Barriers to ICT in Nigeria School - Research


23 Mar 2015 13 Dec 2017

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Information communication technologies (ICTs) are information usage tools that are used for the production, storage, processing, and distribution and exchanging of information. The many different information tools work together, and merge to make a networked world- which gets into every part of the world (UNDP Evaluation Office, 2001). It is a progressively more powerful tool for getting involved in global markets, enhancing political accountability; recovering and making better the delivery of basic services; and enhancing many development opportunities (UNDP, 2006). Ogunsola (2005) says Information Communication and Technology "is a based electronic system use for transmission of information, to respond, process and retrieve, which has influenced the way we generally live our lives". Access to global knowledge and communication can be gained (Ogunsola, 2005). The use of ICTs by student make them get more knowledge and understanding to complicated subject topics and concepts and are more likely to remember information gained and apply it outside the walls of the classroom. (Apple Computer, 2002). In addition, students deepen their understanding and knowledge through ICT because there is access to information at different levels. (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, 2001).

Nigeria is a developing country populated with over 124,009,000 people.60% of the population in Nigeria lives in the rural area which do not even have access to social amenities like computers or IT amenities for distribution of information. Most schools in Nigeria do not have computer systems in their schools and even those that have do not make use of it or get the full utilization of the effectiveness and efficiency of information technology. The development of information technology in Nigeria has not attained the required heights which is affecting the use information and communication technology in the education system of the country.(Oyebisi,2003)

Education System in Nigeria is structured into four different levels; we have the primary education, secondary education which is divided into two different cycles-junior secondary school and senior secondary school, and we have also got the Tertiary and higher education level. The primary education is run for six years for ages from 5 to 11yrs after an examination called common entrance is written to secure admission into the junior secondary school education, the junior secondary school cycle is run for 3 years and from age 11 to 13years and also the senior secondary school cycle also run for 3years from age 13 to 16 years after which a senior secondary school certificate (SSCE) is taken which stands as a requirement for entrance into the tertiary and higher education level. The tertiary and higher education level comprises of universities, polytechnics and college of education.(International organization for Migration).This dissertation will be a study on the secondary education level in Nigeria focusing on the senior secondary school cycle.

In Nigeria, the ability and effect of information technology has been known in the school system. (Yusuf,2005).The evidence of this is shown in different reform policies laid down by the country to integrate ICT especially computer in the Nigeria school system. The federal government 1988 document policy implements the introduction of computer studies, both software and hardware, to the various levels of education in the country. The document also stated that secondary school teachers should be trained which was facilitated by introducing computer systems some of the secondary schools.

In 2004, the revised National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) focuses more on the need of ICT at all Nigeria education levels. For example, in the section 11 sub-section 102 (a) states that" All states, Teachers Resource Centres, University Institutes of Education and other professional bodies shall belong to the network of information and communication technology (ICT)" (p.53) and also further stated in the section 11 sub-section 102(d) states" Government shall provide facilities and necessary infrastructure for the promotion of information and communication Technology at all levels of education" (p.53).

However, despite the written documents were accepted, they were not implemented which has left Nigeria to still be lacking in the usage of Information technology in the Nigeria education institutions.


Information and Communication technology has made impact in all aspects of life (Oliver, 2002). Information and communication Technology has proved and provided so many positive effects in every aspects of any country, organization. Many countries have experienced drastically change in their environment especially their education factor through the use of information technology. In spite of such positive impact most developing countries like Nigeria are still yet to efficiently and effectively incorporate the use of information and communication technology into their educational system. This study will be researching the barriers and also factors that preventing the effective and efficient use of ICT in Nigeria and the steps to be taken to improve the usage of ICT.


The research question developed to guide the study is

What are the factors preventing the usage of Information and communication Technology (ICT) in the senior secondary school educational system of Nigeria? And what steps that could be taken to promote ICT usage in this sector.

The following research sub questions were developed to guide the study:

  • What is the current secondary school education system in Nigeria?
  • What is the current level of usage of ICT in senior secondary school education system in Nigeria?
  • What are the factors influencing usage of ICT in Nigeria senior secondary school education system?
  • What are the barriers affecting the usage of ICT in Nigeria senior secondary school education system?
  • What can be done to improve the current situation of ICT usage in Nigeria senior secondary school education?


The aim of this research is to be able to identify and analyze the different barriers preventing the usage of ICT in the Nigeria senior secondary school education system and make suitable recommendations to improve the current usage.


The objectives of this study:

  • To understand Nigeria current senior secondary school education system.
  • To understand the current usage level of ICT in senior secondary school education in Nigeria.
  • To identify the factors influencing the usage of ICT in senior secondary school education in Nigeria.
  • To identify the barriers affecting the usage of ICT in senior secondary school education in Nigeria.
  • To establish the suitable ways by which the usage of ICT in senior secondary education in Nigeria can be effective


The Gantt chart shows the framework for the research in terms of time scale apportioned to the different aspect of the research. It's a representation of the different tasks and activities that will be done in the research project. (See Appendix 1)



Africa has experienced the growth of ICTs in different areas over the past decades and it includes education. The metamorphosis from teacher-centred educational method to learner -centred education the all over the world in the previous years, adds to the use of ICTs in education. Lending from the phrase "Knowledge -Driven world" as envisioned by (Hawkins, 2004;Inwent, 2004), it connotes that education developmental practices must centre on the same access (i.e. equal) and value of education which should emphasize the significance of change in the educational sector via use of ICTs and providing new generations with improved expertise to operate in the 21st century.

The use of ICTs in African countries and Nigeria in general is rising and considerably increasing. Conversely, while there is a vast knowledge on how ICTs are being implemented in advanced countries, there is less information on the method in which ICTs are being brought in into schools in less advanced countries (Beukes-Amiss and Chiware, 2006). Observing the less-developed countries in accordance to these authors, there is usually a short access time for each month using ICTs via both the students and teachers and even a lesser time taken with good Internet access. It ought to be observed that accessibility of ICTs with reference to access in terms of proportion of teachers to students varies considerably. In spite of this, the recent and rising technologies challenges the conventional process of Learning and teaching, and the manner in which education is controlled or managed. Despite the fact that ICT is a vital area of research in its own right, it is getting a key impact through all prospectus areas. Simple global communication gives immediate access to a wide array of data, challenging assessment and assimilation skills (Fowowe, 2006).

Rapid communication and better access to ICTs in homes, educational establishment, and at work may possibly mean that acquisition of knowledge or learning turn out to be a truly lifelong activity-activities via which the rate of hi-tech change, forces continuous assessment of the teaching progression or process itself. Besides the importance of the research, laying emphasis on the part of the Internet and students' mind-set or attitudes towards it has been well thought-out. Nowadays, Internet has become our part of communal order via the provision of a variety of functions. On the other hand however, it has immense function by implementation of method of education and system at all the society.

Moreover; having awareness of the educational technologies and its major parts as Internet needs being more creative i.e. readiness, to put in new growth, creativeness or originality for learning, allowing individuals have their own learning with supportive and collective intelligence, making significant learning based on the constructivist approach (Maddux, et al., 1997).


In Accordance to Cox and Preston (1999), there are quite a few factors that have been recognized which could support and influence teachers in the usage of ICT in classrooms. In order to examine these factors furthermore with reference to teachers' ICT use, the research makes use of the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) done by Bagozzi, Davis and Warshaw (1989) which was an edition of hypothesis of reason action by Fisbein and Ajzen (1980) to examine the basis for the usage of ICTs by teachers. 107 adult users who had been using a managerial system for 14 weeks were tested with this model, and it was observed that people's usage of computer was guided by the intents of their minds to use it and that knowledge effectiveness was also strongly related to these aims.


Several different types of technology could be used to maintain and improve learning. All from digital moviemaking, video content, to handheld technologies and laptop computing has been used in classrooms. Likewise, new usage of technology such as pod casting are constantly emerging (Marshall, 2002). From Marshal's view point, a variety of technologies brings different types of package and provides different purposes in the classroom. E-mail and Word processing promotes communicational skills; spreadsheet and database programmes promote organizational skills; and software for modelling promotes the basic understanding of Mathematics and Science concepts. It is imperative to look at how these electronic technologies vary and what type makes them essential as a van for education (Berker, 1994).

Available technologies in classrooms nowadays vary from simple tool-based functions for example word processors, to scientific repositories of online data. Others are handheld computers, primary historical documents, two-way distance learning classrooms and closed-circuit television channels. Prensky (2005) emphasized that even the mobile phones that a lot of people now take with them can be used to gain knowledge. In accordance with Zhao and Lei (2006) all technology is possible to play diverse roles in the learning of students. Instead of trying to illustrate the effect of all technologies by putting them as the same, researchers ought to consider the various types of technologies that are being used in class-rooms and for what intentions. Two universal differences can then be looked at from the literature.

Learners can study from computers where technologies are used basically as teachers and tend to enhance student's essential knowledge and skills. Furthermore, it is feasible for them to be taught with computers where technologies are used as tools that can be used in varieties of goals in the knowledge acquisition process and can be as resources to help in the development of advanced order thinking, research skills and creativity (Ring staff and Kelley, 2002; Reeves, 1998). Murphy, et al., (2001), said that the primary structure of student studying from computers is explained as DES (Discrete Educational Software), CAI (Computer-assisted Instruction), ILS (Integrated Learning System), and CBI (Computer-based instruction). Applications of this software are also the most broadly accessible applications of learning machinery in schools nowadays, alongside the word-processing software, and have immensely helped in classroom for over 20 years (Wong, Ravity, Becker, 1999).

Murphy et al., (2001) elucidates that teachers employ the use of (Discrete Educational Software) DES not only to enhance teaching, as in the previous years, but to provide means for self study, bring in topics, and give chances to learn ideas otherwise difficult to get to students. The software also performs two key hypotheses about how computers can aid learning. Primarily, the user's capability to relate with the software is barely described in methods intended particularly to encourage studying with the tools. Secondly, computers are seen as a medium for acquiring knowledge, to a certain extent than as tools which may perhaps support more learning. As Discrete Educational Software (DES) is known as the universal method or approach to computer use in student's acquisition of knowledge. Of late, the usage of computers in schools has developed more varieties as educators identify the potency of studying with technology as a way of enhancing or improving student's problem solving abilities and reasoning.

Zhang (2005) remarks that "this move that has been motivated by the superfluity of communication devices and new information now more available to students at home and in school , each of which gives new enablement to students and teachers alike for enhancing and improving student success and to meet demands the 21st century skills."


The observation that teacher's proficiency and lack of understanding to weigh up the use, tasks and roles of ICT in education as the two major factors obstructing teacher's willingness and self-confidence in using ICT support. Likewise, (JISC, 2004) in their observation on rising development in learning technology showed that the most noteworthy obstacles seen are linked to the training of staff in the use of ICT, staff attitude, access and ICT expertise in general. Furthermore (Elgort, Marshall & Mitchell, 2003) similarly reported that staffs keep on identifying a lack of time as an obstacle to the use of technology. At the same time this has been interpreted to mean that staffs have not had the moment in time to attain the essential or Basic skills needed, which now appears more probable that it reveals a sense of main concern communicated by the institution and a need by academics to see a revisit on the investment or outlay of their time in accelerating their teaching and educational delivery with latest technology. Earlier study of academic staff attitude and manner of approach to the use of technology has also repetitively discovered time and a lack of such examples (e.g. knowledge and skills) as major obstacles to technology implementation (Marshall, 2000).

The observation of ICT, has been user-friendly by teachers in this research is significantly relevant what Cox et al. (1999) observed. This is owing to the fact that most factors that teachers regard as making it easier to use ICTs was seen by Cox et al. as adding to the constant use of ICT by teachers in their learning, and which were also seen to be of main importance to these teachers in their teaching. The issues are: making the courses easier, interesting, and more diverse, more fun for them and their pupils, more enjoyable and more motivating for the pupils among others. In addition, it should be of a worthy note that in TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) by (Davis et al., 1989), one of the fundamental themes studied was apparently ease of use. This, in accordance to Davis generally influences people's acceptance or approval to use a particular technology.



Research is a cautious enquiry or search into a research question, or venture to ascertain new, or gather old facts etc., by methodical study of a subject. A good research is organized, truthful, and regularly assisted by knowledge of experts. It is governed by an in-depth understanding of what it means to be acquainted with something, by principles for performing things observed, for putting together and evaluating evidence to enable choices to be made between competing accounts of an observable fact, for testing the reliability of conclusions (Sharp et al, 2006)

The research methodology is divided into parts: The research design and the data collection.


3.1.1 Research Approach

There are two types of approaches to a research, inductive approach and deductive approach. These two approaches are use to assess information. Inductive Approach

Inductive approach is a research approach that has to do with collection of data and then analyse the data, from which a theory is developed. It emphasize on having understanding on the human factor reasoning. It uses quantitative method in collection of data. The researcher is part of the process of the research. (Saunders, et al, 2009). Deductive Approach

For the purpose of this study, deductive approach will be used.

Deductive approach is an approach that has to do with shifting from theory to data; there is development of theory or hypotheses, in which a research strategy is designed to test it. It emphasizes more on scientific principles. It is a highly structured approach. It uses collection of qualitative method (Saunders, et al, 2009). Deductive approach analyse the relationship between research and theory. Theories that have been developed are then tested. Theories gathered are quite illuminating until they are tested. A researcher's analysis of any theory may change after data has been collected, tested and analyse. These may be because ,new theories might have been developed before the researcher's finishes his or her analysis and also the data collected by the researcher may not fit into the real or initial theory. (Alan, et al, 2007)

The process of deductive approach is-Theory, Hypothesis, Data collection, Findings, Hypothesis confirmed or rejected and Revision of theory. (Alan, et al, 2007) WHY DEDUCTIVE APPROACH?

The approach that will be used for this study is deductive approach because it is already established that Information and Communication Technology has made a very great impact in education but despite this Nigeria is still lacking in the use of ICT in education. Most of the secondary school students are yet to use a computer in their studies and teachers are finding it very difficult to change their system of teaching by using ICT in their system f teaching. Therefore here will now be collection of data through questionnaires to test this theory.


There are two types of methods used in data analysis, they are:

Quantitative analysis

Qualitative analysis

3.2.1 Quantitative analysis

Quantitative analysis is a type of analysis that uses numerical data for its data analysis process like graphs collecting data through data collection technique such as questionnaire. (Saunders, et al, 2009).

3.2.2 Qualitative analysis

Qualitative analysis is a type of analysis that uses non-numerical data for its data analysis process such as categorising data through data collection technique such as Interview. (Saunders, et al, 2009). Researchers that make use of qualitative analysis gets close to the targeted population which are being researched so as he or she can have a better understanding of them in terms of behaviour, beliefs and values. In qualitative analysis, new research concepts and theories emerges out of the collected data .Due to the relationship that tend to exist between the researcher and the people he or she is investigating, qualitative researchers play an active role in the research design and gets more involved in whole process.


The research strategy chosen must be able to answer the research question and sub-questions appropriately and also meet up the objectives set.(Saunders,et al,2009).There are many types of research strategies which include, experiment, survey, case study, action research, grounded theory, ethnography and archival research. . (Saunders, et al, 2009).For the purpose of this study, the research strategy to be used is survey.

Survey strategy enables one to sampling, whereby data can be collected from a small population representing a large size population.


The data collection method that will be used is questionnaire and which will be administered by using postal and also telephone interview.

The postal or mail questionnaire will be administered to respondents which are principals, teachers and students, which will be sampled randomly, while the respondent for telephone interview will be Government official.


The participant s will involve 25 principals, 250 teachers and also 250 students will be selected randomly from different senior secondary schools.10 Government officials will be used for the telephone interview. The questionnaire given will be filled by the respondents, which will be collected back.


The kind of data to be collected include: Gender; Age; Qualification; Experience; school location, Education Level, ETC and also further questions to be asked are

What is your level of computer literacy?

Which kind of ICT do you have access to in your school?

How frequent do you have access to the ICT items per week?

What is the adequate level of the availability of ICT and access to them?

What are the activities done with ICT items?

What are the factors hindering the usage of ICT in the school?

These are just few out of the questions to be set in the questionnaire; more questions will be added as i further into the study.


The combination of both Qualitative and Quantitative analysis would be use for the purpose of this research for the data collected; because numerical data will be used for it data analysis and questionnaire will be used as the data collection technique and also the interview that will be conducted with the government officials will be analysed with quantitative. They will be given their opinions in the answering of the questions.


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