13 Apr 2018
ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS AND ANSWER
Meta cognition is the higher order thinking which involve active control over thinking processes involved in learning. It refers to the process by which people’s knowledge controls their thinking and learning activities (It involves “thinking about thinking”). It can also be defined as thinking about one’s thinking i.e. it involves the process of stepping back to see what you are doing, as if you were someone else observing it. Meta cognitive activities helps people especially students to reflect on what they know, care about and are able to develop an awareness of themselves, and it gives them opportunity to reflect on their learning because it is often difficult for them to realize what they are doing. Meta cognition is also the ability to manage one’s own thinking processes.
Problem solving refers to the process by which difficult issues are tackled and solved whereby doing this the causes, solution and prevention to the problems are known.
Inn problem solving, we need to use THE RARE CONCEPT as a guide for us to know what we are doing. For instance, the present fuel scarcity; the government need to think of what they can RAISE up in order for the productivity of petrol to be constant; the need to think about what they can ADD in order for the refineries to be in good conditions and work effectively which can make life easier; they also need to think of what they can REDUCE i.e. those things that are not relevant to the production of fuel, they need to think of those factors that leads to time wasting and finally they need to think of what to ELIMINATE in terms of bad habits, the bad habit of hoarding fuel for personal use or the habit of using the resources meant for the production of fuel. If all these factors are put in place, the problem of fuel scarcity will be averted.
2. LIST AND EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES 5 NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR AND 5 HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRATICES THAT NEED TO BE CHANGED IN THE PRESENT DAY NIGERIAN SOCIETY
A. 5 NEGATIVE BEHAVIOUR ARE:
B. 5 HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRATICES ARE:
a. MALTREATMENT OF WIDOWS: In most communities in Nigeria, widows are given harsh treatment and conditions. When a woman lose her husband, she may be made to cut her hair, put on white cloth or black cloth for a year after the death of her husband, made to remain indoors and should not visit friends or go to market for some months. She may be forced to drink water used in bathing the dead body of her husband. Besides, the property of the husband i.e. land etc. is sometimes taken away from the widow by relations of the dead husband leaving the widow and her children to suffer. Sometimes, they are forced out of their husband’s house but all these depends on the custom and community in place.
b. PREFERENCE FOR MALE CHILDREN: In the olden days, female children were not recognized because they believed training her in school was a waste because she will still have to end up in the kitchen, so only male children were given preference and recognition in the family. Discrimination in training of children in our communities is harmful, so therefore equal education should be given to both sexes (male or female).
c. CIRCUMCISION: This refers to the removal of some parts of the body organ either male or female circumcision is practiced in most communities of their world but female circumcision is common. Some part of the female genital organ removed, is believed to be the most sensitive and sensational part of female sexual organ and that by circumcision females sexuality will brought under control. This practice brings about a lot of health problems e.g. fibrosis, Hiv/Aids due to the instruments involved in the act.
d. SLAVERY: This is the illegal trade of human beings for the purpose of commercial, sexual exploitation or forced labour. It is also the transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or deception in order to receive payment or benefit. Slavery also involves deals with the transportation of women, men or children.
e. INFANT BETROTHAL AND EARLY MARRIAGE: In some communities, marriage formalities are fulfilled for the couple before their maturity, whereby parents betroth their female children to older men or to their friends either for money or in order to achieve a goal. This early marriage leads to poor sexual and reproductive health of the victim, in some cases leads to the lickage of vagina due to child bearing, as well as depriving the girl the joy of youth or going further in her education. This affects the girl socially, psychologically, physically and emotionally.
3. WHAT ARE VALUES IN SOCIAL STUDIES?
Values are attitudes or beliefs which people should do, the standards they should live by, or the things they should endorse or maintain. Values are the principles we hold as important and worthwhile and which possess quality or merit. Values helps to direct our behavior and relationship with other people.
Right values we should possess are as follows:
4. EXPLAIN WITH 5 EXAMPLES WHAT THE RIGHT ATTITUDE TO WORK MEANS
1. INTERGRITY: This is the quality of being honest and having good moral principles and uprightness. Having integrity means doing the right thing in a reliable way. It’s a personality trait everyone should have, it literally means having “wholeness of character”, being unbiased always i.e. always standing by the truth.
2. DELIGENCE: This means careful and persistent work or effort. It is determination and perseverance when doing something; it is also the act of being hardworking in order to achieve a certain goal or goals. It involves being meticulous in duties, showing care and steady effort in discharging our duties in our life activities.
3. PUNCTUALITY: This is the act of arriving or doing something at the expected or planes time. This also means attending to any duty assigned to us to do at the right or appropriate time.
4. COMMITMENT AND DEDICATION: This is showing interest and good sense, responsibility in carrying out our duties. This is about having passion for the work we do and we are committed to our work, it brings success. It also means committing ourselves to something special. For instance, Mandela was committed and dedicated in bringing his country justice and democracy, he had great passion for what is right.
5. REGULARITY: This involves being in our place of work always and doing our work as supposed. This involves always in order and all constant.
5. EXPLAIN WITH 5 EXAMPLES OF PROMOTING POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR IN OUR SOCIEETY.
1. EDUCATION: Educating people about positive behavior and making them know the benefits of behaving right. Also through public enlightenment which have to do with the public aware of the dangers associated with negative behavior.
2. PUNISHMENT: This is using sanctions and punishments to discourage negative behaviors in order for them to know that negative behavior is bad.
3. ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS: The government should make strict laws against negative behaviors and make sure the laws are enforced tom the letter i.e. enforced on anyone going against the law.
4. REWARDS: Rewards should be given to people who portray positive behavior in order to encourage them and serve as motivation.
5. EMPHASIS ON GOOD MORALS: Lecture on good morals should be made in order to let people have discipline and abstain from negative behaviors.
6. EXAMINE CRITICALLY THE CONCEPT OF CULTURAL PATTERNS.
Culture is the way of life of people. It is a set of people grouped together having common accessories (linage) or parenthood; it includes the totality of people’s beliefs, their modes of worship, their occupation, ways of thinking etc. Culture varies from place to place and it is passed down from generation to another through learning. It grows and changes with time and through contact with people from outside our own groups. In Nigeria we have over 370 ethnic groups of which the three major and largest are the Hausa-Fulani, Igbo and Yoruba, and these people have different culture, for instance, the culture of the Yoruba’s is different from that of the Hausas and Igbo culture is different from those of the Hausas and Yoruba’s. Examples of the various cultural patterns are language, music, religion, art and craft, food, trading, occupation, traditions, architecture etc.
7. EXPLAIN WITH EXAMPLES THE NIGERIAN CULTURAL PATTERNS
9a. WHAT IS MEANT BY SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN INDIGENIOUS SOCIETIES?
Social interaction can be defined as the process by which we act, relate and react to people around us. It is also those acts, actions or practices of two or more people mutually oriented towards each other, i.e. any behavior that tries to affect or take account of each other’s experiences or intentions. It includes those act people perform towards each other and the response they give in return. For instance, it is the way an ethnic group relates with another ethnic group. In relating with people, we must know their do’s and don’ts I.e. respecting them knowing what they like and do not like. In other words, parties in social interaction must be aware of each other’s self in mind. Social interaction can involve smiling, talking, winking, debating, negotiating; they can also be active or passive, brief or long-lived, organized, unorganized or disorganized, direct or indirect, shallow or intense etc.
9b. DISCUSS FIVE FACTORS THAT PROMOTE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN THE INDIGENIOUS SOCIETIES.
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