Analysis of Approaches to Bargaining Models

23 Jan 2018

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Abstract This paper discusses the various types of approaches to bargaining models, namely indifference curves and iso-profit curves, monopoly union behaviour and efficient contracts. Then we go on to study the concept of efficiency wages in a unionised as well as a non-unionised environment and with the help of existing economic theories we develop a model and incorporate the alternative wage rate. On completion of this ...

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Goods and Services Tax (GST) Advantages and Disadvantages

23 Jan 2018

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Executive summary On whether the goods and services tax uncertainty (GST) will be implemented in Malaysia and was eventually suppressed in 2013 October 25, the consumption tax in the 2014 budget will be announced in Malaysia's first launched from 2015 April 1, 6%. It will replace the current sales and service tax. Consumption tax, also known as the value added tax (VAT), is a multi-phase of ...

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How Money is Created

23 Jan 2018

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Essay Where Money Comes from Student: Gulnaz Miniakhmetova Introduction “The process by which banks create money is so simple that the mind is repelled” John Kenneth Galbraith, Economist. There are many social institutions in our world but one of them seems to be the most difficult to understand – monetary institution. Why do we have it and how it works? Being small children, we already understand ...

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Challenges to Pradhan Manti Jan Dhan Yojana

23 Jan 2018

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A Study of Challenges and Problems Faced While Implementing Pradhan Manti Jan Dhan Yojana Shilpi Pal & Dr. M.S.Khan Research Scholar & Head/Coordinator (MBA & M.Phil Programme), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow Abstract The biggest development by the NDA government in the year 2014 is introducing first social welfare scheme that is “Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana”. The purpose of introducing this scheme is ...

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Demographic Analysis for Associations with Poverty

23 Jan 2018

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3. Socio-economic Characteristics In this paper, demographic characteristics such as age, sex and education as well as socio-economic characteristics such as household assets and livelihood activities are assessed. These characteristics provide an overview on the background of the respondents, which in turn provides an overview about the suitability of the study population. Without necessarily being the source of poverty, it has been pointed out that having ...

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Analysis of the Tourism Sector and Employment Rates

18 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER 3 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS As in the previous chapter there was the theoretical and empirical literature review of impact of tourism on employment. This chapter will focus on the statistical analysis of tourism sector and employment. 3.1 Overview of Tourism sector in Mauritius Tourism sector is considered as the main pillar in the Mauritian economy. Mauritius has been experiencing rapid growth during the last few decades. ...

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Impact of the Alliance of Maersk and Msc on Freight Rates

18 Jan 2018

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Analysis of the impact of the alliance of Maersk and MSC on freight rates on the Asia-Europe route Yixiang Zhang Content Abstract (Jump to) 1. Introduction 2. Market share and structure of container shipping market 3. Alliance of Maersk and MSC 4. Impact of freight rate by 2M 5. Conclusions References Abstract The economic crisis took place in 2008 resulting in a great depression ...

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Business Responses to the Global Economic Crisis

18 Jan 2018

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Global Economic crisis began in 2008 and has drawn a great amount of blood from the financial sector of both developed and developing economy. Under usual circumstances the fall of one will result in rise of another economy. But with GFC the mighty economies has fallen and the developing economies has reached stagnation stage in their growth. UK is one of the economies that are affected ...

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Energy Policy of Russia

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction Russia is a naturally powerless nation, encompassed by other extraordinary powers and having no effectively faultless fringes. Furthermore, Russia is a huge, cold domain populated by assorted ethnic gatherings that generally have been at chances with Moscow's brought together power. This leaves Russia with a reasonable arrangement of objectives to hold together as a nation and secure itself as a provincial force. To start with, ...

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Counterbalancing China or Exploiting BRICS

18 Jan 2018

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COUNTERBALANCING CHINA OR EXPLOITING BRICS: OPTIONS FOR INDIA INTRODUCTION 1.BRICS, a unique group of countries with shared opportunities & common challenges, came into being in New York in Sep 2006. However, it was during the third Summit at Sanya, in China, in Apr 2011 that South Africa joined this group thereby completing the acronym. BRICS symbolises the amalgamation of the most powerful emerging economies of the ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising

18 Jan 2018

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Franchising Franchising is arrangement where one party (the franchiser) grants another party (the franchisee) the right to use trade-name as well as certain business systems and processes, to produce and market good or service according to certain specification. The franchisee usually pays a one-time franchise-fee plus a percentage of sales revenueas royalty, and gains immediate name cognition, tried and tested products, standard building and decor,detailed technique ...

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Challenges and Opportunities of the Ethiopian Coffee Sector

18 Jan 2018

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Coffee farmers all over the world face different challenges related to the availability, cost and quality of labor, land, water, inputs, access to reasonable production credit, and proper technical advice in response to diseases and pests. Ethiopia has a reputation of high quality coffee due to its branded varieties of coffee. But, most of the coffee farmers in Ethiopia are not capable of getting the benefits ...

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Political Institutions and Economic Volatility

18 Jan 2018

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Most of the existing literature about political institutions and economic volatility focus on developed countries or countries including both developed countries (e.g., Denizer et al., 2002; Mobarak, 2005; Debrun et al., 2008; Klomp and Haan, 2009; Perira and Vladimir, 2011). These papers always examine the impact of political institutions on economic volatility from one or two aspects, seldom do they analyze this relationship in a more ...

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History of Tariffs in the U.S.

18 Jan 2018

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Free Trade, No Tariffs! The controversies regarding “protective” tariff rates date way back, long preceding the debate over globalization. Even in these early days of American history, tariffs brought about some of the most cutthroat debates within the United States political system. Following the war of 1812, the early United States government enacted a tariff to help protect domestic industries, which were primarily located in the ...

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Costs and Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

18 Jan 2018

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FDI 1) General Information About FDI Foreign direct investment (FDI) can be defined by saying: If an investor takes place in far from their home country with purchasing a firm in the landlord country’s border. According to “The Organization of Economic Corporation and Development (OECD)”, If a foreign investor has more the ten percent of the local company, this means that the foreign investor has control ...

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Twin Deficit Relationship in a Developing Open Economy

18 Jan 2018

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5.1 Summary. This study investigates the twin deficit relationship in a developing open economy like India. The study strives to demonstrate that Keynesian proposition of a long run equilibrium relationship exists between the twin deficits, but the reversed direction of causality was found. That is the causality flows from current account deficit to budget deficit as against from budget deficit to the current account deficit. This ...

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Comparison of China and Russia's Economic Systems

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction In today’s political and economic world, many governments have been in a state of paradox about the allocation of scare resources (Riley, 2012). In fact in economics the main issue every economist addresses is what resources should be provided, who to provide it for and how should it be provided (N/A, 2012). Every economy has a different economic system in which they decide on how ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Adopting the Euro

18 Jan 2018

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A Study of the Benefits and Costs which Might Result for UK-based Firms Should the UK Adopt the Euro Name: Louise Tibagalika Introduction The euro is the single currency established in 1999, currently shared by 18 countries of the European Union’s Member States (Ec.europa.eu, 2014). Due to the number of advantages such as the stimulation of trade and disadvantages such as economic instability, the decision for ...

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Role of Consumer Expectations in Economic Policy

18 Jan 2018

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Zainab Mukhtar Maidabino BU/12C/BS/0403 Introduction A theme that dominates modern discussions of macro policy is the importance of expectations, and economists have devoted a great deal of thought to expectations and the economy. Change in expectations can shift the aggregate demand (AD) curve; expectations of inflation can cause inflation. For this reason expectations are central to ...

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Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Businesses

18 Jan 2018

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How and why the financial crisis was transmitted to business? To what extent can the new regulatory framework prevent the same errors from occurring twice? Financial crisis, the word most mentioned during the last seven years, people may asking about why it take so long time to recover and how many businesses were been affected. There is no exactly number about how many business went to ...

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Regulatory Responses to Short Selling

18 Jan 2018

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Abstract It is commonly believed that secondary market prices is not just a sideshow because they contain information that facilitates the efficient allocation of resources. The feedback loop to a real investment decisions allows a short seller to make a profit even in the absence of a fundamental information. This paper analyzes the regulation of manipulative short selling is to impose a cost on short sales. ...

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Bangladesh and Vietnam: Factors of Inflation

18 Jan 2018

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Question 2(a) Discuss and analysis the factors of inflation in your selected countries Bangladesh and Vietnam are our selected countries. Inflation is a continuous increase in the general price level of goods and services in the economy. Inflation has three types which are creeping inflation, mild inflation and hyperinflation Bangladesh Inflation in Bangladesh has a lot of factors. There are wages in the major ...

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Substitution and Income Effect

18 Jan 2018

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Tendekai Mudariki The price of any given product will always change the customer’s choice of purchasing this can be in terms of quantity, quality or choosing the opportunity cost. In my essay I will be looking at how an increase in prices affect the substitution effect and the income effect and how customers react if the good has many close substitutions when there is ...

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Impact of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in India

18 Jan 2018

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THE IMPACT OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS ON BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY IN INDIA Abstract NGO’s have grown in number over the past years in India and has been an important factor that has an impact on business, government and society. NGO’s work directly or indirectly with companies to ensure proper corporate behaviour especially when it has an impact on ...

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Analysis of Knowledge Based Economies

18 Jan 2018

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DEFINITION AND THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY “The weakness or even complete absence,of definition, is actually pervasive in the literature… this is one of the many imprecisions that make the notion of “knowledge economy” so rhetorical rather than analytically useful” [1] 1. What is Knowledge Economy or Knowledge Based Economy? As Keith Smith puts it rather succinctly, the question itself comes across as rhetorical. There is ...

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Analysis of the Theory of Unbalanced Growth

18 Jan 2018

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Do you think that a less developed /developing country should always follow the path of balanced growth? If yes, why and if not why not? Substantiate your arguments with the examples drawn from experiences of development in developing countries. Answer: When Rostow was making attempts to place economic development within a progressive framework, it lead to a debate in the 1950’s and the 1960’s which was ...

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Business E-solutions for Small Construction Companies

18 Jan 2018

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BUSINESS E-SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES AND FREELANCERS Sergiu Catinas Florin Matei Abstract.There is a direct correlation among number of employees who work in construction industry and the average productivity of the construction workers. A first notice when these two factors are compared simply resides from the annual charts that follow these two factors. It is quite obviously that the average productivity of the workers depends primarily ...

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Employment Effects of the Minimum Wage

18 Jan 2018

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  1. Introduction The question involving how minimum wage impacts employment remains among the most broadly studied as well as the most controversial topic in the labor economics, by a corresponding difference in the political domain. Minimum wage regulations are a perfect example of price control; price controls distort the quality of services and goods. And limit transaction volume in the market spot. In the scenario ...

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Price Elasticity of Demand and Monopolistic Competition

18 Jan 2018

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The Price Elasticity of demand is inversely related to excess capacity in the monopolistic competitive market – Discuss Before we even dwell and discuss on the abovementioned topic, it would vital for us to understand and define what Price Elasticity of Demand, Excess Capacity and Monopolistic Competitive Market are all about from the economic perspective. By understanding the aforementioned than only we would be able to ...

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Slum and Squatters Resettlement in ASEAN Countries

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction The urban population in the world is expanding in generally with Asia being estimated to hold 60% of the increase in world’s urban population over the next three decades. Out of 23 cities with populations of more than 10 million people, nine cities are in Asia and the number is projected to increase in the future (Giok and Kai, 2007). Although urbanization is an indicator ...

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Calculating National Income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

18 Jan 2018

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1.0 Introduction of Task 1 In task 1, this task are about the economy of Europe and Japan grow rapidly, this will increase growth of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the United States. The three country have their own market. Japan is free market and the economy of the United States is the world's biggest single national economy. 1.1 Economy of Japan Japan's industrialized and ...

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Importance of Internal and External Business Analysis

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction In the current business environment in which we do exist, there is need for one to be dynamic in order to survive. The business environments, both internal and external are changing fast and swiftly hence not giving chance to businesses and people who are static. Therefore, in order for one to progress in the current business environment, one needs to identify his or internal strengths ...

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Implications of Chinese Capital Account Liberalisation

18 Jan 2018

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If China does liberalise, few other events over the next decade are likely to have more impact on the shape of the global financial system. This also sets out a conceptual framework, identifying three separate factors which help explain why the scale of the subsequent movements in capital flows — both into and out of China — could be very large relative to the size of ...

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Market Structure of the Aviation Industry

18 Jan 2018

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Assignment # 37424 Economics Introduction The chosen segment is the aviation segment, which is in steady movement. The proceeding with development in the quantity of travellers and flying machine developments requires an ascent in interests in air terminal and air ship limit. Be that as it may even with these new speculations, crest clogging and the natural effect of aviation stay dangerous. Air transport is clearly ...

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Effect of Demand on Supply on Coffee and Sugar Prices

18 Jan 2018

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Table of Contents (jump to) Introduction Economic Concepts Article Analysis Title: Coffee shortage may arise due to drought, climate change, rising demand, analysts say Conclusions Reference Introduction Microeconomics deals with economic decisions at micro level. It looks at the behaviour of the individual, people and companies within the economy. Being based on the idea of the market economy in which the consumer demand is ...

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Definitions and Concepts in Economics Studies

18 Jan 2018

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Task 1 a. Definition of economic. Economics is a social science researches the production and consumption of goods and the transfer of wealth in human society. Economics explains human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Therefore, economics is the study of trade-offs when selecting between alternative sets of decisions involved. (Study Economics 101, 2014) Purpose of its activities. The ...

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Singapore’s Economic Competitiveness

18 Jan 2018

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  Introduction According to the global competitiveness report 2014-2015, Singapore has retained their place as the most competitive economies in the South East Asia. Singapore’s economic rank second in the world just behind the country Switzerland for the fourth consecutive. Singapore had owning an outstanding and stable performance across all the dimensions of the GCI. In addition, Singapore had tops the goods market efficiency ...

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Government Intervention

18 Jan 2018

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Government intervention is one of the hottest topics to the economists. Some of economists say government intervention can recover market failure and prevent worse situation from neglect. On the other hand, there are some arguments that government intervention can reduce the efficiency of market. Both of ideas can make sense. Government intervention can improves the operation of market but it is not always applicable. Now, we ...

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Analysis of Changes in Wage Rates in India

18 Jan 2018

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CACP – The data source which is an important source for wages in rural India unfortunately does not publish the wage data from these studies. The cost of cultivation scheme collects data from the selected household at regular intervals on all aspects of farm business. The valuation of human labor has always been a problematic issue for the CACP. There is however a number of limitations ...

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Thailand: Economic Growth Achievement and Challenges

18 Jan 2018

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Introduction Thailand is the second largest economy in South East Asia with the population 67.7 million people (CIA 2014). Thailand economies grew at 7 per cent or more for 25 years, in the period of 1960-1997 with no single recession. After big crash, Asian Financial Crises in 1997, Thailand successfully recovered by strong growth contributed by massive export and private consumption (Phongpaichit et.al 2012). Consequently, this ...

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How Does Diversity and Immigration Impact Innovation?

18 Jan 2018

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Anca Pop Nowadays, due to the increasingly competitive economic environment, and the constant danger of economic turn-downs, innovation has come into great prominence not only as an important source of competitive advantage, but also as a powerful driver of economic growth and prosperity. In this new context, attention has been drawn to the role that cultural diversity and immigration play in fostering innovation. Thus, the aim ...

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Modern Role of Chiefs in Community Development

18 Jan 2018

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THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL AUTHORITIES IN THE DECENTRALISATION OF POLITICAL POWER. A STUDY OF THE AKUAPEM TRADITIONAL AREA IN THE EASTERN REGION OF GHANA. AN OUTLINE OF A THESIS Introduction Background to the study Traditional governance system, is an age-old method by which the Indigenous people administered their own affairs prior to and after the advent of the Europeans into the region of modern Ghana. This ...

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Effect of the Marketing Environment on Company Strategy

18 Jan 2018

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I . INTRO Economics today has a term of market environment which involves points and impacts permitting a business to create sucessful relationship with customers as well as to keep it lasting longer. The market enviroment can be categorized into two levels: micro and macro. The first one refers to small impacts in the business with the affection of serving the company customers, whereas the second ...

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Analysis of Russia's Financial and Labour Crisis

18 Jan 2018

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INTRODUCTION In 2003, major economic organisations and key economists predicted that within a decade, the Russian Economy will face a human capital and labour crisis that will be unable to meet the growing demands of the country. This prediction came true and Russia slowly witnessed diminishing labour market performance following the Global Financial Crisis starting in 2009. The Russian Federation has a very flexible labour market. ...

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Technology in Helping the Problem of Resource Scarcity

18 Jan 2018

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Nimra Hussain (11U0141) and Saeeda Malik Introduction A recurring theme in economics has been the economic growth fueled by an increasing consumption of finite resources that ultimately results in those very same resources unable to cope with its greater productive use. Resources here are any essential inputs to the economic process and are restricted to energy carriers, products of photosynthesis and other industrial raw material extracted ...

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Effects of Government Price Ceilings

18 Jan 2018

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Markets, International Trade, & Government Donna Green Governments have stepped in and set minimum and maximum prices ever since they have had control over the populace. Just in the United States alone, governments have predetermined the price of gasoline, added rent control to housing in New York City, and even fixed a minimum on unskilled labors wages. However, sometimes governments may tend to go ...

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Post-election Economic Implications for South Africa

18 Jan 2018

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Jasper Kotze       Introduction South-Africa is a country with a difficult past as it is for any developing country. We have had our wars and internal conflict but one of the biggest mistakes we made is still haunting South-Africa today. We never invested enough in our people and when we did it was only in a small portion of the population. This ...

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Comparison of Business Practices in the US and China

18 Jan 2018

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Diverse cultures of US and China Culture rules nigh on every particular phase of your life and like many, you are completely unacquainted of this. If inquired, you would define culture as architecture or language, music, visual arts, literature and you wouldn't be wrong. Nevertheless you wouldn't be completely right either. The United States of America is one of the multi ethnical, multi racial and multi ...

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Financial Analysis Tools for SMEs

18 Jan 2018

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CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION The SME sector development is seen as a key strategy for economic growth, job generation and poverty reduction (Agupusi, 2007:2). This study endeavored to explore and describe the financial performance measures currently used by manufacturing SMEs in Mauritius. It was undertaken due to the fact that many studies were conducted on obstacles faced by SMEs in obtaining ...

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Comparison of Capital Flows in Asia

18 Jan 2018

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1.1 Background of the Study Capital controls were widely used to prevent the free flow of funds between countries until the late 1970s. A cautious relaxation of such controls during the 1980s proved consistent with greater economic integration among advanced countries and strengthened the case for capital market opening more generally. By the early 1990s, capital controls appeared to be finished as a serious policy tool ...

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Social Security Act of 1935: Causes and Effects

18 Jan 2018

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Social Security Act of 1935 Before 1935, there were no benefits for the old and other financially challenged persons in America. The only people liable to benefits after their service were veterans who received pensions. The remaining occupations had no benefits after their service (DeWitt, 2010). In every occupation there is a retirement age upon which the employee is considered unable to contribute positively towards the ...

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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mergers And Acquisitions

23 Mar 2015 08 Jan 2018

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Keywords: concept of mergers and acquisitions Submitted By: Yatendra Kumar "Discuss the strategic rationales and motives for American companies wishing to execute mergers outside the American borders. Do you think it is correct for the European Union to restrict mergers between American companies that do business in Europe? (For example, the European Commission vetoed the proposed merger between WorldCom and Sprint, both U.S. companies and it carefully ...

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Malaysia's Management of Resources

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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1.0 INTRODUCTION Economies can be defined as, thrifty management of resources, such as land, labour, capital and enterprenuership learned to practice economy in making out the household budget. In factors of production there are commodities or services used to produce goods and services. And also explores how people and society try to use resources available , which have many different uses, in order to produce different goods ...

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Relationship Between International Trade and World Output

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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World economy is basically is the economy of the countries of the world. The economic development of these countries is measured through various standards of measurement. The economic development is some times measure in the form of world output and international trade in the world. These two frames are used as standard in measuring the economic development in the global world. World output is the quantity of ...

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Advantages and disadvantages of Specialisation

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Introduction International trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity flows are the two primary methods in which international business occurs and are amongst the most substantial drivers of present time globalisation. With consecutive rounds of multilateral dialogues at the World Trade Organisation (WTO), barriers to trade globally, have been done away with significantly. Likewise, the relaxation and liberalisation of developed countries' capital markets during the 1980s has ...

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Introduction to Theories of International Trade

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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In this concept there are mainly two theories that are classical theory of trade and new trade theory each differentiates from each other with different advantages, assumption and drawbacks. Exchange of goods and services on an international level between two or more countries is stated as international trade. Trade generally takes place between different companies it is of different goods and services. An import is goods and ...

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Characteristics of the Clothing Industry

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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The high quality fashion market is based on modern technology which has a relatively well paid labour force and designers with various degrees of flexibility. Many firms within this industry try to capture the market through various designs which is targeted at meeting the taste and preference of consumers. Most of the firms under the high quality fashion markets are in the developed and industrialized countries. The ...

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Development of Intermodal Transportation

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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A major factor underlying this transformation of freight transport is represented by the changes in the scale, in the composition, and in the structure of the American and global economies. The demand for transportation services has grown in response to the generally brisk performance of the US and global economies in this period. The US economy is becoming dominantly services-oriented, and shifting from mass manufacturing to high ...

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Diseconomies of Scale, and the Law of Diminishing Return

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Compared to other markets, why do economists consider perfect competition to be the most efficient market structure? Perfect competition is the most efficient market structure because, in the long run, each firm in the market will be producing at its minimum average cost, or per-unit. This means that consumers get desired goods and services at the lowest possible prices, and also that the firms are economizing on ...

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Competition in the Hearing Aid Market

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Managerial Economics The number of Americans who have hearing difficulties is too many and is still expected to rise as time goes on. This is a challenge that most people undergoing the same ordeal are expected to face under all the circumstances that aid may be available if not totally to cure hearing loss. Hearing aid is a device that can lessen the burden of auditory impairment ...

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Evaluation Of Competitive Environment

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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INTRODUCTION In any businesses, understanding micro-economic and macro-economic environment that business is operating in is very important stage because the factors in these two environments have strong influence on the success of business. Micro-economic environment involves demand and supply for the business, market structure and cost structure. In other words, those are internal factor of the business that to some degree business can control. On the other ...

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Benefits and Drawbacks of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is the single most important mechanism for the globalization of the international economy. FDI is the investment of real assets in a foreign country, it is acquiring assets such as land and equipment in another host country, but operating the facility from the home country. FDI is viewed by many as necessary to stimulate the economies of both developed and underdeveloped countries. The ...

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Downstream Linkages in the Zambian Copper Industry

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Resource extraction is often regarded by governments and people of resource-rich countries as a solution to poverty alleviation, ranging from tax revenues, technology transfer, and employment creation, export enhancement to upstream and downstream linkages. Downstream linkage industries do promise the widening of employment opportunities and high foreign earnings as a result of value-addition. Western resource intensive economies such as Australia, Canada, US and the like are examples ...

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Effect of the Recession on Multinational Enterprises

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Economic recession Is general slowdown of economic activity over a period of time that measured by Gross Product Domestic (GDP),recession is highly characterized by falling of investment spending, business decline, slow growth of new business high rate of unemployment. [i]  Economic recession can be caused by widespread of drop in spending and investments, poor micro-economic policies, such as poor control of financial institutions such as banks, and other ...

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Zimbabwe Country Debt and Economic Performance

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Overview The debate on the effect and direction of causality regarding debt on economic growth has attracted significant academic interest since the last quarter of the 20th century. This question has become more relevant in the context of the so-called Least Developed Countries (LDCs) whose economies typically contain oversized debt, exhibit stunted growth and have often defaulted on outstanding debt. This research sought to build on the ...

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Protectionism: Advantages and Disadvantages

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Trade protectionism is implemented by countries when they believe their industries are being affected negatively by unjust competition. It may be seen as a defensive measure and it is almost always driven by political forces. It may turn successful, especially in the short run. In the long run, however it usually does the opposite of its intentions as it can make the country, and the industries it ...

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Imperialism and Turkey's Development

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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The Post- Cold war era is considered to be a dramatic era for the western powers to regulate their economic forces and control what so ever left from Soviet Union. In the absence of the Soviet Union, other countries started to imitate the so-called western capitalist way of development. Eventually, the western influence over the third world countries increased, and through globalization and liberalism they intervened in ...

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The Basic Economic Problem

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Introduction The basic economic problem is the scarcity of resources. People want more than can be met with their available resources. The human needs are unlimited because they grow and evolve while the means of fulfilling the needs (financial assets) are limited (Stiglitz 1992: 48). The effort to overcome the relative lack of goods, in other words to solve the economic problem is the basis of the ...

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Why Do Nations Engage In Trade?

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Regional Economic Integration: Why is it happening? Why do nations engage in trade? Provide examples of the levels of economic integration. The reason why the Regional Economic Integration is happening because nowadays we have the open market in which every countries or state can have the free trade to others countries. This integration results from regional economic integration blocs in which member countries agree to eliminate tariffs ...

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Economic Growth In Malaysia

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Abstract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) supports the national economic when it facing the lack of internal investment resources and it can cover the gap of investment resources and national investment. In this way, Foreign Direct Investment can affect the economic development and increase the speed of economic development. In this regards, among other countries, especially developing countries, that coped with the lack of internal financial resources have ...

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Causes and Effects of Inflation

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Inflation is an increase in the amount of currency in circulation, resulting in a relatively sharp and sudden fall in its value and rise in prices: it may be caused by an increase in the volume of paper money issued or of gold mined, or a relative increase in expenditures as when the supply of goods fails to meet the demand (Webster, 1983). Inflation is a rate ...

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Inflation Rate and Economic Stability of Brazil

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

3 (930 )

Introduction This paper is concerned with the economic consideration of one of the South American countries and analyzes the impact of an economic concern on that particular South American country that has been chosen and identifies the trend of the economic concern with in specified region on the basis of data sets accumulate from the source. The south American countries has major impact on American economy and ...

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Merger between Vodfone and Mannesmann

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,704 )

INTRODUCTION The case on merger between two competing firms- British telecommunication firm, Vodafone Airtouch and German cellular provider, Mannesmann AG- shall be my highlight of this report. In short, this case illustrates a hostile takeover by Vodafone. Vodafone initiates the merger as it sees it as an opportunity for the firm to expand in a rapidly changing communications technology environment in Europe at that point in time. ...

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Effect of Globalization on Poor Countries

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

6 (2,237 )

This paper discusses the development of the globalization process, the meaning of the term globalization and the impacts of globalization and global companies on the world economy, global community, inequality and different living standards in the wealthier and poorer countries. It is pointed out that globalization has both, negative and positive aspects, but it certainly brings a significant change. The developed countries and global companies are carriers ...

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Exchange Rate Systems and Currency Crisis

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

3 (1,044 )

Introduction Financial crisis occurs when the foreign value of a domestic currency unit falls. This thus results to the rise of the liabilities in the balance sheets of exposed economic units. It also afflicts the balance sheet of exposed economic units (Shiller, 2008). Banks get affected either directly or indirectly through their clients' exposure. Currency crisis may indicate a dramatic drop in the exchange rate and it ...

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Economic Performance of Nigeria

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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CHAPTHER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY One of the biggest challenges for oil-producing countries is how to use its oil wealth strategically to promote sustainable growth, for example, in Nigeria, the massive increase in oil revenue as an aftermath of the Middle-East war of 1973 created unprecedented, unexpected and unplanned wealth for Nigeria. Then began the dramatic shift of policies from a holistic approach to benchmarking them ...

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Cigarette Excise Taxes in Pakistan

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

15 (5,668 )

Executive Summary Cigarettes are inexpensive in Pakistan and are by far the most widely sold tobacco product in the country . The most popular brands cost PKR 18.40 per pack of 20 (USD 0.25 per pack at the current exchange rate). In part because cigarettes are inexpensive, annual consumption of cigarettes has increased (from 292 cigarettes per capita in 1994 to 406 cigarettes per capita in 2007). ...

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Economic Growth Essay

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

8 (2,889 )

1.Executive Summary Economic growth is what every economy tries to achieve for the good of everyone as a whole. Developing, producing more, increased wages, higher levels of education, better and better technologies is what we strive for. But doing all that, does that mean that we are living a better life? Or is it just the ideal of doing better, not really the result that keeps us ...

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Effect of Globalisation on Poverty Alleviation

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

5 (1,906 )

Globalisation Boon or Bane The role of globalisation in alleviating poverty has been subject to intense and recurrent debate while the pro-globalisation (Globalism) movement propound that it has helped many countries such as India and China to reduce poverty[1] , the alter-globalist have denounced globalisation as an unfair development that has increased poverty and widen inequality between the rich and the poor. When we talk about globalisation ...

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Making a Central Bank Independent

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

8 (3,017 )

Why has the idea of enhancing the independence of a central bank gained such popularity in recent years around the globe? Do accompanying accountability arrangements matter? The desirability of Central Bank Independence (CBI) has snowballed since (Alesina, A 1988) stated that his paper "argues tentatively" that independent Central Banks have been associated with a lower average inflation rate and "may have been responsible" for reducing politically induced ...

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What Is Deficit Financing?

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

4 (1,589 )

7.1: Elaborate what you understand by deficit financing. What do we mean by deficit financing this is a strategy or ways to management of money which when spending is more than collected at the same period of time. In order words this is referred to budget deficit, this approach is used in business that is small, household budgets, in corporations and also in, governments sector mostly in ...

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Direct Effects of Financial Repression in India

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,788 )

FINANCIAL REPRESSION (PAPER 7) Financial repression refers to the notion that a set of government regulations, laws, and other non-market restrictions prevent the financial intermediaries of an economy from functioning at their full capacity (McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973)...PAPER 1). Generally, financial repression consists of three elements. First, the banking system is forced to hold government bonds and money through the imposition of high reserve and liquidity ...

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Impact of Inflation and Real Wages on Labor Productivity

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

8 (2,929 )

1.1 Overview The study attempts to determine the relationship between inflation, real wages and labor productivity. Inflation is an increase in the average level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time, not a change in any specific price. When the general price level rises; each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Output is the amount of goods and ...

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History of the EU Single Market

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

5 (1,683 )

In this paper I intend to look at the two communications presented by the European Commission, to the European Parliament, the European Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. These two communications, Single Market Act I & Single Market Act II, both talk about proposals that if implemented, should make the Single Market of the European Union much better by eliminating ...

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Demand and Supply in Microeconomics

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

5 (1,842 )

Introduction Economics is a study of how to use limited resource to satisfy unlimited people wants. Demand and supply is the two main concept of the modern economic. Demand is what people want and supply is how many goods available for people want. In free market the price of good is determined by the numbers of consumers and how many products available for them. As the result ...

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Effect of Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías' Regime on the Economy

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

17 (6,442 )

Introduction Venezuela is located in the upper corner of South America and neighbors with Colombia, Brazil, and Guyana. It has been nearly 200 years since Venezuela first gained its independence from Spain (1811). From 1830 onwards, when Venezuela split from the Bolivarian Colombia (1819-1830), the country was governed mostly by military and despotic regimes. That military period lasted until 1958 when the current democratic spell started following ...

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Implied PPP of the Dollar and Actual Exchange Rate

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

3 (1,051 )

Ques.: The Economist publishes every year the prices of a standard BigMac around the world. Find the BigMac prices for the USA, France, and South Korea and the corresponding (average annual) nominal exchange rates in 2006 and 2009. Calculate for each of these countries the implied PPP of the dollar 2006 and 2009 and compare this to the actual exchange rates. Can you explain the differences in ...

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Impact of FDI Flows Outflow on the Indian Economy

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

15 (5,861 )

Abstract This paper discusses the trends in India's outward FDI over the last decade and attempts to identify the factors for the same. The main aim is to help policy makers with insights regarding levers which will help in improving FDI outflows and to stimulate further research in foreign investment from emerging economies. 287 conditions of investment from India by Indian companies in 17 sectors have been ...

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Effect of Political Instability on International Trade

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

13 (4,882 )

ABSTRACT Regarding political instability in African Country, it is also undeniable that African continent has gone through some tough situation during fifty years past. But the fact is almost African cases regarding political instability the major cause of problem is leadership. And because of this African freedom heroes come to dictators, while African natural resources, politics of elimination and scarcity to slope the balance of authority continues ...

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Concepts of Monopoly and Competition

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

3 (1,072 )

Monopolistic competition is a particular market structure which means there are a large number of small firms and companies whose products and services are slightly differentiated with other competitors. (Stephen, I& Stuart, W. 2007: 147) Such as food market, apparel market, light industry product market. The characteristics of monopolistic competition can divided into several parts. As Hunter (1969:19) said, to begin with, product differentiation includes both internal ...

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Effects of Globalization on the Labor Market

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,688 )

Nowadays, the unemployment rates in the United States are significantly increasing. Many people are losing their jobs. Therefore, many people are trying to find out the reason that causes this high unemployment rates. In spite of the government and individual decision is one of the factors that affect the employment rates; however certainty globalization is also the main factor of this issue. One the connection between globalization ...

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Impact of Debt Servicing on Economic Growth

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

6 (2,247 )

Abstract The external debt has become a key problem for Pakistan. Pakistan has huge debt to pay, which also entails interest payment on the loan borrowed. It adds burden to the economy of Pakistan. Government through different means try to pay these loans. In this paper we have analyzed the impact of debt servicing on economic growth, i.e. whether debt servicing positively or negatively affect the economic ...

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Limiting Factors in a Business Situation

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,511 )

(a) Explain what a limiting factor is and what sort of things can become limiting factors in a business situation? (16 marks) Limiting factor is any factor that restricts a company or an organisation's activities. In other words, limiting factor is a factor which is limited or not enough provide to the company. Limiting factors in an organisation can be labour hours, raw material, machine hours or ...

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Theories of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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This report has discussed different theoretical framework of FDI that takes place. These theories briefly explain why firms go to trouble when establishing or acquiring abroad. Theories that use on this report are Hymer's contributions, product life-cycle theory, caves theory, internalisation theory, the eclectic paradigm, strategic motivations of foreign direct investment and investment path development (IDP) theory. This report also evaluates Honda automotive as an example on ...

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Effects of Japan's Ageing Population on Business

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,705 )

Introduction Many nations in the world have faced with many problems of their population growth. However, the dominant factor in the next society might expose these problems in more details, which most people might begin to pay attention deeper on these problems such as the rapid growth in the amount of older population and the rapid shrinking of the younger generation, with the threats of demographic development ...

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UK Free Market Trading: Advantages and Disadvantages

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,518 )

The UK economic system is based on the free market system and is one of the most globalised economies in the world. It is a successful country which accepts this system. Although many countries have success in this system, sometimes it is not suitable for developing countries such as China or Thailand. Most countries try to practice the free market trading in order to enhance their economic ...

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Role of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

7 (2,714 )

For many countries in the global landscape, its economic situation is perhaps one of the most important concerns which are duly given enough priority by the government. The economic situation of a certain nation is highly indicative of the country's performance as well as the state of living of its citizens. It is therefore a major concern among national governments to protect the best interest of their ...

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Financial Ratio Analysis of Sainsburys

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

6 (2,064 )

A sustainable company needs effective planning and financial management. Ratio analysis is a useful tool to get the financial results and the company's development tendency. It can be divided into four parts. They are profitability, liquidity, efficiency and gearing. This report discusses the analysis of two companies, one is Sainsbury, and the other is Tesco. It is necessary to compare these companies from the data and information ...

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The Inelastic Price Demand For Wheat

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

3 (1,025 )

From a case study South Africa's price of an agricultural commodity wheat fall because their suppliers United States had a boosted productivity of wheat caused by snowfall weather conditions. It is therefore concluded that the supply of wheat is elastic as the production of wheat can vary from year to year due to competition on market and whether conditions .The demand of wheat is inelastic because the ...

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The Arguments For Privatization

23 Mar 2015 12 Dec 2017

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Privatization is transfer of state owned enterprises to private ownership. William Megginson and Jeffrey M. Netter(2000) defined privatization politically and economically, "as the deliberate sale by a government of state owned enterprises(SOEs) of assets to private economic agents". According to Charles A Ntiri (2010); "Privatization has been defined by economic scholars and jurists to encompass a wide range of options for involvement of private capital and management ...

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