26 Jul 2016 18 Apr 2017
Career is the result of a conscious position and behavior of an individual in the sphere of labor related to official or professional growth (Porfeli 47). Career as a trajectory of motion is constructed by an individual in accordance with the peculiarities of internal and external organizational reality and above all, in accordance with personal goals, desires and attitudes. The activities of people are often judged by their careers. At the beginning of the professional cycle, human efforts are usually aimed at preparing for a future career - the development of skills, values, views and other aspects necessary for the acquisition of professional identity. At the end of the professional cycle, a person typically tends to concentrate forces at determining the degree of personal career success. Both stages include the analysis of the correctness to the chosen career.
The study, which has become a classic one (Feldt 238), shows that certain personality factors and pressure situations influence the fact whether people change their careers or try their best to hold on to the one acquired at the very beginning of their careers, believing that it is the right choice. The way an individual likes his job, and therefore, the extent to which his career will be successful, depends on certain factors. The following ones could be listed among them: a) knowledge of the profession; b) correspondence between the characteristics of a person and environment; c) good professional role models; d) stimulating, but not threatening demands of work and associated expectations; e) reduced concern for prestige; f) correspondence between personal and professional values; g) the context of working environment in which the socialization takes place (Feldt 235-45). In addition to these variables, researchers have identified two basic types of focus - on earnings and on job satisfaction, - expressed by workers and affecting career choice (Verbruggen 3-15).
Thus, people are choosing their own "right" job basing on a variety of reasons: money, status, prestige, communication, satisfaction, etc., and when choosing a career, they often take into account if not all, but at least some of those reasons. Person's perception of certain careers and reasons why he should do this activity is largely determined by previous experiences and prevailing social attitudes (Porfeli 46-58).
To assess personality traits and optimize the choice of the professional activity, it is important to consider the type of personality selecting this or that activity. One of the most operational typologies for this purpose is the personality typology by Holland (PrimÃ© 179-80), predetermining the content of career activities and including: realistic type (focus on manipulations with tools and machinery), research type (focus on search), artistic (emotional expression, self-presentation), social (interactions with people), business (focus on the impact on people), and conventional type (manipulations with data and information).
Although the concept of Holland assumes that one of the types is always dominating, people can adapt to the conditions, using the strategy of two or more types (PrimÃ© 181). The closer are the orientations of the dominant type and the second (or third) orientations, the closer the personality types are. Taking into account the nature of dominant and non-dominant orientations, one can choose the activities that are closer to one's own nature and where one will be more successful. If the dominant and the following orientations are far from each other, it is much more difficult to make a right career choice (PrimÃ© 185-86).
Thus, the formation of a career is a continuous process, during which the person is using the information about oneself and about the world, chooses the sphere of activity, and then - a specific profession. When choosing the direction of a professional career, one must take into account three basic conditions for a successful career: the profession should be in the sphere of one's interests; the profession should correspond to personal abilities; and the profession should be in demand in the labor market (Perrone 291-94). Any person has an access to several ways to get acquainted with the basic terms of career choices and strategies on making career choice decisions.
One of the most wide spread resources for that is coming through psychological testing to identify professional inclinations, select the first higher education institution or education institution for reeducation or specialization (Perrone 295-97). In addition, one can rely on statistical information on payment rates and schedules in different careers. After deciding what one prefers more - a 6-digit salary or a flexible schedule, a person can examine the statistics of suitable jobs.
Most of the information can be found on the Internet. Every modern establishment or company has its own website, where one can get all the latest information. It is also possible to send resumes to employers or find several HR agencies; both methods will include prior assessment of a candidate. In addition, the international professional networks could help in getting acquainted with people who work in the same area. Communicating with them, one can find out everything about the career of one's dream (Porfeli 46-58).
Finally, it is acceptable to use the services of the employment centre, the specialists of which can provide all necessary information and test candidates on the professional suitability. In addition to state agencies of career choices which are governmental organization that provide advice to the population on education and career choices, there are private consulting companies providing consultations with a specialist on career choices in the immediate customer service centers (Verbruggen 3-5).
Contemporary career consulting is a process of evaluating opportunities, potential and real (not imaginary, imposed by society or influence of friends and parents) wishes by professional consultants, possessing information on the labor market and demand occupations. Such consultations usually do not involve testing, but only free dialogue between the specialist and the client. The procedure lasts from 1,5 to 2,5 hours. Finally, the customer receives the conclusion of a specialist with recommendations on career development, given information on skills that need to be acquired for achieving success. This service is relevant not only for students but also for those who have already graduated from university or other educational institutions, and cannot decide on the choice of their dream career (Verbruggen 3-13).
Having made a mistake in choosing a career, people often suffer in the future. Doing something that does not bring joy may harm both the health and success in personal life. All areas of life are intertwined, so it is difficult to underestimate the importance of correct choice.
About 50-80% of people make mistakes when choosing their careers (PrimÃ© 178). And they usually make this choice consciously. Society imposes the understanding of the proper career; therefore people often follow the established stereotypes. Instead of choosing what one likes, one chooses what is considered prestigious; common sense becomes a victim of dictate of the public opinion. Because of this, the actual percentage increases to 95-99.9% (Feldt 240). Indeed, there really a few of those who have made the right choice combining one's career with one's passion. These people do not trust their future to the fate; they deliberately choose such a life.
Thus, the choice of career is one of the most important decisions man makes in life. Everyone wants the job to meet one's interests and capabilities, bringing joy and money. To create a dynamic career it is necessary to realize one's own interests, abilities and labor market requirements. Taking everything into account, it is possible to say that gradually the career choice becomes easier. More search methods, more alternatives emerge every day. Realizing one's own weak and strong sides, interests and preferences, one can make the right choice.
Feldt, Ronald C., Ferry, Ashley, Bullock, Melinda, Camarotti-Carvalho, Ana, Collingwood, Melinda, Eilers, Scott, Meyer, Luke, Nurre, Emily, and Cheryl Woelfel. "Factorial Structure of the Career Decision Scale: Incremental Validity of the Five-Factor Domains." Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development 42 (2010): 235-245. Print.
Perrone, Kristin M., Tschopp., Molly K., Snyder, Erin R., Boo, Jenelle N., and Claudine Hyatt. "A Longitudinal Examination of Career Expectations and Outcomes of Academically Talented Students 10 and 20 Years Postâ€”High School Graduation." Journal of Career Development 36 (2010): 291-309. Print.
PrimÃ©, Dominic R, and Terence J. G. Tracey. "Psychometric Properties of the Career Clusters Interest Survey." Journal of Career Assessment 18.2 (2010): 177-188. Print.
Porfeli, Erik J., and Vladimir B. Skorikov. "Specific and Diversive Career Exploration During Late Adolescence." Journal of Career Assessment 18.1 (2010): 46-58. Print.
Verbruggen, Marijke, and Luc Sels. "Social-Cognitive Factors Affecting Clients' Career and Life Satisfaction After Counseling." Journal of Career Assessment 18.1 (2010): 3-15. Print.
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