, while the managers and the kitchen staffs are older.

The author is of the opinion that the cultural mix in her restaurant has a positive influence on the company�s culture.

Since all the waiters and waitresses are around the same age, everybody is getting along really well. The employees have mostly the same interests and also they are all very connected to their hometown what strengthens the team work immensely.

Also the managers become authorities in the restaurant already because they are older than the rest of the employees. Consequently the staff listens to them out of respect not only for their position in the company but also for their age.

The only disadvantage the author realized was the National Identity. For the Dutch employees a National Identity is nice but as a foreigner it can be sometimes hard to connect with the others, especially if one is not aware of the language everybody else is speaking.

To sum it up the author wants to point out that there were not many different cultural identities in her company but in her case, this made working a lot easier.

Kluckhohn and Strodbeck�s Value Orientation

The Value Orientation Method is usually used to categorize the employee�s values in a company by taking a look at five human concerns.

They are the following: Human nature, the person-nature relationship, time orientation, Relation to each other and activity, which is the motivation for behaving.

To actually categorize the values of the employees the author had to take a closer look at the different concerns.

Firstly there is the human nature, showing us, how we think about other people�s behaviour. Usually it is to be divided into good and bad, where on one side, the person is hard-working and trustworthy while on the other side they are selfish, lazy and performing poorly. Also there can be a mix of both what means that the employees behave situational.

Secondly the author researched the person-nature relationship concern using her personal notes from the Intercultural Communication lecture. Therefore she can point out that this concern is about the employee�s relationship to the environment he or she is working in. It can either be that one is mastering and controlling task, or that he/she contributes to the company or last but not least, that the employee rather accepts and adapts than influence.

Thirdly there is the time orientation to analyze how the people working in the company deal with their time, whether they are more past, present or future orientated which can have a big influence on the working environment.

Fourthly the author had a closer look at the theory about people�s relation to each other which can either be authoritarian, collective or individualistic.

Last but not least there is a fifth concern called activity which is showing a more detailed picture about why the person is motivated to perform his/her activity. Here there are three different phases: the being-phase, which mostly describes people that just work for the money to live, the being-in-becoming-phase, that is about people that not just only work for the money but also for personal development and last but not least the doing-phase that shows a person that just focuses on the action and achievements he/she can gain by that. (L. Benhadda, 2012)

In the following the author is applying this theory to categorize the employee�s values in the �De Walrus�:

Certainly they prefer colleagues that have a good human nature, which results in empowerment and less supervision for everybody.

Also people with a harmony-relationship to their working environment are appreciated because they mostly find a good balance between work and socialisation.

Looking at the third concern the employees of the author�s internship mostly showed a present-orientated attitude and also expect this from new colleagues. Everybody is really enjoying the work life and bringing extra energy in the company.

The relation to each other is mostly collective. Of course the author also experienced authoritarian style in the company but all in all people are really working together.

Last but not least the author has been taking a closer look to the motivation which is in most cases in the being-in-becoming-phase. As most of the employees are students, of course money plays a big role in their motivation but also the personal development is important for most of them.

All in all the values at the author�s workplace are easy to realize and it was obvious that everybody had nearly the same values.

Culture Shock and Expectancy Theory

At first the author was of the opinion that she did not undergo any cultural shock but after looking at the four phases she realized that it was actually the best example for such a shock.

Starting at her first day of work everybody was really nice and the language barrier didn�t seem to be a problem at all.

After a few hours though the author felt a little rejected already because she just couldn�t understand the others and be an active part of the conversations, both with her colleagues and the guest. This was also when she started to wonder if she wanted to go back the next day.

However she managed to adapt to the new situation, explaining the others that she didn�t speak Dutch and asking them to speak to her in English which was leading the author directly in the last phase � the adjustment phase. Here she started to learn a few Dutch sentences and did everything else in English and felt perfectly integrated in the company, now that she was able to understand, what the others were saying.

Relating this experience to the Expectation Theory the author has to point out first, that there are two different kinds of theories.

First there is the Expectancy Value Theory and secondly the Expectancy Violation theory.

In the authors case the Expectancy Value Theory matches the situation just perfectly because she made the expectation that everybody would be really open-minded and trying to help her with her missing Dutch and this became true and helped her to adapt more easily what means in the first day already.

Summing it up the author wants to point out that everybody is going through a culture shock when starting in a new company and it is just the way of dealing with it that makes one successful at the end.

Stereotypes, Prejudice and Allport Scale

In the company the author experienced an example of stereotyping when talking to a guest.

She was serving beer to a Dutch guest. He realized that she wasn�t Dutch and asked her, where she was from. Answering that she was German, he asked her what she was thinking about the beer he was drinking because as a German I supposedly like beer and whether I like the beer at the Oktoberfest or not.

Telling him, that she�s never been to the Oktoberfest, really surprised the guest.

Dealing with a stereotype was not hard for the author because they are usually not negative or even rude.

Another day though the author had to experience a prejudice when dealing with another guest. He realized that she was German and accused her that she was just coming to the Netherlands to get a job and that she was taking away Dutch students opportunities to work and of course she was doing all this on purpose because she was German.

Following to this prejudice he refused to let the author serve his drinks to him and wanted to have a Dutch waiter instead.

Now analyzing this with the Allport scale this was clearly a way of discriminating the author because he wouldn�t give her the same chances in serving him like the others.

Next to the Discrimination there are four other measurements for prejudice in the Allport scale.

The first is Antilocution which means that a group of people makes negative jokes about others.

Second there is Avoidance what means that one group is avoiding to have contact with another.

The third phase is Discrimination which the author already explained using an example from her internship.

The forth step is called Physical Attack which would mean that somebody actually would have gotten to attack a person or the companies property and the last but not least point is the Extermination. (L. Benhadda, 2012)

All in all one can see that prejudices can lead to really bad consequences and people have to be aware of that.

Cultural Awareness

As pointed out in the Intercultural communication lecture by Mrs L. Benhadda there are four different stages of cultural awareness:

Firstly there is Parochialism which is about only accepting the own way for things to be done.

The second stage is called Ethnocentrism meaning that the person�s way is not the only but the best one.

The third stage�s name is Cultural Contingency what means that their way is the only possible one and last but not least the fourth stage is called Synergy which is all about working together. (L. Benhadda, 2012)

Choosing another employee in the company, the author has been analyzing the cultural awareness of a 21 year old, male bartender. He turned out to be completely cultural aware what means that in his young age he already reached the last stage (synergy).

In his opinion the authors background had no influence on both of them working together at all and he never tried to have his way to be the only one possible what made working with him really enjoyable for the author.

The author also thinks that in times of globalization people are becoming more culturally aware anyway because they are usually really interested in learning from other cultures.

Emotional Intelligence

On one day of the author�s internship she got into a cultural conflict. Some of the employees didn�t want to talk to her in English because they thought that she just had to learn Dutch faster. Of course the author got really upset hearing this and talked to the manager about this and he used his emotional intelligence to solve the problem.

At first he probably decided how he felt personally about that problem. He told me later that he can understand really well how I feel because he is from Austria and didn�t understand much as well when he first moved here.

He realized really fast that some of the author�s colleagues just felt neglected because all the attention was on me and with listening and understanding the manager solved the problem by telling them that the author just moved here and that they should try to imagine the situation she was in and the whole conflict was solved within 20 minutes.

In this case the manager was not only emotionally intelligent but also culturally intelligent because he used is emotional intelligence in a cultural context and he did really well.

Not every person has the ability of emotional intelligence but a good manager should be 90% emotionally intelligent to work successfully in his job. (L. Benhadda, 2012)

Legal Position

The �De Walrus�, the restaurant where the author worked for 40 hours due to write this report after is a privately held or closed corporation. A page in the internet called expatax which is helping young entrepreneurs to start up a business in the Netherlands defines it in the following way: �A besloten vennootschap (BV) is a company limited by shares (private limited company), whose shares are privately registered and not freely transferable.� (

The English equivalent is an Ltd.

The Owner of the restaurant chose this legal form because he has no personal liability if anything happens to the company.

This is already one of the advantages of the Ltd. Also there is no minimum share capital required and the company can be managed through a managing director. (Schuit, 2002)

This is another reason why the owner of the authors company chose this kind of legal construction. In his restaurant he is the owner and the managing director at the same time.

He mentioned to the author that in his opinion the only disadvantage of this form is that bookkeeping is really complex and time consuming.

In general the author assesses this company type to be a good legal construction for all kinds of entrepreneurs because there are clearly more advantages then disadvantages.

Labor Agreement

The following chapter will deal with the regulations in the Collective Bargaining Agreement and how the author�s job fit to those regulations.

Also it is going to explain additional cost which be found on a pay slip and the difference about gross and net salary in general.

Collective Bargaining Agreement

The �Collective Bargaining Agreement for hotels, restaurants, caf�s and related industries and related Industries� or short CBA HORECA was used by the author to compare her tasks in the internship with the general description in the agreement.

Therefore a closer look on five different categories has been taken:

Working hours:

As stated in the CBA the employee is allowed to work 1976 hours a year which means 38 hours a week.

In the authors case this fit her job description because she has been working 40 hours divided on two weeks. Due to her current studies a 38 hour week was not possible.

Also the CBA includes the daily hours for employees that are 18 or older. Here the rule is that a daily shift cannot be longer than 12 hours.

In the authors internship the longest shift was 8,5 hours so the employers followed the agreement concerning the working hours perfectly. (

Resting periods:

Appointed in the CBA is the resting periods as well.

Therefore employees should have daily breaks and an average of two days rest during the week.

The author had a half an hour break every shift and at least two days off.

Consequently her employers followed the regulations of the CBA. (

Working conditions:

Regarding the CBA with more than 25 employees has to have a Health and Safety Officer.

In the author�s industrial organization one of the employees was responsible of explaining to her what soap to use to wash her hands before and after work and which rules were to follow to be save, like wearing safety shoes while working in the kitchen.

Therefore he was the Health and Safety Officer of the author�s restaurant. (


Looking at the CBA the author found out that it is the employer�s responsibility to classify the position correctly.

In the author�s case this happened on her first day of work by the supervisor. Her task was clearly defined to be the one serving the drinks. She was not allowed to serve food to the guest and to take orders. Of course if a guest asked it was fine but usually her task was to deliver the drinks to the table.

Another point in this category is that the employer can let his employee perform other duties temporarily.

In the author�s 40 hours that meant that she spend some days in the kitchen helping with the mis en place and other tasks. (


This paragraph of the CBA is talking about the wages.

In the author�s case this didn�t have any importance at all because she had an unpaid job but still there are some rules.

For example the pay slips. On there the employer has to publish the hours worked by the employee and the wage they earned by doing this.

In the following the author is going to give more detailed information about the pay slip in general. (

Looking back on the five categories the author picked one can see clearly that the company followed all the rules from the CBA and that the author�s job description fit the one in the Collective Bargaining Agreement.

Difference between gross and net salary

Defined by the Financial Times Dictionary the gross salary is the wage before all the taxes were taken off. (, 31.01.2012)

The net salary is the amount that remains when nothing more is to be taken away, as defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. (Hornby, A. S., Cowie, A. P., & Lewis, J. W., 1974)

Comparing the both on the example of an employee, he�ll have the both on his pay slip but the money that he actually keeps for himself at the end is the net salary. All taxes will be automatically taken of the gross salary.

In the Appendix A the author publishes a pay slip that was found in the intern because she did not have one of her own.

In the example an employer from Great Britain has a gross salary of 1223,64 �. Then there are some deductions following. In this case it is the tax (80,40 �) and the national insurance (88,40 �). That makes a total deduction of 168,80 �. This finally results in a net salary of 1054,84 � for the employee to keep.


This part of the Industrial report is talking about environmental law.

The restaurant �De Walrus� tries to take care of the nature in everything they are doing. Therefore they are using only organic food as mentioned before by the author, but also they are strictly following environmental law regulations.

To find out in which way they are dealing with several issues, the author took a closer look at the four following categories:

Odor nuisance:

To prevent their environment from bad odors, the restaurant installed an air ventilation system in the kitchen to keep the smells from leaving the kitchen. Also the restaurant�s biggest advantage is that most of their tables are on the huge outside terrace. Therefore the normal air is solving the problem.

In addition to the ventilation their garbage cans are closed tightly so that they can keep the bad odors from getting out.

Noise nuisance:

The music playing on the outside terrace is not that loud so that it is not distracting both the costumers and the people living around the restaurant.

Furthermore the longest opening hours are on Fridays and Saturdays until 2am so that there is not that much noise during the night.

Important to mention is that �De Walrus� is located on Gouverneursplein which is actually more like a little square therefore the noise and odor nuisance are less intensive for the people living around the square than they would be in one of the narrow streets of Leeuwarden.

Waste products:

The waste at the restaurant is separated into bio-degradable, paper and plastic waste.

Also the author observed the separation of broken glass and of used oil from the kitchen.

The waste already gets separated in the kitchen by all the employees the moment they are cleaning the plates.

The old and used oil goes to a separate waste at the end of the day.


Because of the restaurant being located on a little square, there are no sidewalks to be taken care of but of course all employees are checking if the space around the restaurant is clean because there are no real fences around the terrace so the guest could be disturbed by litter lying around.

In the author�s opinion the Netherlands are a really clean country anyway and she never experiences any dirt on the road while working in the restaurant.

In general one can see that the �De Walrus� is a really clean restaurant. Due to the author�s supervisor new employees are reminded of separating the waste when they start working for the company.

Also the restaurants surrounding is checked from time to time to see if there is any litter related to the company outside their terrace.

Taking care of the environment is an important principle of the company so following the regulations of environmental law is significant at all times.


This chapter will deal with the author�s motivation when working in the company. Therefore three motivation theories were used by her.

Maslow�s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow described a pyramide of needs in his theory.

Starting with the pyramids� base he defined this to be the physiologocal needs, followed by safety needs, social needs, Esteem and self-actualization on the top.

In the company the author was working in she could satisfy all five of those needs.

Physiological Needs:

While working in the restaurant the author was always provided with food during her break and drinks all the way through her shift. This way she was able to give her best at all time.

Safety Needs:

There were of course also safety needs satisfied, for example the guarantee to have the job at least for the 40 hours. Nowadays people are less motivated at work because they sometimes can�t be sure anymore if they will be able to keep their job.

Also the certainty in her schedule provided safety to the author so that she could concentrate on her work much better.

Social Needs:

For the author especially the social needs are the most important ones to be fulfilled on a work place. To be accepted has always been essential for her to have fun at work.

Therefore the �De Walrus� was the ideal company for her because team work is one of the restaurants main principles which make socializing with colleagues a daily working habit. Also there are a lot of friendships between the people working together. This has the result that people do not just motivate themselves but the others as well.


The need for esteem is also important for a lot of people. In the restaurant the author was able to get more self-esteem because she was praised by her supervisor ones she did something good and also realizing that she had more and more success doing her tasks motivated her even more to give her best for the restaurant.


This stage can be sometimes hard to reach but probably motivates people the most.

In the author�s case she was surprised about the fulfillment she felt when working the few hours in the kitchen. Looking back on the 40 hours she can clearly point out that she was motivated the most when working in the kitchen. This had the result that she developed a sense of independence and started to do things on her own more often.

In this case there was not only an influence on her motivation but also on her personal development! (Graham, HT., & Bennett, R., 1998)

Herzberg�s Two Factor Theory

Another theory dealing with motivation on the work place is the Herzberg�s Two Factor Theory.

He is dividing an employees� need in two different categories: basic employee needs which he also calls Hygiene Factors and need that cause a positive satisfaction, also called Motivation Factors.

Therefore he is starting with the idea that employees are dissatisfied and unmotivated in the beginning. To be at least satisfied with the job people need hygiene factors. (Dessler, 2008)

In the author�s internship they were the following:

Hygiene factors:

In the restaurant the working conditions were always good; also there was a job security at all time and supervisor to help in case of a problem.

As a result of these factors the author of course liked her job but they didn�t really motivate her to work better than she was generally expected to.

Therefore Herzberg defined the:

Motivator Factors:

These are used to have the employee positively satisfied and motivated.

During the author�s internship that was done by feedback at the end of the shift, recognition by colleagues and achievements while for example working in the kitchen.

And only these factors were the reason at the end to cause positive satisfaction at the author�s work place and made her more motivated.

Skinner�s Reinforcement Theory

In 1927 Pavlov used the well known experiment with the dog and the bell to explain the learning process of animals.

Later Skinner used this theory to build his own Reinforcement Theory upon it.

In his experiment he taught a few pigeons how to play ping pong. At first he watched them to look for any natural behavior they could use to actually play this game and whenever they did so they were rewarded with food.

Repeatedly rewarding them caused the success of the experiment and this process was called �Reinforcement� by Skinner.

His idea in general is to put the big learning goal in to little steps and learn those one by one.

The author was also able to apply this on her own experience during her internship in the �De Walrus�.

Here it was about how to carry a full tray. Of course her supervisor could have just told her to start with a extremely full one right from the beginning what would be more of a �learning-by-doing� method but instead she scheduled the author to work on Monday mornings where it is usually really calm to slowly start with just a few guest.

And after a while the author was able to carry more and more drinks at once and always reaching the next step is what motivated her so much to work in the company and to fulfill her supervisor�s expectations. (Foot, M., & Hook, C., 2008)

Summarizing this chapter one can see that there are several ways of getting your employees motivated and mostly it is just about giving them feedback, helping them to develop in the company and rewarding them for achievements they made on their own.

The Supervisor

The author�s supervisor has been working in the �De Walrus� since summer 2011. Her name is Penelope Hagendoorn and she is a student from Stenden University of Applied Sciences where she is currently in her 6th year studying Personeel en arbeid management (Human Resource Management). (P. Hagendoorn, Personnel Manager, �De Walrus�, personal communication, March 26, 2012)

Typical day at work

Penelope�s typical day of work usually starts around noon. After she arrives in the restaurant she is taking a round to check if everybody is doing alright.

Following she goes up to her office on the third floor. It is located right next to the canteen so if anybody has a question they can always feel free to knock at the door and ask.

Once she is in her office she start replying to her e-mails, she checks applications and she creates the employee�s schedules.

In addition she has to forecast the number of employees that she will need for the next weeks, especially if there are big events, like Queens Day coming up.

Also she sometimes helps Arjien, the owner, in case he has any office work for her to do, like writing letters, making phone calls etc.

After she finished the work in her office she usually goes down in the restaurant to help out the other employees. So on a regular day she is both � a manager and a waitress.

From time to time there are of course other task, like for example a job interview but that is not something that happens every day. (P. Hagendoorn, Personnel Manager, �De Walrus�, personal communication, March 26, 2012)

Management Style

Having a personal conversation with the supervisor the author found out that Penelope generally believes in her employees.

In her opinion they wouldn�t apply for the job if they weren�t willing to work. (P. Hagendoorn, Personnel Manager, �De Walrus�, personal communication, March 26, 2012)

Therefore the Theory Y is matching her description.

Theory Y:

Managers that follow the Theory Y management theory usually believe in their employee�s motivation to work and in their capabilities to work independently.

Consequently they are creating a trust based working environment with empowered employees. (

In the author�s case one was able to see that the supervisor was not around that much, at least not in the hours that the author worked at the restaurant.

Therefore the employees were able to manage themselves.

Usually everybody would listen to the person that worked in the company for the longest time or the oldest one.

This created a natural leading effect in the author�s opinion what made working a lot more interesting and fun.

Also everybody in the restaurant really enjoys that the managers are not always watching the employees so that they are able to make decisions on their own.

This management style can also be described using a different theory:

Situational Leadership Model:

Analyzing the supervisor�s management style regarding to the Leadership Styles in the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model the author�s manager is using the Participating Style. (

In the context of the author�s internship this means that her supervisor mentioned the tasks that had to be done but the employees decided in cooperation with their supervisor who and how they would do it.

All in all, the author can summarize that her supervisor showed a management style full of trust for her subordinates.

An open, trustworthy and creative working environment has been created.

Supervisor Evaluation

Included in Appendix C is the author�s evaluation filled out by her supervisor. Most of the time the author scored really high but by no reason this should mean that there is no more potential to improve.

Therefore in the following a personal reflection on the different points is given by the author.


In this category six points were reached by the author. As commented by the supervisor she always showed a positive attitude, was always smiling and had a positive way of thinking.

Not surprised by this evaluation the author just wants to add that she has always been an open-minded person, and working in the company was that enjoyable that she was motivated to show her best behavior.


During her 40 hours in the restaurant the author had to wear a shirt from the walrus. In her opinion reaching six points was not so hard because she just always washed her shirt before the new shift.

Communication Skills:

Receiving five points was not appropriate in the author�s opinion. Actually she should have gotten less points because her missing Dutch. But all in all she was fluent in English and tried to communicate with the guests as good as possible.

For later jobs the author should try to improve her knowledge of the Dutch language.

Sense of Independence:

In this category the author received four together with the comment that the period of time was just too to clearly see all her competencies.

The author can fully agree with this evaluation. Of course a lot of questions had to be asked but it gave her confidence to be more independent next time!

Sense of Initiative:

Once the author found out how things had to be done, she happily started to do those things on her own. That was also the reason why her supervisor graded her with six points.

For the future the author wants to keep this up because it is the best way to learn how to do things on your own.

Quality of work:

Looking at the evaluation the supervisor graded the author with six points.

In the authors opinion though five points would have been a better choice because she dropped three bottles during one of her shifts what personally felt really embarrassing.

Regarding the future the author just has to remember that one can learn of his mistakes and at the end they will improve her work.

Guest contact:

The evaluation sheet points out that the author had a polite and tactful way to interact with the guests. The Supervisor graded her with five points mentioning that the author was always really friendly around the guests.

Although her missing Dutch probably caused the one missing point and the author again wants to work on the foreign language to be able to talk to guests in Dutch during later jobs.

All in all, the author is really satisfied with her evaluation.

Of course there are some things in her performance that could be better but most problems were caused by the lack of time or the language barrier between her and the guests.

Learning how to speak Dutch is probably going to solve most of the problems right away.


After writing about all theoretical aspects of the report the author now wants to draw a conclusion.

In general writing the Industrial Orientation Report gave her a clear insight into the management of a company. Often she had worked for hotels before but never thought about the process to manage everything around her at all.

The reader finds out that the company of the author�s internship mostly employs Dutch people with caused some language barriers from time to time. Also it was obvious that the restaurant has a clear organizational structure and tries to prevent cultural conflicts and the arising of stereotypes and prejudices.

In addition they are following the Dutch HORECA Collective Bargaining Agreement and take good care of the environment.

Furthermore the company�s employees are really motivated as analyzed through several motivation theories. The supervisor shows good management skills and also the author�s evaluation was a promising step into her future.

In conclusion the author really enjoyed working for the �De Walrus� restaurant and writing this report after provided her with fundamental knowledge for her future management career.

Personal Notes

What did I learn during my internship?

During my time as a waitress I learned how to carry a tray properly without all the drinks falling down even though that happened anyway. Also I was able to try different kinds of wine and learned how to describe their different flavors.

While I was working in the kitchen I learned many new things. For example they showed me how to cut with a chef knife, also I made the �hazelnut dream� which is like a little cake made out of egg whites, sugar, flour and chopped hazelnuts.

In addition to that I learned how to make pineapple panna cotta and they showed me all the different kinds of herbs that are used in the kitchen and helped me to name them.

To what extend were my expectations met?

My expectations were fully met. At the end it turned out to be even better than I expected.

My colleagues where really nice and welcoming and helped me to get started right away. Also I knew that I might have some problems standing all day long and that actually came true. But after a few days I got used to that.

The whole internship was also as hard as I expected it to be.

What surprised me?

I was really surprised that I enjoyed working in the kitchen a lot more than waitressing. When I was a little girl I loved serving drinks to other people and pretend to be a waitress.

Working now showed me that the people serving the guest have to be really polite and friendly at all time while in the kitchen people are way more open. Everybody is making fun about each other and especially as the only girl in the kitchen I enjoyed all the food I got to taste to show the male cooks how great they are.

What did I find (un)attractive about this company/sector?

I really liked working together with people all day long but in my opinion I would rather go into a management position after. For me the long working hours made this industry unattractive for me which just strengthened my wish to become a Human Resource Manager one day because I will still be working with people but I won�t have to be on my feet all day long.

Why is hospitality the industry to work in?

For me this is an international career. As I already realized during my internship, even if I am German I am able to work for a Dutch company using my English skills.

Also I just love to see a happy guest leave the restaurant.

Today going out to eat is getting more and more expensive and staying in a hotel is not affordable for everybody anymore. Because of that reason I want the guest to have the best time possible so that his stay was actually worth the money he paid!

Which study targets and action points would I like to achieve?


I would like to concentrate on the Human Resource Department while continuing my studies at Stenden and especially in my placements

I would like to improve my Dutch skills to be able to work in a Dutch company.

I would like to improve my English writing skills.


I can proof my knowledge about Human Resources in the Progress Test and also during my placement in the 4th year.

I can proof my ability to speak Dutch when communicating with the inhabitants of the Netherlands.

These skills will be measurable during the written English exams.


Trying to relate the future modules to HRM will help me to improve in this department. Also I can use the supervisor training in the 2nd year as practice.

There is a Dutch class at Hestia that could help me to learn some Dutch basics.

To improve my writing skills I have to keep paying attention on that during the Business English Workshops to gain further knowledge on that topic.


I will find out how realistic this goal is during the next years. Maybe I�ll be focused on a different department in half a year.

This goal is very realistic because I usually have the ability to learn new languages really fast and being around Dutch people a lot is also going to help me.

This goal seems really realistic to me because I already have good oral English skills so improving the writing skills will just be a matter of practice.


I will have time until I reach my Bachelor�s Degree to decide on my favorite department.

I will have the next three years to improve my Dutch before I start my internship according to the placements which probably won�t be in the Netherlands.

Of course there are the three years of English workshops that will help me but I�ll be able to improve during the rest of my life by gaining more and more experience.

Reference List

Benhadda, L. (2012). Lecture 1: Intercultural Management (personal notes)

Collective Labour Agreement for hotels, restaurant, caf�s and related industries (2010-2012). Retrieved 31.03.2012 from:

Dessler, G. (2008). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

The Daft Party, the absurd way... Retrieved 31.03.2012 from: (Pay slip)

Foot, M., & Hook, C. (2008). Introducing Human Resource Management (5th ed.). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Graham, HT., & Bennett, R. (1998). Human Resources Management (9th ed.). London: Pitman.

Hornby, A. S., Cowie, A. P., & Lewis, J. W. (2005). Oxford advanced learner's dictionary of current English (7th ed.). London: Oxford University Press.

Limited Company. Retrieved 27.03.2012 from:

Paul Hersey (1984) The Situational Leader. Escondido, CA: Centre for Leadership Studies

Schuit, St. R. (2002). Corporate Law and Practice of The Netherlands. The Hague: Kluwer International.

Stenden (2011-2012). Module Book � Resources. Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

Theory X and Theory Y. Retrieved 01.04.2012 from:


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